WorldWideScience

Sample records for boiler-turbine life extension

  1. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  2. BWR operation for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancavage, P.

    1987-01-01

    Most nuclear power plant life extension studies conducted to date focus on the technology, licensing, and economics of extended service life. The most significant factor in plant longevity, however, is proper operation and maintenance. This paper highlights the benefits of boiling water reactor (BWR) operation for life extension and discusses specific recommendations that will enhance the prospects for safe, reliable, and economic power production in the long term. The benefits of BWR operation for life extension include a lower cost of electric energy production, increased capacity and availability factors, a lower forced outage rate, and reduced occupational exposure to radiation. Operating experience and advanced in technology have provided a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop specific recommendations for adding years to the expected life of BWR plants. This paper discusses key factors in operation for life extension

  3. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  4. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  5. Data-driven modeling and predictive control for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Shen, Jiong; Li, Yiguo; Lee, Kwang Y

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops a novel data-driven fuzzy modeling strategy and predictive controller for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace identification (SID) methods. To deal with the nonlinear behavior of boiler-turbine unit, fuzzy clustering is used to provide an appropriate division of the operation region and develop the structure of the fuzzy model. Then by combining the input data with the corresponding fuzzy membership functions, the SID method is extended to extract the local state-space model parameters. Owing to the advantages of the both methods, the resulting fuzzy model can represent the boiler-turbine unit very closely, and a fuzzy model predictive controller is designed based on this model. As an alternative approach, a direct data-driven fuzzy predictive control is also developed following the same clustering and subspace methods, where intermediate subspace matrices developed during the identification procedure are utilized directly as the predictor. Simulation results show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life extension and life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, H.

    2010-10-01

    To continue the effort of nuclear energy as the clean energy offsetting the increase in greenhouse gas emission that contributes to the increased global warming effect, the nuclear industry is focused on the optimization of their current nuclear generation assets. Plant life extension (Plex) and Plant life management (Plim), together with power up rate, are the key strategies for the optimization effort. Plex begins with the process to obtain the regulatory approval for an additional 20 years of operation, beyond the current 40-year limit. This highly standardized process consists of the following steps: 1) Scoping: identify the systems, structures and components for inclusion in the license renewal scope of work. 2) Screening: narrow down the selection of the in-scope systems, structures and components based on passive and long-lived characteristics. 3) Aging management review: demonstrate that aging effects will continue to be managed during the additional 20 years of operation. 4) Time limiting aging analyses: confirm the acceptability of design bases analyses that assume the 40-year plant life as a key input assumptions. To provide a consistent approach for the preparation of the license renewal application, the following are the key guidance documents: NUREG-1800: Standard review plan; NUREG-1801: Generic aging lessons learned; Nuclear Energy Institute NEI 95-10. The objectives of Plim are to focus on improving plant reliability/availability, and to plan for equipment upgrades for efficiency improvement as well as technological obsolescence. Plim is a technical evaluation combined with a risk assessment to produce a long-range business plant with a time horizon of 10 years or longer. Due to its long view nature, this plan will be reviewed on a yearly basis for any required adjustments. The technical evaluation consists of the following major steps: 1) Select systems, structures and components with performance deficiencies experience. 2) Collect operating data

  7. Economic modeling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.A.; Harrison, D.L.; Carlson, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives

  8. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  10. Extension of life of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    At the time of designing nuclear power stations, as their service life, generally 40 years are taken, and the basic design specifications of machinery and equipment are determined. In USA where atomic energy has been developed, the new construction of nuclear power stations is cased for a while, however, if this situation continues as it is, since old power stations reach the service life of 40 years and are retired in near future, it is feared that the circumstance of the total amount of power generation becoming short will occur. As one of the countermeasures to this, the research on the extension of life of nuclear power stations has been carried out in many fields in USA, and it is expected that the application for extending the life for the power stations constructed in the initial period of development is submitted in 1991. The researches that have been carried out for solving the technical problems in this extension of life and the situation in Japan are reported. The NEC of USA decided that the operation period of nuclear power stations in USA, which is considered to be 40 years so far, can be extended up to the limit of 20 years. The background and circumstances of this problem in USA, Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Plant Life Extension Program and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Life extension by calorie restriction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Le Couteur, David G

    2007-10-01

    Long-term reduction in energy intake in the diet (calorie restriction [CR]) extends the life of the laboratory rat by about 25%. However, in humans there are no life-long studies of CR, but only short-term trials which indicate that 20% CR acting over periods of 2-6 years is associated with reduced body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose--risk factors for the major killer diseases of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition, recent research has shown that CR for 6 months is able to improve biomarkers for longevity (deep body temperature and plasma insulin) and thus should increase life expectancy. The magnitude of the life-extension effect of CR in humans can only be estimated. The Okinawans, the longest-lived people on earth, consume 40% fewer calories than the Americans and live only 4 years longer. Similarly, women in United States consume 25% fewer calories than men and live 5 years longer. From the survival studies of overweight and obese people, it is estimated that long-term CR to prevent excessive weight gain could add only 3-13 years to life expectancy. Thus the effects of CR on human life extension are probably much smaller than those achieved by medical and public health interventions, which have extended life by about 30 years in developed countries in the 20th century, by greatly reducing deaths from infections, accidents, and cardiovascular disease.

  12. EPRI nuclear plant life extension program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, A.; Carey, J.J.; Lapides

    1986-01-01

    In 1978-1979, EPRI undertook a series of studies which suggested that extending the operation of current nuclear generating units beyond their nominal 40-year license term was both technically feasible and economically attractive. In 1984, these results were reviewed and confirmed and more detailed evaluations initiated. Major elements include: a) identification of life extension as a strategic element of the EPRI Nuclear Division program; b) formulation of a joint EPRI/DOE program plan to culminate in the licensing of a generating unit(s) for extended life; and, c) initiation of two extensive studies, by and with utilities, to provide guidelines for such achievement. The pilot studies began in early 1985. This paper describes the background and status of these efforts to date

  13. Life Assessment and Life Extension of an Aircraft Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghaie-Khafri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment and shot peening on the fatigue life of an aluminum aircraft wheel was studied. The effect of residual stress and heat treatment on the fatigue of specimens was studied by means of fatigue testing, residual stress measurement, and fractography. Finite element simulation was used for life assessment and evaluation of the effect of surface treatments on the life extension of the aircraft wheel. The results obtained show that the operational life of the aircraft wheel extended by imposed compressive residual stress and aging treatment.

  14. Nonlinear predictive control of a boiler-turbine unit: A state-space approach with successive on-line model linearisation and quadratic optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławryńczuk, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    This paper details development of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for a boiler-turbine unit, which is a nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output process. The control objective is to follow set-point changes imposed on two state (output) variables and to satisfy constraints imposed on three inputs and one output. In order to obtain a computationally efficient control scheme, the state-space model is successively linearised on-line for the current operating point and used for prediction. In consequence, the future control policy is easily calculated from a quadratic optimisation problem. For state estimation the extended Kalman filter is used. It is demonstrated that the MPC strategy based on constant linear models does not work satisfactorily for the boiler-turbine unit whereas the discussed algorithm with on-line successive model linearisation gives practically the same trajectories as the truly nonlinear MPC controller with nonlinear optimisation repeated at each sampling instant. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  17. Four Ways Life Extension will Change Our Relationship with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2016-03-01

    Discussions of life extension ethics have focused mainly on whether an extended life would be desirable to have, and on the social consequences of widely available life extension. I want to explore a different range of issues: four ways in which the advent of life extension will change our relationship with death, not only for those who live extended lives, but also for those who cannot or choose not to. Although I believe that, on balance, the reasons in favor of developing life extension outweigh the reasons against doing so (something I won't argue for here), most of these changes probably count as reasons against doing so. First, the advent of life extension will alter the human condition for those who live extended lives, and not merely by postponing death. Second, it will make death worse for those who lack access to life extension, even if those people live just as long as they do now. Third, for those who have access to life extension but prefer to live a normal lifespan because they think that has advantages, the advent of life extension will somewhat reduce some of those advantages, even if they never use life extension. Fourth, refusing life extension turns out to be a form of suicide, and this will force those who have access to life extension but turn it down to choose between an extended life they don't want and a form of suicide they may (probably mistakenly) consider immoral. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    place while our vessels are in service. As the inspection takes place we are able to view a real time image of detected discontinuities on a video monitor. The B-scan ultrasonic technique is allowing us to perform fast accurate examinations covering up to 95% of the surface area of each pressure vessel. Receiving data on 95% of a pressure vessel provides us with a lot of useful information. We use this data to determine the condition of each pressure vessel. Once the condition is known the vessels are classed by risk. The risk level is then managed by making decisions related to repair, operating parameters, accepting and monitoring or replacement of the equipment. Inspection schedules are set at maximum intervals and reinspection is minimized for the vessels that are not at risk. The remaining life of each pressure vessel is determined, mechanical integrity is proven and regulatory requirements are met. Abbott Laboratories is taking this proactive approach because we understand that our process equipment is a critical element for successful operation. A run to failure practice would never allow Abbott Laboratories to achieve the corporation's objective of being the world's leading health care company. Nondestructive state of the art technology and the understanding of its capabilities and limitations are key components of a proactive program for life extension of pressure vessels. 26

  19. A business model framework for product life extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, M.C.; Bakker, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Product life extension is an increase in the utilization period of products. Design research on product life extension strategies has so far mainly focused on technical aspects of products, like ‘prevention engineering’ or ‘design for repair, maintenance and upgradability’, and on individual

  20. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks

  1. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  2. Shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses the shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurization. In order to assess the potential of this process on the South African market, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the shelf-life extension under local conditions. The following aspects were investigated; 1) reduction of bacterial numbers at different radurisation doses; 2) influence of storage temperature on shelf-life and 3) the elimination of Salmonella. Organoleptic testing was carried out on poultry radurised to doses of 3, 5, 7,5 and 10 kGy as well as on non-radurised controls

  3. Nuclear power plants life extension and decommissioning its economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    In USA where the development of nuclear power was started early, the life of nuclear power plants expires successively around the turn of century, and the serious hindrance to electric power supply is feared. Therefore, the research for extending 40 year approved period of operation is in progress. By the extension of life of nuclear power plants, huge cost reduction is estimated as compared with the construction of new plants. However, due to the rise of the cost for the life extension, there were the cases of forced decommissioning. In this book, the present state of the life extension of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment and analysis of the life extension by DOE, the economical assessment by MIDAS method of Electric Power Research Institute, the economical assessment by cost-benefit method of Northern States Power Co., the assessment of the long term operation possibility of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment system for the life extension in Japan, the present state of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations and that in USA, Canada and Europe, the assessment of the decommissioning cost by OECD/NEA, and the decommissioning cost for thermal power stations are described. (K.I.)

  4. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  5. Analysis of integrated plant upgrading/life extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutchan, D.A.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; McFetridge, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A present-worth generating cost model has been developed and used to evaluate the economic value of integrated plant upgrading life extension project in nuclear power plants. This paper shows that integrated plant upgrading programs can be developed in which a mix of near-term availability, power rating, and heat rate improvements can be obtained in combination with life extension. All significant benefits and costs are evaluated from the viewpoint of the utility, as measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between alternative plans which are equivalent in system generating capacity. The near-term upgrading benefits are shown to enhance the benefit picture substantially. In some cases the net benefit is positive, even if the actual life extension proves to be less than expected

  6. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: Getting the most out of your extension appointment and still having a life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Cockett, N; Lardy, G

    2017-04-01

    Managing the demands of an academic appointment in extension can be a challenging task. Demands from constituent groups, expectations of supervisors, and rigors of promotion and tenure processes can create pressures that young faculty did not expect. Throw in spousal and family duties and you have created a situation that many will find hard to navigate. However, there are ways to cope and, even better news, there are ways to excel in meeting the demands of an academic appointment and enjoying life. Because many new extension faculty members do not have prior experience in extension, best practices in documenting programs and extension scholarship over the pretenure period are provided in this paper. Appointments that include both research and extension are quite common at many land grant universities. The advantages of joint appointments are numerous and include the fact that more and more grant agencies are seeking integrated research, teaching, and/or extension projects. However, the time demands of joint appointments can be challenging. Joint appointments can be designed to help faculty members conduct important translational research and have it be applied in a production setting. By seeking commonalities in research and extension efforts, joint appointments can be very synergistic. Development of highly successful programs requires planning on the front end with an emphasis on an in-depth needs assessment to determine stakeholder needs for both research and extension. Impact assessment should be part of this planning effort. Performing as a successful extension faculty member while maintaining relationships outside of work is challenging and requires deliberate effort on the part of employees and supervisors to realize there is more to life than work. Some authors have referred to this as work-life balance, but it may be more helpful to think of it as work-life effectiveness. To do this, one needs to 1) define what success looks like, 2) set boundaries and

  7. International database on ageing management and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.; Lyssakov, V.; McLachlan, D.; Russell, J.; Mukhametshin, V.

    1995-01-01

    International database on ageing management and life extension for reactor pressure vessel materials (RPVM) is described with the emphasis on the following issues: requirements of the system; design concepts for RPVM database system; data collection, processing and storage; information retrieval and dissemination; RPVM information assessment and evaluation. 1 fig

  8. Power generation options. Rehabilitation for life extension and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The first step in evaluating a life extension or upgrading project is to determine the project's economic benefit to the utility. A screening study should be performed for as many candidate plants as are available; two of the most useful screening tools for rapid economic analysis of life extension possibilities are: Present Worth Revenue Requirements (PWRR) Analysis, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis. (Examples of both methods are discussed). PWRR analysis considers only the expenses associated with operation of a plant or electrical system, and the revenue required to meet those expenses. The total revenue that may be received from the system is not considered in the analysis. The estimated costs for a base case (usually no rehabilitation or life extension) is compared to the operating costs of various alternatives, calculated over an operating life span of several years, and reduced to a Present Worth value, usually for the year in which the study started. If the PWRR of any alternative is estimated to be less than the base case, then an investment in the alternative plant equal to or less than this differential is a preferred economic choice. PWRR analysis is useful if future systems development and future gross revenue to the utility is difficult to estimate; it is also useful when comparing like technologies when differences in fuel supply and fuel cost are minimal

  9. The BWR owners' group planning guide for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.K.; Lehnert, D.F.; Locke, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extending the operating life of a commercial nuclear power plant has been shown to be economically beneficial to both the utility and the electric customer. As such, many utilities are planning and implementing plant life extension (PLEX) programs. A document has been developed which provides guidance to utilities in formulating a PLEX program plant for one or more boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The guide has been developed by the BWR Owners' Group Plant Life Extension Committee. The principal bases for this guide were the BWR Pilot and Lead Plant Programs. These programs were used as models to develop the 'base plan' described in this guide. By formulating their program plant utilizing the base plan, utilities will be able to maximize the use of existing evaluations and results. The utility planner will build upon the base plan by adding any tasks or features that are unique to their programs. (author)

  10. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  11. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  12. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  13. Profile of a successful life-extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation will discuss the preparation, development, confirmation, performance and aftermath of a successful inservice inspection for life-extension. The equipment had been designed and constructed during the mid-fifties with a design life of between 20--25 years. The inspection for life-extension of a steam generator, a pressurizer and a reactor vessel was performed during 1982--1983. The development of test specimen blocks containing fatigue cracks of various sizes and locations was critical to evaluating competing ultrasonic techniques and procedures. The development and confirmation phases resulted in the use of several advanced ultrasonic techniques being used during the inspection. High gain/high resolution and multiprobe transducer configurations, procedures and techniques were used during the examination phases, while all ultrasonic indications were investigated using tip diffraction characterization procedures during the evaluation. As a result of this experience, several additional advances and programs were initiated, resulting in further improvements to the ultrasonic inspection programs used both inservice and in manufacturing of pressure vessels. The following is an accounting of what the author believes to be the first, and perhaps only, inservice inspection of a reactor and related equipment for the purpose of life extension. This report tells many of the details, problems, tribulations and success associated with the inspection and the resulting improvements

  14. Life extension of containment structures of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Raghupati; Garg, R.P.; Verma, U.S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Containment structures prevent radioactivity release in the event of any postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) so that the level of radiation in the external environment is within acceptable limits. Containment structures of Indian PHWRs are typically unlined prestressed concrete structures, which are required to maintain its leak tightness characteristics and strength under DBA during the life of the structure. As nuclear power plant structures age, a number of degradation mechanisms begin to affect critical containment structure. Depending on the type and severity of these degradation mechanisms, its adverse effect on the leak tightness and pressure carrying capacity can be significant. Since the containment structures of Indian PHWRs are unlined, the leak tightness characteristics are solely dependent on the concrete properties and the prestressing material. Prestressing, which is introduced to control the deformation and strength requirement, is affected due to aging. Hence, adequacy of prestressing during the life of the structure to withstand internal pressure and the related leak tightness must be ensured for life extension of prestressed concrete containment structure in view of their significant long term losses. Prevention of corrosion in prestressing steel and assessment of the same at the end of extended design life of the structure, require utmost attention in view of their catastrophic nature of failure. This paper describes the various degradation mechanisms pertaining to concrete and their effect on the leak tightness characteristics and the strength requirement. The issues related to prestressing are also discussed in detail in this paper. The requirement of periodic monitoring of the containment structure for assessing its deformation and leak tightness characteristics and development of database for life extension of containment structure is also addressed in this paper. This paper also discusses the various provisions and measures, which are

  15. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  16. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  17. Safety aspects in life extension of NPPs. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Due to current social and economical framework, in last years many Member States (MS) started a process of Plant Life Extension (PLEX) for their older nuclear facilities. The process followed many different approaches, being intrinsically dependent on the national regulatory framework and technical tradition. This process has many nuclear safety implications, other than strategic and political ones, and therefore a need for tailoring the available safety assessment tools to such applications has become urgent in recent years. Typical safety assessment processes such as the Periodic Safety Review has been used already and can be used in the future as a framework for a PLEX. Also the review of regular maintenance and ageing management programs and the continuous upgrading of the Safety Analysis Report are tools widely used in a life extension context in many MS. However, recently some MS highlighted the need to identify in a clear way the technical aspects more directly affecting the decision for a long-term operation of a nuclear facility. Many Technical Cooperation projects have been requested for the year 2003-2004 on this subject and a generic task in Nuclear Safety proved necessary as a background activity. Therefore, on May 6-10, 2002, a Consultant Meeting dealing with Safety Aspects of life extension for NPPs was convened at the Nuclear Safety Dept. of the IAEA. It was attended by representatives of Regulatory Bodies and Utilities, both from countries with experience of life extension of NPPs and countries where the process is at the beginning. The main application problems were identified and discussed and a first attempt was carried out to define the key elements of the life extension process, isolating peculiar technical items, LTO related, from generic safety related tasks. The result was a preliminary technical document with a collection of basic experience and information for the implementation of a PLEX program. Therefore the draft document was thought

  18. EPRI/DOE nuclear plant life extension overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.J.; Lapides, M.E.; Harrison, D.; Ducharme, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing the major investment in current U.S. nuclear capacity and the excellent prospects that these units have a useful life substantially in excess of their 40 year license term, EPRI and DOE have jointly undertaken a comprehensive, multiyear, nuclear plant life extension program. The program, which has its antecedents in EPRI studies of 1978-9, aims to support U.S. utilities, first in verifying the requirements of extended operation and then in implementing a plan for achieving extended service and license renewal. The effort, begun in 1985, has already yielded numerous benefits and is expected to further aid in improving near-term performance of nuclear units. A utility LWR Plant Life Extension Committee has been established to provide overview and guidance to the DOE/EPRI research and development activities and also to develop and integrate utility responses to licensing and codes and standards issues. Pilot study projects, performed by Virginia Power and Northern States Power, were the initial EPRI/DOE focus. This base has gradually expanded to incorporate other utilities and generating units, as well as a broad base of technology support. The latter includes: a) economic and financial analysis methods applicable at the unit, region and national level, b) long-term materials deterioration analysis and sampling, c) component life prediction methods and d) refurbishment and repair evaluations. This paper presents the history and status of the overall EPRI/DOE program

  19. Orion: a glimpse of hope in life span extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, K; Bondar, V; Bezrukov, V; Zhukovsky, O; Polyakov, V; Utko, N

    2010-01-01

    Orion is a multicomponent drug based on derivatives of taurocholic acid and several other compounds. Application of Orion into the feeding medium of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in increased life span and survival at stressful conditions. Two paradoxical features of the drug should be stressed: The "age-threshold" (life span extension was observed only when the drug was applied starting from the second half of life) and induction of "centenarian" flies (older 100 days). Orion enhanced survival at heat shock (38 degrees C) and acidic (pH = 1.6) or alkaline (pH = 11.8) feeding mediums, but not at oxidative stresses modeled by 100% oxygen or application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)).

  20. Technology and testing for the extension of plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes selected portions of a recommended program for the application of equipment-manufacturing-related technology and testing for the extension of life for operating nuclear power plants. It is appropriate to mention that the Swiss nuclear plants, their staffs, and the supporting Swiss nuclear industry are rightfully proud of their record of performance. Plant staffs have been intimately involved in system and equipment design and engineering from the very beginnings of their plants. Maintenance of the plant systems and equipment is referred to as engineering rather than maintenance, because it is viewed as a technical effort and an extension of the original plant and equipment design and construction effort. Care, competence, cleanliness, and attention to detail have been bywords for the Swiss plants. Success has been demonstrated through enviable availability performance. With operation and availability capability already demonstrated, the Swiss are now turning their attention to the extension of plant life. This summary describes some aspects of this work, which is fundamentally based on the application of technology and testing skills developed for equipment manufacture and the original installation of this equipment in the plants, but has been enhanced by research and development (R and D) and an ongoing effort to serve utilities in their maintenance activities

  1. Proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension. The sessions are organized under the following headings: Perspectives on nuclear power plant life extension, the potential for additional years of power production, NRC and industry life extension initiatives, concrete and structures degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, plant life extension programs, Reactor pressure vessel and intervals degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, life extension decision making issues and institutions, systems degradation and evaluation of remaining life, monitoring and repair, design records and maintenance activities for life extension, Mechanical and electrical component degradation and evaluation of remaining life, expert systems and other techniques for enhanced and continued operation, life extension aspect of codes, standards, and related technologies, piping and valve degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life

  2. Nuclear power plant life extension in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)

  3. The Tortoise Transformation as a Prospect for Life Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-12-01

    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could persist in some measure, but he thinks little is to be gained from the transformation because the experiences available to tortoises pale in comparison to those available to human beings. Moreover, he thinks persisting human consciousness and values would degrade over time, being remade by tortoise needs and environment. The value available in the transformation would not, then, make the additional years of life desirable. Agar's account does not, however, dispose of the tortoise transformation as a defensible preference. Some people might still want this kind of transformation for symbolic reasons, but it would probably be better that no human consciousness persist, since that consciousness would be inexpressible as such. Even so, it is not irrational to prefer various kinds of lifespan extension even if they involve significant modifications to human consciousness and values.

  4. US national and regional impacts of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.

    1988-01-01

    The US will need new sources of electricity in the early 21st century due to retirement of much of the nation's generating capacity. Almost all of the US nuclear capacity would be included in those retirements if, as originally expected, the nuclear units were shut down and decommissioned as the operating licenses expired between 2005 and 2025. However, given the large demands for new capacity during that period, nuclear plant life extension (NUPLEX) -- the extension of operating life beyond the original license period -- needs to be considered as an electricity source. This study assesses the benefits and costs of NUPLEX relative to the anticipated competing sources of electricity supply in the early 21st century. We find that NUPLEX yields large net benefits under a wide range of plausible economic conditions. This study associates net benefits with electricity cost savings, thereby abstracting from speculative reliability considerations. To illustrate the effects of uncertainty, the study assesses NUPLEX net benefits under varying assumptions on NUPLEX investment costs and other future economic conditions

  5. Life extension, overpopulation and the right to life: against lethal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutas, D E

    2008-09-01

    Some of the objections to life-extension stem from a concern with overpopulation. I will show that whether or not the overpopulation threat is realistic, arguments from overpopulation cannot ethically demand halting the quest for, nor access to, life-extension. The reason for this is that we have a right to life, which entitles us not to have meaningful life denied to us against our will and which does not allow discrimination solely on the grounds of age. If the threat of overpopulation creates a rights conflict between the right to come into existence, the right to reproduce, the right to more opportunities and space (if, indeed, these rights can be successfully defended), and the right to life, the latter ought to be given precedence.

  6. Life prediction study of reactor pressure vessel as essential technical foundation for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, N.; Kondo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The life of a LWR plant is determined essentially by the limit of reliable performance of the components which are difficult to replace without high economic and/or safety risks. Typical of such a component is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The engineering life of a RPV of a given quality of steel is considered to be a complex function of factors such as the resistance to fracture, which has deteriorated due to neutron irradiation and thermal aging, and generation of surface flaws by environmental effects such as corrosion and their growth under operational load that varies during steady state operation and transients. In an attempt to evaluate the engineering life of a RPV of a LWR, a preliminary survey was made by applying a set of knowledge accumulated primarily in the field of subcritical crack growth behavior of RPV steels in reactor water environments. The major conclusions drawn are: (1) the life of a RPV is dependent on the quality of steel used, particularly with respect to any minor impurities it contains. (2) The issue of plant life extension in RPV aspect is found to be optimistic for cases where the steels used satisfy a reasonable level of quality control. (3) The importance of providing sound scientific foundation is stressed for the implementation of a practicable life extension scheme: this can be established through intensified studies of flaw growth and fracture behaviours in well defined testings under reasonably simulated service conditions

  7. Model 9975 Life Extension Package 1 - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-01-01

    Life extension package LE1 (9975-03382) was instrumented and subjected to a temperature/humidity environment that bounds KAMS package storage conditions for 92 weeks. During this time, the maximum fiberboard temperature was ∼180 F, and was established by a combination of internal heat (12 watts) and external heat (∼142 F). The relative humidity external to the package was maintained at 80 %RH. This package was removed from test in November 2010 after several degraded conditions were observed during a periodic examination. These conditions included degraded fiberboard (easily broken, bottom layer stuck to the drum), corrosion of the drum, and separation of the air shield from the upper fiberboard assembly. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard and O-ring samples. These areas of agreement include the rate of fiberboard weight loss, change in fiberboard thermal conductivity, fiberboard compression strength, and O-ring compression set. In addition, this package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within the fiberboard can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 12 watt internal heat load. Much of the moisture near the fiberboard ID surface migrated towards the OD surface, but there was not a significant axial moisture gradient during most of the test duration. Only during the last inspection period (i.e. after 92 weeks exposure during the second phase) did enough moisture migrate to the bottom fiberboard layers to cause saturation. A side effect of moisture migration is the leaching of soluble compounds from the fiberboard. In particular, the corrosion observed on the drum appears related primarily to the leaching and concentration of chlorides. In most locations, this attack appears to be general corrosion, with shallow

  8. Nuclear submarine prototype post core removal decommissioning and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.D.; Lyall, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear plant normally brings it to the end of its life. This paper describes how the initial decommissioning of a nuclear submarine prototype was undertaken, how it was modified and its useful life extended. The Dounreay Submarine Prototype came to the end of critical operation in 1984. This was followed by defuel, decontamination and modification to convert the plant into a facility for the investigation of loss of coolant accidents. Following completion of this investigation, the plant has been used as a primary coolant pump test facility. (Author)

  9. Food losses, shelf life extension and environmental impact of a packaged cheesecake: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michele Mario; Meleddu, Marta; Piga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions. The environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two were examined in relation to a cheesecake that is normally packaged in low density polyethylene film and has a limited shelf life due to microbial growth. A shelf life extension was sought via application of the well-established modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique. Samples for MAP (N 2 /CO 2 : 70/30) were placed inside multilayer gas barrier trays, which were then wrapped with a multilayer gas and water barrier film (i.e. AerPack packaging); control batches were packaged in gas barrier recycled polyethylene terephthalate (XrPet) trays and wrapped with a XrPet film. Samples were then stored at 20°C and inspected at regular intervals for chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Results show that the new packaging solution could considerably extend the shelf life of cheesecakes, thereby reducing food waste and decreasing the overall environmental impact. Moreover, the new packaging allows one to minimize transport costs and to generate economies of scale in manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discussion on life extension of nuclear power plant around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very Paper introduces the concept, basic working flow and fundamental elements of the life extension of nuclear power plant (NPP) around the world; and it generally collects and summarizes the status datum of life extension of NPPs. Afterwards, the Paper analyses the present status of life extension of NPP in various countries with strong nuclear power industry, i.e. the United States, France, Germany, Russia Federation, Japan, South Korea and Canada. At the end, the Paper make a conclusion that whether an operating NPP will adopt life extension at the end of its design life, this issue depends on the factor of economy, safety and technical feasibility of life extension on the NPP. According to latest datum collected in 2009, the nuclear power units around the world, which have exceeded the design lives or are close to design life ends, most of them (about 64%) have selected to extend their service lives; based on this statistical data, we concludes that when an operating nuclear unit is facing with the issue of to extend life or to retire itself, it will be apt to make life extension. (authors)

  11. Shelf Life Extension of Toasted Groundnuts through the Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate edible coatings containing 20% glycerol in extending the shelf life of toasted groundnut during ambient (27 ± 1oC) storage for 14 days was studied. Chemical indices of oxidative rancidity and sensory parameters were evaluated using standard procedures. Moisture ...

  12. 77 FR 37839 - Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO24 Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension... Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations governing eligibility for Veterans' Group Life Insurance... indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AO24--Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No...

  13. 77 FR 66069 - Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO24 Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension... Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day ``no-health'' period during which... insurability is needed, known as the Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) ``no- health'' period, from 120 days...

  14. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  15. Life extension for fossil power plants: The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, J.; Dooley, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fossil fuel-fired generating plants have traditionally been built under the assumption of an economic life of 20-30 years. Due to low load growth, escalating interest rates and costs of construction, and increasing regulation, great interest is expressed in retaining these units in service for 50-60 years or longer. Life extension activities are part of an ongoing process that continues throughout the extended lives of a utility's units. The process begins with an initial evaluation of life extension as a generation alternative, resulting in a ranking of units for life extension and a prioritization of components for evaluation. As the process continues, more detailed inspection data are created by a three-level approach, as well as a means for collecting, organizing and scheduling the information. This is implemented through the Integrated Life Extension Management (ILEM) model. This model provides information needed for management decision making such as component performance on unit power rating, availability of components on unit availability, component performance on unit availability and overall costs of the life extension tasks. Risks involved in life extension include the initial unavailability of capacity credits, uncertainty as to the level of availability that can be achieved by the life-extended plant, and uncertainties in environmental compliance. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  17. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Chang, Keun Sun; Ham, Chul Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong

    2002-03-01

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts

  18. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  19. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  20. Acoustic monitoring to support plant life extension at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, M. de; Hovhanessian, G.

    2015-01-01

    Tensioned steel wires are widely used in civil engineering structures. They can, however, be vulnerable to corrosion. To reduce the probability of corrosion, sophisticated protection systems are used. Extensive inspection and maintenance regimes are also able to be implemented to confirm that the design strength is available over the lifetime of the wires. These regimes include tests to confirm the condition of post-tensioning cables or stay cables, which can verify the overall performance of the structure. This paper presents a technology to detect and locate wire failures in tensioned cables for use on a wide variety of pre-stressed or post tensioned structures, where they have increased confidence in the structures and reduced maintenance costs. This methodology is the continuous acoustic monitoring technology which uses distinctive acoustic characteristics of wire breaks to separate them from other acoustic activity on the structure. With a combination of instrumentation, data acquisition and data management, it is possible to identify a wire break event, as well as to locate the position and time of the failure. Over 10 years' experience of acoustic monitoring for this application with several independent and blind tests, shows that even in noisy environments the acoustic monitoring method is able to identify and locate wire breaks in fully grouted and partially grouted tendons, stay cables and suspension cables. The design (number of sensors and location) is very important to be sure to cover all wires in the structure. This paper explains the principles of the systems and shows them in practice on a case study of a project in a pre-stressed roof structure of an active tank farm at Sellafield site

  1. Aging management and life extension - Containment aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Tom M.; Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Bechtel is currently completing an aging study on a concrete containment structure. The target plant is a two-unit PWR plant with a generating capacity of about 850 MWe from each unit. Both units are less than 20 years old. The total electrical energy output from this plant site accounts for more than 50% of the utility's baseload operation. Although no utility in the United States has made a decision to submit a license renewal application, some have begun to investigate the feasibility of developing an life cycle management (LCM) program for a strategy to operate their plants efficiently, to investigate the financial benefit and safety implications of license renewal to operate their nuclear power plants beyond their current licensed periods, and to prepare a program plan for plant decommissioning. The LCM program includes economic, environmental, regulatory and technical aspects of continuing plant operations beyond the current license period. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been supportive to assist utilities and owners groups in their research and development efforts to develop the technical requirements and the issues associated with important to license renewal structures. The focus of this paper is on the technical issues related to the evaluation of the material condition of the containment structure with respect to aging and the effective management of that aging. (author)

  2. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  3. Technological feasibility of irradiating pineapples for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Jiten

    2001-01-01

    The spoilage of food caused by infestation, contamination and deterioration of the world's food supply is enormous in the developing countries where warm and humid climate favour the growth of spoilage organisms and hasten deterioration of stored food. Particularly, in a country like India where the population growth has already attained one billion, any preventable loss of food is intolerable. Since food security of a nation also largely determines the economic stability as well as self-reliance, this problem draws utmost attention not only of the food scientists but also of the food policy makers. From these above facts, it may be concluded that radiation technology can be safely used for extending shelf-life of pineapple fruits thereby maximizing the transportation and marketing potentials. Consumption of such irradiated pineapples simultaneously does not pose any immediate or long-term human health risks. Keeping these techno-economic considerations in view establishment of large scale industrial operations for irradiating fruits, vegetables, cereals etc. are of immense importance

  4. Extension of Space Food Shelf Life Through Hurdle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Sirmons, T. A.; Froio-Blumsack, D.; Mohr, L.; Young, M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.

  5. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  6. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S.; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone ...

  7. Shelf life extension as solution for environmental impact mitigation: A case study for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Cavaliere, Alessia; Falcone, Giacomo; Giovenzana, Valentina; Banterle, Alessandro; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-06-15

    Over the last years, increasing attention has been paid to environmental concerns related to food production and potential solutions to this issue. Among the different strategies being considered to reduce the impact food production has on the environment, only moderate has been paid to the extension of shelf life; a longer shelf life can reduce food losses as well as the economic and environmental impacts of the distribution logistics. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of whole-wheat breadsticks with extended shelf lives and to evaluate whether the shelf-life extension is an effective mitigation solution from an environmental point of view. To this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied from a "cradle-to-grave" perspective. Rosmarinic acid was used as an antioxidant to extend the shelf life. To test the robustness of the results and to investigate the influence of the choices made in the modelling phase, a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were carried out. The achieved results highlighted how, for 10 of the 12 evaluated impact categories, the shelf-life extension is a proper mitigation solution, and its effectiveness depends on the magnitude of product loss reduction that is achieved. The shelf-life extension doesn't allow for the reduction of environmental impact in the categories of human toxicity, cancer effects and freshwater eutrophication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO 2 emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  9. Reactor vessel assessment and the development of a reactor vessel life extension program for Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, B.; Hijeck, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to provide a general assessment of the life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two reactor pressure vessels. The purpose of the study is to assess the general life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs reactor pressure vessels based upon an extension and variation of the Surry pilot plant life extension study. This assessment provided a detailed reactor vessel surveillance program for plant life extension along with a hierarchy of specific tasks necessary for attaining maximum useful life. The assessment identified a number of critical issues which may impact life attainment and extension along with potential solutions to address these issues to ensure the life extension option is not precluded

  10. Waste-to-energy: A review of life cycle assessment and its extension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaozhi; Tang, Yuanjun; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Buekens, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive review of evaluation tools based on life cycle thinking, as applied to waste-to-energy. Habitually, life cycle assessment is adopted to assess environmental burdens associated with waste-to-energy initiatives. Based on this framework, several extension methods have been developed to focus on specific aspects: Exergetic life cycle assessment for reducing resource depletion, life cycle costing for evaluating its economic burden, and social life cycle assessment for recording its social impacts. Additionally, the environment-energy-economy model integrates both life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods and judges simultaneously these three features for sustainable waste-to-energy conversion. Life cycle assessment is sufficiently developed on waste-to-energy with concrete data inventory and sensitivity analysis, although the data and model uncertainty are unavoidable. Compared with life cycle assessment, only a few evaluations are conducted to waste-to-energy techniques by using extension methods and its methodology and application need to be further developed. Finally, this article succinctly summarises some recommendations for further research.

  11. Application of structural reliability and risk assessment to life prediction and life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.A.; Balkey, K.R.; Bishop, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    There can be numerous uncertainties involved in performing component life assessments. In addition, sufficient data may be unavailable to make a useful life prediction. Structural Reliability and Risk Assessment (SRRA) is primarily an analytical methodology or tool that quantifies the impact of uncertainties on the structural life of plant components and can address the lack of data in component life prediction. As a prelude to discussing the technical aspects of SRRA, a brief review of general component life prediction methods is first made so as to better develop an understanding of the role of SRRA in such evaluations. SRRA is then presented as it is applied in component life evaluations with example applications being discussed for both nuclear and non-nuclear components

  12. Life extension of nuclear power plants: world situation and the Usa case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P.T.; Cuesta, L.; Serra, E.; Yague, L.

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of nuclear power plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs of renewable energies and the economic crisis have pushed governments to continue operation of nuclear plants over the 40 years design life. In the Usa 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently 19 units are in the reviewing process. The situation in the rest of the world is different. A list of countries, where nuclear units with a service life over 30 years, are still operating has been drawn up. A few countries like Belgium, Germany, Spain and Sweden are opposed to life extension. Some countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, India, Japan and Usa, have adopted a life extension policy for their nuclear fleet. Other countries like France, Russia, United-Kingdom, Pakistan, South-Korea and Argentina have not yet taken any final decision. United-Kingdom and France have a case by case policy. In some countries like Japan, Indian or Pakistan, the legislation makes no reference to a maximum operating time but the reactors are allowed to continue operating as long as they comply with established safety conditions. (A.C.)

  13. Parsons Power Generation Systems approach to life extension of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, Douglas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods used by Parsons Power Generation Systems to extend steam turbine plant life was described. Experience with methods which assure integrity and maximize the safe life of a turbine plant were also discussed. Integrity of turbine elements with regard to standard construction materials, their respective stated service life, and operational situations were outlined. The stages of the life extension methodology described included: (1) analytical assessment, (2) non-destructive examination, (3) material sampling, and (4) turbine plant rehabilitation. Localised machining, weld repairs and retrofitting of new components were the techniques commonly used for turbine plant rehabilitation. This four step process was found to provide a reliable an excellent framework for thorough examination, repair and extension of turbine service lives. 20 refs., 11 figs

  14. Overview of research on nuclear plant cable aging and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Safety-related cables potentially subject to accident conditions have typically been qualified for the entire 40-year licensed term of U.S. plants. This paper briefly describes U.S. cable design, qualification practices, and failure mechanisms. It also discusses life extension methods and research efforts aimed at resolving lingering technical issues related to the aging and accident performance of cables. (author)

  15. Quantification of the Service Life Extension and Environmental Benefit of Chloride Exposed Self-Healing Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Van Belleghem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of cracks impairs the durability of concrete elements. Corrosion inducing substances, such as chlorides, can enter the matrix through these cracks and cause steel reinforcement corrosion and concrete degradation. Self-repair of concrete cracks is an innovative technique which has been studied extensively during the past decade and which may help to increase the sustainability of concrete. However, the experiments conducted until now did not allow for an assessment of the service life extension possible with self-healing concrete in comparison with traditional (cracked concrete. In this research, a service life prediction of self-healing concrete was done based on input from chloride diffusion tests. Self-healing of cracks with encapsulated polyurethane precursor formed a partial barrier against immediate ingress of chlorides through the cracks. Application of self-healing concrete was able to reduce the chloride concentration in a cracked zone by 75% or more. As a result, service life of steel reinforced self-healing concrete slabs in marine environments could amount to 60–94 years as opposed to only seven years for ordinary (cracked concrete. Subsequent life cycle assessment calculations indicated important environmental benefits (56%–75% for the ten CML-IA (Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University–Impact Assessment baseline impact indicators which are mainly induced by the achievable service life extension.

  16. Quantification of the Service Life Extension and Environmental Benefit of Chloride Exposed Self-Healing Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Bjorn; Van den Heede, Philip; Van Tittelboom, Kim; De Belie, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Formation of cracks impairs the durability of concrete elements. Corrosion inducing substances, such as chlorides, can enter the matrix through these cracks and cause steel reinforcement corrosion and concrete degradation. Self-repair of concrete cracks is an innovative technique which has been studied extensively during the past decade and which may help to increase the sustainability of concrete. However, the experiments conducted until now did not allow for an assessment of the service life extension possible with self-healing concrete in comparison with traditional (cracked) concrete. In this research, a service life prediction of self-healing concrete was done based on input from chloride diffusion tests. Self-healing of cracks with encapsulated polyurethane precursor formed a partial barrier against immediate ingress of chlorides through the cracks. Application of self-healing concrete was able to reduce the chloride concentration in a cracked zone by 75% or more. As a result, service life of steel reinforced self-healing concrete slabs in marine environments could amount to 60–94 years as opposed to only seven years for ordinary (cracked) concrete. Subsequent life cycle assessment calculations indicated important environmental benefits (56%–75%) for the ten CML-IA (Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University–Impact Assessment) baseline impact indicators which are mainly induced by the achievable service life extension. PMID:28772363

  17. Development of a support system to make economic and technical assessments for the issues relating to plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, T.; Soneda, N.; Sakai, T.

    1994-01-01

    To realize the life extension of nuclear power plants, overall evaluation for the plant is required, which covers technology, economy such as cost of repair or/and replacement of components, and regal regulations for licensing. A prototype of integrated assessment support system for life extension ''INPLEX'' have developed in order to evaluate the technical and economic issues relating to the plant life extension and to make a life extension scenario. Analysis procedure of INPLEX is as follows. A comparison of the cost between the life extension and the reconstruction is made to see whether the life extension is cost effective or not. Next, components required detailed assessments are selected, and the residual life assessment of these components are made. After those procedures life extension measures are selected and the implementation time schedule is set on the basis of the formulas for predicting the degradation of the components and the component reliability data. Finally the implementation time schedule is optimized from the viewpoint of economy, and the life extension scenario is proposed. INPLEX also has the data base ''PRINS'', in which information and data related to life extension are registered, such as component degradation experiences, degradation management methodologies, degradation mitigation measures, and so on. PRINS can be referred at any time during the operation of INPLEX

  18. Canadians' support for radical life extension resulting from advances in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlovic, Nick

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores Canadian public perceptions of a hypothetical scenario in which a radical increase in life expectancy results from advances in regenerative medicine. A national sample of 1231 adults completed an online questionnaire on stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including three items relating to the possibility of Canadians' average life expectancy increasing to 120 years by 2050. Overall, Canadians are strongly supportive of the prospect of extended lifespans, with 59% of the sample indicating a desire to live to 120 if scientific advances made it possible, and 47% of respondents agreeing that such increases in life expectancy are possible by 2050. The strongest predictors of support for radical life extension are individuals' general orientation towards science and technology and their evaluation of its plausibility. These results contrast with previous research, which has suggested public ambivalence for biomedical life extension, and point to the need for more research in this area. They suggest, moreover, that efforts to increase public awareness about anti-aging research are likely to increase support for the life-extending consequences of that research program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks: Formulation and packaging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Cappa, Carola; Ratti, Simona; Limbo, Sara; Signorelli, Marco; Fessas, Dimitrios; Lucisano, Mara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was the shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks through the addition of a rosemary extract and packaging under nitrogen. Shelf life was studied at four temperatures (20, 27, 35, 48°C) for up to 200 storage days. The minimal changes observed in moisture, water activity and texture of the samples, coupled with the high peroxide values (13-539meqO 2 /kg fat ) measured at the end of storage, and the exponential increase of hexanal concentrations (up to 13-34mg/kg) confirmed that quality decay of whole-wheat breadsticks is mainly associated to lipid oxidation. The kinetic study of oxidation development and the consumer sensory acceptance determined by the survival analysis demonstrated that the rosemary extract addition yields a 42% shelf life extension, higher than that observed using nitrogen in the package (24-29%). The combination of the formulation and packaging strategies gave the best result (83% shelf life extension at 25°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifespan extension by cranberry supplementation partially requires SOD2 and is life stage independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-02-01

    Many nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals have been shown to promote healthspan and lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of prolongevity interventions and the time points at which interventions should be implemented to achieve beneficial effects are not well characterized. We have previously shown that a cranberry-containing nutraceutical can promote lifespan in worms and flies and delay age-related functional decline of pancreatic cells in rats. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying lifespan extension induced by cranberry and the effects of short-term or life stage-specific interventions with cranberry on lifespan in Drosophila. We found that lifespan extension induced by cranberry was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, a component of oxidative stress response MAPK signaling, and slightly increased phosphorylation of AKT, a component of insulin-like signaling. Lifespan extension was also associated with a reduced level of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Moreover, lifespan extension induced by cranberry was partially suppressed by knockdown of SOD2, a major mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. Furthermore, cranberry supplementation was administered in three life stages of adult flies, health span (3-30 days), transition span (31-60 days) and senescence span (61 days to the end when all flies died). Cranberry supplementation during any of these life stages extended the remaining lifespan relative to the non-supplemented and life stage-matched controls. These findings suggest that cranberry supplementation is sufficient to promote longevity when implemented during any life stage, likely through reducing oxidative damage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Relationship between mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction, development, and life extension in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane L Rea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can result in life extension. Counter to these findings, many mutations that disrupt ETC function in humans are known to be pathologically life-shortening. In this study, we have undertaken the first formal investigation of the role of partial mitochondrial ETC inhibition and its contribution to the life-extension phenotype of C. elegans. We have developed a novel RNA interference (RNAi dilution strategy to incrementally reduce the expression level of five genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in C. elegans: atp-3, nuo-2, isp-1, cco-1, and frataxin (frh-1. We observed that each RNAi treatment led to marked alterations in multiple ETC components. Using this dilution technique, we observed a consistent, three-phase lifespan response to increasingly greater inhibition by RNAi: at low levels of inhibition, there was no response, then as inhibition increased, lifespan responded by monotonically lengthening. Finally, at the highest levels of RNAi inhibition, lifespan began to shorten. Indirect measurements of whole-animal oxidative stress showed no correlation with life extension. Instead, larval development, fertility, and adult size all became coordinately affected at the same point at which lifespan began to increase. We show that a specific signal, initiated during the L3/L4 larval stage of development, is sufficient for initiating mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent life extension in C. elegans. This stage of development is characterized by the last somatic cell divisions normally undertaken by C. elegans and also by massive mitochondrial DNA expansion. The coordinate effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on several cell cycle-dependent phenotypes, coupled with recent findings directly linking cell cycle progression with mitochondrial activity in C. elegans, lead us to propose that cell cycle checkpoint control

  2. Dysthanasia: Between the Life Extension And the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Pompeu Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the XX century, arise new techniques and drugs that can prolong life. However, an unreasonable extension of the vital process of human being that does not have dignified conditions of living it could result in a slow and painful death. Dysthanasia is characterized as medical treatment whose beneficial potentials for the terminal patient are non-existent or unlikely, they are not able to overcome their maleficent potentials. In the context, the present study aims to demonstrate that to deny the right to die to such patient is violate the right to life, as well as to harm the human dignity.

  3. Inspection and mitigating measures for life extension of nuclear power plant containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, B.L.; Daye, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of life extension of nuclear power plants has drawn considerable attention during the last few years. Interest in life extension initiated because of both safety and economic reasons. A number of evaluations have been performed. The main thrust of earlier work was directed toward evaluating the factors causing aging, and defining degradation sites, degradation mechanism and failure modes. At present, attention is directed toward establishing the appropriate inspection programs suitable for each of the defined aging sites. Some components and aging sites are already subjected to routine inspection programs such as the surveillance of post-tensioning system and the integrated leak rate test (ILRT) of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete containments. The aging process affects mechanical, electrical and structural components in all types of containments. This paper addresses the structural components of PWR containments only and presents examples of inspection approaches and describes methods to prevent further degradation of select sites

  4. Science fiction and human enhancement: radical life-extension in the movie 'In Time' (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduit, Johann A R; Eichinger, Tobias; Glannon, Walter

    2018-03-20

    The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies. Examining the movie In Time (2011), the aim of this paper is to show how science fiction can contribute to the ethical debate of human enhancement. In Time provides an interesting case study to explore what could be some of the consequences of radical life-extension technologies. In this paper, we will show how arguments regarding radical life-extension portrayed in this particular movie differ from what is found in the scientific literature. We will see how In Time gives flesh to arguments defending or rejecting radical life-extension. It articulates feelings of unease, alienation and boredom associated with this possibility. Finally, this article will conclude that science fiction movies in general, and In Time in particular, are a valuable resource for a broad and comprehensive debate about our coming future.

  5. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S.; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival. PMID:18678867

  6. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. A review of assessment and retrofitting of structures for plant life extension (PLEX) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Tilak, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of the life of existing civil engineering structures for the plant life extension programme has to be made considering various factors such as strength, deterioration, environmental impact particularly with regard to radiation field, etc. which need to be evaluated very carefully. Generally, it is considered that initial design usually caters for a period of around 40 years, though structural failures have been reported even at a much younger stage due to deficiency in design and construction. In the context of nuclear power plant when the initial license is given for a period 30-40 years, it becomes necessary to evaluate the health of the various structures particularly while applying for a license for the extension of plant life. The present paper discuss the various issues connected with the evaluation of the future life of an existing structure in terms of strength and change in its property particularly when the structure is exposed to radiation. The various effects with regard to ageing and radiation exposure and the destructive and non-destructive tests which need to be carried out are discussed in detail. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  8. PLEXFIN a computer model for the economic assessment of nuclear power plant life extension. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA developed PLEXFIN, a computer model analysis tool aimed to assist decision makers in the assessment of the economic viability of a nuclear power plant life/licence extension. This user's manual was produced to facilitate the application of the PLEXFIN computer model. It is widely accepted in the industry that the operational life of a nuclear power plant is not limited to a pre-determined number of years, sometimes established on non-technical grounds, but by the capability of the plant to comply with the nuclear safety and technical requirements in a cost effective manner. The decision to extend the license/life of a nuclear power plant involves a number of political, technical and economic issues. The economic viability is a cornerstone of the decision-making process. In a liberalized electricity market, the economics to justify a nuclear power plant life/license extension decision requires a more complex evaluation. This user's manual was elaborated in the framework of the IAEA's programmes on Continuous process improvement of NPP operating performance, and on Models for analysis and capacity building for sustainable energy development, with the support of four consultants meetings

  9. UNIRAM modeling for increased nuclear-plant availability and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mara, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the start of a nuclear-power plant's design life of 40 years, most parts of the plant are effectively brand new, but some subcomponents have already experienced significant wear and aging effects. In short, the spectrum of where each component is in its life cycle at any time is quite broad, and this makes the prediction of the future availability of the plant a complex issue. Predictive models that account for the differential effects of aging, wear, and functional failure on the plant are desirable as a means to represent this complex behavior. This paper addresses the task of using a computer model to account for the relationships between components, systems, and plant availability, in the context of current and future needs, including eventual life extension. The computer model is based on the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) code, UNIRAM, which has a large and growing user base among utilities

  10. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  11. Novel Repair Technique for Life-Extension of Hydraulic Turbine Components in Hydroelectric Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Ishii, Jun; Funato, Kazuhiro

    A significant number of hydraulic turbines operated in Japan were installed in the first half of the 20th century. Today, aging degradation and flaws are observed in these turbine equipments. So far, Japanese engineers have applied NDI technology of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) to detect the flaws, and after empirical evaluation of the remaining life they decided an adequate moment to replace the equipments. Since the replacement requires a large-scale field site works and high-cost, one of the solutions for life-extension of the equipments is introduction of repair services. We have been working in order to enhance the accuracy of results during the detection of flaws and flaws dimensioning, in particular focusing on the techniques of Tip-echo, TOFD and Phased-Array UT, accompanied by the conventional UT. These NDI methods made possible to recognize the entire image of surface and embedded flaws with complicated geometry. Then, we have developed an evaluation system of these flaws based on the theory of crack propagation, of the logic of crack growth driven by the stress-intensity factor of the crack tip front. The sophisticated evaluation system is constituted by a hand-made software and database of stress-intensity factor. Based on these elemental technologies, we propose a technique of repair welding to provide a life-extension of hydraulic turbine components.

  12. Update on the status of life extension in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Lehnert, D.F.; Gregor, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of key activities that may affect the plant life extension option for U.S. nuclear power plants and to explain how the progress on the regulatory and technical developments may affect the world-wide nuclear industry. Establishing a predictable and stable regulatory process is the final piece that is needed by U.S. utilities to confidently consider the plant life extension option in their strategic planning. Certain technical issues were also identified in the previous studies where additional investigation would benedict the U.S. nuclear power industry's understanding of an aging effect and/or capability to demonstrate that the aging effect can be effectively managed. It is concluded that the lessons learned from the U.S. industry activities and the associated interactions with the NRC are leading to a positive indication that U.S. utilities believe the differences between the NRC and industry on the implementation of the amended license renewal rule can be successfully resolved and the that many utilities generally are interested in pursuing the life extension option as part of their strategic planning. The methodology and guidance developed in the U.S. for performing integrated plant assessments and evaluating time-limited aging analyses will be of significant interest to utilities and regulators in other countries. They will undoubtedly lay the foundation for an acceptable approach for demonstrating that aging processes are being processes are being effectively managed by plant programs and that safety margins or bases will be maintained during an extended operating period. (Author)

  13. Concept of a Maneuvering Load Control System and Effect on the Fatigue Life Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Paletta

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a methodology for the conceptual design of a Maneuver Load Control system taking into account the airframe flexibility. The system, when switched on, is able to minimize the bending moment augmentation at a wing station near the wing root during an unsteady longitudinal maneuver. The reduction of the incremental wing bending moment due to maneuvers can lead to benefits such as improved pay-loads/gross weight capabilities and/or extended structural fatigue life. The maneuver is performed by following a desired vertical load factor law with elevators deflections, starting from the trim equilibrium in level flight. The system observes load factor and structural bending through accelerometers and calibrated strain sensors and then sends signals to a computer that symmetrically actuates ailerons for reducing the structural bending and elevators for compensating the perturbation to the longitudinal equilibrium. The major limit of this kind of systems appears when it has to be installed on commercial transport aircraft for reduced OEW or augmented wing aspect-ratio. In this case extensive RAMS analyses and high redundancy of the MLC related sub-systems are required by the Certification Authority. Otherwise the structural design must be performed at system off. Thus the unique actual benefit to be gained from the adoption of a MLC system on a commercial transport is the fatigue life extension. An application to a business aircraft responding to the EASA Certification Specifications, Part 25, has been performed. The aircraft used for the numerical application is considered only as a test case-study. Most of design and analysis considerations are applicable also to other aircraft, such as unmanned or military ones, although some design requirements can be clearly different. The estimation of the fatigue life extension of a structural joint (wing lower skin-stringer, located close to the wing root, has been estimated by showing

  14. An albumin-oligonucleotide assembly for potential combinatorial drug delivery and half-life extension applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hamming, Jonas Bohn Refslund; Voldum, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The long blood circulatory property of human serum albumin, due to engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), is an attractive drug half-life extension enabling technology. This work describes a novel site-specific albumin double-stranded (ds) DNA assembly approach......, in which the 3' or 5' end maleimide-derivatized oligodeoxynucleotides are conjugated to albumin cysteine at position 34 (cys34) and annealed with complementary strands to allow single site-specific protein modification with functionalized ds oligodeoxynucleotides. Electrophoretic gel shift assays...

  15. Procedure for validating the life extension for the WWER-440 internals at NV NPP unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, V.M.; Evropin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    The design lifetime (30 years) of the 1st generation WWER-440 reactor facilities is nearing completion in Russia. One of the major problems is to validate the life extension (LE) of the reactor internals ensuring the core arrangement and free passage of the control and protection system components during different operating modes, emergency modes included. The internals at the 1st generation units are designed so that to enable their replacement. But it requires a lot of funds and time. The work has been done to demonstrate that the internals may be further safely operated without their components being replaced provided their strength, longevity and serviceability are sufficiently validated. (author)

  16. It is never too early to start planning for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neils, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the reasons why the subject of plant life extension (PLEX) deserves the attention it is receiving and describes some of the work that is currently being conducted in order to make PLEX a reality for U.S. nuclear power plants. One such major effort is a pilot program at the Monticello Nuclear Generating plant. This program, as well as other programs, have already produced some valuable lessons from which other plant owners can benefit. The Monticelle pilot program and the lessons learned thereof are described in some detail in this paper. (Liu)

  17. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  18. The use of nano-technology in shelf life extension of green vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ouzounidou; Fragiskos Gaitis

    2011-01-01

    This study is exploring the effects of nano-copper postharvest spraying on parsley, stored at the market temperature of 20°oC for 10 days and at the storage temperature of 5oC for 23 days, aiming at its shelf life extension. Nano-Cu- treated plants showed significantly lower CO 2 production than control at both storage temperatures. Spraying with Nano-Cu, parsley displayed the lowest weight losses at high and low temperature. Parsley leaves revealed high respiration rates with high moisture l...

  19. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C M

    2016-06-28

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO₂ in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  20. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Mireles DeWitt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  1. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A. Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology. PMID:28231143

  2. Modernization and life time extension on steam power plants in Eastern Europe and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, M.; Jenikejew, E.; Hiss, F.

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern European electricity markets with focus on Russia and Ukraine are suffering severe aging of the existing LMZ, UTZ and Turboatom steam turbine fleets after more than 25 years of operation. Energy efficient modernizations along with life time extension beyond the designed life time of existing old power plants is an economical option to address the increasing power demand. Steam Turbine modernizations are using latest state of the art materials and technology-enhanced turbine components such as blades, sealing, guide blade carriers, inner casings and rotors as well as components for auxiliary systems e.g. lube and lifting oil thus providing increased efficiency and optimized maintainability. This paper outlines unique design features and pre-engineered modules of the Siemens steam turbine modernization applications for thermal power stations, emphasizing the solutions for Turboatom 300 MW and LMZ 200 MW turbine-generators. The paper concludes with references and operational experience.

  3. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  4. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M.L. .e -mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  5. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  6. Fenobody: A Ferritin-Displayed Nanobody with High Apparent Affinity and Half-Life Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kelong; Jiang, Bing; Guan, Zhe; He, Jiuyang; Yang, Dongling; Xie, Ni; Nie, Guohui; Xie, Can; Yan, Xiyun

    2018-04-10

    Nanobodies consist of a single domain variable fragment of a camelid heavy-chain antibody. Nanobodies have potential applications in biomedical fields because of their simple production procedures and low cost. Occasionally, nanobody clones of interest exhibit low affinities for their target antigens, which, together with their short half-life limit bioanalytical or therapeutic applications. Here, we developed a novel platform we named fenobody, in which a nanobody developed against H5N1 virus is displayed on the surface of ferritin in the form of a 24mer. We constructed a fenobody by substituting the fifth helix of ferritin with the nanobody. TEM analysis showed that nanobodies were displayed on the surface of ferritin in the form of 6 × 4 bundles, and that these clustered nanobodies are flexible for antigen binding in spatial structure. Comparing fenobodies with conventional nanobodies currently used revealed that the antigen binding apparent affinity of anti-H5N1 fenobody was dramatically increased (∼360-fold). Crucially, their half-life extension in a murine model was 10-fold longer than anti-H5N1 nanobody. In addition, we found that our fenobodies are highly expressed in Escherichia coli, and are both soluble and thermo-stable nanocages that self-assemble as 24-polymers. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that fenobodies have unique advantages over currently available systems for apparent affinity enhancement and half-life extension of nanobodies. Our fenobody system presents a suitable platform for various large-scale biotechnological processes and should greatly facilitate the application of nanobody technology in these areas.

  7. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  8. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  9. Influence of the non-singular stress on the crack extension and fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Recho, N.; Niu, Z.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BEM is combined by characteristic analysis to calculate the singular stress field. ► A new method is proposed to evaluate the full stress field at crack tip region. ► Effect of non-singular stress on the propagation direction of the fatigue crack is analyzed. ► The influence of non-singular stress on the fatigue crack life is evaluated. - Abstract: The complete elasticity stress field at a crack tip region can be presented by the sum of the singular stress and several non-singular stress terms according to the Williams asymptotic expansion theory. The non-singular stress has a non-negligible influence on the prediction of the crack extension direction and crack growth rate under the fatigue loading. A novel method combining the boundary element method and the singularity characteristic analysis is proposed here to evaluate the complete stress field at a crack tip region. In this new method, any non-singular stress term in the Williams series expansion can be evaluated according to the computational accuracy requirement. Then, a modified Paris law is introduced to predict the crack propagation under the mixed-mode loading for exploring the influence of the non-singular stress on the fatigue life duration. By comparing with the existed experimental results, the predicted crack fatigue life when the non-singular stress is taken into consideration is more accurate than the predicted ones only considering the singular stress.

  10. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    . There are no representative ground test articles for some of the components. A 'test everything' approach would require manufacturing new test articles. The paper outlines some of the techniques used for selective testing, by way of cherry picking candidate components based on failure mode effects analysis, system level impacts, hazard analysis, etc. The type of testing required for extending the service life depends on the design and criticality of the component, failure modes and failure mechanisms, life cycle margin provided by the original certification, operational and environmental stresses encountered, etc. When specific failure mechanism being considered and the underlying relationship of that mode to the stresses provided in the test can be correlated by supporting analysis, time and effort required for conducting life extension testing can be significantly reduced. Exposure to corrosive propellants over long periods of time, for instance, lead to specific failure mechanisms in several components used in the propulsion system. Using Arrhenius model, which is tied to chemically dependent failure mechanisms such as corrosion or chemical reactions, it is possible to subject carefully selected test articles to accelerated life test. Arrhenius model reflects the proportional relationship between time to failure of a component and the exponential of the inverse of absolute temperature acting on the component. The acceleration factor is used to perform tests at higher stresses that allow direct correlation between the times to failure at a high test temperature to the temperatures to be expected in actual use. As long as the temperatures are such that new failure mechanisms are not introduced, this becomes a very useful method for testing to failure a relatively small sample of items for a much shorter amount of time. In this article, based on the example of the propulsion system of the first ISS module Zarya, theoretical approaches and practical activities of

  11. Teaching Couple Relationship Education: The Influence on Regional Extension Agents and Family Life Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne McGill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Couple Relationship Education (CRE programs are a prevention resource used to assist adult individuals, couples, and families reduce relationship distress and improve prosocial behaviors. Regional Extension agents (REAs and other community family life educators (FLEs who teach CRE are involved in a facilitation process that develops relationships and rapport with their participants similar to other helping relationships. To date, no published research has focused on how CRE may affect the REAs/FLEs who provide the programs through community adult education programs. Informed by relational-cultural theory and the ecological systems perspective, the current study focused on assessing change in ten outcomes measuring REAs/FLEs’ (N = 54 individual, couple, and co-parenting functioning and whether that change differed by gender. Results from repeated measure ANCOVAs indicate REAs/FLEs experience gains across several domains of functioning. There were no differences by gender. Implications for REAs/FLEs and suggestions for future research are described.

  12. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  13. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.B.; Ghoshal, B.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Ahmad, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  14. Life-span Extension With Reduced Somatotrophic Signaling: Moderation of Aging Effect by Signal Type, Sex, and Experimental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Simons, Mirre J P

    2017-11-09

    Reduced somatotrophic signaling through the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor pathways (IGF1) can delay aging, although the degree of life-extension varies markedly across studies. By collating data from previous studies and using meta-analysis, we tested whether factors including sex, hormonal manipulation, body weight change and control baseline mortality quantitatively predict relative life-extension. Manipulations of GH signaling (including pituitary and direct GH deficiencies) generate significantly greater extension in median life span than IGF1 manipulations (including IGF1 production, reception, and bioactivity), producing a consistent shift in mortality risk of mutant mice. Reduced Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) expression produces more similar life-extension to reduced GH, although effects are more heterogeneous and appear to influence the demography of mortality differently. Life-extension with reduced IGF1 signaling, but neither GH nor IRS signaling, increases life span significantly more in females than males, and in cohorts where control survival is short. Our results thus suggest that reduced GH signaling has physiological benefits to survival outside of its actions on circulating IGF1. In addition to these biological moderators, we found an overrepresentation of small sample sized studies that report large improvements in survival, indicating potential publication bias. We discuss how this could potentially confound current conclusions from published work, and how this warrants further study replication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  15. METHODS AND RESEARCH CONCERNING SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION OF SUPORTING STRUCTURES OF TRACTION ROLLING STOCK FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is scientifically grounded introduction of the acquired techniques into works for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for industrial transport. Methodology. To achieve the purpose it was analyzed the acquired techniques for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for mainline transport. The acquired techniques during solution of problems concerning the service life extension of rolling stock units were adapted to the locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Findings. On the basis of experimental and theoretical complex of studies some results were obtained. They gave the ground to determine the possibility of acquired techniques use when solving the problems on service life extension of rolling stock units concerning locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Originality. On the basis of conducted experimental and theoretical studies scientific maintenance of the works providing extension of service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock was executed. Practical value. Technical solutions and measures, which have to be carried out during operation within the prolonged appointed service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock enterprises using locomotives and traction aggregates to provide the basic technological cycles were developed.

  16. [Quality of life and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy and vaginal extension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuang; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the quality of life and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy (RH) and vaginal extension. Case-control and questionnaire- based method was employed in this study. Thirty-one patients of early-stage (I b1-I b2) cervical cancer who had undergone vaginal extension following classic RH in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2008 to September 2012 were included in study group, while 28 patients with matching factors and RH only during the same period were allocated to control group. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of clinical and demographic variables including age at diagnosis, tumor stage and follow-up time (P > 0.05). Patients were assessed retrospectively by validated self-reported questionnaires the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Cervix Cancer Module Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CX24) mainly for quality of life and sexual function for cervical cancer patients; the Sexual Function and Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ) further investigates sexual function and vaginal changes of patients with gynecologic malignancy at least 6 months after treatment. Vaginal length acquired by pelvic examination by gynecologic oncologists during follow-up visits was (10.0 ± 1.3) cm and (5.9 ± 1.0)cm in study group and control group respectively (P = 0.000). Sixty-eight percent (21/31) of cases in study group and 64% (18/28) of cases in control group had resumed sexual activity at the time of interview, and the time interval between treatment and regular sexual activity was mean 6 months (range 3-20 months) and mean 5 months (range 1-12 months) in study and control group respectively, in which there was not statistical significance (P > 0.05). No difference was observed regarding pelvic floor symptoms (P > 0.05) while difficulty emptying bladder, incomplete emptying and constipation were most commonly reported. Both group presented with hypoactive sexual desire

  17. The Effects of Different Aspects of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Model Validation, Refinement, and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Janet Davis

    2000-01-01

    The Effects of Different Aspects of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Model Validation, Refinement, and Extension by Janet Davis Neal ABSTRACT Numerous satisfaction studies have been conducted in both tourism and marketing which have examined various aspects of travelers and/or consumers. Quality of life satisfaction studies look beyond the types of satisfaction experiences that endure for only a short time to those that "spill over" into individuals' life domains ...

  18. Shelf life extension of whole Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus using modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Albalat, Amaya; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Neil, Douglas M

    2013-11-01

    Once a nuisance by-catch, today the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is a valuable UK fisheries commodity. Unfortunately, the species is very susceptible to quality deterioration post harvest as it quickly develops black spots and also spoils rapidly due to bacterial growth. Treatment with chemicals can stop the blackening and carefully monitored cold storage can result in a sensory shelf life of up to 6.5 days. The high susceptibility to spoilage greatly restricts the extent to which N. norvegicus can be distributed to retailers and displayed for sale. The application of modified atmosphere (MA) could be extremely beneficial, allowing the chilled product to stay fresh for a long period of time, thus ensuring higher sales. In the present study, we identified a gas mix for the MA packaging (MAP) of whole N. norvegicus lobster into 200 g retail packs. Our results show that a shelf life extension to 13 days can be achieved when retail packs are stored in MAP at 1 °C. Effectiveness of the MAP was evaluated by using a newly developed QIM for MA-packaged whole N. norvegicus and also by analyzing bacterial plate counts. Changes in the microflora and effects of different storage temperatures on the quality of the MA packs are also presented. The main specific spoilage organism (SSO) of modified atmosphere packaged Norway lobster is Photobacterium phosphoreum. © 2013.

  19. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications. (author)

  20. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  1. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Perry, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  2. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    required to assess many changes at once, or confidence in these weapons would be reduced. The strategy and details of the U.S. Stockpile Life Extension Program will be described in this talk. In brief, the strategy is to reduce the number of weapons in the stockpile while increasing confidence in the weapons that remain and, where possible, increase their safety, increase their security, and reduce their nuclear material quantities and yields. A number of ``myths'' pertaining to nuclear weapons, the SSP, and the Stockpile Life Extension Program will be explored.

  3. Description of a cost-effective integrated nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) program and its benefits to utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Significant benefits can be obtained by a utility in extending the life of its operating nuclear power plants by utilizing a systematic approach to nuclear plant life extension. As nuclear power plants age, it is expected that the plant availability/reliability will decline. This has been observed in fossil power plants and a similar trend is to be expected for nuclear plants. A systematic and well planned life extension program can be utilized to maintain and/or improve plant availability resulting in substantial continued cost savings to utilities and their customers. A planned and integrated approach for extending the license and lifetime of nuclear power plants has been developed. The following three areas must be addressed: Licensing; Technology; Economics. The result of a plant life extension study is a 10- to 20-year plan for monitoring, inspecting, upgrading, maintaining, and extending the real operating life of a utility's nuclear plant(s) at high reliability and high availability levels. This long term strategic plan for a total plant life extension program allows the utility to better plan and optimize its financial and human resources

  4. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  5. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  6. EcoSys{trademark}: Supporting Green Design through an extensible life cycle analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gockel, B.C.; Watkins, R.D.; Kleban, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    EcoSys is an environmental decision support tool to assist in the design of green products and process. EcoSys consist of an information and expert system that contains input from experts in products, processes and the environment as well as a flexible, goal driven, rule based decision model that can accommodate many environmental management perspectives. This includes allowing specific users to specify weighting factors for the impact decision model. This tool is extensible in that it can be utilized within the boundaries of a company and migrated to include suppliers and customers until full life cycles are assessed. We discussed the details and use of the environmental models available for the experts. We also showed how interviews with manufacturing experts led to the design of a goal-driven rule based reasoning system to support the problem solving. Finally, we offered a number of examples that detailed the types of analysis possible with EcoSys. Our ongoing work is to increase the precision of the environmental attributes database and to extend the product-process database to support a wider set of product analyses. Based on user feedback, we are also continuing to improve the X-Window user interface.

  7. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  8. Microbial inactivation and shelf life extension of Korean traditional prepared meals by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on microbial inactivation and shelf life extension of Korean traditional prepared meals, including bulgogi and its sauce, marinated beef rib and Kimbab, were investigated. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce used for making bulgogi sauce were highly contaminated and most of them with Bacillus spp. and coliform bacteria at the initial stage. Irradiation at 10 kGy eliminated coliforms in the bulgogi sauce and no growth was found during the 4 weeks of storage at 20 deg. C. The sensory evaluation of bulgogi and its sauce showed that the colour of irradiated samples was better than that of non-irradiated controls or heat treated samples. The total bacteria count and coliform of marinated beef ribs were 5.68 and 3.68 in CFU/g, respectively. The effect of irradiation on the growth of the four test microorganisms inoculated (about 106-107 CFU/g) into the marinated beef ribs were dose dependent (a higher dose produced a greater reduction). All the four pathogens inoculated on marinated beef ribs were eliminated at 4 kGy. The D 10 values of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli on inoculated marinated beef ribs were 0.66 ± 0.01, 0.59 ± 0.05, 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.54 ± 0.01 kGy, respectively. Of these, E. coli was the most radiation sensitive in the raw marinated beef ribs. The number of the four pathogens inoculated into Kimbab decreased by 2-3 ln CFU/g for every 1 kGy increment and were not detected after 3 kGy. The D 10 values of pathogens inoculated into the Kimbab were in the range 0.31-0.44 kGy. This study indicated that irradiation is effective in ensuring the safety of Korean traditional prepared meals, including bulgogi sauce, bulgogi, marinated beef ribs and Kimbab with acceptable sensory quality. For Kimchijumeokbab, viable cells of the four pathogens inoculated increased slightly after abusive storage condition (20 deg. C), although under commercial condition (4 deg. C), and after 2

  9. A study of storage life extension for high performance chemically amplified resist coated blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sin-Ju; Seo, Sung-Min; Ko, Sang-Hoon; Cha, Han-Sun; Kang, Geung-Won; Nam, Kee-Soo; Seo, Woong-Won; Jung, Woo-Kyun; Cho, Hyun-Kyoon; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo

    2005-06-01

    The importance of advanced e-beam writing system and chemically amplified resist (CAR) coated blank is increasing gradually in high-end grade photomask manufacture according to CD embodiment of 90 nm and beyond technology node requiring because of the shrinkage of design rule in the semiconductor industry. However, many studies have been reported that CAR has several troubles and especially, CAR sensitivity change is occurred by airborne molecular contamination (AMC). So, the storage life of CAR coated blank is shortened. This problem may cause the difficulty of high-end grade photomask manufacture because it is hard to secure stable mean to target (MTT) and CD uniformity by sensitivity change, T-top profile and footing profile. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the storage life extension for high performance CAR coated blank through improvement of the packing materials. Firstly, a variety of packing materials were collected and the selected packing materials were analyzed by Automatic Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (ATD GC/MS) and Ion Chromatograph (IC) to examine AMC generated from the packing materials. As a result, molecular condensables such as alcohols, hydrocarbons and fatty acids were detected and molecular acids and molecular bases those are NH4+, Cl-, NOx- and SOx- were also detected from the packing materials, respectively. From the above results, we selected the best packing materials which generated the least AMC and the worst packing materials which generated the most AMC. Additionally, we verified photomask process with CAR coated blanks which were packed with those packing materials with post coating delay (PCD) by 50 kV e-beam writing system. In consequence, dose to clear (DTC) showed 4.6 μC/cm2 at 0 day PCD for both of the best and the worst packing materials of CAR coated blank. After 90 days PCD, DTC variation was only 0.4 μC/cm2 for the best packing materials, but DTC variation of 4.0 μC/cm2

  10. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  11. Electricity-cost savings obtained by means of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.; DuCharme, A.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines savings caused by nuclear-plant life extension (NUPLEX) and describes the effects of changes in assumptions on costs and technology using an approach simpler than the large economic-model simulations used in other reports. Under the simplified approach, we estimate savings at the broad national level by comparing projected costs/kWh for the typical NUPLEX plant with those for new coal-fired plants, which seem the most likely alternative in most regions. While ignoring some complications handled by the large, regionally disaggregated econometric models, the approach used in this study has advantages in sensitivity analyses. It reveals relationships between savings and basic assumptions on costs and technology in a more transparent way than in large-model simulations. We find that, absent major technological breakthroughs for present generating options, NUPLEX saves consumers money on their electric bills under most plausible economic scenarios. Using mid-range assumptions, we find that NUPLEX saves consumers a total of about dollar 180 billion spread over the period 2010-50. Under optimistic assumptions, the savings swell to over dollar 900 billion. Under extremely pessimistic assumptions, the savings actually turn negative. This wide range of estimates largely reflects the uncertainty in cost projections. Within plausible limits, higher- or lower-than-expected load growth does not affect the savings estimates. The NUPLEX construction costs stand out as the most critical unknown. If they turn out to be 50% (dollar 500 billion) above the baseline estimate savings would fall by almost 60% (dollar 105 billion). A 50% rise in nuclear fuel costs would drop baseline savings by almost 22%. A 50% increase in nuclear-plant operations-and-maintenance costs, would cut baseline savings by about 36%. These sensitivities highlight the need for continued monitoring of economic developments

  12. Model 9975 Life Extension Test Package 3 - Interim Report - January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Life extension package LE3 (9975-03203) has been instrumented and subjected to an elevated temperature environment for approximately 8 years. During this time, the cane fiberboard has been maintained at a maximum temperature of ~160 - 165 °F, which was established by a combination of internal (19 watts) and external heat sources. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard samples, including the degradation models based on the laboratory tests. These areas of agreement include the rate of change of fiberboard weight, dimensions and density, and change in fiberboard thermal conductivity. Corrosion of the lead shield occurred at a high rate during the first several weeks of aging, but dropped significantly after most of the moisture in the fiberboard migrated away from the lead shield. Dimensional measurements of the lead shield indicate that no significant creep deformation has occurred. This is consistent with literature data that predict a very small creep deformation for the time at temperature experienced by this package. The SCV O-rings were verified to remain leak-tight after ~5 years aging at an average temperature of ~170 °F. This package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within a typical fiberboard assembly can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 19 watt internal heat load. The majority of water within the fiberboard migrated to the bottom layers of fiberboard, with approximately 2 kg of water (2 liters) eventually escaping from the package. Two conditions have developed that are not consistent with package certification requirements. The axial gap at the top of the package increased to a maximum value of 1.549 inches, exceeding the 1 inch criterion. In addition, staining and/or corrosion have formed in a few spots

  13. The impact of the MCU life extension solvent on sludge batch 8 projected operating windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Edwards, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01 M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B203 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B203 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  14. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  15. TAF-4 is required for the life extension of isp-1, clk-1 and tpk-1 Mit mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maruf H; Ligon, Melissa; Hussey, Lauren R; Hufnal, Bryce; Farber, Robert; Munkácsy, Erin; Rodriguez, Amanda; Dillow, Andy; Kahlig, Erynn; Rea, Shane L

    2013-10-01

    While numerous life-extending manipulations have been discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, one that remains most enigmatic is disruption of oxidative phosphorylation. In order to unravel how such an ostensibly deleterious manipulation can extend lifespan, we sought to identify the ensemble of nuclear transcription factors that are activated in response to defective mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function. Using a feeding RNAi approach, we targeted over 400 transcription factors and identified 15 that, when reduced in function, reproducibly and differentially altered the development, stress response, and/or fecundity of isp-1(qm150) Mit mutants relative to wild-type animals. Seven of these transcription factors--AHA-1, CEH-18, HIF-1, JUN-1, NHR-27, NHR-49 and the CREB homolog-1 (CRH-1)-interacting protein TAF-4--were also essential for isp-1 life extension. When we tested the involvement of these seven transcription factors in the life extension of two other Mit mutants, namely clk-1(qm30) and tpk-1(qm162), TAF-4 and HIF-1 were consistently required. Our findings suggest that the Mit phenotype is under the control of multiple transcriptional responses, and that TAF-4 and HIF-1 may be part of a general signaling axis that specifies Mit mutant life extension.

  16. Use of environmental qualification data and techniques for life extension purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnappan, J.

    1991-01-01

    As several nuclear power plants in the United States now reach or exceed the midpoint of their original 40-year design life, efforts are underway to identify techniques and methods to demonstrate that the actual useful life of these plants exceeds the original design life. Some surveillance and monitoring programs for safety-related components are being developed to determine the actual consumed life and predict the remaining life. These data are useful for showing that plant components actually have a longer qualified life, which is the basis for the license renewal of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes a proposed methodology using existing environmental qualification (EQ) data for safety-related Class 1E equipment and the results of surveillance and monitoring techniques to assess the actual consumed life and, consequently, predict the remaining life. It also discusses several techniques that can be used to address various aging degradation mechanisms to demonstrate longer qualified life of safety-related components. Examples of how these techniques can be used on components are shown

  17. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  18. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  19. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  20. The Impact Of The Mcu Life Extension Solvent On Dwpf Glass Formulation Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NG-CSSX), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S operations as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass formulation activities, and melter operations at DWPF. To support programmatic objectives, the downstream impacts of the boric acid strip effluent (SE) to the glass formulation activities and melter operations are considered in this study. More specifically, the impacts of boric acid additions to the projected SB7b operating windows, potential impacts to frit production temperatures, and the potential impact of boron volatility are evaluated. Although various boric acid molarities have been reported and discussed, the baseline flowsheet used to support this assessment was 0.01M boric acid. The results of the paper study assessment indicate that Frit 418 and Frit 418-7D are robust to the implementation of the 0.01M boric acid SE into the SB7b flowsheet (sludge-only or ARP-added). More specifically, the projected operating windows for the nominal SB7b projections remain essentially constant (i.e., 25-43 or 25-44% waste loading (WL)) regardless of the flowsheet options (sludge-only, ARP added, and/or the presence of the new SE). These results indicate that even if SE is not transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), there would be no need to add boric acid (from a trim tank) to compositionally compensate for the absence of the boric acid SE in either a sludge-only or ARP-added SB7b flowsheet. With respect to boron volatility, the Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments also

  1. Life Extension Strategies for Space Shuttle-Deployed Small Satellites Using a Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tilley, Dennis L; Spores, Ronald A

    1996-01-01

    ...). The pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) is ideally suited to extend the life of small satellites deployed from the Shuttle due to its low system mass and volume, high specific impulse, and inert solid propellant (Teflon...

  2. Factors affecting the longevity of interim ILW stores, monitoring methods and techniques supporting store life extension - 59151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-limiting features of stores (i.e. components of a typical Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) store that are vulnerable to failure) can be separated into those related to store design, the continuing operation of the store and equipment and store management. Environmental factors, including temperature, humidity, atmospheric pollutants and radiation fields also affect the longevity of ILW storage buildings and the integrity of the waste packages within the store. The current condition of the store and the causes and rates of any observed deterioration need to be determined to estimate the current operating life of the store and to analyse the costs and benefits associated with life extension. Suitable monitoring techniques and methods for extending the operating life of stores, either by remediation or replacement of identified life-limiting features, have also been assessed. Techniques including visual inspection (directly or by use of CCTV or inspection cells), corrosion coupons, crane monitoring and a wide range of indirect measurement methods can be used to monitor the condition of life-limiting features and the store environment. Methods for extending store life include the application of paint or coatings to retard degradation, use of electro-chemical treatments and repair of the concrete structure or replacement of components. Life-limiting features and environmental factors that affect the longevity of facilities for the interim storage of ILW have been identified through a literature review and Expert Workshop. Monitoring techniques are available for the key life-limiting feature of structural integrity of reinforced concrete, and for the atmospheric or surface concentration of corrosion-accelerating substances. Methods for remediating the reinforced concrete structure or crane rails to increase the expected lifetime of the store are also reviewed. Many of these techniques have previously been used at radioactive waste stores or other nuclear facilities in

  3. Impacts of metformin and aspirin on life history features and longevity of crickets: trade-offs versus cost-free life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Harvir; Lone, Asad; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i.e., health span). Metformin strongly reduced growth rates of both genders (140 % of controls) than aspirin (~118 % of controls). Crickets maturing on low aspirin showed no evidence of a trade-off between maturation mass and life extension. Remarkably, by 100 days of age, aspirin-treated females were significantly larger than controls (largely reflecting egg complement). Unlike the reigning dietary restriction paradigm, low aspirin conformed to a paradigm of "eat more, live longer." In contrast, metformin-treated females were only ~67 % of the mass of controls. Our results suggest that hormetic agents like metformin may derive significant trade-offs with life extension, whereas health and longevity benefits may be obtained with less cost by agents like aspirin that regulate geroprotective pathways.

  4. Regulatory Approach To and Lessons Learned with Licensing of Service Life Extension at PAKS NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petofi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant of Hungary decided to extend the original design lifetime of the plant by 20 years, which expires on December 31, 2012 concerning unit 1. The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority established the legal environments in order to license the extension using an approach similar to that followed in the United States. The regulation specifies the pre-conditions for the extension, defines the scoping and screening process for the passive and long lived systems, structures and components to be involved in the licensing and the respective methods of treatment and also determines how the active components shall be dealt with during the extended lifetime. The regulatory procedure is a two-step process including the oversight of the preparatory programme of the operator for the extension that started 4 years before the expiry of the lifetime and the licensing process itself, which is currently under way for unit 1 after the submittal of the licensee's application at the end of 2011. The first experiences with the regulatory assessment of the application are available yet and presented in this paper. (author)

  5. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension; El proyecto {sup P}reev del Foro Iberoamericano. Practicas reguladoras en envejecimiento y extension de vida.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  6. Life cycle assessment of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition: extension of previous work and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L.I.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    An extension of a previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition is reported. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered, and the environmental impacts of the nuclear and thermochemical plants are assessed, while future needs are identified. Environmental impacts are investigated using CML 2001 impact categories. The nuclear fuel cycle and construction of the hydrogen plant contribute significantly to total environmental impacts. The environmental impacts for the operation of the thermochemical hydrogen production plant contribute much less. Changes in the inventory of chemicals needed in the thermochemical plant do not affect significantly the total impacts. Improvement analysis suggests the development of more sustainable processes, particularly in the nuclear plant. Other important and necessary future extensions of the research reported are also provided. (author)

  7. Personalized predictive modeling for patients with Alzheimer's disease using an extension of Sullivan's life table model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Eric; Kinosian, Bruce; Stern, Yaakov

    2017-09-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression varies substantially among patients, hindering calculation of residual total life expectancy (TLE) and its decomposition into disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) for individual patients with AD. The objective of the present study was to assess the accuracy of a new synthesis of Sullivan's life table (SLT) and longitudinal Grade of Membership (L-GoM) models that estimates individualized TLEs, DFLEs, and DLEs for patients with AD. If sufficiently accurate, such information could enhance the quality of important decisions in AD treatment and patient care. We estimated a new SLT/L-GoM model of the natural history of AD over 10 years in the Predictors 2 Study cohort: N = 229 with 6 fixed and 73 time-varying covariates over 21 examinations covering 11 measurement domains including cognitive, functional, behavioral, psychiatric, and other symptoms/signs. Total remaining life expectancy was censored at 10 years. Disability was defined as need for full-time care (FTC), the outcome most strongly associated with AD progression. All parameters were estimated via weighted maximum likelihood using data-dependent weights designed to ensure that the estimates of the prognostic subtypes were of high quality. Goodness of fit was tested/confirmed for survival and FTC disability for five relatively homogeneous subgroups defined to cover the range of patient outcomes over the 21 examinations. The substantial heterogeneity in initial patient presentation and AD progression was captured using three clinically meaningful prognostic subtypes and one terminal subtype exhibiting highly differentiated symptom severity on 7 of the 11 measurement domains. Comparisons of the observed and estimated survival and FTC disability probabilities demonstrated that the estimates were accurate for all five subgroups, supporting their use in AD life expectancy calculations. Mean 10-year TLE differed widely across subgroups

  8. Shelf-life extension of pre-packed whole wheat flour using low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Marathe, S.A.; Pednekar, M.D.; Machaiah, J.P.; Rao, B.Y.K.; Adhikari, H.R.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Storage studies on irradiated (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and non-irradiated prepacked whole wheat flour have shown that wheat flour irradiated at 0.25 kGy and stored at room temperature for 6 months did not show significant changes in the functional qualities and acceptability of the product, thereby extending the shelf-life and marketability of the product. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B.B.; Khaleel, K.M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-01-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 o C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  10. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-09-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  11. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)], E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel [DMJM International (Cansult Maunsell/AECOM Ltd.), Consultant of Gardens Sector Projects, Alain Municipality and Eastern Emirates, P.O. Box 1419, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: abdul79jaleel@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-15

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 {sup o}C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  12. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  13. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.; Mabrouk, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 10 7 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (10 3 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 10 5 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 10 3 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  14. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  15. The shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets by chitosan coating combined with glycerol monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-08-01

    A novel chitosan-based coating solution was prepared by combining glycerol monolaurate (GML) for shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp fillets. The control and coated fillets were analyzed periodically for physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and shear force), microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacteria counts (PTC), Pseudomonads and H 2 S-producing bacteria) and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that chitosan-GML coated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan coating alone. In addition, 2% chitosan enriched with 0.3% GML showed the significant (Pchitosan coating enriched with GML was a promising method to extend the shelf life of refrigerated fillets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Life extension program initiation at Davis-Besse nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, Deborah K.

    1991-01-01

    Davis-Besse is a 900 MW Babcock and Wilcox designed plant located in Northwest Ohio. Effective December 31, 1990, the construction period was recovered making the current license expiration 2007. The economic effects of this extension reduced the depreciation expense for 1990 by $9,790,000 and increased earnings per share by $.04. This positive impact has resulted in an evaluation of pursuing license renewal for Davis-Besse in accordance with the proposed rule on license renewal (10CFR54 'Requirements for renewal of operating licenses for nuclear power plants'). This paper reviews preliminary efforts to evaluate these actions and summarizes strategies planned to ensure continued operation of Davis-Besse remains a viable option for base load generation for Toledo Edison. (author)

  17. Extension of life span by impaired glucose metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans is accompanied by structural rearrangements of the transcriptomic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Priebe

    Full Text Available Glucose restriction mimicked by feeding the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG - a glucose molecule that lacks the ability to undergo glycolysis - has been found to increase the life span of the nematodes considerably. To facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this life extension, we analyzed transcriptomes of DOG-treated and untreated roundworms obtained by RNA-seq at different ages. We found that, depending on age, DOG changes the magnitude of the expression values of about 2 to 24 percent of the genes significantly, although our results reveal that the gross changes introduced by DOG are small compared to the age-induced changes. We found that 27 genes are constantly either up- or down-regulated by DOG over the whole life span, among them several members of the cytochrome P450 family. The monotonic change with age of the temporal expression patterns of the genes was investigated, leading to the result that 21 genes reverse their monotonic behaviour under impaired glycolysis. Put simply, the DOG-treatment reduces the gross transcriptional activity but increases the interconnectedness of gene expression. However, a detailed analysis of network parameters discloses that the introduced changes differ remarkably between individual signalling pathways. We found a reorganization of the hubs of the mTOR pathway when standard diet is replaced by DOG feeding. By constructing correlation based difference networks, we identified those signalling pathways that are most vigorously changed by impaired glycolysis. Taken together, we have found a number of genes and pathways that are potentially involved in the DOG-driven extension of life span of C. elegans. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the network structure of ageing-relevant signalling pathways is reorganised under impaired glycolysis.

  18. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J.

    2002-01-01

    Prepared meals sold from homes, markets and lorry stations play a major role in the delivery of nutritious foods to majority of Ghanaians. With increasing urbanization, and its associated busy life-style, the demand for prepared meals is on the ascendancy. Although the formal and more refined prepared meals outlets such as restaurants and fast food joints are increasing, the informal alternatives, referred to as 'street foods' continue to enjoy a higher patronage. A survey on the street food business revealed that many of the operators are unskilled women of low-income status with no formal training in good hygienic practices in the production and sale of prepared meals. It is note-worthy that Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum have been isolated from waakye (a popular street food) on sale under ambient conditions in markets. Further studies are needed not only to substantiate these observations but also determine the impact of refrigeration and freezing on the microbiological safety and shelf-life of waakye and other popular street foods. Limited studies on waakye, indicated that the cooking applied is adequate only for eliminating vegetative bacteria but not spores. Clearly there is a need to identify procedures/processes, including irradiation, which can improve the microbiological safety and increase the shelf-life of such prepared meals without compromising product quality. These studies will be needed for the realization of the dreams of consumers who would want to buy some street foods, such as waakye, with better safety and quality assurance, from supermarkets or refined fast food outlets, for immediate consumption or at a later date

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, Hitoshi.

    1996-01-01

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x10 4 to 5x10 7 per g. Coliforms were 8x10 1 to 3x10 4 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.

    1996-01-01

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x10 4 to 5x10 7 per g. Coliforms were 8x10 1 to 3x10 4 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation

  1. Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) no-health period extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing eligibility for Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day "no-health" period during which veterans can apply for VGLI without proving that they are in good health for insurance purposes. The purpose of this rule is to increase the opportunities for disabled veterans to enroll in VGLI, some of whom would not qualify for VGLI coverage under existing provisions. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2012.

  2. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Charles W; Bush, Spencer H; Berman, Herbert Stanton; Czajkowski, Carl J; Divine, James R; Posakony, Gerald J; Johnson, A B; Elmore, Monte R; Reynolds, D A; Anantatmula, Ramamohan P; Sindelar, Robert L; Zapp, Philip E

    2001-01-01

    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection

  3. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W; Bush, Spencer H; Berman, Herbert Stanton; Czajkowski, Carl J; Divine, James R; Posakony, Gerald J; Johnson, A B; Elmore, Monte R; Reynolds, D A; Anantatmula, Ramamohan P; Sindelar, Robert L; Zapp, Philip E

    2001-06-29

    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection.

  4. Shelf-life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchang; Yang, Zhongyan; Li, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a low-fat, high-protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L -1 polyphenols, and 8 g L -1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K-value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf-life of shrimp by 3-4 days compared with the control group. PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Extension of raw watermelon juice shelf-life up to 58days by hyperbaric storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Álvaro T; Ribeiro, Ana C; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2017-09-15

    Hyperbaric storage (HS) of raw watermelon juice, at 50, 62.5 and 75MPa, at temperatures of 10, 15 and ≈25°C (room temperature, RT), was studied to evaluate shelf-life comparatively to refrigeration (RF, 4°C). Generally, RF caused an increase of microbial loads to values ≥6.0logCFU/mL after 7days of storage. Contrarily, HS at 62.5/75MPa (15°C) showed a reduction of initial loads, by at least 2.5logCFU/mL, up to 58days, while pH and colour values did not changed under these HS conditions. Additionally, the combination of a lower temperature with HS has beneficial effects to control microbial development, particularly for the lower pressure studied (50MPa/10°C). In conclusion, HS increased watermelon juice shelf-life for at least 58days, indicating a great potential for future RF replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  7. Shelf life extension of fresh fruit and vegetables by chitosan treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Feliziani, Erica; Baños, Silvia Bautista; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2017-02-11

    Among alternatives that are currently under investigation to replace the use of synthetic fungicides to control postharvest diseases in fresh produce and to extend their shelf life, chitosan application has shown promising disease control, at both preharvest and postharvest stages. Chitosan shows a dual mode of action, on the pathogen and on the plant, as it reduces the growth of decay-causing fungi and foodborne pathogens and induces resistance responses in the host tissues. Chitosan coating forms a semipermeable film on the surface of fruit and vegetables, thereby delaying the rate of respiration, decreasing weight loss, maintaining the overall quality, and prolonging the shelf life. Moreover, the coating can provide a substrate for incorporation of other functional food additives, such as minerals, vitamins, or other drugs or nutraceutical compounds that can be used to enhance the beneficial properties of fresh commodities, or in some cases the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Chitosan coating has been approved as GRAS substance by USFDA, and its application is safe for the consumer and the environment. This review summarizes the most relevant and recent knowledge in the application of chitosan in postharvest disease control and maintenance of overall fruit and vegetable quality during postharvest storage.

  8. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  9. Assimilation of Endogenous Nicotinamide Riboside Is Essential for Calorie Restriction-mediated Life Span Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-01-01

    NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD+ metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD+ metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD+-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD+ metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD+ precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD+ homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  10. Water-based oligochitosan and nanowhisker chitosan as potential food preservatives for shelf-life extension of minced pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasataporn, Patomporn; Tepkasikul, Preenapha; Kingcha, Yutthana; Yoksan, Rangrong; Pichyangkura, Rath; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-09-15

    Water-based chitosans in the forms of oligochitosan (OligoCS) and nanowhisker chitosan (CSWK) are proposed as a novel food preservative based on a minced pork model study. The high surface area with a positive charge over the neutral pH range (pH 5-8) of OligoCS and CSWK lead to an inhibition against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative microbes (Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7). In the minced pork model, OligoCS effectively performs a food preservative for shelf-life extension as clarified from the retardation of microbial growth, biogenic amine formation and lipid oxidation during the storage. OligoCS maintains almost all myosin heavy chain protein degradation as observed in the electrophoresis. The present work points out that water-based chitosan with its unique morphology not only significantly inhibits antimicrobial activity but also maintains the meat quality with an extension of shelf-life, and thus has the potential to be used as a food preservative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Raj, V. Venkat

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and the past history of the plant performance, critical piping systems and equipment are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. Static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration has been given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where the induced stresses (S L ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted in view of the fact that the thickness measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. It has been possible to qualify the system with reduced corrosion allowance values however, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). If the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S L ) to the term 0.25 S h , has been taken. However, if at any location, it is found that thermal stress is high, fatigue analysis has

  12. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  13. Extension of shelf life of paneer by sorbic acid and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.; Murali, H.S.; Sankaran, R.

    1991-01-01

    Paneer, an acid and heat coagulated milk product, is highly perishable because of high moisture (58-60%) and low acidity (pH 5.6-5.8). The product had 430 total plate count, 120 proteolytic bacteria, 170 lipolytic bacteria and 40 fungi/g of sample with a shelf life of few hr. Treatment with sorbic acid and/or gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load. Combination treatment of 0.10% sorbic acid in milk and irradiation of the product at 2.5 kGy preserved the paneer for 30 days at ambient temperature (25-35degC) with good acceptance. (author). 14 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 o C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 o C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  15. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  16. Effects of microencapsulated Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the extension of the shelf-life of Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J A; Kim, W Y; Park, H J

    2012-02-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a well-recognized antimicrobial agent but, application of AITC to food systems is limited due to its high volatility and strong odor. This study was performed to overcome the volatility of AITC by encapsulation using gum Arabic and chitosan and to investigate the effect of microencapsulated AITC as a natural additive on the shelf-life and quality of Kimchi. AITC loaded microparticles were prepared using gum Arabic and chitosan and were added to Kimchi at various concentrations (0-0.02%, w/w). The titratable acidity, pH, microbial changes, and sensory test of Kimchi were examined for 15days at different fermentation temperatures (4 and 10°C). The pH of Kimchi containing AITC microparticles was significantly higher than that of control and the higher the quantity of added AITC, the higher the pH became. The titratable acidity of Kimchi increased during storage especially, titratable acidity of control increased significantly higher than those of Kimchi with added AITC microparticles. The number of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus species in Kimchi decreased with an increase in the concentration of AITC. The addition of AITC induced reduction of sour taste and improvement of the texture of Kimchi during fermentation. However, as the content of AITC increased, the scores of overall acceptability decreased due to the odor of AITC. These results indicate that addition of AITC (less than 0.1%) to Kimchi is an effective way of enhancing the shelf-life of Kimchi without reducing quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shelf Life Extension of Maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. Spread Using Sous Vide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ķirse Asnate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous vide packaging on the shelf life of maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. spread. Pea spreads were made of ground re-hydrated cooked maple peas ‘Bruno’ (Pisum sativum var. arvense L., to which salt, citric acid, oil, and spices were added. Pea spread was stored in polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE film pouches, packaged in vacuum and hermetically sealed. Pea spread pouches were heat treated in a water bath, then rapidly cooled in ice-water and stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C. Sous vide was applied in three different heat regimens +(65.0; 80.0 and 100.0 ± 0.5 °C with cooking times 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min at a constant temperature. Total plate count was determined according to ISO 4833-1:2014 on Plate Count Agar and Enterobacteriaceae determination was performed in accordance with ISO 21528-2:2004 on Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar. Total plate count in pea spread without thermal treatment was 3.41 log10 CFU g−1, in all sous vide packaged pea spread samples microbial contamination was significantly lower (p < 0.05. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in any samples. It is possible to extend the shelf life of sous vide maple pea spread up to 14 weeks when stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C.

  18. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, K.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Apea Bah, F.

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D 10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D 10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  19. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  20. Piping analysis for the life extension of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-02-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. One of the most successfully running heavy water plant situated at Kota (Rajasthan) is on the verge of completion of its design life in near future. Heavy Water Plant, Kota is hydrogen sulfide based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and past history of the plant performance, 25 process critical nozzle locations and connected piping systems are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. The static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration is given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where induced stresses (S 1 ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted due to the fact that the corrosion measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. Where it is found that system is getting qualified with reduced corrosion allowance values, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out the analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). Where it is found that the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S 1 ) to the allowable stress (S a ) value, has been taken. If at any location, it is found that the problem of high thermal stress still persists, the

  1. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ)

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCES: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE EXTENSION OF SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Lukinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of high losses of raw materials and products in the food industry is reviewed in the article. Brief lists of spoilage types as well as the available approaches to meat preservation are discussed including technological, physical and chemical. Natural antimicrobial substances are considered as alternative approaches, the existence of which has been known for more than 60 years. Antimicrobial peptides are the evolutionary ancient factor of innate immunity and are found in the cells and tissues of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. Present approaches to their classification, structure and mechanisms of action are discussed. The information from the Antimicrobial Peptide Database and the UniProt Protein Database is systematized in relation to the presence of antimicrobial substances in the tissues of pigs and cattle. Such parameters as the molecular weight, isoelectric point, charge, amino acid sequence and share a hydrophobic part, as well as a range of activities: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, etc. are presented in the article. On the basis of the review, alternative sources of antimicrobial proteins and peptides are proposed as well as technology for shelf life prolonging.

  3. Extension shelf life of batte by using hydrocolloids and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Batte (is baked french one of the most baked coated most prevalent in the markets after the cake wrapping. Batte exposed generally two types of corruption which is occurring phenomenon of (anti-staling and corruption microbial (molds. In this study produced batte with an attempt to prolong the period of its validity by addition 1.5% hydrocolloids, (which is 0.5% sodium alginate, 0.5% k-carrageenan and 0.5% hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC to hard wheat flour 72% (HWF to improve materials for mellowness and anti-staling, whereas batte exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 5 kGy to decrease microbial load. Hydrocolloids at 1.5% improved the rheological properties of dough farinogragh and aextensograph parameters. The hydrocolloids increase flexibility, rubber and freshness of batte to 24 days compared to 8 days in control sample. Thiobarbituric acid (T.B.A values at the end of storage at room temperature (ranged to 0.253–0.352 mg malonaldehyde/kg that were less than these mentioned by the Egyptian Standard. Also, gamma irradiation reduced the total bacterial count of batte product. Sensory evaluation of produced batte was done. The addition of 1.5% hydrocolloids and exposed to gamma irradiation had higher freshness and increase shelf-life for 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days against only 15 days for control sample.

  4. Challenges in the Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plant, Service Life Extension of Operating Ones (Safeguards-Safety-Security Aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA), as the Hungarian nuclear regulator is faced with dual challenges meant by the licensing of the planned construction of two AES-2006 type nuclear power plant units and the licensing of the service life extension of the existing units that have been operating for more than 30 years. The HAEA has full regulatory competence; its mission is to oversee the safety and security of all the peaceful applications of atomic energy. Accordingly, the licensing scope covers safeguards, safety as well as security. The paper shows the current status of the Hungarian nuclear programme and the future plans, as well as summarizes the regulatory approach followed by HAEA. (author)

  5. The life-extension and upgrade program of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) and its research prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, J.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) has been operated for thirty years. It is the regulations of the ROCAEC that any reactor shall be decommissioned after forty-year operation since the first fuel loading. Therefore, for extending the lifetime of THOR, it is necessary to have a life-extension program to be approved by the ROCAEC and also completed by the year of 1997. At the same time, for proceeding new research purposes, it is planed to upgrade the thermal power of THOR from 1 Wth up to 3 Wth and hopefully to reach the maximum thermal neutron flux of 5x10 13 n/cm 2 .s and the fast flux close to that order. New research directions involve (a) boron-captured neutron cancer therapy (BNCT) (b) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). (author)

  6. Long Term Operation R and D to Investigate the Technical Basis for Life Extension and License Renewal Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an improved technical basis for long term operation of existing plants is a nuclear industry priority. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has responded with a comprehensive Long Term Operation (LTO) Program addressing this need for existing nuclear power plants world-wide. The program supports both the business decisions necessary to achieve high performance operation and the licensing requirements for operation beyond 60 years. The program selects its R and D priorities in a structured and objective way with much industry input to provide useful results for decisions in the 2014 to 2019 time frame. The program is highly collaborative with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and with EPRI-member utilities. The R and D portfolio includes materials aging (metals, concrete, and cables), modernization of information and control technology, enhanced safety analysis, advanced fuel design, demonstration plant activities, life cycle management, and identification of aging management program need for subsequent license renewal. The program has focussed stakeholders world-wide on the technical issues of long term operation, and it is on-track to provide practical results for life extension and license renewal decisions. (author)

  7. Mold spoilage of bread and its biopreservation: A review of current strategies for bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-11-02

    Microbial spoilage of bread and the consequent waste problem causes large economic losses for both the bakery industry and the consumer. Furthermore the presence of mycotoxins due to fungal contamination in cereals and cereal products remains a significant issue. The use of conventional chemical preservatives has several drawbacks, necessitating the development of clean-label alternatives. In this review, we describe current research aiming to extend the shelf life of bread through the use of more consumer friendly and ecologically sustainable preservation techniques as alternatives to chemical additives. Studies on the in situ-production/-expression of antifungal compounds are presented, with special attention given to recent developments over the past decade. Sourdough fermented with antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an area of increasing focus and serves as a high-potential biological ingredient to produce gluten-containing and gluten-free breads with improved nutritional value, quality and safety due to shelf-life extension, and is in-line with consumer's demands for more products containing less additives. Other alternative biopreservation techniques include the utilization of antifungal peptides, ethanol and plant extracts. These can be added to bread formulations or incorporated in antimicrobial films for active packaging (AP) of bread. This review outlines recent progress that has been made in the area of bread biopreservation and future perspectives in this important area.

  8. Effects of electron beam irradiation combined with hot water immersion treatment for shelf life extension of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russly Abdul Rahman

    1996-01-01

    A study of the effects of minimal processing treatments, both individually or in combinations, was carried out in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the quality of bananas. Pre climacteric bananas at light full three-quarter grade, were either treated with hot water immersion for 1-30 min at 45-55 degree C, or irradiated with electron beams (2.0 MeV, Van de Graaff accelerator), to a dose of 0.1-1.5 kGy. All fruit was stored at 21 ± 1 degree C and relative humidity of 85-95 %. There was no significant delay in ripening of fruit treated with hot water immersion at the above temperatures. Some damage to fruit particularly peel scalding at ends occurred at the higher temperatures (>50 degree C). The 50 degree C, 5 minutes immersion was selected for further study. Irradiation to 0.1-0.3 kGy delayed the ripening (up to 3 days) without affecting fruit quality. Doses greater than 0.4 kGy resulted in extensive discoloration and fruit splitting. No significant differences could be detected organoleptically between bananas irradiated at 0.15 kGy and the control. Results of the physico-chemical attributes of the bananas were reported for fruits at colour stage 5 and after 10 and 15 days of storage. The combination treatment of hot water immersion and irradiation at the above settings further extended the shelf life of the banana fruits

  9. Combined effect of antimicrobial coating and gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S.F.; Lacroix, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation and antimicrobial coating on the shelf life of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.). Antimicrobial coatings were obtained by incorporating various concentrations of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde in coating formulations prepared from soy or whey protein isolates. Coated shrimps were stored at 4±1°C under aerobic conditions and were periodically evaluated for aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Pseudomonas putida. Sensory evaluations were performed for appearance, odor, and taste using a hedonic test. Results showed that gamma irradiation and coating treatments had synergistic effects (p < = 0.05) in reducing the APCs and P. putida with at least a 12-day extension of shelf life. Without irradiation, the inhibitory effects of the coating solutions were closely related to the concentration of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde. No detrimental effects of gamma irradiation on organoleptic parameters (appearance, odor, and taste) were observed. However, incorporation of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced the acceptability scores for taste and odor

  10. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-04-16

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h.

  12. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical properties of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and its quarantine treatment and shelf-life extension using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Parte, Madan Narayan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and dip treatment on shelf life extension of two major cultivars of litchi namely, Shahi, and China was studied for improving market availability of the fruit and to overcome quarantine barrier for international trade. An extension in shelf life up to 28 days was achieved at 4 deg C, whereas, control fruits last around 10 days at 4 deg C. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters such as moisture content, acidity (pH), total soluble solid, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C content, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, browning associated enzymatic activities, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied during the storage period. It was observed that low dose of gamma radiation did not affect significantly any of these parameters. Further, a novel combination dip treatment was developed which resulted in shelf life extension up to 60 days with complete inhibition of pericarp browning. (author)

  13. Effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force: A preliminary cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Mostafa, Aisha Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    This cross over study aimed to evaluate the effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with complete maxillary edentulism and partially edentulous mandibles with anterior teeth only remaining were selected for this cross over study. All patients received complete maxillary dentures and mandibular partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP, control). After 3 months of adaptation, PRDP was replaced with conventional telescopic partial dentures (TPD) or telescopic partial dentures with cantilevered extensions (TCPD) in a quasi-random method. Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using OHIP-14 questionnaire and Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses; PRDP, TPD, and TCPD. TCPD showed the OHIP-14 lowest scores (i.e., the highest patient satisfaction with their OHRQoL), followed by TPD, and PRDP showed the highest OHIP-14 scores (i.e., the lowest patient satisfaction with OHRQoL). TCPD showed the highest MBF (70.7 ± 3.71), followed by TPD (57.4 ± 3.43) and the lowest MBF (40.2 ± 2.20) was noted with PRDP. WITHIN The Limitations of This Study, Mandibular Telescopic Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures with Cantilevered Extensions Were Associated with Improved Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Maximum Bite Force Compared to Telescopic or Conventional PRDP. Telescopic distal extension removable prostheses is an esthetic restoration in partially edentulous patients with free end saddle. This article describes the addition of cantilevered extensions of this prosthesis. The results showed that telescopic distal extension removable prostheses with cantilevered extensions were associated with improved oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force compared to telescopic or conventional RPDs

  14. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  15. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre

    2007-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  16. An application of modulated poisson processes to aging evaluation for the extension of qualified life of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da Cruz

    2003-03-01

    The modulated power law process (MPLP) is a three-parameter stochastic point process model that can be used to describe the failures time of reparable systems. While the power law process implies that a system is exactly on the same condition just after a repair as just before a failure, the MPLP allows for the system to be affected both by failure and repair. For this reason this model is adequate for evaluating the recurrent events that incorporate both time trends and effects of past events such as the renewal type behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MPLP as a model for the rate of occurrence of failures of a repairable system to decide for an extension of qualified life in the context of licence renewal of a nuclear power plant. Standard statistical techniques, such as the maximum likelihood and linear regression models, are applied to estimate parameters of the MPLP. As a conclusion of the study, the MPLP is adequate for modelling rate of occurrence of failures that are time dependent, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in the operation of repairable systems. (author)

  17. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J

    2006-01-01

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  18. Plant condition assessments as a requirement before major investment in life extension for a CANDU nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubray, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since, to extend the life of a CANDU-6 reactor beyond its original design life requires the replacement of reactor components (380 pressure and calandria tubes), a major investment will have to be done. After a preliminary technical and economical feasibility study, Hydro- Quebec, owner of the Gentilly-2 NPP, has decided to perform a more detailed assessment to: 1. Get assurance that it is technically and economically viable to extend Gentilly-2 for another 20 years beyond the original design life; 2. Identify the detailed work to be done during the refurbishment period planned in 2008-2009; 3. Define the overall cost and the general schedule of the refurbishment phase; 4. Ensure an adequate licensing strategy to restart after refurbishment; 5. Complete all the Environmental Impact Studies required to obtain the government authorizations. The business case to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2 has to take in consideration the reactor core components, which will be the major work to be completed during refurbishment. In summary the following main component will have to be changed or refreshed: The pressure and calandria tubes and the feeders (partial replacement only) (ageing mechanisms); The control computers (obsolescence); The condenser tubes (tubes plugging); The turbine control and electric-governor (obsolescence). An extensive campaign is under way to assess the 'health' of the station systems, structures and components (SSC). Two processes have been used for this assessment: Plant Life Management Studies (PLIM) for approximately 10 critical SSC or families of SSC (PLIM Studies); Condition Assessment Studies for other SSC with a lower impact on the Plant production or safety). The PLIM Studies are done on SSC's, which were judged critical because they are not replaceable (Reactor Building, Calandria), or that their failure could have a significant impact on safety or production (electrical motors, majors pumps, heat exchangers and pressure

  19. Application of the Combined Cycle LWR-Gas Turbine to PWR for NPP Life Extension Safety Upgrade and Improving Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, some of the most important problem for the nuclear industry are life extension, advance competitiveness and safety of aging LWR NPPs. Based on results of studies performed in the USA (Battelle Memorial Institute) and in Russia (NIKIET), a new power technology, using a combined cycle gas-turbine facility CCGT - LWR, so called TD-Cycle, can significantly help in resolution of some problems of nuclear power industry. The nuclear steam and gas topping cycle is used for re-powering a light water pressurized reactor of PWR or VVER type. An existing NPP is topped with a gas turbine facility with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generating steam from waste heat. The superheated steam of high pressure (P=90-165 bar, T=500-550 C) generated in the HRSG, is expanded in a high pressure (HP) turbine for producing electricity. The HP turbine can work on one shaft with the the gas turbine or at one shaft with intermediate (IP) or low (LP) pressure parts of the main nuclear steam turbine, or with a separate electric generator. The exhausted steam from the HP turbine is injected into the steam mixer where it is mixed with the saturated steam from the NPP steam generator (SG). The mixer is intended to superheat the main nuclear steam and should be characterized by minimum losses during mixing superheated and saturated steam. Steam from the mixer superheated by 20-60 C directs to the existing IP turbine, and then, through a separator-reheater flows into the LP turbine. Feed water re-heaters of LP and HP are actually unchanged in this case. Feed water extraction to the HRSG is supplied after one of LP water heaters. This proposal is intended to re-power existing LWR NPPs. To minimize cost, the IP and LP turbines and electric generator would remain the same. The reactor thermal power and fast neutron flux to the reactor vessel would decrease by 30-50 percent of nominal values. The external peripheral row of fuel elements can be replaced with metal absorber rods to

  20. The Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services: A Legacy of Excellence and Access to Life-long Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahming-Nwosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A review of the history and evolution of the Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services and the various programmes it has developed to support the work of the College of The Bahamas.

  1. Food irradiation and its role in shelf life extension of horticulture produce: a comprehensive evaluation of studies carried out in India and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, J.; Gautam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food irradiation is the process of treating foods to a controlled source of ionizing radiation, to reduce post-harvest losses and ensure its safety. With respect to horticulture produce, the role of food irradiation has been well established to fulfill the phytosanitary requirement of the importing countries and also to ensure food safety in certain commodities. Still for establishing its relevance in extending the shelf-life of horticulture produce, substantial scientific inputs are required. Our objective was therefore to summarize in brief the research findings where role of radiation processing in shelf-life extension of horticulture produce has been addressed. Low dose (0.1 kGy) of γ-radiation resulted in sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, thus prolonging their storage life upto 4 months at 11-12℃. Radiation processing also delayed ripening process in the climacteric fruits by a week upto one month depending on the cultivars and stored condition. Shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was extended up to 10-15 days by γ-radiation treatment of 2-3 kGy and storage at 10±2℃ . A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10℃ storage temperature increased the shelf life of peeled ginger samples upto 70 days. Irradiation of guava fruits with 0.1 kGy γ-radiation increased its post harvest life by 8 days. Shelf-life of Litchi was increased upto 28 days by radiation treatment at 0.5 kGy and subsequent low temperature storage. Shelf-life of leafy vegetables increased upto 20 days by a combination process including γ-radiation (Khade, et.al., unpublished data). Electron beam irradiation (2 kGy) extended shelf-life of fresh strawberry fruits upto 4 day. Apples irradiated at 0.2-0.4 kGy showed improved quality upto 3 months of storage. Shelled sweet corn kernels treated with combination process including γ-radiation (5 kGy) treatment showed prolonged shelf-life of 30 days at 4℃ (Kumar S. et.al., unpublished data). In recent study conducted by us on shelf life

  2. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  3. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-09-15

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  4. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification; Analisis del metodo de extension y reduccion de vida calificada utilizado en equipo con calificacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M.L. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)].e -mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  5. Optimization of Life Cycle Extension of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures in regard to Material Properties, Structural Design, and Economic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of ACM life cycle is defined with respect to traffic load acting on the pavement and road class for a period of about 20 years. In practice, reconstruction is usually pending until the end of the life cycle after which the reconstruction takes place and the original materials are replaced by new materials. Life cycle of the pavement construction in road structure is significantly longer than that of the ACM; it is therefore necessary to consider ACM from a long term viewpoint, that is, exceeding their life expectancy. This paper describes a methodology which consists of analytical calculations, experimental measurements, and optimization of the ACM life cycle with the use of a rehabilitation action to provide new physical properties of pavement surfacing in different periods of the original life cycle. The aim is to attain maximal economic effectiveness, by minimizing financial costs for rehabilitation and maintenance and economic costs of road user. Presented method allows deriving optimal life cycle from various rehabilitation alternatives for particular ACM with the fact that all the necessary parameters are derived from specific experimental measurements and calculations. The method is applicable to all types of ACM materials; however, for each material, it is necessary to carry out the necessary measurements and tests. The article describes the methodology and case study results for a particular type of ACM material.

  6. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1%

  7. Shelf-life extension of packed mushroom (Agaricus sp.) by a combination of gamma radiation and low temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Gamma irradiation to a dose of 2 kGy coupled with storage at 10 degC was found to provide 2-3 fold enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushrooms with reduced energy requirement for storage. The study shows possible commercial application of this technology. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  9. Life satisfaction in patients with and without spinal cord ischemia after advanced endovascular therapy for extensive aortic disease at mid-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Irma; Santén, Stefan; Jörgensen, Sophie; Acosta, Stefan

    2016-11-11

    Advanced endovascular aortic repair can be used to treat patients with extensive and complex aortic disease who are at risk of spinal cord ischaemia. The aim of this study was to compare whether life satisfaction differs between patients with and without spinal cord ischaemia at mid-term follow-up. Nested case-control study. Among patients undergoing advanced endovascular aortic repair between 2009 and 2012, 18 patients with spinal cord ischaemia and 33 without were interviewed at home. The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) were used. LiSat-11 found that patients with spinal cord ischaemia were more dissatisfied with their activities of daily living than were patients without spinal cord ischaemia (p=0.012). Both groups had similar, very low, scores in the sexual life domain; median 2.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.5-3.0) and 3.0 (IQR 2.0-4.0), respectively. There was no difference in SWLS between the groups. This study cohort of patients who underwent advanced endovascular aortic repair was rather homo-genous in their rating of life satisfaction and there was little difference between mid-term survivors who had spinal cord ischaemia and those who did not.

  10. Evaluation of long term health-related quality of life in extensive burns: a 12-year experience in a burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-chu; Zhu, Shi-hui; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate the long term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients survived severely extensive burn and identify their clinical predicting factors correlated with HRQOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 patients survived more than 2 years with extensive burn involving ≥70% total body surface area (TBSA) between 1997 and 2009 in a burn center in Shanghai. Short Form-36 Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36), Brief Version of Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) were used for the present evaluation. SF-36 scores were compared with a healthy Chinese population, and linear correlation analysis was performed to screen the clinical relating factors predicting physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from SF-36. HRQOL scores from SF-36 were significantly lower in the domains of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, pain, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems compared with population norms. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that only return to work (RTW) predicted improved PCS. While age at injury, facial burns, skin grafting and length of hospital stay were correlated with MCS. Work, body image and heat sensitivity obtained the lowest BSHS-B scores in all 9 domains. Improvements of HRQOL could still be seen in BSHS-B scores in domains of simple abilities, hand function, work and affect even after a quite long interval between burns and testing. Hand function of extensive burn patients obtained relatively poor MHQ scores, especially in those without RTW. Patients with extensive burns have a poorer quality of life compared with that of general population. Relatively poor physical and psychological problems still exist even after a long period. Meanwhile, a trend of gradual improvements was noted. This information will aid clinicians in decision-making of comprehensive systematic regimens for long term rehabilitation

  11. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Investigation of the methods of extension of useful life of nanofiltration membranes in washing water regenerating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I V; Krivobok, S M; Maksimov, E D

    2000-01-01

    Transport and selective characteristics of Russian nanofiltration membranes OPMN-K were investigated in order to find approaches to extend useful life of the membranes and, therefore, of the nanofiltration assembly and the washing water regenerating system at large. Hygienic cleansing agents as washing water ingredients pollute but not irreversibly impair the membranes. Flushing of membranes after regeneration of various model detergents was shown to recover the membrane permeability virtually up to original level.

  13. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  14. The role of food irradiation in terms of value addition and extension of shelf life of agri. materials (from FARM to Consumer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today, with the advent of modern processing techniques in the area of value addition to agri resources, food irradiation has made a big dent in terms of extension of shelf life and confidence of making the food free from microbial and other contaminants and need to be really harnessed more than what we are doing. However, there is still certain amount of stigma attached to this technology not because the technology is un-ripe but it is because of lack of awareness with the masses as regards to the safety of the foods that are processed by irradiation

  15. Effects of combination treatments of radiation and salt on the shelf life extension of hilsha fish (Hilsa ilisha) at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.M.; Alam, M.Z.; Karim, A.; Rashid, H.; Khan, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were made on the application of combination treatments of radiation with common salt at the doses of 50, 100 and 150 krad on the shelflife extension of hilsha fish slices at 5 deg. C. Quality assessments were made by chemical, bacteriological and sensory evaluations. The storage life of control samples of the same storage temperature was about 3 weeks, whereas salted samples treated with 100 Krad were acceptable up to 9 weeks. Results of bacteriological tests agreed well with sensory panel evaluations but chemical parameters such as TVB and TMA were not suitable index for quality assessment of irradiated salted fish samples

  16. Antimicrobial effect and shelf-life extension by combined thermal and pulsed electric field treatment of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Noci, F; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a combined hurdle treatment of heat and pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied on native microbiota used for the inoculation of low-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and whole raw milk. Microbiological shelf-life of the latter following hurdle treatment or thermal pasteurization was also investigated. UHT milk was preheated to 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C or 50 degrees C over a 60-s period, pulsed for 50 micros or 60 micros at a field strength of 40 kV cm(-1) or for 33 micros at 50 kV cm(-1). Heat and PEF reduced the microbial count by a maximum of 6.4 log in UHT milk (50 degrees C; 50 kV cm(-1), 33 micros) compared to 6.0 log (P > or = 0.05) obtained by thermal pasteurization (26 s, 72 degrees C). When raw milk was treated with a combination of hurdles (50 degrees C; 40 kV cm(-1), 60 micros) a 6.0 log inactivation of microbiota was achieved and microbiological milk shelf-life was extended to 21 days under refrigeration (4 degrees C) vs 14 days in thermally pasteurized milk. Native microbiota was decreased by 6.7 log following conventional pasteurization. The findings suggest that heat and PEF achieved similar inactivation of native microbiota in milk and longer stabilization of microbiological shelf-life than thermal pasteurization. A hurdle approach of heat and PEF could represent a valid milk processing alternative to conventional pasteurization. Hurdle treatment might also preserve native milk quality better due to less thermal exposure.

  17. Shelf-life extension of fresh Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum truffles by modified atmosphere packaging with microperforated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Salvador, María Luisa; Venturini, María Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to design a modified atmosphere packaging suitable for Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum truffles that extend their shelf life and their availability as a fresh product. Their respiration rates were determined by O(2) depletion and CO(2) formation in closed systems performed at different temperatures: 4, 10, and 23 degrees C. The results were fitted by exponential equations and derivatives of these equations were used to obtain the experimental respiration rates. Our results revealed high respiration rates in both species of truffles and respiratory quotients (RQ) higher than 1 in all the cases studied. A linear dependence of respiration rate, both R(O2) and R(CO2), on O(2) concentration was revealed. A mathematical model was used to predict the evolution of the gaseous composition at 4 degrees C in the interior of polypropylene trays (250 mL) heat sealed with 4 microperforated films of different transmission rates. A microperforated film with 2 holes (90 x 50 microm) was selected to produce an internal atmosphere of 15%CO(2)/7%O(2) at 4 degrees C. The predicted atmosphere composition was confirmed by the experimental results. The quality and microbiological characteristics of fresh truffles, packaged in these conditions, revealed that the microbial counts of pseudomonads and Enterobacteriaceae were decreased, the weight loss was reduced, the typical hard texture was maintained, and the development of mycelium growth was delayed, enabling good scores for aroma and flavor, and therefore prolonging the shelf life of T. melanosporum and T. aestivum truffles to 28 and 21 d, respectively. Practical Application: This study describes the benefits of using MAP with microperforated films in the postharvest storage of Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum fresh truffles. The shelf life of T. aestivum is prolonged to 21 d and of T. melanosporum to beyond 28 d increasing the possibilities for a foreign market.

  18. Extension of shelf-life of iced fresh channel catfish fillets using modified atmospheric packaging and low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, L.A.; Finerty, M.W.; Grodner, R.M.; Gerdes, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Fresh iced catfish fillets, processed with low dose irradiation (50-100 krad) in combination with modified atmosphere packaging were sampled every 10 days during 30-day storage period and analyzed for microbial load, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid values (TBA) as indices of change in quality. No difference was observed between microbial counts of packages flushed with elevated carbon dioxide atmospheres (80:20 CO 2 /air, 100% CO 2 ) and controls flushed with 100% air. Therefore, irradiation treatments with or without elevated carbon dioxide-modified atmospheric packaging significantly reduced the bacterial load and extended shelf-life from 5 to 7 days to between 20 and 30 days

  19. Development of a model to compute the extension of life supporting zones for Earth-like exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, David; Vrtala, Aron; Leitner, Johannes J; Firneis, Maria G; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2011-12-01

    A radiative convective model to calculate the width and the location of the life supporting zone (LSZ) for different, alternative solvents (i.e. other than water) is presented. This model can be applied to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in the solar system as well as (hypothetical, Earth-like) terrestrial exoplanets. Cloud droplet formation and growth are investigated using a cloud parcel model. Clouds can be incorporated into the radiative transfer calculations. Test runs for Earth, Mars and Titan show a good agreement of model results with observations.

  20. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  1. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on shellstock oysters. Extension of shelf-life and reduction in bacterial numbers, with particular reference to Vibrio vulnificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Rodrick, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    Shellstock oysters from Apalachicola Bay, Florida, United States of America, were irradiated at the nation's first commercial food irradiator, Vindicator, Inc. in Mulberry, Florida, with four doses, and analysed for their shelf-life and bacterial levels. A 2-3 log cycle reduction in bacterial numbers was observed at all the doses immediately after irradiation. The shelf-life was limited in that the D 50 values were found to be 30, 25, 7 and 6 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. The D 20 values were calculated as 17, 9, 4 and 4 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Even though the bacterial numbers were significantly lower in the irradiated oysters, the shelf-life was reduced markedly at doses higher than 1 kGy. The irradiated shellstock did not demonstrate any extension in shelf-life, above that of the non-irradiated controls; in fact, they experienced a reduction in shelf-life and there was a growing back of the surviving organisms, which reached levels that were higher than those observed in the controls. Vibrio vulnificus demonstrated high radiosensitivity, with D 10 values of 0.062 and 0.037 kGy for the virulent and avirulent forms, respectively. Preliminary data indicate that the viable but non-culturable form of V. vulnificus is more radioresistant than the corresponding viable and culturable forms, but this needs further elucidation. Also, current research is directed at analysing the effects of the shell to meat ratio of the oysters, and how this affects their radioresistance. Furthermore, oysters from different locations have different shell to meat weight ratios, and this can influence the efficiency of radiation treatment. (author)

  4. Quality changes and shelf-life extension of ready-to-eat fish patties by adding encapsulated citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Claret, Anna; Stamatakis, Antonios; Martínez, Brigitte; Guerrero, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid is commonly used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages. The effect of adding citric acid directly or encapsulated (each at 1 and 2 g kg -1 ) on the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat sea bass patties was evaluated during storage at 4 °C in vacuum skin packaging. Microbial growth and total basic volatile nitrogen were maintained at relatively low levels up to 8 weeks of storage. With respect to oxidative stability, the addition of encapsulated citric acid minimized secondary oxidation values more efficiently than its direct addition, regardless of the concentration. This is in agreement with the decreased fishy odor observed in those patties containing encapsulated citric acid. Accordingly, sensory analysis showed that the addition of encapsulated citric acid at 1 g kg -1 resulted in lower scores in fish aroma compared to that of the control. Sourness is dependent on the amount of citric acid added, regardless of the form (direct or encapsulated). The form of citric acid addition, rather than the amount of citric acid added, caused changes in texture. Therefore, the use of encapsulated citric acid represents a suitable strategy that is of great interest in the seafood industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Mehyou, A.

    1999-11-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO 2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  6. Postharvest shelf-life extension of pink guavas (Psidium guajava L.) using HPMC-based edible surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava L. var. 'Lalit' is a perishable fruit with delicate skin which is prone to damage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating made up of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and palm oil on ripening of guava. Coating solution was applied over fruits and coated fruits were stored at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5%RH. Changes in fruit colour, texture softening, respiration rate, weight loss, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids, titrable acidity, chlorophyll content, total reducing sugars, total phenolic content were studied during post-harvest ripening. Fruits coated with 1 % of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and 0.3 % of palm oil showed significant delay in weight loss, fruit firmness as well as colour change (p < 0.05). Coating delayed the enzyme activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase of the fruit. Results suggest that overall quality of coated fruit was maintained by edible coating formulation extending the shelf life of fruit up to 12 days with appreciable retention of all quality parameters tested.

  7. Microcapsules biologically prepared using Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. essential oil and their use for extension of fruit shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hui-Zhen; Cui, Li-Xia; He, Dong-Liang

    2018-02-01

    Perilla essential oil (EO) possesses high antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities, and has proven to be more reliable than chemically synthesized food preservatives. Nevertheless, EOs have disadvantages of facile photo-degradation and oxidation, which limit their use in agriculture and food industries. Microencapsulation technology that generates a polymeric coating surrounding EOs could overcome these disadvantages. The EO concentration had a significant effect on encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC). The best encapsulation conditions were obtained with 2% v/v EO, for which EE and LC were 57% and 36%, respectively. EO-loaded microspheres exhibited a crimped surface with phanic lumps by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal stability experiments revealed droplets that began to decompose sharply at 108 °C, with a 61% weight, loss, which was much lower than EOs of 98%. EO-loaded microcapsules demonstrated good antibacterial activity. Strawberry preservation studies showed that EO-loaded microcapsules could significantly inhibit strawberry decay, maintain the quality of strawberries and prolong shelf life. Perilla EO-loaded microcapsules were successfully prepared by ionic gelation and were effective at inhibiting several bacterial strains. EO-alginate microcapsules could effectively delay the volatilization of EO. Perilla EO-loaded microcapsules therefore have potential for use as an antimicrobial and preservative agent in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Studies on sprout inhibition of potatoes and onions and shelf-life extensions of dates in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Small scale experiments were carried out with onions and potatoes to examine the effect of gamma irradiation on sprout inhibition under different storage conditions. Doses of 15 to 20 krad caused some physical damage to potatoes stored in an incubator at 4 to 10 0 C and 40 to 70% relative humidity. This damage was also observed when potatoes have been stored at room temperature. Sprouting appeared after 30 to 60 days storage. The best results were obtained when a dose of 10 to 12 krad was used. Studies on onions irradiated and stored at room temperature for ten months showed that 6 to 9 krad gave the best results, extending the storage for 10 months. No sprouting could be detected throughout the storage period. Shelf-life and organoleptic study was done on four varieties of Iraqi dates at different stages of development. The results showed that the eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation up to 270 krad and the duration of softening process (after-ripening) of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10 to 90 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. (author)

  9. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Life extension activities and modernization strategies for instrumentation ampersand control systems of research and power reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaganty, S.P.; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    Based on three and half decades of experience gained in the operation and maintenance of Instrumentation and Control Systems of nuclear reactors in India, specific investigations were made to understand various aspects of aging. The analysis of the failure rates of various instruments, plant outage figures and obsolescence of components have necessitated the replacement of instrumentation to improve the reliability and performance. The aging models available were used to determine the extent of performance degradation and to formulate maintenance strategies. The nuclear instrumentation of the aging research reactors at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been replaced with high reliability equipment using modern integrated circuits. This has resulted in an improvement in the mean time between failure (MTBF) by a factor of five. The neutronic instrumentation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Madras is currently being upgraded with the introduction of microprocessor based safety units for reactivity computation and online testing of safety logic with Fine Impulse Technique. The operating experience has also indicated the necessity of developing online surveillance methods and status monitoring of various systems to detect aging. Online cable insulation measurement technique and noise analysis methods for vibration monitoring have been developed. Campbell method of signal processing has been successfully used in extending the useful life of Local Power Range monitors in the Boiling Water Reactor at Tarapur. In order to improve reliability, accuracy and provide efficient man machine interface, microprocessor based systems with online testing features have been installed in power reactors. These include the high performance reactor regulating system and centralised radiation monitoring systems commissioned at Kakrapara power station. The paper describes the above systems and the modernization strategies for nuclear instrumentation and control

  11. United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Kona, Ravikanth; Faustino, Patrick J; Gupta, Abhay; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Khan, Mansoor

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD)-United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shelf-life extension program (SLEP) was established in 1986 through an intra-agency agreement between the DoD and the FDA to extend the shelf life of product nearing expiry. During the early stages of development, special attention was paid to program operation, labeling requirements, and the cost benefits associated with this program. In addition to the substantial cost benefits, the program also provides the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research with significant scientific understanding and pharmaceutical resource. As a result of this unique resource, numerous regulatory research opportunities to improve public health present themselves from this distinctive scientific database, which includes examples of products shelf life, their long-term stability issues, and various physical and chemical tests to identify such failures. The database also serves as a scientific resource for mechanistic understanding and identification of test failures leading to the development of new formulations or more robust packaging. It has been recognized that SLEP is very important in maintaining both national security and public welfare by confirming that the stockpiled pharmaceutical products meet quality standards after the "expiration date" assigned by the sponsor. SLEP research is an example of regulatory science that is needed to best ensure product performance past the original shelf life. The objective of this article is to provide a brief history and background and most importantly the public health benefits of the SLEP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Experience of the metal condition examination after 200 thousand hours of operation in view of an opportunity of service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.; Bakirov, M.; Kamyshnikov, O.; Potapov, V.; Ivanenko, I.; Frolov, I.; Zabruskov, N.

    2002-01-01

    In the report the methods and technologies for non-destructive testing of mechanical properties are considered, used by the VNIIAES for the examination of metal condition of elements after 200 thousand hours of operation and within the Program for Life Extension of the units 3 and 4 of the Novo Voronezh NPP and units 1 and 2 of the Kola NPP. The results of the experimental investigations od metal of piping and components by destructive and specimen-free non-destructive methods with the purpose to assess the variation of physical and mechanical properties of steel during extended period after long-term operation are also discussed. The results of the non-destructive analysis allow to expand essentially the scope of examined elements and to obtain data for the assessment of the technical condition and the residual lifetime of piping and components and the investigated units

  13. Safety reassessment and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.

    1992-12-01

    The safety reassessment policy implemented in France is a means of ensuring that no important point has been overlooked in the continuous safety reassessment process constituted by the integration of operating feedback. It also provides an opportunity for reappraisal of the basic design of a plant and examination of discrepancies between the safety options prevailing when it was built and those currently adopted. After a ten-year operating period, safety reassessment should enable identification of aging effects on structures and equipment, leading to improvement of component servicing and surveillance programs and provision for replacements which could be necessary

  14. Aging management and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, John; Deng, Daniel; Tai, Tom M.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the present electric generating capacity in the United States is supplied by nuclear power plants and may be retired due to initial license expiration between the years 2002 and 2030. One of the recommended actions for implementing the National Energy Strategy (Bill H.R. 776) is license renewal of currently operating nuclear power plants which DOE has estimated would save between $800 million and $1 billion in avoided new construction costs - and represent a nationwide benefit of as much as $350 billion - assuming the licenses are renewed for 20 years. The U.S. Atomic Energy Act of 1954 limits the duration of operating licenses of nuclear power plants to a maximum of 40 years but permits their renewal. And, although Title 10, Part 50.51 of Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR50.51) permitted license renewal, it provided no standards or procedures for renewal applications. License renewal requirements were established on January 13, 1992 when NRC's Final Rule (10 CFR Part 54) went into effect. The Final rule established the requirements that an applicant for license renewal must meet, the information that must be submitted to the NRC for review. This involves the performance of an Integrated Plant Assessment (IPA) which is designed to ensure that the effects of aging on important equipment will be adequately managed during the renewal term. The issuance of 10 CFR Part 54 established the regulatory and legal requirements for license renewal. The technical basis for, or viability of, license renewal has been explored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The NRC as well as industry organizations such as EPRI have studied aging effects for close to two decades. The NRC's research program on plant aging degradation, which began formally in the early 1980s, is a comprehensive effort for the understanding and management of age-related degradation in safety-related systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and has contributed to the technical and regulatory bases for license renewal rulemaking. Research results have shown that many identified aging phenomena do not pose technical safety issues provided that plant systems, structures, and components are effectively managed through surveillance, inspection, testing, maintenance, repair, and replacement. (author)

  15. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A.; Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  16. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  18. The mitochondrial plasmid pAL2-1 reduces calorie restriction mediated life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Boer, de H.J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Calorie restriction is the only life span extending regimen known that applies to all aging organisms. Although most fungi do not appear to senesce, all natural isolates of the modular filamentous fungus Podospora anserina have a limited life span. In this paper, we show that calorie restriction

  19. Is there life after Buckley's formocresol? Part II - Development of a protocol for the management of extensive caries in the primary molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, C L; Srinivasan, V; Waterhouse, P J

    2006-05-01

    To produce a working clinical protocol for pulp therapy techniques in the extensively carious primary molar. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to human beings. As such, a medicament that can be used to replace formocresol in clinical practice should be identified. Part I of this paper explored the currently available alternative interventions and materials to formocresol in the form of a narrative review following an extensive literature search. Part II now presents the formation of a specialist group to establish an evidence-based protocol, for the management of the extensively carious primary molar. A protocol and key points document have been developed to assist clinicians in their treatment planning. Areas for further postgraduate training are identified.

  20. Aumento da vida útil e microbiologia da carne suína embalada em atmosfera modificada Shelf life extension and microbiology of pork meat packaged in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Borges Mano

    2002-01-01

    with either 1.0 L of air (100%, nitrogen (100%, 20/80 or 40/60 CO2/O2 and finally sealed. Samples were subdivided into two batches and stored in walk-in cold rooms at 1 and 7ºC. Samples were taken at different days of storage and pH and gas concentration (CO2/O2/N2 were determined. Likewise, total viable, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas were counted. Bacterial growth parameters were assessed using Gompertz equations. As expected, modified atmosphere packaging extended the pork meat shelf life. However, modified atmospheres enriched with CO2 and at 1ºC showed a greater effectiveness. The samples conserved in MAP enriched in CO2, as much to 7 as to 1ºC, maintained the constant pH during the period of storage. At 1 and 7ºC the lag phases and the duplication times of the total microbiota were progressively larger in the following order: air (100%, N2 (100%, 20/80 and 40/60 CO2/O2. In accordance with the results, it can be concluded that, by as much to 1 as to 7ºC, the use of the modified atmospheres slowed the growth of the spoilage bacteria of pork meat, favoring the extension of the useful life, mainly in the MAP enriched with CO2.

  1. SOD isoforms play no role in lifespan in ad lib or dietary restricted conditions, but mutational inactivation of SOD-1 reduces life extension by cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kelvin; Patel, Harshil B; Lublin, Alex L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2009-03-01

    The free radical theory of aging is one of the most prominent theories of aging and senescence, but has yet to be definitively proven. If free radicals are the cause of senescence, then the cellular anti-oxidant system should play a large role in lifespan determination. Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a central role in detoxifying superoxide radicals, we have examined the effects of mutational inactivation of each isoform of sod on normal lifespan and lifespan extension by dietary restriction (DR) or cold-/hypothermic-induced longevity (CHIL). We find no significant decrease in lifespan for control worms or worms undergoing DR when sod isoforms are knocked-out even though sod mutational inactivation produces hypersensitivity to paraquat. In contrast, sod-1 inactivation significantly reduces lifespan extension by CHIL, suggesting that CHIL requires a specific genetic program beyond simple reduction in metabolic rate. Furthermore, CHIL paradoxically increases lifespan while reducing resistance to oxidative stress, further disassociating oxidative stress resistance and lifespan.

  2. Shelf-life extension of preservative-free hydrated feed using gamma pasteurization and its effect on growth performance of eel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Minho; Song, Duseop; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish by increasing the efficiency of digestion. However, the shelf-life of HF is a concern due to its relatively higher water content. In this study, radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. Preservative-free HF containing 25% moisture was gamma-irradiated and its microbiological and nutritional properties evaluated in addition to a practical feeding trial carried out using eel. The viable counts of bacteria and fungi in HF were 10 6 and 10 4 CFU/g, respectively. All coliform bacteria and yeast in HF were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy, and total aerobic bacteria were eliminated at 10 kGy. The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. The nutritional composition of HF was stable up to 10 kGy of irradiation. Based on a feeding trial, it was proven that eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed. - Highlights: ► Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish but shelf-life is a concern. ► Radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. ► The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. ► Eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed in feeding trial.

  3. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  4. Microbiological stabilization of tiger nuts' milk beverage using ultra-high pressure homogenization. A preliminary study on microbial shelf-life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina-Torrella, I; Guamis, B; Zamora, A; Quevedo, J M; Trujillo, A J

    2018-02-01

    Tiger nuts' milk beverages are highly perishable products. For this reason, the interest of food industry for their commercialization makes necessary the application of preservation treatments to prolong their shelf-life. In the current study, the effect of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) on the microbiological and sensory qualities of tiger nuts' milk beverage was evaluated. Characteristics of UHPH-treated products (at 200 and 300 MPa, with inlet temperature of 40 °C) were compared with those of raw (RP) and conventionally homogenized-pasteurized (H-P) beverages, after treatment and during cold storage at 4 °C. Microbiological quality of beverages was studied by enumerating total counts, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactobacilli, enterobacteria, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic spores. Evolution of color and sensory characteristics of beverages were also determined. Microbiological shelf-life of the tiger nuts' milk beverages was extended from 3 to 25, 30 and 57 days by applying H-P and UHPH treatments at 200 and 300 MPa, respectively. Color of beverages was the only attribute that differentiated UHPH samples from the others, with greater luminosity and whiteness. Hence, UHPH treatments showed to be an alternative to the conventional H-P for obtaining tiger nuts' milk beverages with an improved microbiological shelf-life and good sensorial characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shelf-life extension of semi-dried buckwheat noodles by the combination of aqueous ozone treatment and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yi-Peng; Guo, Xiao-Nao; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-12-15

    The present study investigated the combined effects of aqueous ozone treatment and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on prolonging the shelf-life of semi-dried buckwheat noodles [SBWN; moisture content (22.5±0.5%)] at 25°C. Firstly, the different concentrations of ozonated water were used to make SBWN. Subsequently, SBWN prepared with ozonated water were packaged under six different conditions and stored for 11days. Changes in microbial, chemical-physical, textural properties and sensorial qualities of SWBN were monitored during storage. Microbiological results indicated that adopting 2.21mg/L of ozonated water resulted in a 1.8 log 10 CFU/g reduction of the initial microbial loads in SBWN. In addition, MAP suppressed the microbial growth with a concomitant reduction in the rates of acidification and quality deteriorations of SBWN. Finally, the shelf-life of sample packed under N 2 :CO 2 =30:70 was extended to 9days, meanwhile textural and sensorial characteristics were maintained during the whole storage period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2011-11-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm 3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  7. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C.

  8. Studies and development of essential systems in the surveillance program, life extension potential of the vessel and master curve in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power plants owners should demonstrate that the effects of the embrittlement by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the nuclear reactors, so much under conditions of routine operation as below an accident postulate. In consequence, in Mexico surveillance programs of the vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde exist, in which three surveillance capsules are have by reactor. A surveillance capsule is composed by a support and between six and eight containers for test tubes and dosemeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for Charpy V test tubes and cylindrical container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow that of the vessel, being representative witness of the mechanical conditions of the vessel. The objective of to assay the test tubes to impact is to evaluate the embrittlement grade of the vessel beforehand during its useful life of operation, as well as to determinate the running of the ductile-fragile transition temperature in function of the time. (Author)

  9. PSAD-a monitoring and aid to diagnosis system participating in saving on maintenance and operation costs and for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, S.; Morel, J.; Joussellin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring nuclear plants components enable to save on operation and maintenance costs by reducing incidents gravity and casual plant stoppages thank to early detection and fast diagnosis. Improving the knowledge of the behaviour of the plant will also allow to optimize maintenance and to increase plant life. In order to improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants. Electricite de France (EDF) is extending the existing data processing chains towards automatic aided interpretation and diagnosis. Therefore, EDF has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD-Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic, including several monitoring functions of the main components. It integrates on-line monitoring, off-line diagnosis and knowledge based systems. PSAD stations provide homogeneous aids to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behaviour of plant equipment. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerabily free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French Plant. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the Reactor Coolant Pumps and the Turbo-generator Monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring function and Loose Parts Detection are still under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1998

  10. A dwarf mouse model with decreased GH/IGF-1 activity that does not experience life-span extension: potential impact of increased adiposity, leptin, and insulin with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Magon, Vishakha; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-02-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.

  11. Shelf-life extension and decontamination of fish fillets (Trachurus picturatus murphyi and Mugil cephalus) and shrimp tails (Penaeus vannamei) inoculated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Kahn, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Bernuy, B.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Inaba was determined in vitro (0.13 kGy) and in inoculated fresh fillets of saurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi) (0.12 kGy) and another Pacific fish species known in Peru as ''lisa'', Mugil cephalus (0.13 kGy), both of which are frequently consumed raw in ''ceviche''. The D 10 value was similarly determined in tails of the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei (0.13 kGy). In a second phase of the study, radiation doses in the range 1.0-4.0 kGy were evaluated for use in microbiological shelf-life extension of the selected seafood, and for adverse effects on various sensory attributes (appearance, odor, flavor, and texture). A dose of 1.0 kGy doubled the microbiological shelf-life of fish fillets during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C to approximately 30 days. This dose was deemed optimal also for preserving all sensory characteristics evaluated except appearance, due to a darkening of fillets. Best results in shrimp tails were obtained using 2.0 kGy, which doubled their microbiological shelf-life to 20 days at 0-1 deg. C. Dipping the fillets in a 10% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate before irradiation prevented radiation-induced drip losses. (author)

  12. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM); Experiencias con el proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53. Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde. Programa de Manejo de vida de planta (PLIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C. [CFE, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin, Km. 7.5 Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: craj@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  13. Life extension of German nuclear power plants only with the consent of the Federal Council? The importance and extent of the need for consent to an amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In its coalition agreement of October 26, 2009, the new German federal government plans ''to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants while, at the same time, complying with the strict German and international safety standards.'' This has triggered a debate not only about (nuclear) energy, as in the past election campaign in the summer of 2009, but also about the constitutional law issue whether an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act resulting in longer operating life of nuclear power plants required the consent of the Federal Council (the ''Bundesrat,'' the second chamber of parliament). After the election to the state parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia on May 9, 2010, majority in the Federal Council changed. As a consequence, no consent to an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act must be expected. In view of the large number of recent statements about constitutional law in opinions for various federal and ministerial accounts as well as firms and associations, the outline by R. Scholz in the May issue of atw 2010 will be followed in this issue by the key points of examination of the need for consent, under aspects of constitutional law, and an attempt will be made to explain the evaluations underlying the generation of a legal concept about these items. The decision by the German Federal Constitutional Court of May 4, 2010, published on June 11, 2010, plays a major role in this respect because it established clarity in some important aspects of a legal subject matter in the field of state admini-stration on behalf of the federation, albeit in the field of air traffic law, not nuclear law. However, the structures of the norms in the German Basic Law (Art. 87c and Art. 87d, para.2) to be applied are almost identical. The energy policy and energy economy aspects of a plant life extension are considered along with the option of an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court against any plant life extension. Finally, the key findings are summarized briefly

  14. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  15. Studies of the effect of radurization of dried mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) for extension of shelf life - a semi pilot scale. Part of a coordinated programme in the Asian regional cooperative project of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, G.

    1982-10-01

    Large scale experiments on the effect of irradiation on the shelf life extension of semi-dried mackerel having a moisture content of 41-48% and a salt content of 14-15% were carried out. The samples were packaged either in retail or bulk packaging before irradiation with 325 Krad and stored either at ambient temperatures (30 +- 2 deg. C), or at 2 +- 1 deg. C. Results of objective and subjective tests showed that irradiation offers a potential for extending by twofold the shelf-life of semi-dried mackerel at ambient temperature. At chilling temperatures, no significant difference in quality was observed, as all samples were acceptable after 12 months of storage. Retail packaging appears to provide better quality products than bulk packaging. Irradiated samples packed in retail packaging became totally unacceptable in the 9th week of storage at ambient temperature, compared to the 5th week for samples packed in bulk packaging. Sensory evaluation of samples showed that irradiated samples received higher scores than unirradiated ones, especially after three weeks of storage at ambient temperatures

  16. Component Risk monitoring for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J. A.; Fuente, I.

    2000-01-01

    With the issue in USA of the Maintenance Rule (10CFR50.65), new requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance for important to safety equipment have been established. Plants shall monitor the performance or condition of structures, systems or components against licensee-established goals that will be commensurate with safety and will take into account industry-wide operating industry. The objective of preventing failures has to be balanced against the objective of minimising unavailability. Additionally, an assessment of the impact on risk caused by total plant equipment that is out of service has to be performed. Risk Monitor is the general term that has been more successfully adopted to describe those diverse software applications that support the on-line risk-informed management of operational system reconfiguration and equipment outages due to maintenance activities. The software MARE (EA Risk Analysis Monitor) has been developed by Empresarios Agrupados (EA) to allow easy implementation of the Maintenance Rule requirements of Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body). This tool supports the analysis and evaluation of risk level changes expected during system reconfiguration for equipment maintenance during plant operation. This assessment is based on the specific plant Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) model, uses the Risk Spectrum code and allows a tracking of the risks due to the maintenance history of the plant. The implementation of such systematic and continuous assessments will provide an historical performance of components within PSA scope, in a detailed database. (Author)

  17. Least cost options for life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  18. Life extension perspectives in NPPs in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a national development project to manage NPP ageing. Its objective is to develop an integrated system to gather and analyze significant ageing parameters and to evaluate how ageing affects a series of components, systems and structures important from the economic and safety points of view. 1 fig

  19. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  20. Determination of ABOS 1-3+ system components belonging to the scope of license application of Paks Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 for extension of service life, designated for the review, and verification of completeness of the scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Agnes Janosine; Tanits, Katalin Baumann-ne; Gosi, Peter; Kovacs, Andras; Ratkai, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    It is one major requirement of licensing the extension of design service life to determine the systems, structures and components that belong to the scope of licensing. According to the domestic regulatory requirements the ABOS 1-3 safety class components, the non safety system components of seismic safety class 3 and those non safety class components whose failure would occur due to its unmanaged ageing process and which may jeopardize safety class components with the released medium shall be involved into the scope of licensing of service life extension (SLE). In the task the components for the scope of SLE licensing of Unit 1 was determined using and, if necessary, further developing the tools provided by and exploiting, verifying and, as appropriate, supplementing the data included in the central technical database (IMR/MDM) of the NPP. As basis for determination of the scope the systems, structures and individual components categorized into safety class in the Final Safety Report were taken. Digitalized mechanical technological schemes were also used in determining the components of the systems fulfilling safety functions and in verifying the completeness. In order to assign the components belonging to the fulfillment of the function of the systems and to review the scope, the digitalization of the ABOS 2-3 electric and the ABOS 2 I and C circuit diagrams and distributor single-line diagrams and the processing and analysis of the digitalized data was performed. The ABOS + scope components were verified by walkdown. The completed component lists were compared to the components of the SLE licensing scope of the IMR/MDM database and the necessary supplementation, correction of the IMR/MDM data was also performed. In order to identify the components requiring review during licensing, also the active/passive safety function fulfillment modes were determined for every component of the licensing scope for Unit 1, which is now regarded as complete. As the results of

  1. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project; Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde- Programa de manejo de vida de planta (PLIM). Proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  2. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  3. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid Christine; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    in postmenopausal women was associated with surgery including hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy (pcarcinoma was found 138 times (95% CI: 48, 275) more prevalent than the expected rate. CONCLUSION......: The survival of women was better in AGCT than in epithelial ovarian tumor. Age and type of surgery, besides stage, influenced survival. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment with advancing age. At younger age less extensive surgery was associated...

  4. Marketing Extension Needs for Sustainable Extension Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Age (ƒÓ2 =39.33;ƒâ>0.05), religion (ƒÓ2 =2.752; ƒâ >0.05) and cassava association membership (ƒÓ2= 3.438, ƒâ>0.05) were not significant. Therefore, agricultural marketing techniques should be incorporated into agricultural extension delivery packages to ensure continuous farming practices and adoption of ...

  5. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  6. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  7. Spacetime extensions Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of the existence of local extensions of spacetime is considered. It is shown that for a spacetime including an incomplete inextendible non-coiling causal geodesic curve there exists a particular C k (resp. C k- ) local extension provided that the curvature and its covariant derivatives are well behaved up to order k + 1 (resp. k) along a family of causal geodetics (around the chosen one). (R.P.) 15 refs

  8. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  9. Homomorphisms between C∗ -algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C∗. -algebra extensions, Ext groups do not classify extension algebras. So one has to study the isomorphism equivalence of extensions. In fact, a homomorphism between two extension algebras may not map the essential ideal into the other in general, so we have to consider properties of extension homomorphisms.

  10. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  11. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the

  12. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural women in Abia State Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Studies on the hydrothermal stability of hematite and magnetite are important because the reaction of water and iron, particularly in the presence of oxidising or reducing fluids will help in determining the life-time and safe operating condi- tions for Steam boilers, turbines, heat exchangers in nuclear reactors and ...

  14. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  15. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  16. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  17. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  18. Emergency Anaesthetic Management of Extensive Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Chandola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed vehicles, drug abuse, alcohol and easy availability of handguns are the main reasons of increasing number of trauma especially thoracic trauma. Anaesthesiologist plays an important role in the management of extensive thoracic trauma. Thoracic trauma, penetrating or blunt, may cause damage to organs suspended in thorax viz. pleura, lungs, heart, great vessels, trachea and oesophagus. It may lead to pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade or life threatening haemorrhage. With aggressive care and management of these factors, majority of patients can survive and return to normal life.

  19. A flexible Weibull extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebbington, Mark; Lai, C.-D.; Zitikis, Ricardas

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new two-parameter ageing distribution which is a generalization of the Weibull and study its properties. It has a simple failure rate (hazard rate) function. With appropriate choice of parameter values, it is able to model various ageing classes of life distributions including IFR, IFRA and modified bathtub (MBT). The ranges of the two parameters are clearly demarcated to separate these classes. It thus provides an alternative to many existing life distributions. Details of parameter estimation are provided through a Weibull-type probability plot and maximum likelihood. We also derive explicit formulas for the turning points of the failure rate function in terms of its parameters. This, combined with the parameter estimation procedures, will allow empirical estimation of the turning points for real data sets, which provides useful information for reliability policies

  20. Prospective of the agricultural extension in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Hinestrosa, A.

    1998-01-01

    The situation of the agricultural extension is described in next twenty years, together with the regional programs of investigation and technology transfer, based in the rational use of the natural resources, the exploitation of markets, the former evaluation before and the expert systems. It proves the dynamic participation of producing leaders and their operation inside an outline of decentralization, privatization, sustainability, competitiveness, justness and invigoration and rural signification. It is supposed that the extension rural functional, bound to the investigation processes, transfer, development, technological development and markets. Institutionally it is expected that the extension is a service of regional and private character with an opportune and enough assignment of resources for the improvement of the quality of the rural population's life

  1. Development of stress corrosion techniques for structural integrity evaluation and life extension of PWR facilities; Desenvolvimento de tecnicas de corrosao sob tensao para avaliacao da integridade estrutural e prolongamento da vida util de usinas PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.L. Pinheiro; Vilela, Jeferson J.; Lorenzo, Roberto F. Di; Lopes, Jadir A.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The stress corrosion is a mechanism of degradation present in the nuclear plants. To extend the life of the plants components, this corrosion type it should be known. An evaluation for the implantation of methodologies of stress corrosion study in CDTN/CNEN, shows that the technique of slow deformation can be used in the evaluation of integrity structural nuclear power stations. This technique consists of straining a sample slowly, usually, in strain rate between 10{sup -4} and 10-{sup 8} s{sup -1} and in conditions that simulate the reactivity of the metal in environment (pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the water and etc) similar to the found at the nuclear power power stations. This simulation allows evaluating susceptibility the stress corrosion of components mechanical and structure that operate in central nuclear. (author)

  2. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  3. Extensions of string theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1993-06-01

    With the motivation that critical dimensions D[ne]4 might be suggeting that string theories have not been completely formulated, we study more general alternatives. We first consider a direct extension in the world-sheet formulation with N[sub B] bosons and N[sub F] fermions and analyze the conditions for canceling the anomaly in all possible combinations of N[sub B], N[sub F] and D. Later on we incorporate degrees of freedom of antisymmetric tensors to the previous model. The only possibility to cancel the anomaly in this case is with N[sub B]=N[sub F]=1 and the our everyday spacetime dimension D=4. (orig.).

  4. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  5. Studies and development of essential systems in the surveillance program, life extension potential of the vessel and master curve in nuclear power plants; Estudios y desarrollo de sistemas necesarios en el programa de vigilancia, potencial extension de vida de la vasija y curva maestra en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Automatizacion e Instrumentacion, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear power plants owners should demonstrate that the effects of the embrittlement by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the nuclear reactors, so much under conditions of routine operation as below an accident postulate. In consequence, in Mexico surveillance programs of the vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde exist, in which three surveillance capsules are have by reactor. A surveillance capsule is composed by a support and between six and eight containers for test tubes and dosemeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for Charpy V test tubes and cylindrical container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow that of the vessel, being representative witness of the mechanical conditions of the vessel. The objective of to assay the test tubes to impact is to evaluate the embrittlement grade of the vessel beforehand during its useful life of operation, as well as to determinate the running of the ductile-fragile transition temperature in function of the time. (Author)

  6. Modification of the Fc Region of a Human Anti-oncostatin M Monoclonal Antibody for Higher Affinity to FcRn Receptor and Extension of Half-life in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Ivo P; Han, Chao; Jiao, Qun; Tam, Susan H; Davis, Hugh M; Xu, Zhenhua

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-oncostatin M (OSM) IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, CNTO 1119 and its Fc variant (CNTO 8212), which incorporates the LS(Xtend) mutation to extend terminal half-life (T 1/2 ), after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in cynomolgus monkeys, and to predict human PK. In study 1, single doses of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 were administered IV or SC at 3 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3 per group). In study 2, single doses of CNTO 8212 were administered IV at 1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, or SC at 5 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5 per group). Serial blood samples were collected for assessment of serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and/or CNTO 8212. A two-compartment population PK model with first-order elimination was utilized to simultaneously describe the serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 over time after IV and SC administration in cynomolgus monkeys. The typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys were clearance (CL) = 2.81 mL/day/kg, volume of distribution of central compartment (V 1 ) = 31.3 mL/kg, volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V 2 ) = 23.3 mL/kg, absolute bioavailability (F) = 0.84 and T 1/2 = 13.4 days. In comparison, the typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 8212 in cynomolgus monkeys were CL = 1.41 mL/day/kg, V 1 = 39.8 mL/kg, V 2 = 32.6 mL/kg, F = 0.75 and T 1/2 = 35.7 days. The mean CL of CNTO 8212 was ~50% lower compared with that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. The overall volume of distribution (V 1 +V 2 ) for CNTO 8212 was about 32% larger compared with that for CNTO 1119, but generally similar to the vascular volume in cynomolgus monkeys. The T 1/2 of CNTO 8212 was significantly (p monkeys. Thus, the modification of the Fc portion of an anti-OSM IgG1 mAb for higher FcRn binding affinity resulted in lower systemic clearance and a longer terminal half-life in cynomolgus monkeys. CNTO 8212

  7. Attitude Of Extension Personnel To Training And Visit Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...

  8. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  9. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    probability estimates of best-practice life expectancy levels or make projections about future maximum life expectancy. Comments: Our findings may be useful for policymakers and insurance/pension analysts who would like to obtain estimates and probabilities of future maximum life expectancies.......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...

  11. Application of radiation for eliminating Salmonella and shelf-life extension of poultry and its products. Part of a coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.E.Z.

    1983-09-01

    A survey on the incidence of contamination of Salmonella in chicken put on sale in Cairo showed that from 559 samples investigated, 46% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella of 8 different serotypes, i.e., S. kottbus, S. sofia, S. typhimurium, S. zanzibar, S. muenchen, S. bovis-morbificans, S. ohio and S. enteritidis. The level of contamination was higher in summer and spring than in winter and autumn. Irradiation at 1.0 to 5.0 kGy resulted in marked suppression of all pathogenic microorganisms. The D 10 values of different serotypes of Salmonella ranged from 0.26 to 0.40 in chilled chicken (4 deg. C) and from 0.53 to 1.09 in frozen chicken (-18 deg. C). S. ohio was the most resistant serotype in chilled and frozen samples while S. kottbus and S. sofia were the most radio-sensitive in chilled and frozen chickens, respectively. D 10 values of S. aureus, E. coli and S. faecalis were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.95 kGy in chilled chicken and 0.51, 0.42 and 1.4 kGy in frozen chicken, respectively. Irradiation extends shelf-life of chilled chicken from 5 days for the unirradiated samples to 7, 13 and 25 days for samples treated with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy, respectively. Irradiating chilled chicken with 5 kGy resulted in significant changes of odour immediately after the treatment. No difference was observed in frozen chicken treated with doses up to 5 kGy

  12. test with extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. W. Rayner

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The data for the tests considered here may be presented in two-way contingency tables with all marginal totals fixed. We show that Pearson's test statistic XP2 (P for Pearson may be partitioned into useful and informative components. The first detects location differences be tween the treatments, and the subsequent components detect dispersion and higher order moment differences. For Kruskal-Wallis-type data when there are no ties, the location component is the Kruskal-Wallis test. The subsequent components are the extensions. Our approach enables us to generalise to when there are ties, and to when there is a fixed number of categories and a large number of observations. We also propose a generalisation of the well-known median test. In this situation the location-detecting first component of XP2 reduces to the usual median test statistic when there are only two categories. Subsequent components detect higher moment departures from the null hypothesis of equal treatment effects

  13. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  14. Extensions panach\\'ees autoduales

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We study self-duality of Grothendieck's blended extensions (extensions panach\\'ees) in the context of a tannakian category. The set of equivalence classes of symmetric, resp. antisymmetric, blended extensions is naturally endowed with a torsor structure, which enables us to compute the unipotent radical of the associated monodromy groups in various situations

  15. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  16. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  17. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  18. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  19. EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...

  20. Journal of Agricultural Extension: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publication Ethics Articles published in the Journal of Agricultural Extension must be relevant to extension practice and should not have been published or under ... COI involves using your position as an author, editor, or reviewer to promote your interests (business or financial), or those of your external relationships (family ...

  1. Quotient semigroups and extension semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the viewpoint of C∗-algebra and apply them to a survey of extension semigroups. Cer- tain interrelations ... -algebra extension theory and K K-theory, it is crucial to study the theory of quotient semigroups from the ... Similar to the construction of quotient group and quotient linear space, quotient semi- group may be induced ...

  2. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  3. Hom-associative Ore extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, P.; Richter, J.; Silvestrov, S.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce hom-associative Ore extensions as non-associative, non-unital Ore extensions with a hom-associative multiplication, as well as give some necessary and sufficient conditions when such exist. Within this framework, we also construct a family of hom-associative Weyl algebras as generalizations of the classical analogue, and prove that they are simple.

  4. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    i Training extension staff and farmers . ..ii Producing fry for satellite centres at the regions and for fish fanners; and iii Conducting experiments on fish production, productivity and water quality. Restructuring of Agricultural Research and Extension services. The organisation ofUganda's national agricultural research.

  5. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  6. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  7. I and C systems refurbishment projects for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, A.A.; Sklyar, V.V.; Siora, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the approach to implementation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems refurbishment projects using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform. The analysis identifying advantages of refurbishment projects for NPPs is performed. The main goals of the utilities with respect to refurbishment of NPPs I and C systems are outlined. The advantages of FPGA technology application for NPP I and C systems are described. Regulatory framework of FPGA technology for NPPs I and C systems is presented. General principles which may be used for implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects are presented. The experience of Research and Production Corporation (RPC) Radiy in implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects is considered. (author)

  8. Nuclear plant owners move closer to life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A major debate is now underway about the safety of 40-year-old nuclear power plants. Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 a nuclear power plant's license is limited to a maximum of 40 years. Although the act permits the renewal of an operating license, it does not outline any standards or procedures for determining when or under what conditions a plant's operating license should be renewed. This paper reports that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are co-sponsors of a program to demonstrate the license renewal process for two nuclear power plants - Yankee Atomic Electric's 175-MW Yankee PWR plant and Northern States Power's 536-MW Monticello BWR plant. The demonstration is known as the lead plant project. Yankee Atomic has already analyzed the plant's condition and evaluated aging using computer-based expert systems and the plant's operating experience. During these tests Yankee Atomic found embrittlement of the reactor vessel

  9. F-4C/D Life Extension Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    landing gear and consisted of a forward acting drag, simulating gear springback , and a vertical, upward acting load. Both loads were introduced at the gear...transducers used on each test cond~ition were logged on a Data System Check Sheet . Since the total number of transducers installed on the test article...TEAR BEAM ’ CAPCSR ’HI TN5 REAMOO FASENE IND R Of~ 68L 8?~4 CRACKU 0N1OAR PNA OIN TUEE OF3F46 T0HUNNLE’N ’R OP UE38-202-230REL AN ~a.MR.’ 3 RAKS N UE

  10. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  11. SAVY 4000 Container Filter Design Life and Extension Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The SAVY 4000 is a general purpose, reusable container for the storage of solid nuclear material inside a nuclear facility. The canister has a permitted loading for material with a thermal output not to exceed 25 watts. This wattage limit applies to all containers, regardless of their size.

  12. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-28

    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  13. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  14. Nuclear power plant ageing and life extension: Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.; Podest, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with large fossil-fired electrical generating units, as well as in all process industries, shows that plants begin to deteriorate with age after approximately 10 years of operation. Similar phenomena will prevail for nuclear plants, and it is reasonable to postulate that their availability will be affected, as will their safety, if appropriate measures are not taken. It is evident that the average age of power reactors in the IAEA's Member States is increasing. By 2000, more than 50 nuclear plants will have been providing electricity for 25 years or longer. Most nuclear power plants have operating lifetimes of between 20 and 40 years. Ageing is defined as a continuing time-dependent degradation of material due to service conditions, including normal operation and transient conditions. It is common experience that over long periods of time, there is a gradual change in the properties of materials. These changes can affect the capability of engineered components, systems, or structures to perform their required function. Not all changes are deleterious, but it is commonly observed that ageing processes normally involve a gradual reduction in performance capability. All materials in a nuclear power plant can suffer from ageing and can partially or totally lose their designed function. Ageing is not only of concern for active components (for which the probability of malfunction increases with time) but also for passive ones, since the safety margin is being reduced towards the lowest allowable level

  15. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H

    2012-01-01

    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  16. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  17. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  18. Extensions of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirner, Fabio

    1996-01-01

    Rapporteur talk at the International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, Brussels (Belgium), July 27-August 2, 1995. This talk begins with a brief general introduction to the extensions of the Standard Model, reviewing the ideology of effective field theories and its practical implications. The central part deals with candidate extensions near the Fermi scale, focusing on some phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The final part discusses some possible low-energy implications of further extensions near the Planck scale, namely superstring theories.

  19. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  20. HVOF Thermal Spray TiC/TiB2 Coatings for AUSC Boiler/Turbine Components for Enhanced Corrosion Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Koc, Rasit [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Fan, Chinbay [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-07

    The high temperatures of operations still pose significant risk of degradation and fatigue from oxidizing, corroding and eroding environment. In addition to unused O2, water from combustion and SOx from the coal sulfur oxidation that result in highly corrosive environment, acid gases such as HCl and other sulfur compounds may also be present. These adverse effects are further accelerated due to the elevated temperatures. In addition, ash particulates and unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur can cause erosion of the surface and thus loss of material. Unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur may also cause localized reduction sites. Thus, fireside corrosion protection and steam oxidation protection alternatives to currently used Ni-Cr overlays need to be identified and evaluated. Titanium carbide (TiC) is a suitable alternative on account of the material features such as the high hardness, the high melting point, the high strength and the low density for the substitution or to be used in conjunction with NiCr for enhancing the fireside corrosion and erosion of the materials. Another alternative is the use of titanium boride as a coating for chemical stability required for long-term service and high erosion resistance over the state-of-the-art, high fracture toughness (K1C ~12 MPam1/2) and excellent corrosion resistance (kp~1.9X10-11 g2/cm4/s at 800°C in air). The overarching aim of the research endeavor was to synthesize oxidation, corrosion and wear resistant TiC and TiB2 coating powders, apply thermal spray coating on existing boiler materials and characterize the coated substrates for corrosion resistance for applications at high temperatures (500 -750 °C) and high pressures (~350 bars) using the HVOF process and to demonstrate the feasibility of these coating to be used in AUSC boilers and turbines.

  1. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  2. NNP Life Management Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia Ruperez, F.

    1996-01-01

    Around the world, power station owners are increasingly concerned to optimise Plant Life Management. In response, they are setting up Life Management programmes, of more or less ambitious scope and depth. Strategic, economic and security concerns and the close link between life extension work and the improved maintenance practices that are so important today, will increase and global these programmes for monitoring and conservation or mitigation of ageing. These programmes are all based on knowledge of the precise condition of all components and population with the greatest effect on the economics and safety of the plant, and trends in changes in their condition. (Author)

  3. Extension Agents\\' Commitment To Extension Work In Abia And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured and validated inventory scale titled: “Job Commitment Inventory Scale” was administered to 89 and 61 respondents randomly selected from a population of 112 and 117 extension agents in Abia and Rivers States ADPs. respectively. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as ...

  4. verbal extensions: valency decreasing extensions in the basà ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance

    London: Hodder. Education. Imoh, P.M., 2013. Verbal extensions: Valency increasing operations in Basà verbal system. Paper presented at the West African Languages Congress (WALC) and 26th Annual. Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria (26th CLAN), 29th July to 2nd August. 2013, University of Ibadan, ...

  5. Extension properties of states on operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    1995-08-01

    We summarize and deepen some recent results concerning the extension problem for states on operator algebras and general quantum logics. In particular, we establish equivalence between the Gleason extension property, the Hahn-Banach extension property, and the universal state extension property of projection logics. Extensions of Jauch-Piron states are investigated.

  6. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  7. Invertible extensions and growth conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badea, C.; Müller, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 339, - (2004), s. 21-26 ISSN 1631-073X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : invertible extensions * growth conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2004

  8. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  9. Managing Diversity within Cooperative Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, D. Merrill; Rice, Jennifer A. King

    1994-01-01

    Six focus groups analyzed findings of a literature review on cultural diversity's effects on productivity and effectiveness. Action steps for Cooperative Extension were outlined: implementing affirmative action, valuing diversity, managing diversity, creating new management structures, and establishing a more supportive environment. (SK)

  10. intensive and extensive feeding regimes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production and reproduction parameters in ram lambs, under intensive and extensive feeding regimes. J.P.C. Greyling* and G.J. Taylor. Department of Animal Science, University of the Orange Free State, PO. Box 339, Bloemfontein,. 9300, South Africa. Received revised 1 July 1999; accepted 28 July 1999. Forty Dorper ...

  11. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  12. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  13. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    followed by lack of contact with extension agents (71.7%) and gender discrimination in obtaining land on lease for farming (39.2). Majority (65.8%) of .... The study area was Osun State, a tropical state in South west; Nigeria lying within coordinates 7. 0. 30ʹN and 4. 030ʹE. The state comprised of 30 Local Government ...

  14. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  15. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  16. Extensive Reading and Learning Style

    OpenAIRE

    Kawachi, Tomoko; 河内, 智子

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has been shown to be an effective approach to both improving students’ language skills and nurturing positive attitudes toward language reading and learning. However, although the approach has proven to be effective for many learners, as with any teaching approach, it does not seem to work equally well for all learners. The current study hypothesized that learning style might be a factor influencing learners’ achievement in and attitude toward ER, and investigated the r...

  17. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  18. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  19. Journal of Agricultural Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement: The mission of the Journal of Agricultural Extension is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds ... research and methodological issues; nutrition extension; extension youth programme; women-in-agriculture; extension, Climate Change and the environment, ICT, ...

  20. Professional development and extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Professional Development (PD) refers to the means by which people acquire, develop, maintain and enhance the specialist knowledge and skills needed to practice in their profession. Extension Programs (aka Continuing Education) are offered by most post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate granting institutions.The courses are typically taken on a part-time basis, and course delivery often includes distance learning technology. An important implementation of PD is via workplace training, industry specific seminars, workshops and non-credit courses offered by a wide range of service providers.

  1. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  2. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  3. Maintenance, rehabilitation, long life-the CANDU potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Charlebois, P.; Hopkins, J.

    1998-01-01

    Plant life extension beyond the original design life is becoming an attractive economic consideration in the nuclear industry. Plant Life Management and life extension considerations have been built into the complete life cycle of the CANDU plant. The plant life management studies demonstrate that life extension for operating plants beyond 30 years is economically viable. The new CANDU designs benefit from this experience feedback and as a result, the plant design basis is now 40 years or better with potential for economical life extension. AECL is therefore confident that the new CANDU designs will exceed the performance record of the first generation CANDU 6 units and is committed to providing continued support and services during the operating life of the plant

  4. Extensive Boiler Rehabilitation at TPP Bitola - Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Tanurkov, Dimitar; Papasterevski, Kosta

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant (TPP) Bitola is the largest lignite-based TPP in the Republic of Macedonia with three units put into operation in 1982, 1984 and 1988, respectively. All three units have already operated more than 200.000 hours each, therefore they are far beyond their normal life expectancy. Thus, a large-scale rehabilitation program including extensive boiler rehabilitation of all three units, lignite supply chain modernization, steam turbines, generators and control system modernizat...

  5. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  6. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... existing, older and heritage buildings. However, heritage buildings possess heritage values that need to be protected while on the other hand the buildings need to remain part of the attractive building stock, as many of these buildings will otherwise deteriorate. Based on an example, this paper identifies...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  7. An Expressive Extension of TLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann

    2002-01-01

    A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....

  8. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  9. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  10. Extensive Mandibular Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cínthia Magalhães; Santos, Tatiana Tavares Marcelino Dos; de Castro, Sérgio Roberto; de Carli, Marina Lara; Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a mixed odontogenic tumor that presents epithelial and mesenchymal components. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is generally diagnosed between the first and second decades of life and normally shows a slow clinical growth in the posterior portion of the maxilla or mandible, being mostly associated with 1 or more impacted teeth. Radiographic features of AFO show a radiolucent well-defined, uni, or multilocular defect due to containing variable amounts of calcified material. The enucleation of the tumor is the usual conduct and should be followed up for a long period of time. Here, the authors report the case of 17-year-old male patient who presented an extensive AFO on the right posterior side of the mandible. The panoramic radiograph and the tomographic examination revealed a multilocular radiolucent lesion with impacted teeth. Histological examination revealed connective tissue resembling the dental papilla along with epithelial strands or islands, as well as dental hard tissue such enamel and dentin. Enucleation and curettage was performed and led to good outcome. There was no recurrence after an 8-year follow-up, and oral rehabilitation was performed with dental implants.

  11. Extension contact and professional competencies needed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension contact and professional competencies needed by extension agents in the Central Region of Ghana for effective transfer of fish-processing technologies to small-scale women in fish processing - Provisional Communication.

  12. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  13. Livestock extension programmes participation and impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock extension programmes participation and impact on smallholder cattle productivity in Kwazulu-Natal: A propensity score matching approach. ... The study concludes with some policy implications. Keywords: Agricultural Extension, Cattle production, Impact evaluation, Propensity Score Matching, South Africa.

  14. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  15. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  16. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  18. Towards a National Educational Extension Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessinger, Leon M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes major elements of an extension system for education based on those essential for one in agriculture, as exemplified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. Like the agricultural system, an educational extension service would be driven by customer needs, employ county agents to facilitate client/service…

  19. User contributions and public extension delivery modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high recurrent costs faced by the public extension service constraint the number of visits farmers receive. This study examined a number of extension communication channels through which farmers received farm management services/information from the public extension agent. The idea was, first, to find out the ...

  20. Purdue Extension: Employee Engagement and Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Angela R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the Purdue Extension county directors' level of engagement and leadership style and to examine the relationship between these two variables. The study aimed to inform a professional development training program for all Purdue Extension county extension directors. Survey data were collected from…

  1. Life insurance

    OpenAIRE

    ČERNÁ, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with the life insurance market in the Czech Republic. I compared the different insurance products life insurance among themselves. And these products is the formula published in the scientific literature.

  2. Life's crucible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers.

  3. Picturing Life

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-01-01

    The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  4. NRU licence extension via integrated safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantifel, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The National Research Reactor, NRU at AECL Chalk River Laboratories achieved first criticality in November 1957. The completion of an Integrated Safety Review (ISR) in 2011, and subsequent Global Assessment Report (GAR), and Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) has given confidence in the safe and reliable operation of NRU, therefore extending the licensing case to safely and reliably operate NRU until 2021 and beyond (64+ years of operation). The key vehicle to achieve this confidence is the IIP, that resulted from the ISR. NRU's IIP is a 10 year plan that addresses the gaps identified in the ISR between modern codes and standards in a prioritized approach. AECL is currently in year 3 of the IIP execution, is on or ahead of schedule to complete the identified improvements. The IIP in conjunction with a License Condition Handbook has replaced the licensing protocol with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, (CNSC). Execution of the IIP to plan supports the continued safe operation of NRU. The ISR was carried out with the recognition that the NRU reactor is a research and isotope producing reactor approaching license renewal and not a power reactor undergoing refurbishment and life extension. Therefore, the IIP is being executed while NRU continues to deliver on its three missions: production of medical isotopes, support for fuels and materials research, and serving as a high flux neutron source in support of research relying on neutron scattering. The IIP is grouped into 5 Global Issue Groups, (GIGs) to support focused execution. The activities and tasks within the five GIGs are being executed via a matrix organization through the use of the Chalk River Laboratories Corrective Action Program to ensure the assignment of actions, completion and evidence to support closure is documented and retained. This paper discusses the approach taken by AECL to license and ensure safe, reliable operation of NRU until 2021 and beyond. (author)

  5. The extensive writing. Teaching writing in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany Comas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the distinction between intensive and extensive reading, we introduce the extensive written tasks to promote the following learning objectives: 1 bringing writing closer to the learner’s personal life; 2 practicing the epistemic and communicative language functions; 3 giving the learner full responsibility for the creative act; 4 facilitating the development of cognitive processes, and 5 developing habits of written production in a variety of situations. As a consequence, extensive writing assignments produce longer texts, last longer, are self-directed by the learner-author, treat interdisciplinary topics and are not in the textbook. These tasks markedly differ from the more frequent written exercises in the classroom, which are teacher-led, contain shorter texts, work on executive or instrumental functions, and their correction is focused on spelling and grammar. We propose several educational tools in order to develop this type of tasks: portfolios (to save drafts, corrections and final versions of each text, formats (such as reading logs, lecture notes and laboratory protocols and contexts (common communicative tasks. We also discuss some basic parameters of extensive tasks, such as the length of the text, the use of several working sessions for text production, the practice of composition processes and the use of peer review, in pairs or teams.

  6. Long-term survival of extensive amalgams and posterior crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, R J; Hawthorne, W S

    1997-01-01

    There is very little information available from private dental practices on the comparative survivals of extensive posterior amalgam restorations and posterior crowns placed in the same patient population. Therefore, the present retrospective study examined the performance of such restorations at three long-established Adelaide city practices. Life-table survival estimates were generated for 160 extensive amalgams, 96 cast gold crowns and 174 ceramometal crowns. The restorations were placed by 20 dentists at various times in 100 patients who attended the practices on a regular basis for around 25 years on average. There were no significant differences found in the survival times for both types of crowns, with around 70% still being present at 20 years. However, the median survival time for the extensive amalgams was much lower, at 14.6 years. Despite these differences in survival times, the extensive amalgam restorations survived for longer than is usually expected. In this present study, the survival findings have implications for the most cost-effective dental treatments of large lesions in posterior teeth.

  7. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  8. Norm Attaining Arens Extensions on ℓ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Falcó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study norm attaining properties of the Arens extensions of multilinear forms defined on Banach spaces. Among other related results, we construct a multilinear form on ℓ1 with the property that only some fixed Arens extensions determined a priori attain their norms. We also study when multilinear forms can be approximated by ones with the property that only some of their Arens extensions attain their norms.

  9. Control and Modeling of Extensible Continuum Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research is to develop fundamental control theory, dynamic modeling, and control technology for extensible continuum robotic manipulators. These...

  10. The unresolved puzzle why alanine extensions cause disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Reno; Liebold, Jens; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    The prospective increase in life expectancy will be accompanied by a rise in the number of elderly people who suffer from ill health caused by old age. Many diseases caused by aging are protein misfolding diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders receive constant scientific interest. In addition to old age, mutations also cause congenital protein misfolding disorders. Chorea Huntington, one of the most well-known examples, is caused by triplet extensions that can lead to more than 100 glutamines in the N-terminal region of huntingtin, accompanied by huntingtin aggregation. So far, nine disease-associated triplet extensions have also been described for alanine codons. The extensions lead primarily to skeletal malformations. Eight of these proteins represent transcription factors, while the nuclear poly-adenylate binding protein 1, PABPN1, is an RNA binding protein. Additional alanines in PABPN1 lead to the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). The alanine extension affects the N-terminal domain of the protein, which has been shown to lack tertiary contacts. Biochemical analyses of the N-terminal domain revealed an alanine-dependent fibril formation. However, fibril formation of full-length protein did not recapitulate the findings of the N-terminal domain. Fibril formation of intact PABPN1 was independent of the alanine segment, and the fibrils displayed biochemical properties that were completely different from those of the N-terminal domain. Although intranuclear inclusions have been shown to represent the histochemical hallmark of OPMD, their role in pathogenesis is currently unclear. Several cell culture and animal models have been generated to study the molecular processes involved in OPMD. These studies revealed a number of promising future therapeutic strategies that could one day improve the quality of life for the patients.

  11. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  12. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  13. NPP Krsko Lifetime Extension - Business Impact for Hrvatska Elektroprivreda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrankic, K.; Krejci, M.; Lebegner, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of possible business impacts for HEP in the case of NPP Krsko life extension. Due to numerous reasons nuclear power plant life extension of ten to twenty years is a common procedure abroad. Having this practise in mind as well as other circumstances in Croatian and Slovenian electric power system, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime is considered to be a possible scenario. Foreseeable impacts of this decision are evaluated primarily with consideration of its effect on HEPs projected cash flows, though other aspects will be addressed as well. Preserving a well maintained production facility with an extraordinary operational record and stable, or possibly falling overall production costs seems as a very rational choice. This is particularly true having in mind expected rise of electricity demand and energy prices in the region. Having NPP Krsko in operation beyond 2023 implies that no replacement source for NPP Krsko capacity needs to be built. This means avoiding all costs connected with the construction and operation of the replacement plant, assuming it will be fossil fuelled. Due to the high uncertainty of the future fossil fuel prices, the avoidance of replacement plant operational cost is likely to prove as highly rewarding. It should be kept in mind that avoided costs also include the replacement plant greenhouse gases emission costs, thus further enlarging the list of value adding impacts. The latter is valid anticipating the ratification of the Kyoto protocol and joining the European emission trading scheme. In addition to that, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime would mean that the majority of costs connected with the decommissioning and final waste disposal can be postponed further down the time line. This will have very positive financial and possibly technological impact. Other value creating effects for HEP that are foreseeable as a consequence of the plant lifetime extension include: maintaining the knowledge of

  14. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    under discussion. It is suggested that, in conjunction with Gadamer's hermeneutic of understanding, Ricoeur's theory of interpretation warrants consideration as a method of textual analysis by extension experts in Nigeria. Key words: Ricoeur Hermeneutics, textual analysis, extension. Introduction. There is increasing interest ...

  15. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  16. An Effective Aquaculture Extension System from Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government and projects extension professionals should support the system through technical training, study tours, publications and networking. Likewise, since educated and well-off farmers in peri-urban areas can access information, government offices should be equipped with well-trained extension personnel and ...

  17. Forestry Extension: An Indispensable Service for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is effective forestry extension that can enlighten and educate the forest communities on the inherent dangers their activities pose to the enviroment.This is the premise on which the challenges facing effective forestry extension delivery in Nigeria and suggested solutions to the highlighted challenges is the focus of this write ...

  18. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State ...

  19. Introduction To Natural Resources Management Extension System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction To Natural Resources Management Extension System (Nrmes); Rethinking In Extension Systems For 21st Century. ... Growing food demands, soil nutrient depletion is occurring in many tropical and subtropical countries, and land degradation and desertification continues to progress in many other countries.

  20. CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH

    2006-01-01

    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  1. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., written scripts, or interpreters. Recipients need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  2. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  3. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  4. Agricultural extension officers' perceptions of integrated pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the positive perceptions of the extension officers regarding IPM, the government of Kenya should establish a supportive policy that will enable the extension officers to promote and educate farmers on the various IPM practices. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 7(2) 2006: 125- ...

  5. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  6. Linkage activities amongst researchers, extension agents, farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the research- extension- farmer- input dealer and marketer linkage activities in the North West Province of South Africa. A simple random sampling technique was used to select researchers, extension agents, farmers, agricultural input dealers and marketers. Their responses in linkage activities were ...

  7. Communication for Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chrischisoni

    estate sub-sector, which accounts for less than 30% of gross domestic product. The smallholder agricultural sector .... d) extension agents' views on the decentralization process; and e) assess extension workers' access to .... consistency or unanimity of agreement that the gap is real and needs to be closed. From the table,.

  8. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future resource...

  9. agricultural research and extension linkage in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AUA

    aimed at strengthening research and extension linkages will differ from country to country depending on historical working relationships between research and extension organisations as well as their organizational structures, responsiveness to the ever- growing challenges and how divergent or convergent their goals are ...

  10. Agricultural extension, research, and development for increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of food security and agricultural development in South Africa cannot simply be solved by limiting extension and research development to the public sector. However, if shortcomings arise in the public sector while addressing extension, research and development, the potential involvement of the private sector ...

  11. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  12. Beneficiary Perceptions of Gender Specific Extension Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women play major roles in agricultural production although only an estimated 5 percent actually benefit from mainstream extension activities. The Gender Specific Extension Delivery Service was instituted to remedy this trend. This study was an attempt to document women beneficiaries' perceptions on the effectiveness of ...

  13. Extension Service Delivery Of Agricultural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the extension service delivery within the Agricultural Development Programmes of Southwest Nigeria after the cessation of the World Bank funding between 1996 and 2013. Primary data were collected from 201 extension agents across 50% of the states in the area of study using ...

  14. Extension through Partnerships: Research and Education Center Teams with County Extension to Deliver Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahey, J. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…

  15. Examining eXtension: Diffusion, Disruption, and Adoption among Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cayla; Miller, Greg

    2016-01-01

    As eXtension unveils its new membership model, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach must determine how best to support professionals and clientele using the technology. This article reports on a study that used the diffusion of innovations and disruptive innovation theories to assess Iowa Extension professionals' adoption and perceptions…

  16. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  17. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  18. Generalized extensions and blocking factors for FITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Harten, R. H.; Greisen, E. W.; Wells, D. C.

    1988-06-01

    A general design for extending the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) tape format is proposed. The present design is shown to preserve compatibility with existing FITS tapes and software (including the 'random groups'), while being general enough to permit a wide variety of new extension files to be designed in the future. Rules are given for the blocking of FITS logical records. The rules for the generalized extension of FITS ensure that extensions can be located and decoded by standard routines without interfering with each other.

  19. [Fournier's gangrene: Cervical and facial extension. A very rare case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, R; Pechevy, L; Isola, N; Vidal, L; Goga, D; Watier, E; Bertheuil, N

    2016-02-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a fearsome disease with a bad prognosis and a mortality rate ranging between 10 and 80% according to the literature. It is extensive in 13 to 54% of cases. Up to date, cervico-facial extension has never been reported. We describe the case of a 51-year-old overweighed woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and a narrow lumbar canal who was referred to our institution for significant fatigue and increasingly painful legs. A diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene was made after correlating the physical findings with the results of a full body scan. Diffuse subcutaneous emphysema involving the face, neck, mediastinum, abdominal wall, right buttock, perineum and the right thigh was identified. Treatment included multiple surgical debridements, admission to intensive care unit, and an efficient antibiotic therapy that enabled preservation of the patient's life. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cervical and mediastinal extension of Fournier's gangrene to be reported. No clear guidelines exit on the management of this complication (cervico-facial and mediastinal drainage). We share our experience of this unusual case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2322 - Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, extends for two... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2322 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority...

  2. Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  3. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile LUPSE; Ovidiu COSMA

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM), together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  4. Extensive Reading: A Means of Reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiper, Karen

    1983-01-01

    Cites research suggesting that extensive reading is as effective as intensive reading in developing general reading ability and is more effective in promoting good attitudes among elementary and secondary school students toward reading. (MM)

  5. Bandwidth extension of speech using perceptual criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth extension of speech is used in the International Telecommunication Union G.729.1 standard in which the narrowband bitstream is combined with quantized high-band parameters. Although this system produces high-quality wideband speech, the additional bits used to represent the high band can be further reduced. In addition to the algorithm used in the G.729.1 standard, bandwidth extension methods based on spectrum prediction have also been proposed. Although these algorithms do not require additional bits, they perform poorly when the correlation between the low and the high band is weak. In this book, two wideband speech coding algorithms that rely on bandwidth extension are developed. The algorithms operate as wrappers around existing narrowband compression schemes. More specifically, in these algorithms, the low band is encoded using an existing toll-quality narrowband system, whereas the high band is generated using the proposed extension techniques. The first method relies only on transmitted high-...

  6. UVEAL MELANOMA EXTENSION TO THE OPTIC CHIASM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatief, Amro; Pulido, Jose S; Bartley, George B; Salomao, Diva R; Quinn, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    Case report describing a patient who developed intracranial extension of a uveal melanoma through the optic nerve. We reviewed the patient's medical history and images. A 41-year-old woman who was blind in one eye had a uveal melanoma that extended through the optic nerve into the optic chiasm and involved the hypophysis. The patient then developed metastasis. The patient developed uveal melanoma extension into the optic chiasm through the optic nerve resulting in a visual field defect in the fellow eye. Uveal melanoma extension through the optic nerve is a devastating complication, which occurs anywhere from 0.6% to 3.7% in patients with uveal melanoma. If enucleation of the affected eye is performed, a representative portion of the optic nerve should be excised to decrease the risk of extension. Patients with phthisical eyes should undergo appropriate imaging techniques to prevent a missed diagnosis of optic nerve involvement.

  7. 76 FR 79665 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... 1995. The information collection package requests a three-year extension of ``Industrial Relations... request contains: (1) OMB No. 1910-0600; (2) Information Collection Request Title: Industrial Relations...

  8. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  9. Offshore extension of Gomati river, Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naik, D.K.; Ganesan, P.; Moraes, C.

    information. Attempts have been made to identify the submerged extension of Gomati River by diving inspection and based on the results obtained such as findings like stone and iron anchors, circular bastions, etc. While many features reported earlier...

  10. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  11. An Overview of English Extensive Reading Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikami , Ryuji; Nagasaka, Tatsuhiko Paul; Yoshino, Yasuko; Jones, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the changes in attitude toward reading English shown by students as a result of participating in an extensive reading program. The top classes for each department studying Integrated English in the first semester of 2012 were given the challenge of reading extensively in English, using simple readers from leading publishers. Before and after the program, the non-English majors were asked to answer a questionnaire designed to reveal their attitudes toward reading Engli...

  12. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ’ – that the contemporary discursive pragmatics of more or less pharmaceutical life practices still include forms of transcendence – and by the wish to fertilize the field of bio-politics with the indexical inter-subjectivity of the concept of ideology, as derived from an antiessentialist reading of Hegelian......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  13. Extension for prevention: is it relevant today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, J W; Summitt, J B

    1998-08-01

    Extension for prevention has been an integral part of dentistry for over 100 years. Because this concept advocated the removal of sound tooth structure, it was not totally accepted at the turn of the century. The advent of the gold casting catapulted extension for prevention into general acceptance. In 1883, Webb presented a concept of "prevention of extension of decay". This concept advocated a proximal cavity preparation extending toward the buccal and lingual aspects of the tooth so that contact with adjacent teeth would not be at the margins. The separation of the margins, along with proper restoration contours, was thought to promote natural cleansing of the embrasures with saliva and fluids in the diet. GV Black's 1891 idea of "extension for prevention" was to provide extension of the preparation to the facial and lingual line angles in order to bring about "self-cleansing" margins via food excursion. Black's concept also included extending preparations through fissures to allow cavosurface margins to be on non-fissured enamel. Black integrated the extension of the proximal margins with his concept of an occlusal isthmus for a Class II amalgam preparation one-third the faciolingual width of the occlusal surface. Challenges to this concept of extension for prevention were immediate; and, by the 1950's, narrower, more conservative preparations were seen by a few as being more effective in preserving teeth. Not only occlusal width was reassessed, but the need to routinely extend proximal margins to the buccal and lingual line angles was also questioned. By the mid-1960's and early 1970's a more conservative approach to amalgam preparation was advocated and was being taught in some dental schools. Today, a standardized outline form should not be used or taught as a principle of cavity preparation. In areas where fissure caries has necessitated a preparation extending into dentin, a composite resin or dental amalgam restoration should be placed, and a fissure

  14. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; hide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  15. Evaluating health-related quality-of-life therapeutic effectiveness in a clinical trial with extensive nonignorable missing data and heterogeneous response: results from a phase III randomized trial of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinpour, Carol M; Donaldson, Gary W; Liepa, Astra M; Melemed, Allen S; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Albain, Kathy S

    2012-06-01

    This manuscript presents health-related quality of life (HRQL) results from a phase III trial of gemcitabine-paclitaxel (GT) versus paclitaxel (T) in metastatic breast cancer patients. Patients completed the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL) and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) at baseline and at the end of each cycle. Sensitivity analyses for six longitudinal pattern mixture models (PMMs) assessed potential bias due to informative dropout. Cumulative probability plots with 50% confidence intervals indicated the proportion of patients whose HRQL was likely to improve, decline, or stay the same. Sensitivity analyses addressing nonignorable missing RSCL data included 351 patients. The mean RSCL global HRQL score for GT was significantly and consistently better than that for T (all PMMs P global HRQL over time compared to monotherapy treatment.

  16. Stakeholder Satisfaction with a 4-H Extension Program for Five- to Eight-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Lafontaine, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    A 4-H K-2 program was evaluated by 277 parents, 144 volunteers, and 44 extension agents. These stakeholders believed the program was beneficial and effective in improving children's life skills (self-esteem, making friends, making choices, learning and physical skills). (SK)

  17. How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy

    OpenAIRE

    Birner, Regina; Anderson, Jock R.

    2007-01-01

    "Many countries have recognized the need to revive agricultural advisory or extension services (the terms are used interchangeably here) as a means of using agriculture as an engine of pro-poor growth; reaching marginalized, poor, and female farmers; and addressing new challenges, such as environmental degradation and climate change. In spite of ample experience with extension reform worldwide, identifying the reform options most likely to make extension more demand-driven remains a major cha...

  18. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N.; Wright, M.D.

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  19. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type...... checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  20. Supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouba, L., E-mail: lgouba@ictp.it [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Stern, A., E-mail: astern@bama.ua.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Al 35487 (United States)

    2012-04-11

    We obtain a minimal supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra and study its representations. The construction differs from the general approach given in Hatsuda and Siegel ( (arXiv:hep-th/0311002)) and does not utilize super-de Sitter groups. The spectra of the position operators are discrete, implying a lattice description of space, and the lattice is compatible with supersymmetry transformations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra is constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extension is minimal and the construction does not involve supersymmetric de Sitter algebras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An involution is defined for the system and discrete representations are constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The representations imply a spatial lattice and the lattice spacing is half that of the bosonic case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A differential operator representation is given for fields on super-momentum space.

  1. Timeability in Extensive-Form Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre; Conitzer, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Extensive-form games constitute the standard representation scheme for games with a temporal component. But do all extensive-form games correspond to protocols that we can implement in the real world? We often rule out games with imperfect recall, which prescribe that an agent forget something...... that she knew before. In this paper, we show that even some games with perfect recall can be problematic to implement. Specifically, we show that if the agents have a sense of time passing (say, access to a clock), then some extensive-form games can no longer be implemented; no matter how we attempt...... to time the game, some information will leak to the agents that they are not supposed to have. We say such a game is not exactly timeable. We provide easy-to-check necessary and sufficient conditions for a game to be exactly timeable. Most of the technical depth of the paper concerns how to approximately...

  2. Symmetric Functional Model for Extensions of Hermitian

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, V

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers the functional model of a class of non-selfadjoint extensions of a Hermitian operator with equal deficiency indices. The explicit form of dilation of a dissipative extension is offered and the symmetric form of Sz.Nagy-Foia\\c{s} model as developed by B.~Pavlov is constructed. A variant of functional model for a general non-selfadjoint non-dissipative extension is formulated. We illustrate the theory by two examples: singular perturbations of the Laplace operator in~$L_2(\\Real^3)$ by a finite number of point interactions, and the Schr\\"odinger operator on the half axis~$(0, \\infty)$ in the Weyl limit circle case at infinity.

  3. Bayesian optimization for computationally extensive probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji

    2018-01-01

    An efficient method for finding a better maximizer of computationally extensive probability distributions is proposed on the basis of a Bayesian optimization technique. A key idea of the proposed method is to use extreme values of acquisition functions by Gaussian processes for the next training phase, which should be located near a local maximum or a global maximum of the probability distribution. Our Bayesian optimization technique is applied to the posterior distribution in the effective physical model estimation, which is a computationally extensive probability distribution. Even when the number of sampling points on the posterior distributions is fixed to be small, the Bayesian optimization provides a better maximizer of the posterior distributions in comparison to those by the random search method, the steepest descent method, or the Monte Carlo method. Furthermore, the Bayesian optimization improves the results efficiently by combining the steepest descent method and thus it is a powerful tool to search for a better maximizer of computationally extensive probability distributions.

  4. A novel decision diagrams extension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumin; Si, Shubin; Dui, Hongyan; Cai, Zhiqiang; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a graph-based representation of Boolean functions. It is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) based on Shannon's decomposition. Multi-state multi-valued decision diagram (MMDD) is a natural extension of BDD for the symbolic representation and manipulation of the multi-valued logic functions. This paper proposes a decision diagram extension method based on original BDD/MMDD while the scale of a reliability system is extended. Following a discussion of decomposition and physical meaning of BDD and MMDD, the modeling method of BDD/MMDD based on original BDD/MMDD is introduced. Three case studies are implemented to demonstrate the presented methods. Compared with traditional BDD and MMDD generation methods, the decision diagrams extension method is more computationally efficient as shown through the running time

  5. On Central Extensions of Associative Dialgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Isamiddin S.

    2016-03-01

    The concept of central extensions plays an important in constructing extensions of algebras. This technique has been successfully used in the classification problem of certain classes of algebras. In 1978 Skjelbred and Sund reduced the classification of nilpotent Lie algebras in a given dimension to the study of orbits under the action of automorphism group on the space of second degree cohomology of a smaller Lie algebra with coefficients in a trivial module. Then W. de Graaf applied the Skjelbred and Sund method to the classification problem of low-dimensional nilpotent Lie and associative algebras over some fields. The main purpose of this note is to establish elementary properties of central extensions of associative dialgebras and apply the above mentioned method to the classification of low dimensional nilpotent associative dialgebras.

  6. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  7. Extension of the nuclear power plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramsi, Alain

    2011-01-01

    After a presentation of the French nuclear context (history of the reactor fleet, choice of reactor type, PWR operation principle, competitiveness, environmental performance), this Power Point presentation addresses the context and challenges of the operation lifetime (average fleet age in different countries, examples of extensions, case of the United States, what is at stake with lifetime extension, decennial visits, EDF strategy), discusses the EDF's safety objectives (definition of the three main safety functions, impact of the operation duration and of the coexistence of two generations for the safety functions), discusses how to manage the ageing phenomenon for replaceable and non-replaceable components

  8. On loop extensions and cohomology of loops

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Rolando Jiménez; Meléndez, Quitzeh Morales

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are defined cohomology-like groups that classify loop extensions satisfying a given identity in three variables for association identities, and in two variables for the case of commutativity. It is considered a large amount of identities. This groups generalize those defined in works of Nishigori [2] and of Jhonson and Leedham-Green [4]. It is computed the number of metacyclic extensions for trivial action of the quotient on the kernel in one particular case for left Bol loops a...

  9. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  10. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  11. Pirate Life

    OpenAIRE

    Slaman, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The current work project was brought forth in order to understand and measure the performance/success of an entrepreneurial venture, Pirate Life: Children’s Theatre in Toronto, Canada. The Balance Score Card (BSC) was selected as the appropriate tool for this analysis to simply end effectively outline the major streams of the organization and organize them in a manner that would demonstrate success and areas needing improvement – providing the management with a calibration tool...

  12. Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice (GAEP), A publication of the Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria is an international journal which considers articles from all areas of Agricultural Extension: rural sociology, environmental extension, extension ...

  13. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  14. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  15. Design Extension in Post Fukushima Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Post Fukushima Flooding Review and Design Extension: • Increased tsunami height; • Increased tsunami wall;• Increased size of storm water drains; • Non return gates in storm water drains; • Wall around fore bay and sea water pump house; • Sealing of NIB penetrations for a higher tsunami; • Alternative approach road; • NICB elevation; • Perpendicular to coast line

  16. On an extension of a combinatorial identity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On an extension of a combinatorial identity. M RANA and A K AGARWAL. Center for Advanced Study in Mathematics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014,. India. E-mail: aka@pu.ac.in. MS received 22 August 2007. Abstract. Using Frobenius partitions we extend the main results of [4]. This leads to an infinite family of ...

  17. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  18. newspapers' agricultural agenda setting and extension agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    issue 'agendas' there is need, as asserted by McQuail (1987:75) for a combination of content analysis showing media attention to different issues in the relevant period and some indication of relevant media used by the public concerned, in this study, the extension agents. Agenda-setting according to Davis and Robinson ...

  19. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  20. Obstructions to Clifford system extensions of algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    The problem of Clifford system extensions resides in the classification and the construction ... The construction of T ( ) is closely analogous to a construction by Kanzaki [9], for a description of the. Chase-Harrison-Rosenberg seven term exact sequence [2] about the Brauer group. .... Cliffk(G, R; ) = χ−1( ) the fiber of χ over.

  1. FISHERIES EXTENSION SERVICES IN OGUN STATE | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to assess the current trends, impact and constraints of fisheries extension services to artisanal fishers in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State. The survey approach was used to generate the needed data using 120 structured questionnaires. Simple statistical techniques such as means ...

  2. FISHERIES EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AMONG WOMEN IN EPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on fisheries extension activities among women in Epe local Government area of Lagos State. A total 106 questionnaires were obtained from 120 randomly administered questionnaires. The result shows that majority of the women are sole owners of the businesses and they obtained fishing skills from their ...

  3. Journal of Environmental Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Journal of Environmental Extension is to be published annually to generate ideas on formulation, packaging, dissemination and consequential impacts of ideas/policies relating to the quality and sustainability of the environment. Focus of the Journal is on: Health Agriculture Technology

  4. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  5. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  6. Banana Algebra: Compositional Syntactic Language Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The ...

  7. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  8. Improving Generation Y Volunteerism in Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2013-01-01

    Members of Generation Y have many positive attributes that make them attractive to Extension volunteer administrators as a potential source of labor. However, they think differently, have unique needs, require new management styles, and have less tolerance for unpleasant working conditions than previous generations. Additionally, they are engaged…

  9. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions. Changguo Wei. Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2010 ... Author Affiliations. Changguo Wei1. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, People's Republic of China ...

  10. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    Agriculture is the bedrock of economic development in Nigeria. However, the development of the ... This policy direction placed additional responsibilities on extension by including sustainable development ... years and the recent trends in agricultural development world wide have necessitated the formulation of more ...

  11. Supersymmetric Extension of Technicolor & Fermion Mass Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, Matti; Di Chiara, Stefano; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We provide a complete extension of Minimal Walking Technicolor able to account for the standard model fermion masses. The model is supersymmetric at energies greater or equal to the technicolor compositeness scale. We integrate out, at the supersymmetry breaking scale, the elementary Higgses. We...

  12. On Viviani's Theorem and Its Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Viviani's theorem states that the sum of distances from any point inside an equilateral triangle to its sides is constant. Here, in an extension of this result, we show, using linear programming, that any convex polygon can be divided into parallel line segments on which the sum of the distances to the sides of the polygon is constant. Let us say…

  13. Emergency Food Programs: Untapped Opportunities for Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports results from a questionnaire that assessed the frequency and type of nutrition questions asked at emergency food programs to determine if Extension professionals need to increase direct outreach efforts. Emergency food program workers (n = 460) were recruited via mail to complete a self-administered survey. More than one-third…

  14. Extending the Agricultural Extension Model. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    The purposes of this report are: to describe the main elements of the U.S. agricultural extension model and its effects on the agricultural revolution; to analyze attempts to extend this model to non-agricultural technology and/or to less developed countries; and to draw general conclusions about the diffusion of technological innovations, with…

  15. Need for Methamphetamine Programming in Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreault, Amy R.; Miller, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported sought to identify the prevention education needs involving methamphetamine through survey methodology. The study focused on a random sample of U.S. states and the Extension Directors within each state, resulting in a 70% response rate (n = 134). Findings revealed that 11% reported they had received methamphetamine user…

  16. EXTENSION OF THE PROGRESSIVE RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the provisions agreed by the Finance Committee and Council in March and June 2000, respectively, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2001, for one year. Human Resources Division Tel. 72808/74128

  17. A Graph Library Extension of SVG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    be aggregated as a single node, and an entire graph can be embedded in a single node. In addition, a number of different graph animations are described. The starting point of the SVG extension is a library that provides an exact of mirror of SVG 1.1 in the functional programming language Scheme. Each element...

  18. Assessment Of Shell Petroleum Development Company Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed Shell Petroleum Development Company Extension Services in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were gathered form four categories of respondents drawn from the Company\\'s staff and the communities. A total of 180 respondents participated in the study. means scores and ...

  19. Communication for Rural Innovation : rethinking agricultural extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Ban, van den A.W.

    2004-01-01

    This important book is the re-titled third edition of the extremely well received and widely used Agricultural Extension (van den Ban & Hawkins, 1988, 1996). Building on the previous editions, Communication for Rural Innovation maintains and adapts the insights and conceptual models of value

  20. 77 FR 35366 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... following Web site: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wip/historic_preservation.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information... Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the...

  1. Women Empowerment And Agricultural Extension Policy: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the role and challenges of extension agents in empowering women in a bid to revamp the agricultural sector. The activities of women in agricultural production are reviewed against the backdrop of global shift to gender sensitivity, particularly the emphasis on the role of women in agriculture. The paper ...

  2. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  3. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  4. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  5. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. DR. G.R.K. Sharma Editor-in-Chief Dept. of Vet & A. H. Extension College of Vet. Science A.N.G.R. Agricultural University Tirupati – 517502 Andhra Pradesh India Email: sharmagrk@yahoo.com ...

  6. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In [4], Roberts and Singh have introduced the group 그(A,B) to generalize a result of. Dayton. The relation between the group 그(A,B) and subintegral extensions has been investigated by Reid, Roberts and Singh in a series of papers. Recently in [5], Sadhu and. Singh have proved that A is subintegrally closed in B if and ...

  7. Paramecium: An Extensible Object-Based Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, L.; Homburg, P.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of an extensible kernel, called Paramecium. This kernel uses an object-based software architecture which together with instance naming, late binding and explicit overrides enables easy reconfiguration. Determining which components reside in the kernel protection

  8. 77 FR 70995 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... NWPA-830G is an Appendix to the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level... Title: Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension...

  9. Transforming agriculture through contracted extension service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of small holder agriculture from subsistence farming to agribusiness focused systems, is paramount towards attainment of Kenya's vision 2030 and the Millennium Development Goals. This requires extension service delivery systems that focus on addressing challenges within agricultural product value ...

  10. Constructing Natural Extensions of Propositional Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přenosil, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2016), s. 1179-1190 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * propositional logic * natural extensions * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  11. Extension agents' technical knowledge requirements for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical knowledge requirements of extension agents were investigated in this study. Data for the study was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to the 78 respondents. It was found that respondents were mainly males, were married, were in the middle age category, had BSc/HND, made ...

  12. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-01-27

    262. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(2): 262 – 275, 2017. ISSN:1998-0507 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v10i2.12. Submitted: January 27, 2017. Accepted: March 20, 2017. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria. Abstract.

  13. Rural Development And Agricultural Extension Administration In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...

  14. Ethics and morals in the extension work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Lourdes Morales Intriago

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main discussions about agents that provide rural extension is the lack of adequate proposals for the reality of farmers. The exyensionists work according to ethics and morals. Was carried out a theoretical search by made analyzing concepts about these terms and that are applied by extension agents. In This paper discusses how agents act with respect to the aforementioned notions and the conflicts they can cause with rural communities. It was found that the extensionist’s behavior is based on its values, norms and sanctions formation that can be object, which determines the changes that occur in the communities served. On the other hand, farmers do not receive appropriate attention by organisms that facilitate the Rural Extension, ignoring their interests and priorities. In addition, agents, as servants of institutions that provide assistance and extension, lose autonomy during the contact with communities. It was concluded that agents act correctly according to morality, as well as what concerns to ethics, since lowing the rules of the institution to which they belong, which does not always match with what rural people pursued.

  15. Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Vesterstrøm, Jakob Svaneborg; Riget, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce spatial extension to particles in the PSO model in order to overcome premature convergence in iterative optimisation. The standard PSO and the new model (SEPSO) are compared w.r.t. performance on well-studied benchmark problems. We show that the SEPSO indeed managed to...

  16. Entrepreneurial Extension Conducted via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sarah; Hyde, Jeffrey; Raines, Christopher; Kelley, Kathleen; Ollendyke, Dana; Remcheck, James

    2011-01-01

    The widespread availability of and access to the Internet have led to the development of new forms of communication. Collectively termed "social media," these new communication tools have created vast opportunities for Extension professionals in how they perform their work and how businesses interact with consumers. This article outlines currently…

  17. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 125, No. 2, May 2015, pp. 149–160. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions. VIVEK SADHU. Department of Mathematics ...... comments which have improved the exposition. Further, he would like to thank CSIR,. India for financial ...

  18. Communication for strengthening agricultural extension and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that extension workers need training in Communication for Development (C4D), an emerging body of knowledge for addressing problems, such as participation, integration and capacity building for them to relate more effectively with development partners. Thus, this paper proposes a C4D framework for ...

  19. Catastrophic failure of polymer melts during extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical flow modeling has been applied to study the break of monodisperse polymer melts during extension. These continuum mechanical based computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ’interchain pressure’ theory. Calculated breaks, a result of small initial sample imperfections, ag...

  20. Extension Procedures for Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gabriel; Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Greiff, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    We present factor extension procedures for confirmatory factor analysis that provide estimates of the relations of common and unique factors with external variables that do not undergo factor analysis. We present identification strategies that build upon restrictions of the pattern of correlations between unique factors and external variables. The…

  1. Livestock extension practice and competency among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test-retest technique was used to pre-test the instrument, yielding a coefficient r=0.91. Descriptive, correlation and t-test statistics were used to analyze data. Results revealed that about 40% of respondents engaged in livestock extension activities in the last two years, while about 16% actually specialized in Animal ...

  2. Testing Extension Services through AKAP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; La Rocca, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the attitude of Italian farms in gaining access to agricultural extension services (AES). Design/methodology/approach: The ways Italian farms use AES are described through the AKAP (Awareness, Knowledge, Adoption, Product) sequence. This article investigated the AKAP sequence by submitting a…

  3. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would ...

  4. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  5. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Saleri, Nuccia; Badoum, Gisèle; Ouedraogo, Martial; Dembélé, Sary M.; Nacanabo, Rachel; Bonkoungou, Victor; Cirillo, Daniela; Pinsi, Gabriele; Matteelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Because data from countries in Africa are limited, we measured the proportion of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases among TB patients in Burkina Faso for whom retreatment was failing. Of 34 patients with multidrug-resistant TB, 2 had an XDR TB strain. Second-line TB drugs should be strictly controlled to prevent further XDR TB increase.

  6. Non extensive considerations on a Machian Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: There is an extension of the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs theory (BG) that is called Tsallis statistical theory (TT). To sum up, the formalism initially considers the entropy formula as a non extensive (NE) quantity where there is a parameter q that measures the so-called degree of nonextensivity. This formalism has been successfully applied in many physical models. An important feature is that when q —> 1 we recover the usual Boltzmann- Gibbs theory, i.e., we have an extensive theory The dependence of the mass of a particle on the rest of the universe was argued by Mach in the nineteenth century itself in what is now famous as Machs Principle. The Principle is counterintuitive in that we tend to consider the mass which represents the quantity of matter in a particle to be an intrinsic property of the particle. But the following statement of Machs Principle shows it to be otherwise thus going counter to ideas of locality and causality. The purpose of this paper is to use the non extensive concept in order to analyze the Machian view of the Universe. We will calculate the Machian components of the theory as functions of the nonextensivity parameter q and we will discuss its consequences. We will also show the influence of the asymptotic behavior in these Machian q-parameters. (author)

  7. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Agricultural Extensionaims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by stimulating thought, study, research, discussion and the publication and exchange of knowledge both nationally and internationally. * promote the professionalism ...

  8. Extension Study Group Members View Their Clubs and Extension Home Economists. ANREI Publication No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mason E.

    The data presented in this report were selected from a 1972 study of Michigan Extension Study Group (ESG) members. Included are data descriptive of the women themselves and their situation (area and type of home, age, income, ESG experience, and especially their attitudes toward their ESG and their Extension Home Economists). Selected findings are…

  9. Collaboration of Extension and Grape Industry Members to Create a New Extension Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafne, Eric T.; Ingels, George; Ingels, Jane; Carroll, Becky

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration is an important part of the interaction between Extension and industry. Successful sharing of workload can provide benefits for both parties. A project to create a workbook to address vineyard sustainability was initiated by members of the Oklahoma grape industry with assistance from land-grant university Extension. Productive…

  10. The Changing Nature of the Cooperative Extension System: Views of Leading Extension Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Four administrators of the Cooperative Extension System share their views concerning recent substantial changes in the system's focus of programing, sources of funding, and organizational structures; the need for all disciplines involved in extension to grapple with societal problems; and relationships with institutions of higher education. (LP)

  11. Tampa Bay Extension Agents’ Views of Urban Extension: Philosophy and Program Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the concept of urban Extension as perceived by Extension agents within the Tampa Bay area, one of Florida’s fastest growing metropolitan areas. From a theoretical perspective, it is critical to understand Extension agents’ beliefs about urban Extension because behaviors are directly related to attitudes (Ajzen, 2012. In 2016, a qualitative investigation was undertaken to explore the perspectives of 23 agents working within the Tampa Bay area. Results showed the majority of agents believed that context and client needs are unique for urban Extension, and that to a lesser extent, unique agent expertise is required. Further, these beliefs impacted how agents reported their approach to programming, with an emphasis on providing convenience and seeking partnerships. Difficulties were identified related to identifying the role of Extension in a resource-rich environment of service providers, which contributed to the existence of a perceived disconnect between urban audiences and Extension. Opportunities exist for Extension leadership to provide strategic organizational support that will enhance agents’ abilities to succeed in the metropolitan environment.

  12. A Method for Recognizing State of Finger Flexure and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terado, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Osamu

    In our country, the handicapped and the elderly people in bed increase rapidly. In the bedridden person’s daily life, there may be limitations in the physical movement and the means of mutual communication. For the support of their comfortable daily lives, therefore, the development of human interface equipment becomes an important task. The equipment of this kind is being already developed by means of laser beam, eye-tracking, breathing motion and myo-electric signals, while the attachment and handling are normally not so easy. In this study, paying attention to finger motion, we have developed human interface equipment easily attached to the body, which enables one to measure the finger flexure and extension for mutual communication. The state of finger flexure and extension is identified by a threshold level analysis from the 3D-locus data for the finger movement, which can be measured through the infrared rays from the LED markers attached to a glove with the previously developed prototype system. We then have confirmed from an experiment that nearly 100% recognition for the finger movement can be achieved.

  13. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  14. [Gestalt therapy, extension of psychoanalysis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, A

    1980-01-01

    Gestalt therapy extends considerably psychoanalysis. 1. Transfer in psychoanalysis allows to work on the disturbed relations which the patient transfers onto his analyst, relations created by the parents and repeated now. The extended transfer in a therapeutic group of life allows to work on the fact that the patient recreates here and now the difficulties he encounters in life. 2. The game of the analyst and the encounter show that beyond transfer and projection, a real encounter may take place, a precious means to create life here and now. 3. The difference between individual therapy and group-therapy is about this: the former is centered on illness, the latter on life; the former helps to understand, the latter to live; the individual talks about facts from the past and from elsewhere and the group lives "here and now", which allows to test feelings, a powerful source of life. 4. A session of group-therapy, as developed here, allows to see how one can find a response to a need or avoid to find a response to it. 5. A comparison-table between psycho-analysis and gestalt shows the difference of method, diagnosis, therapeutic process, therapeutist's attitude and of the position of the patient. 6. Psycho-analysis is perhaps a relay after religion? Several elements make us believe this: tension in contacts, ritual, authority, protection, neutrality, guilty making. 7. To contest or contest one-self has helped me to compare the contester with the psycho-analyst: both contest society, but they don't change their behavior. The gestalt-therapeutist is in a way like a hippie: though contesting society, he brings a change to his way of life, while being closer to life.

  15. Dirac Triplet Extension of the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado, C.; Martin, A.; Ostdiek, B.

    2015-08-13

    In this paper we explore extensions of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model involving two $SU(2)_L$ triplet chiral superfields that share a superpotential Dirac mass yet only one of which couples to the Higgs fields. This choice is motivated by recent work using two singlet superfields with the same superpotential requirements. We find that, as in the singlet case, the Higgs mass in the triplet extension can easily be raised to $125\\,\\text{GeV}$ without introducing large fine-tuning. For triplets that carry hypercharge, the regions of least fine tuning are characterized by small contributions to the $\\mathcal T$ parameter, and light stop squarks, $m_{\\tilde t_1} \\sim 300-450\\,\\text{GeV}$; the latter is a result of the $\\tan\\beta$ dependence of the triplet contribution to the Higgs mass. Despite such light stop masses, these models are viable provided the stop-electroweakino spectrum is sufficiently compressed.

  16. Geometric extension through Schwarzschild r = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.; Katz, J.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem

    1990-01-01

    Singularities in space-time are not necessarily cancers in the manifold but can herald interesting topological change in the space-time at places where there are several different tangent Minkowski spaces. Most discussions of gravitational collapse cease when space-time becomes singular. In the 'hour-glass' universe we have an example where the singularity develops in empty space; here we give a geometrical extension through the singularity in which geodesics that enter it emerge into a new space. The result extends Schwarzschild space and is periodic in 'extended' Penrose coordinates. There is a topological singularity but no mass at r = 0. The extension is mildly nonanalytic but unique. It is based on the concept that time does not stop and that empty space-times which develop singularities must still have zero Ricci tensors even where the Riemann tensor becomes infinite. (author)

  17. [Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with orbital extension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás Ontiveros, A; España Gregori, E; Climent Vallano, L; Rivas Rodero, S; Alamar Velázquez, A; Simal Julián, J A

    2015-01-01

    The case is presented of a 21 year-old male with a history of left proptosis and diplopia of two weeks of onset. The MRI showed an ethmoid-orbital vascular lesion with anterior skull base invasion and orbital extension. Biopsy of the ethmoid confirmed fibrovascular tissue, which supported the diagnosis of angiofibroma. It is a benign neoplasm with local characteristics of malignancy due to its ability to invade adjacent areas. In this case, the debut presented with manifestations of orbital extension. A broad and multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. States On Orthocomplemented Difference Posets (Extensions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    We continue the investigation of orthocomplemented posets that are endowed with a symmetric difference (ODPs). The ODPs are orthomodular and, therefore, can be viewed as "enriched" quantum logics. In this note, we introduced states on ODPs. We derive their basic properties and study the possibility of extending them over larger ODPs. We show that there are extensions of states from Boolean algebras over unital ODPs. Since unital ODPs do not, in general, have to be set-representable, this result can be applied to a rather large class of ODPs. We then ask the same question after replacing Boolean algebras with "nearly Boolean" ODPs (the pseudocomplemented ODPs). Making use of a few results on ODPs, some known and some new, we construct a pseudocomplemented ODP, P, and a state on P that does not allow for extensions over larger ODPs.

  19. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    - hard concerns are constraints that must always be met, while soft concerns describe desirable goals that may be prioritized by the system's user. The extensible controller uses a genetic algorithm to continuously resolve conflicts among independently developed control concerns. Both new software...... to introduce a new component without performing a global integrity check. Avoiding a global integrity check relies on anticipating what kind of extensions are required in the future and designing a suitable interface and coordination mechanism, so that conflicts among mutually unaware components can...... be resolved automatically. Typical control system components are concerned with the way in which actuators are controlled. Combining mutually unaware control system components that share interest in the same actuators are likely to lead to complex conflicts, thus making control systems a particularly...

  20. Mathematical model of subscriber extension line

    OpenAIRE

    Petříková, Iva; Diviš, Zdeněk; Tesař, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on measurement properties of metallic subscriber extension lines to build regression mathematical model for a symmetric pair cable. The regression model is compared with an analytical model based on a theoretical description of transfer parameters for this type of line. The output of the paper should demonstrate the impact of electromagnetic interference on the symmetric pair. The paper also describes the method to identify the interference sources and ...