WorldWideScience

Sample records for boiler-turbine life extension

  1. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  2. Embalse life extension project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Embalse life extension (LEP) project involved reactor core replacement (re-tubing), control computer replacement, safety and licensing and safety upgrades and power uprating. Objective of this program was to extend the life of the Embalse Nuclear Generating Station for about 30 more years of safe, reliable operation. The scope of this work was in keeping with LEP upgrades that other sister CANDU 6 stations are or have been implementing as part of their refurbishment programs.

  3. Desain Sistem Kontrol Menggunakan Fuzzy Gain Scheduling Untuk Unit Boiler-Turbine Nonlinear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariska Kukuh Wahyudianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Boiler-turbine adalah suatu pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU dalam skala kecil. Pada makalah ini membahas tentang permasalahan pengaturan tekanan drum dan daya output pada boiler-turbine plant. Sedangkan variabel perbedaan level air pada drum dijaga tetap konstan. Kontroler fuzzy gain scheduling didesain untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Model nonlinear boiler-turbine plant direpresentasikan ke dalam model fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno melalui beberapa titik kerja. Kontroler state feedback disusun dengan konsep Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC. Gain kontroler diperoleh melalui metode pole placement. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa respon tekanan drum dan daya output mampu mengikuti sinyal referensi yang diberikan.

  4. Considerable Life Extension versus Immortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Rantanen

    2012-01-01

    The ethical desirability of considerable life extension by medical technology has become an increasingly discussed topic in bioethics during recent years. Immortality can be seen as a maximum of life extension. Because of this, many authors use the term 'immortality' for referring to a lifespan that is considerably longer than our current one. However, being literally immortal would be very different from living for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. The arguments that have been made abou...

  5. Robust H(infinity) tracking control of boiler-turbine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Nguang, S K; Shen, J; Liu, G; Li, Y G

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a fuzzy H(infinity) state feedback tracking control of a boiler-turbine is solved. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is used to model a boiler-turbine system. Next, based on the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model, sufficient conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(infinity) nonlinear state feedback tracking control are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of the proposed tracking control design is that it does not involve feedback linearization technique and complicated adaptive scheme. An industrial boiler-turbine system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design as compared with a linearized approach. PMID:20211466

  6. The plant life extension issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses nuclear plant life extension (PLEX). PLEX is a management decision process which should come to a conclusion no later than 8--15 years before the projected retirement date of the unit being evaluated; this time range covering the lead time to bring new, large baseload capacity on line. The conclusion is whether to spend more money on replacement capacity or to instead use some of that funding for extended maintenance on the existing unit, thus extending its life. According to the author, the key issues of the decision are customer cost benefit and risk of achievement

  7. Life extension and life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continue the effort of nuclear energy as the clean energy offsetting the increase in greenhouse gas emission that contributes to the increased global warming effect, the nuclear industry is focused on the optimization of their current nuclear generation assets. Plant life extension (Plex) and Plant life management (Plim), together with power up rate, are the key strategies for the optimization effort. Plex begins with the process to obtain the regulatory approval for an additional 20 years of operation, beyond the current 40-year limit. This highly standardized process consists of the following steps: 1) Scoping: identify the systems, structures and components for inclusion in the license renewal scope of work. 2) Screening: narrow down the selection of the in-scope systems, structures and components based on passive and long-lived characteristics. 3) Aging management review: demonstrate that aging effects will continue to be managed during the additional 20 years of operation. 4) Time limiting aging analyses: confirm the acceptability of design bases analyses that assume the 40-year plant life as a key input assumptions. To provide a consistent approach for the preparation of the license renewal application, the following are the key guidance documents: NUREG-1800: Standard review plan; NUREG-1801: Generic aging lessons learned; Nuclear Energy Institute NEI 95-10. The objectives of Plim are to focus on improving plant reliability/availability, and to plan for equipment upgrades for efficiency improvement as well as technological obsolescence. Plim is a technical evaluation combined with a risk assessment to produce a long-range business plant with a time horizon of 10 years or longer. Due to its long view nature, this plan will be reviewed on a yearly basis for any required adjustments. The technical evaluation consists of the following major steps: 1) Select systems, structures and components with performance deficiencies experience. 2) Collect operating data

  8. Nonlinear inversion-based output tracking control of a boiler-turbine unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Jizhen LIU; Wen TAN

    2005-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load-following has been an important issue in the power industry. An output tracking control system of a boiler-turbine unit is developed. The system is composed of stable inversion and feedback controller.The stable inversion is implemented as a feedforward controller to improve the load-following capability, and the feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the stability and robustness of the whole system. Loop-shaping H∞ method is used to design the feedback controller and the final controller is reduced to a multivariable PI form. The output tracking control system takes account of the multivariable, nonlinear and coupling behavior of boiler-turbine system, and the simulation tests show that the control system works well and can be widely applied.

  9. Multi-objective control of nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator magnitude and rate constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pang-Chia

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-objective controller design approaches for nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics subject to actuator magnitude and rate constraints. System nonlinearity is handled by a suitable linear parameter varying system representation with drum pressure as the system varying parameter. Variation of the drum pressure is represented by suitable norm-bounded uncertainty and affine dependence on system matrices. Based on linear matrix inequality algorithms, the magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator and the deviations of fluid density and water level are formulated while the tracking abilities on the drum pressure and power output are optimized. Variation ranges of drum pressure and magnitude tracking commands are used as controller design parameters, determined according to the boiler-turbine's operation range. PMID:22959740

  10. Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit: analysis and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Fang, Fang; Tian, Liang; Fu, Caifen; Liu, Jizhen

    2008-04-01

    Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit is discussed in this paper. Based on the nonlinear model of the unit, this paper analyzes the nonlinearity of the unit, and selects the appropriate operating points so that the linear controller can achieve wide-range performance. Simulation and experimental results at the No. 4 Unit at the Dalate Power Plant show that the linear controller can achieve the desired performance under a specific range of load variations. PMID:18280475

  11. Boiler-turbine control system design using continuous-time nonlinear model predictive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Xu-sheng; ZHOU Huai-chun

    2008-01-01

    A continuous-time nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC) was designed for a boiler-turbine unit. The controller was designed by optimizing a receding-horizon performance index, with the nonlinear system approximated by its Taylor series expansion with a certain order, the magnitude saturation constraints on the inputs satisfied by increasing the predictive time, and the rate saturation conditions on the actuators satisfied by tuning the time constant of the reference trajectories in a reference governor. Simulation results showed that the controller can drive the drum pressure and output power of the nonlinear boiler-turbine unit to follow their respective reference trajectories throughout a varying operation range and keep the water level deviation within tolerances. Comparison of the NMPC scheme with the generic model control (GMC) scheme indicated that the responses are slower and there are more oscillations in the responses of the water level, fuel flow input and feed water flow input in the GMC scheme when the boiler-turbine unit is operating over a wide range.

  12. Economic modeling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives

  13. Economic modelling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives. An analysis of the role of life extension for Virginia Power's generating system was performed using the MIDAS model, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. MIDAS is particularly well suited to this type of study because of its decision analysis framework. The model incorporates modules for load analysis, capacity expansion, production costing, financial analysis, and rates. The decision tree structure facilitates the multiple-scenario analysis of uncertainty. The model's output includes many economic and financial measures, including capital expenditures, fuel and purchases power costs, revenue requirements, average rates, external financing requirements, and coverage ratio. Based on findings for Virginia Power's Surry 1 plant, nuclear plant life extension has economic benefits for a utility's customers and financial benefits for the utility's investors. These benefits depend on a number of economic, technical and regulatory factors. The economic analysis presented in this paper identifies many of the key factors and issues relevant to life extension planning

  14. A genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a boiler-turbine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhong; Qian, Chunjiang; Du, Haibo

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a drum-type boiler-turbine system. Based on a second order nonlinear model, a finite-time convergent controller is first designed to drive the states to their setpoints in a finite time. In the case when the state variables are unmeasurable, the system will be regulated using a constant controller or an output feedback controller. An adaptive controller is also designed to stabilize the system since the model parameters may vary under different operating points. The novelty of the proposed controller design approach lies in fully utilizing the system nonlinearities instead of linearizing or canceling them. In addition, the newly developed techniques for finite-time convergent controller are used to guarantee fast convergence of the system. Simulations are conducted under different cases and the results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controllers. PMID:22222312

  15. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  16. Structural considerations in nuclear life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, W.B.; McHale, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to extend the licensed life of a nuclear power plant requires that technical, economic, and regulatory criteria be satisfied. Two ongoing Electric Power Research Institute/US Department of Energy funded pilot studies are looking at the technical and economic aspects from a plant wide viewpoint to life extension. In each, structures have been identified to have a potentially strong effect on the viability for extended life because of the possible major cost, schedule, and person-rem factors should major refurbishment, modifications, or replacement be required. This paper reviews the degradation mechanisms and counterbalancing design features for one of these pilot plants in the studies. It further reviews the recommended ongoing practices to be followed to better ensure that life extension for the structures remains a future option.

  17. Structural considerations in nuclear life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to extend the licensed life of a nuclear power plant requires that technical, economic, and regulatory criteria be satisfied. Two ongoing Electric Power Research Institute/US Department of Energy funded pilot studies are looking at the technical and economic aspects from a plant wide viewpoint to life extension. In each, structures have been identified to have a potentially strong effect on the viability for extended life because of the possible major cost, schedule, and person-rem factors should major refurbishment, modifications, or replacement be required. This paper reviews the degradation mechanisms and counterbalancing design features for one of these pilot plants in the studies. It further reviews the recommended ongoing practices to be followed to better ensure that life extension for the structures remains a future option

  18. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  19. Monitoring radiation embrittlement during life extension periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, A., E-mail: Antonio.Ballesteros-Avila@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of European Commission, IET, P.O.B. 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Altstadt, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O.B. 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gillemot, F. [MTA EK, Centre for Energy Research, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary); Hein, H. [AREVA GmbH, Fracture Mechanics, PTCMF-G, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Wagemans, J. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Rouden, J. [Ringhals AB, RTQM, 432 85 Väröbacka (Sweden); Barthelmes, J. [AREVA GmbH, Fracture Mechanics, PTCMF-G, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Wilford, K. [Rolls-Royce, Nuclear Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 2000, RAY-SW1-70, Derby DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Serrano, M. [CIEMAT, Structural Materials Division, Avda de la Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Brumovsky, M. [NRI Řež, Nuclear Research Institute, Husinec – Řež, Hlavní 130 250 68 (Czech Republic); Chaouadi, R. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ortner, S. [NNL, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6AE (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Techniques and methods for monitoring radiation embrittlement are described. • The life extension of the standard surveillance programmes is discussed. • Guidance is given for the design of new surveillance capsules. • Recommendations for Integrated and Coordinated Surveillance Programmes are given. - Abstract: This paper presents guidelines to monitor the radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) during life extension periods (to 60 or 80 years) or for the long term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The guidelines were developed in 2012–2013 by a Task Group of the international project LONGLIFE. The work performed responds to the need for guidance to treat long term irradiation effects within the ageing management of NPPs, since the standard RPV surveillance programmes were designed only to cover a time period of 40 years. The guidelines are intended to support specialists in the field and managers in the plant to choose among the most adequate techniques and methods available today to extend the use of their current RPV surveillance programme beyond design life, or implement a new programme when needed. The study performed identifies weaknesses in the ability of the standard surveillance programmes to provide data needed for long term operation, and proposes solutions and tools to solve and/or mitigate the lack or scarcity of surveillance material for their use in life extension. Guidance is also given on methods and strategies to generate reliable surveillance data in the high fluence range.

  20. Elevated histone expression promotes life span extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, Jason; Truong, David; Das, Chandrima; Carson, Joshua J; Kieft, Jeffrey; Harkness, Troy; Tyler, Jessica K

    2010-09-10

    Changes to the chromatin structure accompany aging, but the molecular mechanisms underlying aging and the accompanying changes to the chromatin are unclear. Here, we report a mechanism whereby altering chromatin structure regulates life span. We show that normal aging is accompanied by a profound loss of histone proteins from the genome. Indeed, yeast lacking the histone chaperone Asf1 or acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56 are short lived, and this appears to be at least partly due to their having decreased histone levels. Conversely, increasing the histone supply by inactivation of the histone information regulator (Hir) complex or overexpression of histones dramatically extends life span via a pathway that is distinct from previously known pathways of life span extension. This study indicates that maintenance of the fundamental chromatin structure is critical for slowing down the aging process and reveals that increasing the histone supply extends life span. PMID:20832724

  1. Data-driven modeling and predictive control for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Shen, Jiong; Li, Yiguo; Lee, Kwang Y

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops a novel data-driven fuzzy modeling strategy and predictive controller for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace identification (SID) methods. To deal with the nonlinear behavior of boiler-turbine unit, fuzzy clustering is used to provide an appropriate division of the operation region and develop the structure of the fuzzy model. Then by combining the input data with the corresponding fuzzy membership functions, the SID method is extended to extract the local state-space model parameters. Owing to the advantages of the both methods, the resulting fuzzy model can represent the boiler-turbine unit very closely, and a fuzzy model predictive controller is designed based on this model. As an alternative approach, a direct data-driven fuzzy predictive control is also developed following the same clustering and subspace methods, where intermediate subspace matrices developed during the identification procedure are utilized directly as the predictor. Simulation results show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24559835

  2. Boiling water reactor life extension monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991 the average age of GE-supplied Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) reached 15 years. The distribution of BWR ages range from three years to 31 years. Several of these plants have active life extension programmes, the most notable of which is the Monticello plant in Minnesota which is the leading BWR plant for license renewal in the United States. The reactor pressure vessel and its internals form the heart of the boiling water reactor (BWR) power plant. Monitoring the condition of the vessel as it operates provides a continuous report on the structural integrity of the vessel and internals. Monitors for fatigue, stress corrosion and neutron effects can confirm safety margins and predict residual life. Every BWR already incorporates facilities to track the key aging mechanisms of fatigue, stress corrosion and neutron embrittlement. Fatigue is measured by counting the cycles experienced by the pressure vessel. Stress corrosion is gauged by periodic measurements of primary water conductivity and neutron embrittlement is tracked by testing surveillance samples. The drawbacks of these historical procedures are that they are time consuming, they lag the current operation, and they give no overall picture of structural integrity. GE has developed an integrated vessel fitness monitoring system to fill the gaps in the historical, piecemetal monitoring of the BWR vessel and internals and to support plant life extension. (author)

  3. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  4. Economic justification of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry generally uses the revenue requirements method to compare alternative investment and financing decisions. Westinghouse has developed a present-worth generating cost model to assess the potential economic values of PLEX projects undertaken for nuclear power plants. This model evaluates all significant benefits and costs based on actual data provided by the utility and measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between PLEX and a reference plan (nuclear plant replacement with a nuclear- or coal-fired plant of the same capacity). The ratio of the benefits of a PLEX program to its costs are calculated. The paper shows that a program that extends the life of the plant by 20 yr has a break-even cost of approximately $1100 per kW(electric) if the outage time to make the replacements (time in excess of normal planned outages) is 24 months. The allowed expense decreases rapidly if the PLEX program requires longer outage times, but is substantial at even 36 or 48 months. The results benefit-to-cost ratio for PLEX is at least 4.0. The ratio would be much higher if additional benefits from availability, efficiency improvements, and reduction in O and M costs were included. The results of the PLEX economic evaluations performed by Westinghouse clearly indicate that nuclear plant life extension is the most economical alternative to building new generating capacities

  5. Steam generators life extension experience at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) commissioned in 1972 has been operating under PLEX since Jan 2004, after completion of 30 years of its design life. It is planned to extend its life at least by another 15 years after necessary upgrades and re-licensing outages (RLO) by local regulators. KANUPP has six steam generators (SGs), with half-inch diameter Monel-400 tubes. In-service inspection is being carried out regularly in compliance with plant and regulatory requirements (CSA N285.4 for tubes and ASME codes for shell and internals). Degradation is prominent in tubes under sludge from pitting/wastage and denting at first tube support plate (Corten steel) in all the six SG units. Up til now there has been only one instance of a tube leakage and so far 99 tubes (i.e. 1.2% of the total tubes) have been plugged based on wall thinning and severely dented at first tube support plate. A regular monitoring program that is in place includes inspection of tubes, primary and secondary internals, shell, supports and connection welds. Plugging criteria for tubes is ≥ 40% for wall thinning and ≤ 0.250 inch opening for denting using stabilizer bars. An extensive monitoring program for condition assessment is in hand to keep a watch on the rate and morphology of degradation mechanisms and surveillance on susceptible areas unless remedial and control measures are effectively in place. KANUPP steam generators have so far undergone partial water lancing in 2000, hydraulic analysis study, mechanical integrity and comprehensive inspection of tube, overall condition assessment, internals, shell welds and supports inspection. (author)

  6. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    place while our vessels are in service. As the inspection takes place we are able to view a real time image of detected discontinuities on a video monitor. The B-scan ultrasonic technique is allowing us to perform fast accurate examinations covering up to 95% of the surface area of each pressure vessel. Receiving data on 95% of a pressure vessel provides us with a lot of useful information. We use this data to determine the condition of each pressure vessel. Once the condition is known the vessels are classed by risk. The risk level is then managed by making decisions related to repair, operating parameters, accepting and monitoring or replacement of the equipment. Inspection schedules are set at maximum intervals and reinspection is minimized for the vessels that are not at risk. The remaining life of each pressure vessel is determined, mechanical integrity is proven and regulatory requirements are met. Abbott Laboratories is taking this proactive approach because we understand that our process equipment is a critical element for successful operation. A run to failure practice would never allow Abbott Laboratories to achieve the corporation's objective of being the world's leading health care company. Nondestructive state of the art technology and the understanding of its capabilities and limitations are key components of a proactive program for life extension of pressure vessels. 26

  7. Life extension program of KORI Unit 1 NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two phases of Life extension program for KORI Unit 1 NPP are presented. Phase I is completed. It was concluded that life extension is a feasible option in technical and economic aspects. Detailed analysis of RPV is underway, plan for Phase II is finished. It deals with screening and sorting of all relevant SSCs, detailed life evaluation of SSCs, ageing management program and documentation for license renewal application

  8. Electrostimulation method for cardiomyocyte life extension

    OpenAIRE

    Čermáková, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the electrophysiology of cardiac cells, their electro-stimulation and design of stimulation device to extend their life. The first part is focused on the action potential in general, in muscle cells, followed by an analysis of the process and characteristics of the action potential in cardiomyocytes. The next section provides a procedure for isolating and process of changes that lead to cell death and of a method that the process would be eliminated. Part of this work is ...

  9. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  10. Life extension factor klotho enhances cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Dena B.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Zhu, Lei; Broestl, Lauren; Worden, Kurtresha; Wang, Dan; Sturm, Virginia E.; Kim, Daniel; Klein, Eric; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Ho, Kaitlyn; Eilertson, Kirsten E.; Yu, Lei; Kuro-o, Makoto; De Jager, Philip L.; Coppola, Giovanni; Small, Gary W.; Bennett, David A.; Kramer, Joel H.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aging is the primary risk factor for cognitive decline, an emerging health threat to aging societies worldwide. Whether anti-aging factors such as klotho can counteract cognitive decline is unknown. We show that a life span-extending variant of the human KLOTHO gene, KL-VS, is associated with enhanced cognition in heterozygous carriers. Because this allele increased klotho levels in serum, we analyzed transgenic mice with systemic overexpression of klotho. They performed better than controls in multiple tests of learning and memory. Elevating klotho in mice also enhanced long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and enriched synaptic GluN2B, an NMDA receptor subunit with key functions in learning and memory. Blockade of GluN2B abolished klotho-mediated effects. Surprisingly, klotho effects were evident also in young mice and did not correlate with age in humans, suggesting independence from the aging process. Augmenting klotho or its effects may enhance cognition at different life stages and counteract cognitive decline. PMID:24813892

  11. Nuclear plant life extension topics - Programmatic and specific considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Performance Indicator Program by its very nature addresses many areas that are important to nuclear plant life extension. Some of the key results of this program are presented in this paper. The effort by the industry to improve performance indicators such as forced outage rate, equivalent availability, and thermal performance supports maintaining the unit in an excellent manner, thus facilitating and supporting life extension

  12. Life Extension Factor Klotho Enhances Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena B. Dubal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the primary risk factor for cognitive decline, an emerging health threat to aging societies worldwide. Whether anti-aging factors such as klotho can counteract cognitive decline is unknown. We show that a lifespan-extending variant of the human KLOTHO gene, KL-VS, is associated with enhanced cognition in heterozygous carriers. Because this allele increased klotho levels in serum, we analyzed transgenic mice with systemic overexpression of klotho. They performed better than controls in multiple tests of learning and memory. Elevating klotho in mice also enhanced long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and enriched synaptic GluN2B, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunit with key functions in learning and memory. Blockade of GluN2B abolished klotho-mediated effects. Surprisingly, klotho effects were evident also in young mice and did not correlate with age in humans, suggesting independence from the aging process. Augmenting klotho or its effects may enhance cognition and counteract cognitive deficits at different life stages.

  13. The Article Deals with the Improvement of Professional Activity Efficiency of Operational Personnel for Boiler-Turbine Department of Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Human factor is one of the main determining factors in providing stability and reliability of power systems operation. In this context it is significant to estimate the level of professional activity efficiency of operational staff for boiler-turbine department of power stations.The article presents developed by the author algorithm of carrying out such research as well as the results of experimental research, carried out in one of the power stations of the state industrial unity “Belenergo” ...

  14. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer. PMID:22633781

  15. Life extension of the St. Lucie unit 1 reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1989, Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) established the policy that St. Lucie unit 1 should not be prevented from achieving a 60-yr operating life by reactor vessel embrittlement. A 60-yr operating life means that the plant would be allowed to operate until the year 2036, which is 20 years beyond the current license expiration date of 2016. Since modifications to the reactor vessel and its components are projected to be expensive, the desire of FP and L management was to achieve this lifetime extension through the use of fuel management and proven technology. The following limitations were placed on any acceptable method for achieving this lifetime extension capability: low fuel cycle cost; low impact on safety parameters; very little or no operations impact; and use of normal reactor materials. A task team was formed along with the Advanced Nuclear Fuels Company (ANF) to develop a vessel-life extension program

  16. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  17. United States Department of Energy nuclear plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, nuclear power plants in the United States of America may be retired, not necessarily because of physical deterioration or loss of productivity, but simply because their established lifetime of 40 years has elapsed. Since 1985, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been actively involved in research, in cooperation with the U.S. nuclear industry, to resolve the technical and procedural issues affecting nuclear power plant life extension. Extended lifetime operations and renewal of the operating license will be accomplished in the U.S. through an industry-wide effort involving the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), utilities, the Atomic Industrial Forum, code and standard committees, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the DOE. The collective industry effort is being coordinated by the Nuclear Utility Plant Life Extension (NUPLEX) Steering Committee. As an important first step in plant life extension research, the DOE, EPRI and plant owners are supporting two pilot plant studies. These studies thus far indicate no major obstacles to operating considerably longer than 40 years. Additional analysis and R and D are needed, however, to resolve generic uncertainties of degradation processes and to develop the technology for improved inspection, repair and replacement of aged components and preventive alternatives. Besides pilot studies preparatory to a lead license renewal application, the DOE is currently supporting more broadly based variance studies to develop the technical basis for the extended life of specific critical components. Economic studies are also in progress to facilitate decision-making for life extension on a national and regional basis. Further R and D is underway on the predictive performance of key components affecting plant safety and availability. The DOE is also investigating the longer-term deterioration of critical cables. Additional aspects of DOE research address data requirements for life

  18. Systematic safety evaluation and life extension program in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Programs (SEP) carried out in 80's on first-generation nuclear power plants in Spain consist in analyzing the compliance of the older plants with the safety requirements for the new ones. The most affected areas were: environmental qualification of electrical and I and C equipment; ECCS improvements; auxiliary system improvements; electrical systems; reactor protection systems; fire protection. The SEPs were followed by complementary programs on Management of Remaining Plant Life, aiming at making the facilities and SEP investments profitable. The experience gained in the SEP is important for collecting additional information for the Remaining Life Management and should be integrated with the Plant Life Extension Program (PLEX)

  19. Power generation options. Rehabilitation for life extension and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step in evaluating a life extension or upgrading project is to determine the project's economic benefit to the utility. A screening study should be performed for as many candidate plants as are available; two of the most useful screening tools for rapid economic analysis of life extension possibilities are: Present Worth Revenue Requirements (PWRR) Analysis, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis. (Examples of both methods are discussed). PWRR analysis considers only the expenses associated with operation of a plant or electrical system, and the revenue required to meet those expenses. The total revenue that may be received from the system is not considered in the analysis. The estimated costs for a base case (usually no rehabilitation or life extension) is compared to the operating costs of various alternatives, calculated over an operating life span of several years, and reduced to a Present Worth value, usually for the year in which the study started. If the PWRR of any alternative is estimated to be less than the base case, then an investment in the alternative plant equal to or less than this differential is a preferred economic choice. PWRR analysis is useful if future systems development and future gross revenue to the utility is difficult to estimate; it is also useful when comparing like technologies when differences in fuel supply and fuel cost are minimal

  20. The BWR owners' group planning guide for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the operating life of a commercial nuclear power plant has been shown to be economically beneficial to both the utility and the electric customer. As such, many utilities are planning and implementing plant life extension (PLEX) programs. A document has been developed which provides guidance to utilities in formulating a PLEX program plant for one or more boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The guide has been developed by the BWR Owners' Group Plant Life Extension Committee. The principal bases for this guide were the BWR Pilot and Lead Plant Programs. These programs were used as models to develop the 'base plan' described in this guide. By formulating their program plant utilizing the base plan, utilities will be able to maximize the use of existing evaluations and results. The utility planner will build upon the base plan by adding any tasks or features that are unique to their programs. (author)

  1. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  2. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  3. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  4. Belgian nuclear power life extension and fuss about nuclear rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decision-making is embedded in slowly evolving political, economic and financial institutions. Belgium houses extended nuclear activities, mostly under French control, for example: SUEZ-GDF and EDF own all Belgian nuclear power plants. But a 2003 law mandates the closure of Belgium's nuclear power plants at a service age of 40 years; only force majeure could lift the strict obligation. Opposition to the law argued with climate change danger, financial losses, and loss-of-load risks. The financial issue got interwoven with a fuzzy debate on the definition, height and appropriation of “nuclear rents”. As plausible hypothesis is adopted: the prospected transfer of hundreds millions of euro from power companies to the public interest will create public support for life extension. But the nuclear rents discussion had faded in July 2012 when the Belgian government admitted a 10-year life extension for TIHANGE I (962 MW) and imposed the closure of the 2×433 MW DOEL I and II. Loss-of-load risk was the government's only public argument. The opacity of the decision process and its “fifty–fifty” outcome do not allow proper testing of the hypothesis. The case illustrates that politicians cannot bind their followers except through the deployment of alternative power sources. - Highlights: • Nuclear phase-out is only successful when alternative supplies are deployed. • Politicians cannot bind their successors by words or by lawgiving. • The phase-out law exemplifies the disruption of a strong nuclear lock-in. • Life extension exemplifies the disruption of the phase-out law. • The impact of imprecise nuclear rents on life extension could not be tested

  5. EPRI/DOE nuclear plant life extension overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the major investment in current U.S. nuclear capacity and the excellent prospects that these units have a useful life substantially in excess of their 40 year license term, EPRI and DOE have jointly undertaken a comprehensive, multiyear, nuclear plant life extension program. The program, which has its antecedents in EPRI studies of 1978-9, aims to support U.S. utilities, first in verifying the requirements of extended operation and then in implementing a plan for achieving extended service and license renewal. The effort, begun in 1985, has already yielded numerous benefits and is expected to further aid in improving near-term performance of nuclear units. A utility LWR Plant Life Extension Committee has been established to provide overview and guidance to the DOE/EPRI research and development activities and also to develop and integrate utility responses to licensing and codes and standards issues. Pilot study projects, performed by Virginia Power and Northern States Power, were the initial EPRI/DOE focus. This base has gradually expanded to incorporate other utilities and generating units, as well as a broad base of technology support. The latter includes: a) economic and financial analysis methods applicable at the unit, region and national level, b) long-term materials deterioration analysis and sampling, c) component life prediction methods and d) refurbishment and repair evaluations. This paper presents the history and status of the overall EPRI/DOE program

  6. Shelf life extension of dried shrimps by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By reducing the number of bacteria, irradiation with a dose of 3 kGy increased the shelf life of dried and salted shrimp. Combining radiation with low-temperature storage further increased shelf life. Vacuum packaging the shrimp in polyethylene-laminated polyethylene bags resulted in extension of the shelf life by more than 15 weeks. Packing in tupperware and polyethylene bags was less effective. Most of the bacteria in the dried and salted shrimps were halophiles. Salmonellae and coliforms were not detected in the samples studied. During storage, ammonia was formed in the shrimps. Irradiation caused less ammonia to be formed. Low-temperature storage also reduced ammonia formation. The sensory quality of the shrimps decreased with increasing amounts of ammonia. (author). 9 refs, 25 figs

  7. Safety aspects in life extension of NPPs. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to current social and economical framework, in last years many Member States (MS) started a process of Plant Life Extension (PLEX) for their older nuclear facilities. The process followed many different approaches, being intrinsically dependent on the national regulatory framework and technical tradition. This process has many nuclear safety implications, other than strategic and political ones, and therefore a need for tailoring the available safety assessment tools to such applications has become urgent in recent years. Typical safety assessment processes such as the Periodic Safety Review has been used already and can be used in the future as a framework for a PLEX. Also the review of regular maintenance and ageing management programs and the continuous upgrading of the Safety Analysis Report are tools widely used in a life extension context in many MS. However, recently some MS highlighted the need to identify in a clear way the technical aspects more directly affecting the decision for a long-term operation of a nuclear facility. Many Technical Cooperation projects have been requested for the year 2003-2004 on this subject and a generic task in Nuclear Safety proved necessary as a background activity. Therefore, on May 6-10, 2002, a Consultant Meeting dealing with Safety Aspects of life extension for NPPs was convened at the Nuclear Safety Dept. of the IAEA. It was attended by representatives of Regulatory Bodies and Utilities, both from countries with experience of life extension of NPPs and countries where the process is at the beginning. The main application problems were identified and discussed and a first attempt was carried out to define the key elements of the life extension process, isolating peculiar technical items, LTO related, from generic safety related tasks. The result was a preliminary technical document with a collection of basic experience and information for the implementation of a PLEX program. Therefore the draft document was thought

  8. Technology and testing for the extension of plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes selected portions of a recommended program for the application of equipment-manufacturing-related technology and testing for the extension of life for operating nuclear power plants. It is appropriate to mention that the Swiss nuclear plants, their staffs, and the supporting Swiss nuclear industry are rightfully proud of their record of performance. Plant staffs have been intimately involved in system and equipment design and engineering from the very beginnings of their plants. Maintenance of the plant systems and equipment is referred to as engineering rather than maintenance, because it is viewed as a technical effort and an extension of the original plant and equipment design and construction effort. Care, competence, cleanliness, and attention to detail have been bywords for the Swiss plants. Success has been demonstrated through enviable availability performance. With operation and availability capability already demonstrated, the Swiss are now turning their attention to the extension of plant life. This summary describes some aspects of this work, which is fundamentally based on the application of technology and testing skills developed for equipment manufacture and the original installation of this equipment in the plants, but has been enhanced by research and development (R and D) and an ongoing effort to serve utilities in their maintenance activities

  9. Nuclear unit life extension: technico-economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outstanding place of PWR power plants among the overall power generating facilities indicates the need for particular attention to be paid to assessing their expected useful life. The more so as they are not, in the medium term, exposed to the risk of becoming financially absolute which might result from more efficient generating tools entering the market. Yet, in no case should plant life extension affect safety in operation. This makes it necessary to ascertain and produce evidence that the various items of equipment remain equal to their function in terms of safety. Components ageing problems should be steadily monitored and ageing indicators adopted, allowing decisions of refurbishing or replacement to be made to avert plant shutdown. The alternative between repair works or shutdown will possibly arise in the case of heavy equipment likely to require protracted repairs and intricate works in radioactive environment. A technico-economic study, making allowance for anticipated savings in life extension through replacement operations, should help make the most appropriate decision

  10. Shelf-life extension of packed meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shelf-life extension of sliced pork under modified atmosphere (vacuum-, CO2-, CO2-N2-packaging), at different storage temperature (3-5 and 8-10 deg. C) and irradiation doses (1, 2, 4 kGy) was studied. Pork meat vacuum-packed and irradiated at 2 kGy had a shelf-life of between 28-35 days at 3-5 deg. C temperature, the actual extension depending on the initial contamination. The pathogenic microorganisms were eliminated by irradiation. The microbiological quality of gas-packed and irradiated (stored at 3-5 deg. C) meat was in the first two weeks better, than that of the vacuum-packed sampled, but on the 20th day the results were better for vacuum-packed meat. Therefore, from technological and economical point of view, gas-packaging-systems are not recommended. The colour changes (pink) in the irradiated pork did not influence its quality. (author). 16 refs, 9 figs

  11. Reliability Centered Maintenance as a tool for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently in the nuclear industry there is a growing interest in lowering the cost and complexity of maintenance activities while at the same time improving plant reliability and safety in an effort to prepare for the technical and regulatory challenges of life extension. This seemingly difficult task is being aided by the introduction of a maintenance philosophy developed originally by the airline industry and subsequently applied with great success both in that industry and the U.S. military services. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), in its basic form, may be described as a consideration of reliability and maintenance problems from a systems level approach, allowing a focus on preservation of system function as the aim of a maintenance program optimized for both safety and economics. It is this systematic view of plant maintenance, with the emphasis on overall functions rather than individual parts and components which sets RCM apart from past nuclear plant maintenance philosophies. It is also the factor which makes application of RCM an ideal first step in development of strategies for life extension, both for aging plants, and for plants just beginning their first license term. (J.P.N.)

  12. Preserving the life extension option for Wolsong NPP Unit 1 through plant life management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first CANDU 6 plants, including Wolsong Unit 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) (which entered service in the early 1980's) are now approaching two thirds of their thirty-year design life. Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) have worked together since 2000 to develop and implement a comprehensive and integrated CANDU Plant Lifetime Management (PLiM) program for Wolsong Unit 1 NPP. PLiM will see this plant successfully and reliably through to the design life and preserve the option for life extension. The focus of the initial phase of the program is on the major critical components and structures and any potential aging phenomena that might affect plant safety and availability. In-depth life assessments of Wolsong Unit 1 critical systems, structures, and components (CSSCs) are under going. It is recognized that effective plant practices in inspection, monitoring, maintenance, and operations are the primary means of managing aging through the design life and necessary for preserving the life extension option. Hence, the PLiM assessments identify enhancements to current plant programs to mitigate aging effects and to ensure reliable life attainment and performance. The KEPRI/AECL co-operation for the PLiM program over the last few years is providing in-depth assessments and promising life prognosis for the key CSSCs of Wolsong Unit 1. The assessments are also identifying those areas for optimized plant inspection, monitoring and maintenance programs to achieve utility targets for safety, reliability and production capacity during extended life. These outcomes are important inputs to decision makings to embark upon a detailed Wolsong Unit 1 life management program. In this paper, the PLiM program assessment methods and techniques tailored to the components, like CANDU 6 steam generators, are described. A typical proactive aging management program for steam generators, aimed to continue current excellent service for

  13. BIF butterfly valve life extension at WNP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary containment purging, venting, inerting, and reactor building ventilation at the WNP-2 plant are accomplished with a series of large butterfly valves. A total of 31 valves which are similar in design, but of different sizes, employ an elastomer to achieve sealing integrity when closed. These valves, which were originally manufactured by BIF, a unit of General Signal, range in size from 18 to 84 inches in diameter. Service life in the plant was much less than desired for safety-related equipment, and several seal failures had been experienced shortly after valve overhaul. This program covers a design change made to enhance performance of the elastomer seal to achieve a very meaningful life extension. While numerous configurations of BIF valves exist, this work relates only to the model 657 unit assembled with an elastomer seal mounted onto the valve disc by a stainless steel clamping ring held with studs and nuts. The problems encountered, and the steps taken to resolve the deficiencies may, however, be applicable to other butterfly valve configurations

  14. LANL Contributions to the B61 LIfe Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpion, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a long, proud heritage in science and innovation that extends 70 years. Although the Laboratory’s primary responsibility is assuring the safety and reliability of the nation’s nuclear deterrent, Laboratory staff work on a broad range of advanced technologies to provide the best, most effective scientific and engineering solutions to the nation’s critical security challenges. The world is rapidly changing, but this essential responsibility remains the LANL’s core mission. LANL is the Design Laboratory for the nuclear explosive package of the B61 Air Force bomb. The B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) activities at LANL will increase the lifetime of the bomb and provide safety and security options to meet security environments both today and in the future. The B61’s multiple-platform functionality, unique safety features, and large number of components make the B61-12 LEP one of the most complex LEPs ever attempted. Over 230 LANL scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel from across the Laboratory are bringing decades of interdisciplinary knowledge, technical expertise, and leading-edge capabilities to LANL’s work on the LEP.

  15. Life extension considerations for pressurized water reactor containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study in support of NUPLEX activities to identify the major degradation issues important to life extension of both conventionally reinforced and prestressed concrete containments for PWRs and to determine any additional measures necessary to ensure their continued leak tightness and structural integrity. The degree to which any degradation mechanism occurs depends on the site-specific construction and quality control practices, and the particular containment exposure conditions, operating environment history, and design details. The modes of deterioration are addressed relation to the factors which may either increase or decrease the likelihood of occurrence. Corrosion of the liner appears to be the major concern with containment longevity. A program to establish reliable techniques to monitor areas of the liner, generally inaccessible to direct observation, needs to be developed. The report concludes that these containments possess the attributes necessary to resist or minimize the potential deterioration processes and that whatever deterioration may occur is likely only to cause a small reduction in the inherent overpressure capacity. In addition, the currently performed inspections and tests are capable of ensuring continued safety, but additional measures may be advisable for those areas which are difficult to assess because of lack of access

  16. U.S. National and regional impacts nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impacts of nuclear plant life extension on a national and regional level. Nuclear generating capacity is expected to reach 104 Gigawatts (119 units) in the 1994-1995 period. Nuclear units of the 1970 to 1980 vintage are expected to account for 96% of nuclear capacity. As operating licenses expire, a precipitous decline in nuclear capacity results, with an average of 5 gigawatts of capacity lost each year from 2010 to 2030. Without life extension, 95% of all nuclear capacity is retired between the years 2010 and 2030. Even with historically slow growth in electric demand and extensive fossil plant life extension, the need for new generating capacity in the 2010-2030 time period is eight times greater than installed nuclear capacity. Nuclear plant life extension costs and benefits were quantified under numerous scenarios using the DRI Electricity Market Model. Under a wide range of economic assumptions and investment requirements, nuclear plant life extension resulted in a net benefit to electricity consumers. The major source of net benefits from nuclear plant life extension results from the displacement of fossil-fired generating sources. In the most likely case, nuclear plant life extension provides a dollar 200 billion net savings through the year 2030. Regions with a large nuclear capacity share, newer nuclear units and relatively higher costs of alternative fuels benefit the most from life extension. This paper also discusses the importance of regulatory policies on nuclear plant life extension

  17. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Cheol Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Current status of regulatory aspects of life extension and upgrading of NPPs is reviewed for major foreign countries. Most countries require similar technical requirements; however, procedural aspects differ country by country. Regulatory systems suitable for NPP life extension is investigated. The procedure and requirements for reassessment of design life should be established first; then it can be incorporated into the PSR system. The concept of 'Current Licensing Basis (CLB)' can be adopted in Korea, but further elaboration for terms and definitions is needed for common understanding between interested groups. The procedure for maintenance and backfitting should also be improved. The Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) that require development of regulatory requirements for life extension are identified based on extensive analysis of foreign experiences. By analyzing the rules and regulations related to life extension. Basic directions are suggested to harmonize or establish regulatory systems for life extension, two-step licensing, PSR, and backfitting.

  18. Bruce units 3 and 4 life extension integrated safety review process and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refurbishment preparation phase for Bruce A Units 3 and 4 included the performance of an Integrated Safety Review, as called for by CNSC regulatory document RD-360, 'Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants'. The Integrated Safety Review is a comprehensive assessment of plant design, condition and operation conducted at the time that plant life extension is being considered. This paper describes the process of preparing the Bruce Units 3 and 4 Life Extension Integrated Safety Review and summarizes lessons learned. (author)

  19. Russian regulatory approach to extension of nuclear power plant service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents not only general system of regulatory legislative acts in the field of nuclear and radiation safety but also all legislative acts and regulatory documents concerning plant life extension (PLEX) in the Russian Federation. On demand of Rostechnadzor SEC NRS developed federal norms and rules (FNR) 'The Main Requirements for Extension of the Operational Life of NPP Unit' (NP-017-2000) and FNR 'Requirements for Substantiation of Possibility of Extension of the Operational Life of Nuclear Facilities and Installations' (NP-24-2000), where methodology of operational life extension of NPP unit and Nuclear Facilities and Installations is considered. The report presents general provisions of NP-017-2000 and examples of application of full set of regulatory documents for operational life extension of NPP units in the Russian Federation. (author)

  20. Nuclear submarine prototype post core removal decommissioning and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of a nuclear plant normally brings it to the end of its life. This paper describes how the initial decommissioning of a nuclear submarine prototype was undertaken, how it was modified and its useful life extended. The Dounreay Submarine Prototype came to the end of critical operation in 1984. This was followed by defuel, decontamination and modification to convert the plant into a facility for the investigation of loss of coolant accidents. Following completion of this investigation, the plant has been used as a primary coolant pump test facility. (Author)

  1. Discussion on life extension of nuclear power plant around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very Paper introduces the concept, basic working flow and fundamental elements of the life extension of nuclear power plant (NPP) around the world; and it generally collects and summarizes the status datum of life extension of NPPs. Afterwards, the Paper analyses the present status of life extension of NPP in various countries with strong nuclear power industry, i.e. the United States, France, Germany, Russia Federation, Japan, South Korea and Canada. At the end, the Paper make a conclusion that whether an operating NPP will adopt life extension at the end of its design life, this issue depends on the factor of economy, safety and technical feasibility of life extension on the NPP. According to latest datum collected in 2009, the nuclear power units around the world, which have exceeded the design lives or are close to design life ends, most of them (about 64%) have selected to extend their service lives; based on this statistical data, we concludes that when an operating nuclear unit is facing with the issue of to extend life or to retire itself, it will be apt to make life extension. (authors)

  2. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness. PMID:25027546

  3. Life extension for fossil power plants: The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel-fired generating plants have traditionally been built under the assumption of an economic life of 20-30 years. Due to low load growth, escalating interest rates and costs of construction, and increasing regulation, great interest is expressed in retaining these units in service for 50-60 years or longer. Life extension activities are part of an ongoing process that continues throughout the extended lives of a utility's units. The process begins with an initial evaluation of life extension as a generation alternative, resulting in a ranking of units for life extension and a prioritization of components for evaluation. As the process continues, more detailed inspection data are created by a three-level approach, as well as a means for collecting, organizing and scheduling the information. This is implemented through the Integrated Life Extension Management (ILEM) model. This model provides information needed for management decision making such as component performance on unit power rating, availability of components on unit availability, component performance on unit availability and overall costs of the life extension tasks. Risks involved in life extension include the initial unavailability of capacity credits, uncertainty as to the level of availability that can be achieved by the life-extended plant, and uncertainties in environmental compliance. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  5. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  6. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  7. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  8. Life extension of self-healing polymers with rapidly growing fatigue cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A S; Rule, J.D; Moore, J.S.; Sottos, N. R.; White, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Self-healing polymers, based on microencapsulated dicyclopentadiene and Grubbs' catalyst embedded in the polymer matrix, are capable of responding to propagating fatigue cracks by autonomic processes that lead to higher endurance limits and life extension, or even the complete arrest of the crack growth. The amount of fatigue-life extension depends on the relative magnitude of the mechanical kinetics of crack propagation and the chemical kinetics of healing. As the healing kinetics are accele...

  9. Technological feasibility of irradiating pineapples for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spoilage of food caused by infestation, contamination and deterioration of the world's food supply is enormous in the developing countries where warm and humid climate favour the growth of spoilage organisms and hasten deterioration of stored food. Particularly, in a country like India where the population growth has already attained one billion, any preventable loss of food is intolerable. Since food security of a nation also largely determines the economic stability as well as self-reliance, this problem draws utmost attention not only of the food scientists but also of the food policy makers. From these above facts, it may be concluded that radiation technology can be safely used for extending shelf-life of pineapple fruits thereby maximizing the transportation and marketing potentials. Consumption of such irradiated pineapples simultaneously does not pose any immediate or long-term human health risks. Keeping these techno-economic considerations in view establishment of large scale industrial operations for irradiating fruits, vegetables, cereals etc. are of immense importance

  10. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  11. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdebil, I. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Nuclear Laboratories and Research Reactors Div.; Omar, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Assessment Integration Div.

    2014-07-15

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  12. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 107 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  13. Oconee: Is life extension in the cards for plants of this vintage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent nuclear-industry interest in plant life extension is prompted by the realization that the economics of plant life extension are clearly favorable. Studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) show that replacing even the most costly nuclear components can easily be justified, if the life of the plant can be extended just a few years. This may not be apparent for the early, small plants, but its applicability to the larger plants that started to appear in the early 70s-such as the three 860-MW Oconee units-is hard to dispute. The large capital investment in the typical nuclear station and extensive decommissioning costs add impetus to life-extension efforts. The same is true for fossil plants, and they are being successfully refurbished to extend their operating lives. Refurbishment of a fossil plant is comparatively simple, however, especially with regard to licensing and environmental qualifications where recognized standards are already in place. In the case of nuclear plants, much work must be done before all the pertinent issues and alternatives are identified. Potentially conflicting objectives may require resolution before a utility makes long-term decisions about life extension. For example, a utility may decide to designate a plant to accommodate grid load swings. In the near term, this may be a logical choice. However, the long-term negative aspects of component thermal cycling should be considered, especially if plant life extension is deemed important

  14. Decision support for life extension of technical systems through virtual age modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a virtual age model for decision support regarding life extension of ageing repairable systems. The aim of the model is to evaluate different life extension decision alternatives and their impact on the future performance of the system. The model can be applied to systems operated continuously (e.g., process systems) and systems operated on demand (e.g., safety systems). Deterioration and efficiency of imperfect maintenance is assessed when there is limited or no degradation data, and only failure and maintenance data is available. Systems that are in operation can be studied, meaning that the systems may be degraded. The current degradation is represented by a “current virtual age”, which is calculated from recorded maintenance data. The model parameters are estimated with the maximum likelihood method. A case study illustrates the application of the model for life extension of two fire water pumps in an oil and gas facility. The performance of the pump system is assessed with respect to number of failures, safety unavailability and costs during the life extension period. -- Highlights: ► Life extension assessment of technical systems using virtual age model is proposed. ► A virtual age model is generalised for systems in stand-by and continuous operation. ► The concept of current virtual age describes technical condition of the system. ► Different decision alternatives for life extension can be easily analysed. ► The decision process is improved even when only scarce failure data is available

  15. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  16. Life Extension of Critical Components Betterments and Modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing plants reveal that some of the components within the primary circuit do not show the expected life time. Betterments have been enabled by repairing or replacing defective parts. ABB. has developed specific repair processes to meet these requirements. The goal is to be as flexible as possible in order to adjust methods, procedures, and equipment to the specific needs of each plant within the shortest time possible. Inspection methods and repair procedures are discussed to present betterments and modifications for some components within the primary circuit by explaining the ABB. approach for e. g. the Inspection of pressure vessel closure head penetrations: The manipulator is designed, constructed, controlled and monitored just like a manipulator developed for steam generator inspections and repair. The E CT-probes are qualified to resolve cracks ensuring a high sensitivity if there is no thermal sleeve or if the probe is inserted into the gap. Looking through the thermal sleeve by an E CT-probe reduces the sensitivity slightly. The inspection and repair of internals, e. g. fuel alignment pins and baffle former bolts: the UST-methods, the manipulator equipment, the tools and the procedures are provided to find defective pins resp. Bolts, and to replace them. Approximately 1000 fuel alignment pins have been replaced. Three inspection systems have been provided to inspect baffle former bolts. They were upgraded for an exchange of baffle former bolts. The bolt resp. pin betterment is achieved by an improved material and a ventilation preventing stagnant water. Advances in maintenance of steam generators: Focus is given to identify potentially defective steam generator tube areas within tube support plates or ABB reviation bars. The good experience gained with the Micro lock of ABB. removable plugs is transferred to the sleeves which have a Micro lock joint at the bottom. Chemically cleaning the secondary side of a steam generator utilizing the SIG process at

  17. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions. PMID:25983065

  18. Use of dynamic Bayesian networks for life extension assessment of ageing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the operating lifetime of ageing technical systems is of great interest for industrial applications. Life extension requires identifying and selecting decision alternatives which allow for a safe and economic operation of the system beyond its design lifetime. This article proposes a dynamic Bayesian network for assessing the life extension of ageing repairable systems. The main objective of the model is to provide decision support based on the system performance during a finite time horizon, which is defined by the life extension period. The model has three main applications: (i) assessing and selecting optimal decision alternatives for the life extension at present time, based on historical data; (ii) identifying and minimizing the factors that have a negative impact on the system performance; and (iii) reassessing and optimizing the decision alternatives during operation throughout the life extension period, based on updating the model with new operational data gathered. A case study illustrates the application of the model for life extension of a real firewater pump system in an oil and gas facility. The case study analyzes three decision alternatives, where preventive maintenance and functional test policies are optimized, and the uncertainty involved in each alternative is computed. - Highlights: • A dynamic Bayesian network is used for predicting the system performance. • The performance is measured with relevant variables: cost; unavailability; safety. • The model can be used when scarce data is available, no degradation data is needed. • The uncertainty associated to each alternative is computed in the model. • A detailed case study of a real safety system shows the applicability of the model

  19. Nuclear power plant life extension: How aging affects performance of containments & other structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A Dameron; Sun Junling

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on how aging can affect performance of safety-related structures in nuclear power plant (NPP).Knowledge and assessment of impacts of aging on structures are essential to plant life extension analysis,especially performance to severe loadings such as loss-of-coolant-accidents or major seismic events.Plant life extension issues are of keen interest in countries (like the United States) which have a large,aging fleet of NPPs.This paper addresses the overlap and relationship of structure aging to severe loading performance,with particular emphasis on containment structures.

  20. Assessing the risk-cost-benefits of electric power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decision analysis model has been constructed for lifetime extension of oil-fired power plants. Regulatory uncertainties have been explicitly modelled, and are shown to be important driving variables in the decision process. Additional variables modelled include fuel, operating and maintenance costs, plant availability factor, external electricity supply availability, and the cost of additional capacity. One important aspect of the model is the degree to which plant reliability has been modelled explicitly to determine plant availability factor. An extensive generic and plant specific reliability database has been utilized in this reliability study. Results of the analysis indicate that life extension is the preferred alternative. (orig.)

  1. Near-term benefits of life extension planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants is now viewed as a realistic alternative to construction of new generating facilities. The subject has been under intensive study since 1984 and two comprehensive pilot plant programs have been completed under EPRI, U.S. Department of Energy and utility sponsorship. A major lesson learned from these studies is that planning for life extension must start early and that many activities must be implemented as early in life as possible to enhance the option for life extension through mitigate and preventive actions. It was also determined that achievement of a 40-year licensed life is by no means guaranteed without substantial effort during the remaining plant life. In examining these recommended actions, it becomes obvious that conscientious implementation also leads to realization of significant short-term benefits in the form of availability improvement, outage reduction, maintenance optimization and longer term planning decisions. In addition to the economic benefits, plant safety is also enhanced by reducing challenges to the safety systems and slowly switching from a corrective maintenance to a preventive maintenance program

  2. Evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant aging research with life extension implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-09-12

    Information requirements for plant aging and life extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources.

  3. Definition of data base, code, and technologies for cable life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial number of cables inside containment for a typical nuclear facility provides a strong motivation to extend cable life rather than replace cables as part of an overall plant life extension strategy. Hence, it is important to understand what information is necessary to accomplish life extension. This paper defines utility-specific as well as collective-industry actions that would facilitate extending cable life. The focus of these recommendations is (1) to more realistically define the environmental profiles during which cables must function, (2) to define plant configuration and operational changes which may enahnce cable life, (3) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology through examination of naturally aged cables, (4) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology via selected experimentation, (5) to support cable aging analysis by improving nonproprietary data bases, (6) to reduce the impact of the design basis accident assumptions on cable performance so additional cable aging can be accommodated during extended life, and (7) to complement life predictions with more effective cable condition monitoring techniques than those currently available

  4. Definition of data bases, codes, and technologies for cable life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial number of cables inside containment for a typical nuclear facility provides a strong motivation to extend cable life rather than replace cables. Hence, it is important to understand what information is necessary to accomplish life extension. This paper defines utility-specific as well as collective industry actions that would facilitate extending cable life. The focus of these recommendations is (1) to more realistically define the environmental profiles during which cables must function, (2) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology through examination of naturally aged cables, (3) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology via selected experimentation, (4) to support cable aging analysis by improving nonproprietary data bases, (5) to reduce the impact of the design basis accident assumptions on cable performance so additional cable aging can be accommodated during extended life, and (6) to complement life predictions with more powerful cable condition monitoring techniques than those currently available

  5. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. In the earlier Indian PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material, which is observed to have useful life of only about 10 full power years. Reactors at Rajasthan-1 and 2 Madras-1 and 2 Narora-1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. For subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension for Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been taken up since January 2002. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a long plant outage, this opportunity is also used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2 and future reactors. (author)

  6. Economic evaluation of Kori and Wolsong Unit 1 plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Wolsong Unit 1 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by the utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of plant lifetime management economic evaluations of both units have been presented in comparison with Korean standard nuclear power plant 10, 20 and 30 year life extension cases respectively. In addition to that, sensitivity analysis and break even point analysis results are presented with the variables of capacity factor, operation and maintenance cost, and discount rate

  7. The method of life extension for the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the vessel steel embrittlement as a result of neutron irradiation can be measured by its increase in the nil ductility temperature (NDT). This temperature is sometimes referred to as the brittle-ductile transition temperature (DBT) for fracture. The life extension of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel is calculated by using the method of fracture mechanics. A hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest) is performed in order to determine a safe vessel static pressure. It is then followed by using fracture mechanics to project the reactor life from the safe hydrostatic pressure. The life extension calculation provides the following information on the remaining life of the reactor as a function of the nil ductility temperature increase: (1) the probability of vessel fracture due to hydrotest vs vessel life at several hydrotest pressures, (2) the hydrotest time interval vs the uncertainty of the nil ductility temperature increase rate, and (3) the hydrotest pressure vs the uncertainty of the nil ductility temperature increase rate. It is understood that the use of a complete range of uncertainties of the nil ductility temperature increase is equivalent to the entire range of radiation damage that can be experienced by the vessel steel. From the numerical values for the probabilities of the vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest, it is estimated that the reactor vessel life can be extended up to 50 EFPY (100 MW) with the minimum vessel operating temperature equal to 85 F

  8. Neutron monitoring system and rod control system upgrades for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear power plants in operation were built in the 1970's and 1980's. Plants of this vintage would require extensive upgrade for the instrumentation and control (I and C) to be able to support plant life extension. The most challenging aspect of I and C upgrades for these plants is the upgrade of the neutron monitoring system (NMS) and the Reactor Manual Control System (RMCS). These are specialized instrumentation and would require high quality design and engineering products to ensure safe and efficient plant operation. GEHitachi (GEH) Energy's nuclear business provides a Wide Range Neutron Monitoring System (WRNM) to replace the existing Source Range Monitors (SRM) and Intermediate Range Monitors (IRM), a Power Range Neutron Monitoring System (PRNM) to replace the Average Power Range Monitor (APRM), and a Rod Control Management System (RCMS) to replace the original Reactor Manual Control System (RMCS) in the GE designed Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The WRNM, PRNM, and RCMS are based on the Nuclear Monitoring Analysis and Control (NUMAC) platform, which is a microprocessor based system that provides improved system performance with standard features such as improved HMI, selftest and automatic calibration. In addition to enhancing the system functions, these upgrades also help to support the challenges of plant life extension. This paper presents the designs and experience of these GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy systems in support for nuclear plants life extension. (author)

  9. Contribution of Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) systems and CAP programs to support NPP life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no specific IS (Information System) which supports the entire scope of a plant life extension, but there are a number of existing solutions that contributes to support it. Globally there are 2 categories of IS solution in the market: those supporting the Plant Life Improvement (PLIM) side of the life extension program and the others supporting the Plant Life Extension (PLEX) process side of it. The first category involves a large number of applications that span from ageing evaluation criteria programs, to monitoring solution for the critical components and to analysis and decision tools. The second category comprises solutions which support partially or globally the overall business process under a regulatory controlled manner. Both categories require 3 conditions to be satisfied: -) a comprehensive set of data (these data are often produced by various applications and the ability to correlate all the data together with a high degree of integrity is an important success factor); -) a feedback mechanism whose dual aspect is the monitoring of the ageing phenomena and the management of all the actions to be coordinated to ensure that preset objectives will be achieved in due time; and -) good people management to ensure particularly that staff will be well acquainted with new equipment or with new operating processes

  10. Relationship between mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction, development, and life extension in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane L Rea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can result in life extension. Counter to these findings, many mutations that disrupt ETC function in humans are known to be pathologically life-shortening. In this study, we have undertaken the first formal investigation of the role of partial mitochondrial ETC inhibition and its contribution to the life-extension phenotype of C. elegans. We have developed a novel RNA interference (RNAi dilution strategy to incrementally reduce the expression level of five genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in C. elegans: atp-3, nuo-2, isp-1, cco-1, and frataxin (frh-1. We observed that each RNAi treatment led to marked alterations in multiple ETC components. Using this dilution technique, we observed a consistent, three-phase lifespan response to increasingly greater inhibition by RNAi: at low levels of inhibition, there was no response, then as inhibition increased, lifespan responded by monotonically lengthening. Finally, at the highest levels of RNAi inhibition, lifespan began to shorten. Indirect measurements of whole-animal oxidative stress showed no correlation with life extension. Instead, larval development, fertility, and adult size all became coordinately affected at the same point at which lifespan began to increase. We show that a specific signal, initiated during the L3/L4 larval stage of development, is sufficient for initiating mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent life extension in C. elegans. This stage of development is characterized by the last somatic cell divisions normally undertaken by C. elegans and also by massive mitochondrial DNA expansion. The coordinate effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on several cell cycle-dependent phenotypes, coupled with recent findings directly linking cell cycle progression with mitochondrial activity in C. elegans, lead us to propose that cell cycle checkpoint control

  11. Plant control system upgrades in the context of industry trends towards plant life-extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic CANDU nuclear plants were brought online between 1972 and 1986. Over the next decade, most of these stations will be nearing the end of their designed operating life. Effort has traditionally been placed on ensuring that the existing installed plant control system equipment could operate reliably until the end of this design life. Until recently, little attention has been given to plant control system upgrades or replacements to meet the expected requirement for 30+ years of additional plant operation following potential plant refurbishments. Industry developments are changing this thinking. The combination of expected increases in electricity demand (and prices), and the many recent successful turnaround stories of U.S. nuclear power plants has resulted in new interest in plant life improvement and plant life extension programs. Plant control system upgrade decisions are now being driven by the need to replace or upgrade these systems to support plant life extension. This article is the first of several that investigate aspects of plant control system upgrades or replacement, specifically in the context of the CANDU station digital control computers (DCCs). It sets the context for the discussion in the subsequent articles by providing a brief review of industry trends favouring plant refurbishment, by outlining the basic issues of aging and obsolescence of control system equipment, by establishing the need for upgrades and replacements, and by introducing some of the basic challenges to be addressed by the industry as it moves forward. (author)

  12. Life Span Extension in Mice by Food Restriction Depends on an Energy Imbalance12

    OpenAIRE

    Sohal, Rajindar S.; Ferguson, Melissa; Sohal, Barbara H.; Forster, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, our main objective was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) affects the rate of oxygen consumption of mice transiently or lastingly and whether metabolic rate plays a role in the ER-related extension of life span. We compared rates of resting oxygen consumption between C57BL/6 mice, whose life span is prolonged by ER, and the DBA/2 mice where it is not, at 6 and 23 mo of age, following 40% ER for 2 and 19 mo, respectively. Mice of the 2 strains that consumed food ad lib...

  13. The "Conflicted Dying": The Active Search for Life Extension in Advanced Cancer Through Biomedical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Using a poststructural perspective, we examine the subjectivities that are produced when advanced cancer patients seek life extension through biomedical treatments. Seven case studies were developed that included 20 interviews with patients, family, nurses, and physicians recruited from a tertiary hospital in Canada, 30 documents, and 5 hours of participant observation. We identify seven types of subjectivity: (a) the Desperate Subject, (b) the Cancer Expert Subject, (c) the Proactive Subject, (d) the Productive Subject, (e) the Mistrusting Subject, (f) the Model Patient Subject, and (g) the Suffering Subject. We characterize the "conflicted dying," a contemporary figure who holds multiple perspectives about seeking curative treatment despite the acknowledgment of death. Using active strategies to gain access to treatment, this figure resists traditional arrangements of power/knowledge established by health care providers. We suggest that the search for life extension is a process of shaping the self to fit certain aesthetical traits associated with surviving cancer. PMID:25711844

  14. Moral pluralism versus the total view: why Singer is wrong about radical life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, R

    2009-12-01

    Peter Singer has argued that we should not proceed with a hypothetical life-extension drug, based on a scenario in which developing the drug would fail to achieve the greatest sum of happiness over time. However, this is the wrong test. If we ask, more simply, which policy would be more benevolent, we reach a different conclusion from Singer's: even given his (admittedly questionable) scenario, development of the drug should go ahead. Singer's rigorous utilitarian position pushes him in the direction of an implausible "total view" utilitarianism when it encounters the problems presented by certain thought experiments. A more pluralistic account of the nature of morality promises to solve these problems, and in this case it reaches a benevolent recommendation on life-extension technology. PMID:19948931

  15. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  16. Plant life extension (PLEX) and repowering. Study on Embalse Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Nuclearelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA.S.A.), the Argentine Utility owner and operator of the Embalse CANDU Nuclear Power Plant, has the firm intention of refurbishing and - thereby - extending the design service life of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant up to 2035, providing a Plant Life Extension equal to 25 years. Embalse Plant Life Extension pre-project work has started and is being executed by AECL and Ansaldo Nucleare, for NPP and BOP systems respectively; NA.S.A. has assigned a contract to Ansaldo Nucleare for the BOP PLEX pre-project first phase, as a part of an overall Power Life Management program. The job is organized in order to get within the Plant outages of April 2007 and late November 2008 the residual life evaluation of the as built configuration of the Plant; within the outages 2010 (end of the Plant Design Life) it is planned to produce the intervention planning to be implemented in the years 2009 and 2010 to get the required life extension. Through this strategic approach it would be possible to get the life extension without being forced to stop the Plant for updating implementation. This PLEX for Embalse BOP first phase consists, as minimum, of the following: - Investigation of the as built configuration of the Embalse BOP, based on the available Embalse documentation in terms of Process and Instruments Diagrams / Systems Technical Descriptions for BOP as well as of BOP General Arrangement / Composite Drawings, and based on specialists walkdowns during Outage periods and during plant normal operation. This activity is performed by means of dedicated systems/component check lists to collect all data; - Investigation of potential repowering of the Embalse BOP, based on evaluation of the possibility to increase the power for the NPP by Repowering associated to thermal cycle design optimization, without considering any modification to the current configuration of the turbine blades, and by Repowering associated to

  17. R.P.V. inspection: recent improvements and contribution to vessel life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation describes the Intercontrole Reactor Pressure Vessel In-Service Inspection experience and the most recent developments concerning probes and procedures qualification, tools for expert appraisals, data acquisition and analysis software. Constantly adapted to the customers approach, procedures have been qualified, according to the French RSEM or the ASME code, taking into account criteria and defects specific to each inspected zone. RPV In-service Inspection participates in the continuous assessment of component integrity and from that stage to vessel life extension

  18. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 170C, 200C, and 230C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 200C and 230C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 170C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  19. PLEXFIN a computer model for the economic assessment of nuclear power plant life extension. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA developed PLEXFIN, a computer model analysis tool aimed to assist decision makers in the assessment of the economic viability of a nuclear power plant life/licence extension. This user's manual was produced to facilitate the application of the PLEXFIN computer model. It is widely accepted in the industry that the operational life of a nuclear power plant is not limited to a pre-determined number of years, sometimes established on non-technical grounds, but by the capability of the plant to comply with the nuclear safety and technical requirements in a cost effective manner. The decision to extend the license/life of a nuclear power plant involves a number of political, technical and economic issues. The economic viability is a cornerstone of the decision-making process. In a liberalized electricity market, the economics to justify a nuclear power plant life/license extension decision requires a more complex evaluation. This user's manual was elaborated in the framework of the IAEA's programmes on Continuous process improvement of NPP operating performance, and on Models for analysis and capacity building for sustainable energy development, with the support of four consultants meetings

  20. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  1. SSC design modification, modernization, refurbishment and replacement: As a part of life extension of KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the increased risk for energy security, rising environmental concerns and persistent energy poverty, nuclear power nowadays is being considered a viable option. Since construction of a new nuclear power plant is a costly business, plant life extension (PLEX) is also being done all over the world if permitted by the cost economics. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), started its commercial operation in 1972 and completed its nominal design life of 30 years in 2002 with effective full power years (EFPY) of 10.75. Due to this, adequate safety margin existed in the system, structure and component (SSC) as revealed through international reviews and inspections. Plant life extension was therefore, decided. With the strong support from IAEA, KANUPP strived hard to combat problems of ageing and obsolescence. In order to combat ageing and obsolescence for sustained operation by meeting minimum acceptable current safety standards and for plant life extension (PLEX) beyond design life, IAEA Technical Assistance Project 'Safe Operation of KANUPP' (SOK) was started in 1992. KANUPP was shutdown in December 2002 and in December 2005 to fulfill the regulatory requirement for re-licensing of the plant. During these outages jobs related to safety upgrades, replacement, design modification, obsolescence, refurbishment etc. were carried out. As a part of SSC design modification and modernization CO2 Annulus Gas System (AGS) and Redundant and Forced ECI system were installed. Refurbishment of SSC include dump valves while replacement of SSC include neutron power instruments. Various safety upgrades e.g. seismic retrofits, installation of systems to handle various LOCA scenario were completed as regulatory requirements. Replacement of I and C e.g fuel handling/regulating computers, control loops were also completed to combat the problem of ageing and obsolescence. Successful completion of the jobs related to SSC design

  2. Risk informed plant modifications and upgrades for life extension of Indian BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques can be used to determine how ageing is affecting component and system unavailability; to identify plant components and systems that have a propensity to ageing and are risk significant. An essential requirement for PSA is the failure data for various components. An analysis of the failure data TAPS operation revealed that they were still in their useful life period. Hence, age related component modelling were not called for. With the objective of TAPS life extension, NPCIL initiated Level - 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies for Tarapur Atomic Power Station - 1 and 2. This Plant specific PSA Level - 1 study resulted in identifying and understanding the key plant vulnerabilities and in making recommendations for improvements by identifying risk significant systems and component and in particular, in case of TAPS, PSA has proved to be a valuable tool to understand the implications of non - conformance to the current standards and in making decisions on upgrades. The same methodology was used for trying out the different configurations of the system under consideration for upgrade and for optimizing the final decision on the same. These results are also useful for prioritizing the implementation of the upgrades/modifications, technical specification optimisation, where the maximum benefit for plant safety can be obtained. Insights available based on this risk informed study for TAPS life extension are discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Complex-Dynamical Extension of the Fractal Paradigm and Its Applications in Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, A P

    2005-01-01

    Complex-dynamical fractal is a hierarchy of permanently, chaotically changing versions of system structure, obtained as the unreduced, causally probabilistic general solution of arbitrary interaction problem (physics/0305119, physics/9806002). Intrinsic creativity of this extension of usual fractality determines its exponentially high operation efficiency, which underlies many specific functions of living systems, such as autonomous adaptability, "purposeful" development, intelligence and consciousness (at higher complexity levels). We outline in more detail genetic applications of complex-dynamic fractality, demonstrate the dominating role of genome interactions, and show that further progressive development of genetic research, as well as other life-science applications, should be based on the dynamically fractal structure analysis of interaction processes involved. We finally summarise the obtained extension of mathematical concepts and approaches closely related to their biological applications.

  4. The use of nano-technology in shelf life extension of green vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ouzounidou; Fragiskos Gaitis

    2011-01-01

    This study is exploring the effects of nano-copper postharvest spraying on parsley, stored at the market temperature of 20°oC for 10 days and at the storage temperature of 5oC for 23 days, aiming at its shelf life extension. Nano-Cu- treated plants showed significantly lower CO 2 production than control at both storage temperatures. Spraying with Nano-Cu, parsley displayed the lowest weight losses at high and low temperature. Parsley leaves revealed high respiration rates with high moisture l...

  5. Modernization and life time extension on steam power plants in Eastern Europe and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, M.; Jenikejew, E.; Hiss, F.

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern European electricity markets with focus on Russia and Ukraine are suffering severe aging of the existing LMZ, UTZ and Turboatom steam turbine fleets after more than 25 years of operation. Energy efficient modernizations along with life time extension beyond the designed life time of existing old power plants is an economical option to address the increasing power demand. Steam Turbine modernizations are using latest state of the art materials and technology-enhanced turbine components such as blades, sealing, guide blade carriers, inner casings and rotors as well as components for auxiliary systems e.g. lube and lifting oil thus providing increased efficiency and optimized maintainability. This paper outlines unique design features and pre-engineered modules of the Siemens steam turbine modernization applications for thermal power stations, emphasizing the solutions for Turboatom 300 MW and LMZ 200 MW turbine-generators. The paper concludes with references and operational experience.

  6. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and I and C equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/charges, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed R and D efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research

  7. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  8. Cost drivers for the assessment of nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period of the nineteen-sixties to eighties, nuclear power had rapidly expanded in many countries of the world. The nuclear power plants built in this period, will reach the end of their planned life in the near future. Statistics drawn from IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) indicate that, by the end of 2001, there were 175 nuclear power units (NPPs) with about 122 GWe of net electrical capacity, having 21 to 45 years of operation. This represents about 34% of the total installed nuclear capacity in the world. Since these plants were initially designed for 30-40 years of operation, utilities operating such NPPs will now have to consider whether they will shutdown, decommission, and replace the plants reaching the end of their planned life, or refurbish the plants and extend their original design life. This decision is quite complex, involving a number of political, technical and economic issues. Finally, the utilities involved should manage their assets in a manner that is as close as practicable to the best possible economic optimum scenario. Well before the end of the plant life, NPP operators must evaluate the technical and economic feasibility for PLEX options, seek and obtain regulatory approvals, and implement PLEX schemes that are justified. Often they also have to substantiate the planned life extension, including the economic viability to the relevant governmental bodies, as well as to assure the general public acceptance. Economic feasibility analysis requires cost data that are not readily available. A recent IAEA review of published information on costs of PLEX revealed the scarcity of published information, while the estimated costs of NPP decommissioning are widely available. This is due in part to the reluctance by NPP operators to divulge the cost data that are considered commercial/confidential, as more plant operators are being privatised, and in part to the absence of a common framework and methodology to account for the

  9. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  10. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  11. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  12. Influence of the non-singular stress on the crack extension and fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► BEM is combined by characteristic analysis to calculate the singular stress field. ► A new method is proposed to evaluate the full stress field at crack tip region. ► Effect of non-singular stress on the propagation direction of the fatigue crack is analyzed. ► The influence of non-singular stress on the fatigue crack life is evaluated. - Abstract: The complete elasticity stress field at a crack tip region can be presented by the sum of the singular stress and several non-singular stress terms according to the Williams asymptotic expansion theory. The non-singular stress has a non-negligible influence on the prediction of the crack extension direction and crack growth rate under the fatigue loading. A novel method combining the boundary element method and the singularity characteristic analysis is proposed here to evaluate the complete stress field at a crack tip region. In this new method, any non-singular stress term in the Williams series expansion can be evaluated according to the computational accuracy requirement. Then, a modified Paris law is introduced to predict the crack propagation under the mixed-mode loading for exploring the influence of the non-singular stress on the fatigue life duration. By comparing with the existed experimental results, the predicted crack fatigue life when the non-singular stress is taken into consideration is more accurate than the predicted ones only considering the singular stress.

  13. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  14. Improvement of bacteriological quality and shelf-life extension of pork product (Bologna) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna (pork product sausage) from three places of production; Food Science and Technology Laboratory of Kasetsart University (FST) Bologna, Factory A. and Factory B. were packed in polyethylene (PE) and oriented polypropylene laminated with polyethylene (OPP/PE) bags under vacuum, irradiated at 0, 2 and 3 kGy and kept at 8+-10C for studying the effect of gamma irradiation on the destruction or inhibition of microorganism and sensory qualities on the extension of their shelf-life. The results showed that the FST Bologna had the higher quality than Bologna A. and Bologna B.. The shelf-life of the FST Bologna packed in OPP/PE bags under vacuum conditions and irradiated at 0, 2 and 3 kGy were 1, 2 and 3 weeks, respectively. Taste panels accepted the samples both irradiated at 2 kGy and 3 kGy and still accepted when stored more than 3 weeks. Non-irradiated Bologna were rejected after 2 weeks storage. It could be concluded that shelf-life of Bologna can be extended 2 weeks by packing in OPP/PE bags under vacuum and irradiated at 3 kGy

  15. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C. PMID:27478242

  16. Probability of fracture and life extension estimate of the high-flux isotope reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the vessel steel embrittlement as a result of neutron irradiation can be measured by its increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for fracture, often denoted by RTNDT for carbon steel. This transition temperature can be calibrated by the drop-weight test and, sometimes, by the Charpy impact test. The life extension for the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) vessel is calculated by using the method of fracture mechanics that is incorporated with the effect of the DBTT change. The failure probability of the HFIR vessel is limited as the life of the vessel by the reactor core melt probability of 10-4. The operating safety of the reactor is ensured by periodic hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest). The hydrotest is performed in order to determine a safe vessel static pressure. The fracture probability as a result of the hydrostatic pressure test is calculated and is used to determine the life of the vessel. Failure to perform hydrotest imposes the limit on the life of the vessel. The conventional method of fracture probability calculations such as that used by the NRC-sponsored PRAISE CODE and the FAVOR CODE developed in this Laboratory are based on the Monte Carlo simulation. Heavy computations are required. An alternative method of fracture probability calculation by direct probability integration is developed in this paper. The present approach offers simple and expedient ways to obtain numerical results without losing any generality. In this paper, numerical results on (1) the probability of vessel fracture, (2) the hydrotest time interval, and (3) the hydrotest pressure as a result of the DBTT increase are obtained

  17. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  18. Managing I and C obsolescence for nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most General Electric (GE) Boling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation now were built in 1970's and 1980's, and majority of them are near the end of 40 years of initial licensed operation life. Part obsolescence for instrumentation and controls (I and C) has been a continuing issue and causes higher cost and maintenance problems. Diminished skill sets also affect the ability to maintain older equipment and systems. However, the pace for I and C upgrade has been slow due to economic and regulatory constraints. Plant life extension changes the economic model for I and C obsolescence issue. The estimated revenue for all GE BWRs for a 20-year life extension is estimated to be $356 billion in today's dollar. Programs such as Performance 20TM are designed for plants to achieve maximum benefits for 20 more years of operation with a possible 20% additional power level output have huge economic benefits for the nuclear power industry. This also brings new incentives and opportunities to deal with obsolescence issues with I and C modernization and upgrade since repair to survive mode would result in higher cost and risk for the upcoming decades. This paper discusses system strategy and some technical practices of GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) around these issues. Six Sigma tools, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), can be used to help prioritize I and C upgrades for coming years. The QFD should be developed with inputs from the plant staff including engineering, maintenance, and operations. Possible solutions for each of the system can then be developed. This evaluation will identify the optimal solution for a given system. Potential I and C upgrades that would meet the listed Critical to Quality (CTQs) for a GE BWR are Power Range Neutron Monitor (PRNM), Wide Range Neutron Monitor (WRNM), Rod Control and Management System (RCMS), Turbine-Generator Electro-hydraulic Controls (EHC), Recirculation Flow Control (RFC), Feedwater Level Control

  19. Germany: the government has approved of the extension of the service life of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German coalition government has decided on 28 september 2009 to expend the service life of the 17 operating nuclear reactors through the approval of the plan 'Energy 2050'. The average extension will be of 12 years. This decision will postpone the shutdown of the last reactor till 2040. The reciprocal arrangement implies that the nuclear plant operators (EON, RWE, Wattenfall and EnBW) will have to pay an annual tax of 2.3*109 euros till 2016. The operators will also have to finance a capital for the development of renewable energies: 200*106 euros in 2011 and in 2012 then 300*106 euros per year between 2013 and 2016 and eventually to pay a tax of 9 euros per MW of nuclear power produced. (A.C.)

  20. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  1. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  2. Wash Solution Bath Life Extension for the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor Aqueous Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Chad; Evans, Kurt; Sagers, Neil

    1999-01-01

    A spray-in-air aqueous cleaning system, which replaced 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing, is used for critical cleaning of Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) metal parts. Small-scale testing demonstrated that the alkaline-based wash solution possesses adequate soil loading and cleaning properties. However, full-scale testing exhibited unexpected depletion of some primary components of the wash solution. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of sodium metasilicate which forced change-out of the wash solution after eight days. Extension of wash solution bath life was necessary to ease the burden of frequent change-out on manufacturing. A laboratory study supports a depletion mechanism that is initiated by the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) lowering the pH of the solution. The decrease in pH causes polymerization and subsequent precipitation of sodium metasilicate (SM). Further investigation showed that maintaining the pH was the key to preventing the precipitation of the sodium metasilicate. Implementation to the full scale operation demonstrated that periodic additions of potassium hydroxide (KOH) extended the useful bath life to more than four months.

  3. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  4. Shellac and Aloe vera gel based surface coating for shelf life extension of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, O P; Nanjappa, C; Ashok, N; Ravi, N; Roopa, N; Raju, P S

    2015-02-01

    Shellac (S) and Aloe vera gel (AG) were used to develop edible surface coatings for shelf-life extension of tomato fruits. The coating was prepared by dissolving de-waxed and bleached shellac in an alkaline aqueous medium as such as well as in combination with AG. Incorporation of AG in shellac coating improved permeability characteristics of the coating film towards oxygen and carbon dioxide and water vapours. The coatings when applied to tomatoes delayed senescence which was characterized by restricted changes in respiration and ethylene synthesis rates during storage. Texture of the fruits when measured in terms of firmness showed restricted changes as compared to untreated control. Similar observations were also recorded in the case of instrumental colour (L*, a* and b* values). The developed coatings extended shelf-life of tomatoes by 10, 8 and 12 days in case of shellac (S), AG and composite coating (S + AG) coated fruits, respectively; when kept at ambient storage conditions (28 ± 2 °C). PMID:25694740

  5. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    required to assess many changes at once, or confidence in these weapons would be reduced. The strategy and details of the U.S. Stockpile Life Extension Program will be described in this talk. In brief, the strategy is to reduce the number of weapons in the stockpile while increasing confidence in the weapons that remain and, where possible, increase their safety, increase their security, and reduce their nuclear material quantities and yields. A number of ``myths'' pertaining to nuclear weapons, the SSP, and the Stockpile Life Extension Program will be explored.

  6. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  7. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  8. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. Jamilah; M. S.H. Azril; U. Jegak; M. Asiah; A. N. Azman; A. S.   Bahaman; Thomas, K

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension emp...

  9. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  11. Shelf Life Extension of Cheddar Processed Cheese Using Polyethylene Coating Films of Nisin against Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Issa Alrabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial food packaging is vital issue. This study aimed to test shelf life extension of Cheddar Processed Cheese at room temperature using low-density polyethylene (LDPE films incorporating nisin against Bacillus cereus. In particular, the efficiency of different treatments was tested against Bacillus cereus. Different concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, 16000 IU mL-1 of nisin were used in activating (coating LDPE films. There was no mainly clear difference in inhibition zone from 2000 to 16000 IU, so that a concentration of 2000 IU was used for active packaging. Four different treatments were tested in cheese: samples without coating; samples without coating and inculcated by Bacillus cereus; samples coating by polyethylene films that activated by nisin without inoculation and samples coating by the same films and inoculated by Bacillus cereus. Microbiological analyses including total count, spore forming bacteria and yeast and moulds of the cheese samples were performed during 8 months. Results indicated that the cheese which coated with polyethylene films that treated with nisin regardless whether it was inculcated or not were free of Bacillus cereus bacteria.

  12. Optimal design of accelerated life tests for an extension of the exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated life tests provide information quickly on the lifetime distribution of the products by testing them at higher than usual levels of stress. In this paper, the lifetime of a product at any level of stress is assumed to have an extension of the exponential distribution. This new family has been recently introduced by Nadarajah and Haghighi (2011 [1]); it can be used as an alternative to the gamma, Weibull and exponentiated exponential distributions. The scale parameter of lifetime distribution at constant stress levels is assumed to be a log-linear function of the stress levels and a cumulative exposure model holds. For this model, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the parameters, as well as the Fisher information matrix, are derived. The asymptotic variance of the scale parameter at a design stress is adopted as an optimization objective and its expression formula is provided using the maximum likelihood method. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to examine the performance of these methods. The asymptotic confidence intervals for the parameters and hypothesis test for the parameter of interest are constructed

  13. The role of ASTM standards in nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has operated since 1898 as a voluntary consensus standard development organization and today has 139 main technical subcommittees. Committees E10 and C26 are responsible for nuclear-related standards. The assessment and management of degradation processes are key factors in determining the fitness of power plant components for continued service. The original materials of construction, their associated acceptance testing and continued surveillance and inspection are largely covered by ASTM standards. Many of these standards are incorporated into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the Code of Federal Regulations. Approximately 450 of the 8500 existing ASTM standards have some relevance to the issue of plant life extension. This estimate includes those standards pertaining to testing, inspection, analysis, surveillance and monitoring for the purpose of condition assessment, but excludes those specifying the form and composition of actual construction materials. The aging degradation mechanisms of principal concern for metallic and polymeric materials are irradiation- induced embrittlement, thermal aging, fatigue, corrosion and wear. The effects of irradiation, temperature, freeze-thaw cycles and chemical attack have been considered for concrete

  14. Comparative transcriptional pathway bioinformatic analysis of dietary restriction, Sir2, p53 and resveratrol life span extension in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Antosh, Michael; Whitaker, Rachel; Kroll, Adam; Hosier, Suzanne; Chang, Chengyi; Bauer, Johannes; Cooper, Leon; Neretti, Nicola; HELFAND, STEPHEN L.

    2011-01-01

    A multiple comparison approach using whole genome transcriptional arrays was used to identify genes and pathways involved in calorie restriction/dietary restriction (DR) life span extension in Drosophila. Starting with a gene centric analysis comparing the changes in common between DR and two DR related molecular genetic life span extending manipulations, Sir2 and p53, lead to a molecular confirmation of Sir2 and p53's similarity with DR and the identification of a small set of commonly regul...

  15. Manage I and C obsolescence for GE BWR nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear power plants in operation were built in the 1970's and 1980's. Parts obsolescence for instrumentation and controls (I and C) has been a continued issue for these plants. Although modern I and C could benefit a nuclear plant in terms of improved reliability, reduced maintenance, and reduced plant vulnerability, I and C upgrades are not common for nuclear plants. This is because the current economic model is such that the assessed benefits for I and C upgrades, especially for the safety related applications, seldom exceeds the modifications cost. Generally, there is no capacity loss associated with I and C problems. The plant staff is usually talented and resourceful enough to maintain the existing system. Any upgrade involving safety related instruments require extensive reviews by the regulatory body, e.g., the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Cost/benefit analysis that focuses on the immediate pay back and discounts potential long term impact could not justify the cost of I and C upgrade. Consequently, I and C upgrade has been conducted more from a as-needed basis as opposed to being based on a strategic plan. The planning of the I and C upgrades to support plant life extension should be executed in a systematic approach. Six Sigma tools, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), can be used to help prioritize I and C upgrades for coming years. An example of employing such a tool would be to first list the criteria or goals for upgrades. This is also termed 'Critical to Quality (CTQ)'. The CTQ should be developed based on inputs from plant staff including engineering, maintenance, and operations. Where applicable, quality assurance, outage management, and plant strategic planning staff should be included. Examples of CTQs are: (a) reliability, (b) ease of maintenance, (c) ease of operation, (d) outage impact, (e) long tem viability, (f) ALARA, and (g) ability to support plant operation (e.g. EPU). The CTQs are then weighted based on the consensus of

  16. Microbial inactivation and shelf life extension of Korean traditional prepared meals by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on microbial inactivation and shelf life extension of Korean traditional prepared meals, including bulgogi and its sauce, marinated beef rib and Kimbab, were investigated. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce used for making bulgogi sauce were highly contaminated and most of them with Bacillus spp. and coliform bacteria at the initial stage. Irradiation at 10 kGy eliminated coliforms in the bulgogi sauce and no growth was found during the 4 weeks of storage at 20 deg. C. The sensory evaluation of bulgogi and its sauce showed that the colour of irradiated samples was better than that of non-irradiated controls or heat treated samples. The total bacteria count and coliform of marinated beef ribs were 5.68 and 3.68 in CFU/g, respectively. The effect of irradiation on the growth of the four test microorganisms inoculated (about 106-107 CFU/g) into the marinated beef ribs were dose dependent (a higher dose produced a greater reduction). All the four pathogens inoculated on marinated beef ribs were eliminated at 4 kGy. The D10 values of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli on inoculated marinated beef ribs were 0.66 ± 0.01, 0.59 ± 0.05, 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.54 ± 0.01 kGy, respectively. Of these, E. coli was the most radiation sensitive in the raw marinated beef ribs. The number of the four pathogens inoculated into Kimbab decreased by 2-3 ln CFU/g for every 1 kGy increment and were not detected after 3 kGy. The D10 values of pathogens inoculated into the Kimbab were in the range 0.31-0.44 kGy. This study indicated that irradiation is effective in ensuring the safety of Korean traditional prepared meals, including bulgogi sauce, bulgogi, marinated beef ribs and Kimbab with acceptable sensory quality. For Kimchijumeokbab, viable cells of the four pathogens inoculated increased slightly after abusive storage condition (20 deg. C), although under commercial condition (4 deg. C), and after 2

  17. 75 FR 8698 - Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... of the request for scientific views. SUMMARY: On December 30, 2009 (74 FR 69086), EPA announced the... 1, 2010 (a 60-day request for scientific views). Since publication, the Agency has received several... AGENCY Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

  18. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1987-02-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources.

  19. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-10-24

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources.

  20. Cybernetic principles of aging and rejuvenation: the buffering- challenging strategy for life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Aging is analyzed as the spontaneous loss of adaptivity and increase in fragility that characterizes dynamic systems. Cybernetics defines the general regulatory mechanisms that a system can use to prevent or repair the damage produced by disturbances. According to the law of requisite variety, disturbances can be held in check by maximizing buffering capacity, range of compensatory actions, and knowledge about which action to apply to which disturbance. This suggests a general strategy for rejuvenating the organism by increasing its capabilities of adaptation. Buffering can be optimized by providing sufficient rest together with plenty of nutrients: amino acids, antioxidants, methyl donors, vitamins, minerals, etc. Knowledge and the range of action can be extended by subjecting the organism to an as large as possible variety of challenges. These challenges are ideally brief so as not to deplete resources and produce irreversible damage. However, they should be sufficiently intense and unpredictable to induce an overshoot in the mobilization of resources for damage repair, and to stimulate the organism to build stronger capabilities for tackling future challenges. This allows them to override the trade-offs and limitations that evolution has built into the organism's repair processes in order to conserve potentially scarce resources. Such acute, "hormetic" stressors strengthen the organism in part via the "order from noise" mechanism that destroys dysfunctional structures by subjecting them to strong, random variations. They include heat and cold, physical exertion, exposure, stretching, vibration, fasting, food toxins, micro-organisms, environmental enrichment and psychological challenges. The proposed buffering-challenging strategy may be able to extend life indefinitely, by forcing a periodic rebuilding and extension of capabilities, while using the Internet as an endless source of new knowledge about how to deal with disturbances. PMID:24852018

  1. Life extension, power upgrade, and return to service work for Pickering NGS and other PWR and CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on life extension, power upgrade and return to service has been performed and is in progress for a number of PWR and CANDU plants. For PWR plants, power upgrade work has been done for the new replacement steam generators in several cases. This work consists of redoing the formal equipment qualification analysis and reports for the uprated operating conditions to support the application for license adjustment. Life extension assessments have been performed for several CANDU plants. These are highly detailed assessments in which the particular steam generator is reassessed part by part as to the ability of each to sustain full life operation and also extended life operation. Return to service work for Pickering NGSA specifically has included this type of assessment and also specific repair, cleaning and retrofit activities including secondary side inspection, waterlancing, divider plate repair, eddy current inspection, etc. Steam generator modifications and retrofit work have been performed in a number of cases. The paper discusses various life extension, power upgrade, equipment modification and return to service activities all of which are part of the renewed drive in the industry to realise the full potential of nuclear plants by getting more and better performance from the extended service of existing plants. (author)

  2. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  3. The impact of the MCU life extension solvent on sludge batch 8 projected operating windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01 M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B203 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B203 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  4. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  5. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jamilah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension employee do have impact their work performance or not. It is necessary to estimate quality of work life function in enhancing work performance, analyze the most important factor and variables on this work performance. The instruments used for collecting data were: A scale on individual and family life, a scale on safety and security on the organization, a scale on interpersonal relationship in the organization, a scale on job satisfaction, a scale on organizational policies and management style, a scale on personnel health and well being, a scale on work environment, a scale on remuneration and a scale on organizational support. The data were analyzed PASW software. Results: Results depict that all of the nine qualities of work life studied have significant and positive relationship with work performance where the highest relationship occurred between individual and family life with work performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that five factors which are individual and family life, job satisfaction, organization policy and management style, work environment and remuneration are the main contributors to work performance among government agricultural extension employees. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that aspect of individual and family life is the highest contributor to work performance among government agriculture extension officer. It can be noted that more courses on how to manage individual and family

  6. Elektroprivreda Kosova Kosovo A. Unit 2. Life-extension study. (BVI Project 17031, BVI File 40. 0406). Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Elektroprivreda Kosova (EPK) has five units in operation at its Kosovo A power station. Unit 2, which began commercial operation in 1964, is the subject of the study. That unit burns brown coal in a pulverized coal steam generator and uses electrostatic precipitators to remove particulate. EPK would like to extend the life of Unit 2 by 25 years. The study evaluates several alternatives to life extension. In the first three alternatives, the existing Unit 2 boiler would be life extended with new pulverized coal equipment without a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. In the fourth alternative, the existing boiler would be life extended with new pulverized coal equipment with flue gas desulfurization equipment. In the fifth alternative, the existing boiler would be converted to fluidized bed combustion. The evaluation compares technical, economic, and financial aspects of the alternatives.

  7. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  8. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R and D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R and D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability

  9. Life extension techniques for aircraft structures-Extending durability and promoting damage tolerance through bonded crack retarders

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, Phil E.; Zhang, Xiang; Doucet, J; Figueroa-Gordon, Douglas J.; Boscolo, M.; Heinimann, M.; Shepherd, G.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; D. Liljedahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of the bonded crack retarder concept as a device for life extension of damage tolerant aircraft structures. Fatigue crack growth behaviour in metallic substrates with bonded straps has been determined. SENT and M(T) test coupons and large scale skin-stringer panels were tested at constant and variable amplitude loads. The strap materials were glass fibre polymer composites, GLARE, AA7085 and Ti-6Al-4V. Comprehensive measurements were made of...

  10. Shelf life extension of Ricotta cheese using coatings of galactomannans from nonconventional sources incorporating nisin against Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Cerqueira, M. A.; Souza, B. W. S.; Avides, Maria do Carmo; A.A. Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life extension of Ricotta cheese was evaluated at 4 °C upon the use of edible coatings made of galactomannans from Gleditsia triacanthos incorporating nisin against Listeria monocytogenes. Three different treatments were tested in cheese: samples without coating; samples with coating without nisin; and samples with coating containing 50 IU·g−1 of nisin. To test the effectiveness of the treatments against L. monocytogenes, the surface of the cheese was inoculated with a suspension of the...

  11. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  12. Fresh-cut salad consumer and shelf life date extension: more or less information?

    OpenAIRE

    Stranieri, S.; Baldi, Lucia; Manzoni, V.

    2014-01-01

    Shelf-life estimation has become increasingly important due to the growing consumer interest in fresh and safe food products and the European policy indications to consider it as a key issue for the sustainable management of food waste within the supply chains. To date, no legislation on the shelf life date of the most of food products exists (Boxstael et al., 2014). Several studies demonstrate that the technology available in the fresh-cut sector would allow to extend the shelf life date of ...

  13. Fresh-cut salad and shelf life date extension: a segmentation of Italian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Stranieri, S.; L. Baldi

    2015-01-01

    Shelf-life estimation has become increasingly important due to the growing consumer interest in fresh and safe food products and the European policy indications to consider it as a key issue for the sustainable management of food waste within the supply chains. To date, no legislation on the shelf life date of the most of food products exists. Several studies demonstrate that logistic management and the technology available in the fresh-cut sector would allow to extend the shelf life date of ...

  14. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    I. García-Márquez; J. A. Ordóñez; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public healt...

  15. Creep life extension of 316FR stainless steel by the laser peening. Effects of ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper has investigated the effects of the laser peening treatment on the change in creep life and microstructure in 316FR stainless steel. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the peening treatment can change subsurface residual stress from tensile to compressive at an output laser power of 5.6 ∼ 22 GW/cm2. The creep life of the steel was extended at 923K whereas not at 823K in air. The SEM/EBSD analyses revealed that laser treatment can coarsen crystal grains in the crept steel. This effect may have brought about longer creep life of the steel. (author)

  16. An evaluation of life extension of the HFIR pressure vessel. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary analyses were performed in 1994 to determine the remaining useful life of the HFIR pressure vessel. The estimated total permissible life was ∼ 50 EFPY (100 MW). More recently, the analyses have been updated, including a more precise treatment of uncertainties in the calculation of the hydrostatic-proof-test conditions and also including the contribution of gammas to the radiation-induced reduction in fracture toughness. These and other refinements had essentially no effect on the predicted useful life of the vessel or on the specified hydrostatic proof-test conditions

  17. Impacts of metformin and aspirin on life history features and longevity of crickets: trade-offs versus cost-free life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Harvir; Lone, Asad; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impacts of aspirin and metformin on the life history of the cricket Acheta domesticus (growth rate, maturation time, mature body size, survivorship, and maximal longevity). Both drugs significantly increased survivorship and maximal life span. Maximal longevity was 136 days for controls, 188 days (138 % of controls) for metformin, and 194 days (143 % of controls) for aspirin. Metformin and aspirin in combination extended longevity to a lesser degree (163 days, 120 % of controls). Increases in general survivorship were even more pronounced, with low-dose aspirin yielding mean longevity 234 % of controls (i.e., health span). Metformin strongly reduced growth rates of both genders (aspirin only slightly reduced the growth rate of females and slightly increased that of males. Both drugs delayed maturation age relative to controls, but metformin had a much greater impact (>140 % of controls) than aspirin (~118 % of controls). Crickets maturing on low aspirin showed no evidence of a trade-off between maturation mass and life extension. Remarkably, by 100 days of age, aspirin-treated females were significantly larger than controls (largely reflecting egg complement). Unlike the reigning dietary restriction paradigm, low aspirin conformed to a paradigm of "eat more, live longer." In contrast, metformin-treated females were only ~67 % of the mass of controls. Our results suggest that hormetic agents like metformin may derive significant trade-offs with life extension, whereas health and longevity benefits may be obtained with less cost by agents like aspirin that regulate geroprotective pathways. PMID:25833406

  18. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  19. The unexpected outcomes of anti-aging, rejuvenation, and life extension studies: an origin of modern therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-06-01

    The search for life-extending interventions has been often perceived as a purely academic pursuit, or as an unorthodox medical enterprise, with little or no practical outcome. Yet, in fact, these studies, explicitly aiming to prolong human life, often constituted a formidable, though hardly ever acknowledged, motivation for biomedical research and discovery. At least several modern biomedical fields have originated directly from rejuvenation and life extension research: (1) Hormone replacement therapy was born in Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard's rejuvenation experiments with animal gland extracts (1889). (2) Probiotic diets originated in Elie Metchnikoff's conception of radically prolonged "orthobiosis" (c. 1900). (3) The development of clinical endocrinology owed much to Eugen Steinach's "endocrine rejuvenation" operations (c. 1910s-1920s). (4) Tissue transplantations in humans (allografts and xenografts) were first widely performed in Serge Voronoff's "rejuvenation by grafting" experiments (c. 1910s-1920s). (5) Tissue engineering was pioneered during Alexis Carrel's work on cell and tissue immortalization (c. 1900-1920). (6) Cell therapy (and particularly human embryonic cell therapy) was first widely conducted by Paul Niehans for the purposes of rejuvenation as early as the 1930s. Thus, the pursuit of life extension and rejuvenation has constituted an inseparable and crucial element in the history of biomedicine. Notably, the common principle of these studies was the proactive maintenance of stable, long-term homeostasis of the entire organism. PMID:24524368

  20. Inservice inspection of heavy water plants - a tool in assessing damage to components and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any system and its components are expected to give trouble free service over a certain period of time known as life time. The life time is estimated during the design stage. To achieve the design life, certain level of quality are to be defined and this quality has to be worked into the components by proper fabrication processes and their compliance with quality are to be checked. In addition, one has to guard against initiation or propagation of defects which may occur due to normal and abnormal service conditions. Non-destructive test (NDT) techniques are widely used for finding the health of the component. The role of NDT extends from the production stage to the entire life period of the system. This paper highlights the periodic in-service inspection (ISI) carried out on various components of the Heavy Water Plants (HWP) in India in assessing the integrity of the components and predicting the life of the components. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Exploring the gap for effective extension of professional active life in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Leonard; H. Afsarmanesh; S.S. Msanjila; J. Playfoot

    2009-01-01

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject,

  2. High-cycle Fatigue Life Extension of Glass Fiber/Polymer Composites with Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher S Grimmer; C K H Dharan

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows that the addition of small volume fractions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the matrix results in a significant increase in the high-cycle fatigue life. It is proposed that carbon nanotubes tend to inhibit the formation of large cracks by nucleating nano-scale damage zones. In addition, the contribution to energy absorption from the fracture of nanotubes bridging across nano-scale cracks and from nanotube pull-out from the matrix are mechanisms that can improve the fatigue life. An energy-based model was proposed to estimate the additional strain energy absorbed in fatigue. The distributed nanotubes in the matrix appear to both distribute damage as well as inhibit damage propagation resulting in an overall improvement in the fatigue strength of glass fiber composites.

  3. A nomogram of the economic effectiveness of the V-1 nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic assessment is presented of the concept variants for extending the life of the V-1 nuclear power plant after its reconstruction. The starting assumption is that in 1995 the units of this nuclear power plant will be shut down for reconstruction with the aim to increase the technological safety and for updating and renewing the equipment and circuits. The variant parameters in the evaluation were the shutdown time for the reconstruction, the reconstruction costs, and the year of terminating the plant operation after its reconstruction. A nomogram for determining the specific annual updated costs after extending the life of the power plant units and a table listing these costs are given. (P.A.). 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 oC storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  5. Shelf-life extension of pre-packed whole wheat flour using low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage studies on irradiated (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and non-irradiated prepacked whole wheat flour have shown that wheat flour irradiated at 0.25 kGy and stored at room temperature for 6 months did not show significant changes in the functional qualities and acceptability of the product, thereby extending the shelf-life and marketability of the product. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  6. Extension of the shelf life of meat by means of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh meat, especially in minced form, has an exceptionally limited shelf life. Radurisation to a 3 kGy dose lengthened the shelf life of vacuum-packed mincemeat by some weeks (compared with a few days for control samples). Spoilage bacteria like the pseudomonads and other Gram-negative rods were completely eliminated by a 3 kGy dose. Attention was also given to combination treatments. Radiation in combination with lactic acid additions had a synergistic preservation effect, resulting in an extended shelf life. Gram-positive organisms like the lactic acid bacteria, and to a lesser extent Brochothrix thermosphacta as well as yeasts, were the most important surviving organisms in radurised meat. Lactobacilli, especially, were present in large numbers in radurised meat at the end of the storage period. Potential pathogens and food-poisoning bacteria like Salmonella typhimurium and some Staphylococcus spp. which are found in the meat, were killed by radurising radiation doses. Radurisation of high-grade, vacuum-packed meat cuts by radiation doses of 2 kGy, resulted in a doubling of the shelf life (stored at 4 degrees Celsius). With the exception of taste and aroma, organoleptic evaluations showed that radurised mincemeat and meat cuts were better than the unirradiated product. Radiation treatment at temperatures of 0 degrees Celsius to 2 degrees Celsius eliminated the problem of taste and aroma. Identification of representative isolates from radurised and control (unirradiated) mincemeat samples confirmed the results obtained with the aid of selective media. The examinations showed that lactobacilli are the most important group of bacteria in radurised meat, while the yeasts also contributed a prominent portion of the total microbe population. The possibilities of applying the process, and aspects which justify further investigation are discussed

  7. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)], E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel [DMJM International (Cansult Maunsell/AECOM Ltd.), Consultant of Gardens Sector Projects, Alain Municipality and Eastern Emirates, P.O. Box 1419, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: abdul79jaleel@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-15

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 {sup o}C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  8. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-09-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  9. Quantifying cancer patient survival : extensions and applications of cure models and life expectancy estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Therese M-L

    2013-01-01

    Cancer patient survival is the single most important measure of cancer patient care. By quantifying cancer patient survival in different ways further insights can be gained in terms of temporal trends and differences in cancer patient survival between groups. The objective of this thesis is to develop and apply methods for estimating the cure proportion and loss in expectation of life for cancer patients. In paper I, a cure model was used to study temporal trends in sur...

  10. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 107cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (103 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 105 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 103 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  11. Use of e-beam for shelf-life extension and sanitizing of marinated pork loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I; Ordóñez, J A; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  12. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  13. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension; El proyecto {sup P}reev del Foro Iberoamericano. Practicas reguladoras en envejecimiento y extension de vida.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  14. Impact of plant life extension on new reactor and fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide. In order to prepare for the next decades and to set priorities in nuclear research and investment, it is essential to develop nuclear fuel cycle assessments. This allows to identify the triggers which influence the market penetration of prospective nuclear reactor technologies. To this purpose, fuel cycle scenarios for a future nuclear reactor park in Europe have been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. The assessment has been undertaken using the DANESS code (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies, developed by Argonne National Laboratory (US)). This code allows the drawing of a complete picture of mass-flows between fuel cycle facilities and the economics of the various nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. The present assessment recognizes the integrated nuclear fuel cycle. It focuses on the effect of lifetime extension of the current reactor park on the market penetration of Gen IV reactor designs in the case of various nuclear energy demand scenarios. The analyses show that the implementation of lifetime extension of the current reactor park has a significant influence on the future reactor park development. Varying the time period in which the current reactor park is replaced might trigger different reactor designs to penetrate the market during different periods. Furthermore, the effect on the deployment of fuel cycle facilities, their impact on the radiation dose to the public, the electricity generation costs, and the workforce which is necessary to operate the existing fleet and construct the future plants, will be shown. (authors)

  15. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations. PMID:25122940

  16. Gamma irradiation of beef for shelf-life extension and for improving its bacterial quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1-3 kGy on bacteriological, chemical and sensory quality of beef ball from commercial producer were investigated. The shelf-life at 3 degrees C of beef ball, irradiated at 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kGy was determined and compared to those packed under atmospheric condition. Two replications of beef ball were carried out. Changes in mesophilic count, psychrotrophic count, Lactobacillus count, pH, TB A number and sensory quality of irradiated and non-irradiated beef ball were determined every 1, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 24 days. The results indicated that irradiation of beef ball at 2 kGy eliminated Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and reduced bacterial load by 2-3 log cycles. Salmonella sp. was not detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated products. Significant changes in odor and TB A number were observed after 1 kGy treatment. The shelf-life of non-irradiated beef ball based on psychrotrophic count was approximately 7 days compared with 21 and 24 days for beef ball irradiated at 0.9 and 1.8 kGy. The sensory quality of irradiated beef ball tended to decrease during storage but was within the acceptable range even after 24 days of storage at 3 degrees C. Packing of beef ball under vacuum or atmospheric condition gave similar results. Dosage at 2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality and increasing the shelf-life of beef ball without affecting sensory quality

  17. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepared meals sold from homes, markets and lorry stations play a major role in the delivery of nutritious foods to majority of Ghanaians. With increasing urbanization, and its associated busy life-style, the demand for prepared meals is on the ascendancy. Although the formal and more refined prepared meals outlets such as restaurants and fast food joints are increasing, the informal alternatives, referred to as 'street foods' continue to enjoy a higher patronage. A survey on the street food business revealed that many of the operators are unskilled women of low-income status with no formal training in good hygienic practices in the production and sale of prepared meals. It is note-worthy that Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum have been isolated from waakye (a popular street food) on sale under ambient conditions in markets. Further studies are needed not only to substantiate these observations but also determine the impact of refrigeration and freezing on the microbiological safety and shelf-life of waakye and other popular street foods. Limited studies on waakye, indicated that the cooking applied is adequate only for eliminating vegetative bacteria but not spores. Clearly there is a need to identify procedures/processes, including irradiation, which can improve the microbiological safety and increase the shelf-life of such prepared meals without compromising product quality. These studies will be needed for the realization of the dreams of consumers who would want to buy some street foods, such as waakye, with better safety and quality assurance, from supermarkets or refined fast food outlets, for immediate consumption or at a later date

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x104 to 5x107 per g. Coliforms were 8x101 to 3x104 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation

  19. Shelf-life extension of cooked ham model product by high hydrostatic pressure and natural preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vercammen, Anne; Vanoirbeek, Kristof; Lurquin, Ine; Steen, Liselot; Goemaere, Olivier; Szczepaniak, Slawomir; Paelinck, Hubert; HENDRICKX, Marc; Michiels, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of different spoilage organisms and surrogate pathogens in a cooked ham model product by high pressure (HP) treatment (100-700 MPa, 5-40 °C, 10 min) was investigated. A 5 log reduction could be achieved at ≥ 600 MPa at ≥ 25 °C. Subsequently, the shelf-life of packaged sliced product was studied during storage (7 °C) after treatment at 600 MPa (10 °C, 10 min) in combination with caprylic acid and Purasal®. Without HP treatment, a plate count of 6 log CFU/g was r...

  20. Measures for the assessment and extension of the service life time of steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyrim, W.D.; Merz, N.; Herrmann, N.; Beck, N. [KSG Kohlenscheidungsgesellschaft GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    In many industrial countries it has become more and more necessary to extend the life time of steam generators to retrofit with environmental protection measures and to adapt to the state of the art. GEC-EVT have introduced a service program for the retrofit of steam generators which is divided into three main phases: Phase 1 Pre-Outage: Documentation of the actual status; Phase 2 Outage: Test and inspection phase; Phase 3 Post-Outage: Evaluation. After phase 3 all technical and economical data are available for the client to decide the following actions. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection

  2. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x104 to 5x107 per g. Coliforms were 8x101 to 3x104 per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation. (author)

  3. Uses of irradiation or sodium tripolyphosphate for shelf-life extension of quail carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma iraadiation or sodium tripolyphoshate (STPP) for increasing shelf-life of quail carcasses during cold storage. The quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaked in 3% STPP. The effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated during cold storage (4± 1C degree). The results indicated that, the chemical compositions of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation or soaking in STPP. Futhermore, treatment had no deterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. Meanwhile, irradiation of samples at doses of 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged the shelf-life for 15,21,24 and 9 days at 4 ± 1 Cdegree in comparison with 6 days for control samples. Moreover, the acid value (A.V), peroxide value (P.V) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value were increased after irradiation, while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content had no real change by this treatment. On the other hand, soakking in STPP treatment decreased these values and gradual increases were observed during cold storage

  4. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  5. Extension of the shelf life of guava by individual packaging with cling and shrink films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Seema; Siddiqui, Saleem; Goyal, Ankit

    2015-12-01

    Guava is a climacteric fruit so physico-chemical changes continuously occur after harvest till fruit become unfit for consumption and suffers from post harvest losses. The main objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of individual film in form of Shrink and Cling wrap on shelf life of guava. Fruits were individually packed in polythene bags (LDPE) of 200 gauge thickness by Shrink and Cling wrapping and stored at 7 ± 3 °C. Individual wrapping reduced the magnitude of changes during storage i.e., ripening process drastically as evident from lower total soluble solids, higher ascorbic acid, polyphenol content with lower polyphenol oxidase activity and physiological loss of weight (PLW) was less than 3.5 %. Film wrapping preserved freshness of wrapped fruits as they remained acceptable for whole storage time in contrast to control fruits which turned unacceptable by 15(th) day of storage. Control fruits showed significant compositional changes as well as in polyphenol content, ascorbic acid and reduced number of marketable fruits while Cling and Shrink wrapping enhanced the shelf life by 10 days. PMID:26604388

  6. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  7. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and the past history of the plant performance, critical piping systems and equipment are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. Static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration has been given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where the induced stresses (SL) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (Sh), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted in view of the fact that the thickness measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. It has been possible to qualify the system with reduced corrosion allowance values however, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (Sa). If the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (Sh-SL) to the term 0.25 Sh, has been taken. However, if at any location, it is found that thermal stress is high, fatigue analysis has been carried

  8. Fantastic voyage: live long enough to live forever. The science behind radical life extension questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Ray; Grossman, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Putting an end to human aging is now becoming a reality, and immortality is no longer just a dream. Through what we are calling "Fantastic Voyage," we provide a guide to achieving life extension through various means, thereby slowing down aging and disease processes. The three components of Fantastic Voyage are: Bridge One--Aggressively applying today's knowledge. Bridge Two--Putting biotechnology, such as gene technologies, to use with therapeutic cloning and rejuvenation medicine. Bridge Three--Putting nanotechnology to use by developing a means to rebuild our bodies and brains with nanobots. Many of these technology solutions can be simulated today through the use of targeted supplements, designed to address the specific needs of an individual, such as insulin resistance, cholesterol and homocysteine levels, and inflammation. To slow aging now, we propose a program of supplementing aggressively, eating foods that impede aging and disease processes, and reversing inflammation through diet. We also provide guidance to customize each program to the specific needs of the individual. Emerging technologies in rational drug design, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and nanobots (among others) promise a future of automated life extension. The use of such technologies, and the resulting dramatic increases in productivity in all areas of human endeavor, will enable us to live in a world in which all our physical needs can be met. PMID:19745481

  9. Extension of shelf life of paneer by sorbic acid and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneer, an acid and heat coagulated milk product, is highly perishable because of high moisture (58-60%) and low acidity (pH 5.6-5.8). The product had 430 total plate count, 120 proteolytic bacteria, 170 lipolytic bacteria and 40 fungi/g of sample with a shelf life of few hr. Treatment with sorbic acid and/or gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load. Combination treatment of 0.10% sorbic acid in milk and irradiation of the product at 2.5 kGy preserved the paneer for 30 days at ambient temperature (25-35degC) with good acceptance. (author). 14 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  11. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 oC for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 oC compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  12. Extreme life extension: investing in cryonics for the long, long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    This article explores American conceptualizations of finance, the future, the limits of biological time, and the possibilities of biotechnoscience through an investigation of the social world of cryonics-the freezing of the dead with the hope of future revival. I describe some of the cosmologies of life, death, time, and the management of the future that circulate within cryonics communities, and I draw out relationships between cryonics practices and discourses and more common forms of personal future management prevalent within American neoliberal capitalism. I also illustrate similarities and differences between cryonics and more mainstream biomedical technologies. In doing so, I argue that cryonics is one American manifestation of anxieties about aging, time, and the future. I investigate the impact of biotechnologies on self-making and biosociality, and argue that crafting of selves can be deeply entwined with practices of investment or hope in the future of biomedicine and technology. PMID:20455144

  13. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  14. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  15. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase. PMID:26472877

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment precursor studies in support of the NRU research reactor life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic safety assessment program is being undertaken in support of a major upgrade planned for the NRU research reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research. This paper describes the objectives of the program and discusses the safety issues against which the success of the upgrade program is being judged. A licensing basis for the reactor in the form of detailed safety goals and release criteria as a function of event frequency has been proposed. An allowance has been made in the setting of the release criteria as a function of frequency such that the summing of event sequences is not a requirement to demonstrate compliance. The ability to assess each individual sequence that leads to core damage and/or fission-product release from confinement against these release criteria has, to a large extent, dictated the character of the supporting safety analyses. To identify the release frequencies in accident sequences, a probabilistic assessment comprising a number of probabilistic precursor studies is being undertaken. Descriptive event sequences are being used extensively in these studies to complement the more traditional event/fault tree techniques, to - ensure that operating and maintenance staff are involved in their preparation. Details of the program, assessment basis, and the analysis techniques being used in support of the assessment are given. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  17. Studies on extension of shelf-life of rawa by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semolina, a wheat product, popularly termed as rawa, was packed in 500g pouches prepared individually from high density polyethylene (HDP), biaxially oriented polypropylene : low density polyethylene laminate (BOPP/LDP), polyester : low density polyethylene laminate (PET/LDP) and irradiated using a Cobalt-60 source at dose of 0.15 to 0.50 kGy. At the end of six months' storage at room temperature, the unirradiated rawa developed infestation, whereas the irradiated samples were completely free of any infestation, thereby indicating a complete destruction of all stages of the insects due to irradiation. There was no significant difference in the moisture content and the total bacterial as well as mould counts of the irradiated and unirradiated rawa. Gamma irradiation significantly decreased the gelatinization viscosity of rawa. In sensory evaluation tests, irradiated rawa scored the same on a 9-point Hedonic scale, thereby showing that overall acceptability of the rawa was not altered due to irradiation upto 0.25 kGy. Amongst the packaging materials used, BOPP/LDP was found to be better, because of its comparatively higher resistance to penetration by insects. Gamma irradiation at 0.25 kGy could thus be recommended for effectively extending the shelf-life of rawa, prepacked in pouches made from BOPP/LDP laminate, for six months. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Shelf-life extension of bread by heat and irradiation treatment [Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread slices were given irradiation treatment 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 KGy and heat treatment at 60 deg. C for 20 min to control mould growth. Mould growth was reladed at ambient temperature by 3, 4, 6 and 8 days after 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy treatments, respectively, compared to 2 days in case of control sample and 3 days for heat treatment alone. Combination of heat with irradiation at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy retarded mould growth up to 4, 6, 7 an 9 days, respectively. Organoleptically, the irradiated bread slices were acceptable up to 3 to 6 days depending on the treatment. The combination method treated slices were acceptable up to 8 days. The application of radiation dose exceeding 2.0 KGy caused off flavour. Mild heat treatment and radiation in combination resulted in a synergistic antifungal effect and enhanced shelf-life of bread

  19. Combination effects of radiation, packaging and N2 gas for shelf-life extension of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the influence of different parameters on the shelf-life of cooked shrimp experiments were made, introducing radiation in the shrimp (peeled and unpeeled), temperatures (deep frozen at -350C and chilled at 50C) and packing materials (EG-0 and CP) to reduce the oxidation effects, the experiment was performed under the addition of the nitrogen gas. The irradiation was done with gamma rays emitted by a cobalt-60 source of 5.55x1015Bp (150 KCi) at a dose rate of 6 kGy. The usual irradiation dose of 1.5 and 3 kGy were applied as well as a range of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 kGy. The experiments confirmed that the radiation sensitivity of microorganism like coliforms and aerobic microorganisms and enterobacteriaceae is temperature depending. The peroxide value showed also to be temperature depending and in addition of the packaging material. The TNA-N value was not significantly influenced by the applied radiation doses. Shrimp irradiated at chilled conditions showed off-flavours at 1.5 kGy. Off-flavours could be detected at a dose of 3 kGy when the shrimp was irradiated at deep frozen condition. No difference was observed on the radiation effects on peeled and unpeeled shrimps

  20. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends suggest increasing world-wide demand for convenience foods such as prepared meals and those that require minimum preparation before consumption. In Ghana, the trend is the same with ready-to-eat or prepared meals mostly sold in the informal sector, playing a major role in meeting the nutritional needs of the people these meals are prepared on daily basis as in most developing countries. With increasing urbanization and rapid adoption of refrigeration for food preservation in developing countries, the demand for such foods in supermarkets should be expected. Over 90% of ready-to-eat meals prepared in Ghana are marketed under ambient conditions and have shelf-life of less than 12 hours. However, there are a few caterers who prepare cook-chill meals using hygienic and preventative approach (e.g. HACCP) in order to enhance the safety of their meals. Preliminary investigations have demonstrated that these cook-chill meals are potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks. There is therefore the need to ensure the safety of ready-to-eat meals through effective processing such as irradiation

  1. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ)

  2. Extension shelf life of batte by using hydrocolloids and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Batte (is baked french one of the most baked coated most prevalent in the markets after the cake wrapping. Batte exposed generally two types of corruption which is occurring phenomenon of (anti-staling and corruption microbial (molds. In this study produced batte with an attempt to prolong the period of its validity by addition 1.5% hydrocolloids, (which is 0.5% sodium alginate, 0.5% k-carrageenan and 0.5% hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC to hard wheat flour 72% (HWF to improve materials for mellowness and anti-staling, whereas batte exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 5 kGy to decrease microbial load. Hydrocolloids at 1.5% improved the rheological properties of dough farinogragh and aextensograph parameters. The hydrocolloids increase flexibility, rubber and freshness of batte to 24 days compared to 8 days in control sample. Thiobarbituric acid (T.B.A values at the end of storage at room temperature (ranged to 0.253–0.352 mg malonaldehyde/kg that were less than these mentioned by the Egyptian Standard. Also, gamma irradiation reduced the total bacterial count of batte product. Sensory evaluation of produced batte was done. The addition of 1.5% hydrocolloids and exposed to gamma irradiation had higher freshness and increase shelf-life for 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days against only 15 days for control sample.

  3. Extension of in vivo half-life of biologically active peptides via chemical conjugation to XTEN protein polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podust, Vladimir N; Sim, Bee-Cheng; Kothari, Dharti; Henthorn, Lana; Gu, Chen; Wang, Chia-wei; McLaughlin, Bryant; Schellenberger, Volker

    2013-11-01

    XTEN, unstructured biodegradable proteins, have been used to extend the in vivo half-life of genetically fused therapeutic proteins and peptides. To expand the applications of XTEN technology to half-life extension of other classes of molecules, XTEN protein polymers and methods for chemical XTENylation were developed. Two XTEN precursors were engineered to contain enzymatically removable purification tags. The proteins were readily expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity by chromatography techniques. As proof-of-principle, GLP2-2G peptide was chemically conjugated to each of the two XTEN protein polymers using maleimide-thiol chemistry. The monodisperse nature of XTEN protein polymer enabled reaction monitoring as well as the detection of peptide modifications in the conjugated state using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The resulting GLP2-2G-XTEN conjugates were purified by preparative RP-HPLC to homogeneity. In comparison with recombinantly fused GLP2-2G-XTEN, chemically conjugated GLP2-2G-XTEN molecules exhibited comparable in vitro activity, in vitro plasma stability and pharmacokinetics in rats. These data suggest that chemical XTENylation could effectively extend the half-life of a wide spectrum of biologically active molecules, therefore broadening its applicability. PMID:24133142

  4. Shelf-life extension of dried shrimps by irradiation and packaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried shrimps were air-packaged or N2-packaged in the flexible pouch of oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinylidene chloride coated polypropylene (KOP) and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The packages were irradiated with gamma ray from cobalt 60 at 3 and 8 kGy. Non-irradiated dried shrimps were used as a control. The samples were stored at 30 deg C and 70+-5 percent RH for 4 months. Non-enzymatic browning induced the discoloration of dried shrimps, and oxidation of astaxanthin proceeded after irradiation and during storage. The hunter color difference, delta E, of all the samples was increased, especially in the non-irradiated air-packages samples. The decrease in astaxanthin content was found in both air - and N2-packaged samples during storage. The number of microorganisms was reduced by irradiation dose of 3 and 8 kGy from 6.5 to 4.2 and 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The decreased concentration of O2 in the package also reduced the number of microorganisms. The air packaged dried shrimps in the OPP pouch deteriorated during storage. Shrinkage of the pouches and growth of halophilic bacteria on the surface of dried shrimps were found at a sub(w) of 0.75. The discoloration of dried shrimps in the OPP pouch was more significant than that in other pouches. Irradiation at 3 and 8 kGy in combination with packaging in KOP and EVOH pouches containing N2 atmosphere was one of the promising methods for prolonging shelf-life of dried shrimps at room temperature

  5. Shelf-life extension and quality improvement of minimally processed pear by combination treatments with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh-cut pears are not yet commercially available in Egypt. Thus, an attempt has been done to produce this minimally processed fruit manually at the laboratory. Fifteen samples of this manually prepared fresh-produce were evaluated for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TAPC) ranged from 7.5 x 10 to 3.5 x 10 cfu g-1, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from less than 10 to 3.2 x 10 cfu g-1; total mould and yeast counts (TM & Y) ranged from less than 10 to 5.3 x 10 cfu g-1 indicating good quality from the view point of microbiological population. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were found in only 2 samples at levels of 20 to 43 and greater than 3 to 9 most probable numbers per gram (MPN g-1), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was found in also 2 samples at levels of 102. Aeromonas hydrohila, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., were not found in any of the samples. Fresh-cut pear s were dipped in water containing 2% ascorbic acid and 1% calcium lactate. The dipped fresh-cut pears were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Dipping fresh-cut pears in 2% ascorbic acid plus 1% calcium lactate prevented browning and enhanced firmness during refrigeration storage. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy was the optimum, since it reduced TAPC by 99.58% and LAB and TM and Y to un-detectable level. These combined treatments extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pears without affecting their chemical, physical and sensorial quality attributes

  6. Regulatory framework for Spanish NPP seismic revaluation: Past practice, current periodic safety review and future life extension trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper historical Spanish regulatory practice on seismic revaluation of nuclear power plants from a site point of view is presented. The Spanish NPP's vintages are very different (the oldest plant started his commercial operation in 1968 and the most recent did it in 1988). Applied plant seismic design has followed the state of the art of the knowledge at each moment, including for the oldest plants latter reevaluations to ensure a seismic level for safe shutdown according to current regulations. More recent approaches to know existing Seismic Margin beyond design basis has been performed for all together plants. Also results obtained from those reevaluations programs and plant improves adopted are presented. A simplified overview of current Periodical Safety Review licensing process followed in Spain, and some trends for future plant life extension from a site point of view are showed. (author)

  7. A continuous labour supply model in microsimulation: a life-cycle modelling approach with heterogeneity and uncertainty extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Li

    Full Text Available This paper advances a structural inter-temporal model of labour supply that is able to simulate the dynamics of labour supply in a continuous setting and addresses two main drawbacks of most existing models. The first limitation is the inability to incorporate individual heterogeneity as every agent is sharing the same parameters of the utility function. The second one is the strong assumption that individuals make decisions in a world of perfect certainty. Essentially, this paper offers an extension of marginal-utility-of-wealth-constant labour supply functions known as "Frisch functions" under certainty and uncertainty with homogenous and heterogeneous preferences. The lifetime models based on the fixed effect vector decomposition yield the most stable simulation results, under both certain and uncertain future wage assumptions. Due to its improved accuracy and stability, this lifetime labour supply model is particularly suitable for enhancing the performance of the life cycle simulation models, thus providing a better reference for policymaking.

  8. The life-extension and upgrade program of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) and its research prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) has been operated for thirty years. It is the regulations of the ROCAEC that any reactor shall be decommissioned after forty-year operation since the first fuel loading. Therefore, for extending the lifetime of THOR, it is necessary to have a life-extension program to be approved by the ROCAEC and also completed by the year of 1997. At the same time, for proceeding new research purposes, it is planed to upgrade the thermal power of THOR from 1 Wth up to 3 Wth and hopefully to reach the maximum thermal neutron flux of 5x1013 n/cm2.s and the fast flux close to that order. New research directions involve (a) boron-captured neutron cancer therapy (BNCT) (b) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). (author)

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation combined with hot water immersion treatment for shelf life extension of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of minimal processing treatments, both individually or in combinations, was carried out in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the quality of bananas. Pre climacteric bananas at light full three-quarter grade, were either treated with hot water immersion for 1-30 min at 45-55 degree C, or irradiated with electron beams (2.0 MeV, Van de Graaff accelerator), to a dose of 0.1-1.5 kGy. All fruit was stored at 21 ± 1 degree C and relative humidity of 85-95 %. There was no significant delay in ripening of fruit treated with hot water immersion at the above temperatures. Some damage to fruit particularly peel scalding at ends occurred at the higher temperatures (>50 degree C). The 50 degree C, 5 minutes immersion was selected for further study. Irradiation to 0.1-0.3 kGy delayed the ripening (up to 3 days) without affecting fruit quality. Doses greater than 0.4 kGy resulted in extensive discoloration and fruit splitting. No significant differences could be detected organoleptically between bananas irradiated at 0.15 kGy and the control. Results of the physico-chemical attributes of the bananas were reported for fruits at colour stage 5 and after 10 and 15 days of storage. The combination treatment of hot water immersion and irradiation at the above settings further extended the shelf life of the banana fruits

  10. Combined effect of antimicrobial coating and gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation and antimicrobial coating on the shelf life of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.). Antimicrobial coatings were obtained by incorporating various concentrations of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde in coating formulations prepared from soy or whey protein isolates. Coated shrimps were stored at 4±1°C under aerobic conditions and were periodically evaluated for aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Pseudomonas putida. Sensory evaluations were performed for appearance, odor, and taste using a hedonic test. Results showed that gamma irradiation and coating treatments had synergistic effects (p < = 0.05) in reducing the APCs and P. putida with at least a 12-day extension of shelf life. Without irradiation, the inhibitory effects of the coating solutions were closely related to the concentration of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde. No detrimental effects of gamma irradiation on organoleptic parameters (appearance, odor, and taste) were observed. However, incorporation of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced the acceptability scores for taste and odor

  11. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h. PMID:19162356

  12. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical properties of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and its quarantine treatment and shelf-life extension using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination of gamma irradiation and dip treatment on shelf life extension of two major cultivars of litchi namely, Shahi, and China was studied for improving market availability of the fruit and to overcome quarantine barrier for international trade. An extension in shelf life up to 28 days was achieved at 4 deg C, whereas, control fruits last around 10 days at 4 deg C. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters such as moisture content, acidity (pH), total soluble solid, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C content, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, browning associated enzymatic activities, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied during the storage period. It was observed that low dose of gamma radiation did not affect significantly any of these parameters. Further, a novel combination dip treatment was developed which resulted in shelf life extension up to 60 days with complete inhibition of pericarp browning. (author)

  13. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  14. Shelf life extension of ricotta cheese using coatings of galactomannans from nonconventional sources incorporating nisin against Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joana T; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Souza, Bartolomeu W S; Carmo Avides, Maria do; Vicente, António A

    2010-02-10

    Shelf life extension of Ricotta cheese was evaluated at 4 degrees C upon the use of edible coatings made of galactomannans from Gleditsia triacanthos incorporating nisin against Listeria monocytogenes. Three different treatments were tested in cheese: samples without coating; samples with coating without nisin; and samples with coating containing 50 IU x g(-1) of nisin. To test the effectiveness of the treatments against L. monocytogenes, the surface of the cheese was inoculated with a suspension of the microorganism. Microbiological and physical-chemical analyses of the cheese samples were performed during 28 days. Results showed that the cheese coated with nisin-added galactomannan film was the treatment presenting the best results in terms of microbial growth delay (p nisin also affects (p physical and mechanical properties of the films: O(2) permeability decreased from 1.84 to 1.35 x 10(-12) cm(3) x (Pa x s x m)(-1); CO(2) permeability increased from 1.96 to 6.31 x 10(-12) cm(3).(Pa x s x m)(-1); opacity increased from 3.68 to 4.59%; tensile strength ranged from 0.84 to 1.46 MPa; and elongation at break improved from 50.93 to 68.16%. These results demonstrate that novel galactomannan-based edible coatings, when combined with nisin, may provide consumer-friendly alternatives to reduce L. monocytogenes postcontamination on cheese products during storage. PMID:20085273

  15. An application of modulated poisson processes to aging evaluation for the extension of qualified life of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modulated power law process (MPLP) is a three-parameter stochastic point process model that can be used to describe the failures time of reparable systems. While the power law process implies that a system is exactly on the same condition just after a repair as just before a failure, the MPLP allows for the system to be affected both by failure and repair. For this reason this model is adequate for evaluating the recurrent events that incorporate both time trends and effects of past events such as the renewal type behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MPLP as a model for the rate of occurrence of failures of a repairable system to decide for an extension of qualified life in the context of licence renewal of a nuclear power plant. Standard statistical techniques, such as the maximum likelihood and linear regression models, are applied to estimate parameters of the MPLP. As a conclusion of the study, the MPLP is adequate for modelling rate of occurrence of failures that are time dependent, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in the operation of repairable systems. (author)

  16. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  17. Research for the life-extension of the wide-range monitoring neutron detectors of HTTR (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wide-Range Monitoring neutron detectors (WRM detectors) of HTTR are used under the high temperature environment of 450degC in normal operation and 550degC in the accidents. When the WRM detectors are used under the high temperature environment for a long time, characteristics of the neutron detector might be degraded, because of the decrease of the nitrogen concentration in the ionization gas caused by adsorption of nitrogen into the electrode material. Consequently, the nitrogen gas adsorption test was carried out to clarify the quantity of absorbed nitrogen gas in electrode material under the high temperature environment. Then, the performance evaluation test of the prototype detector was carried out, and it was confirmed that degradation of the prototype detector characteristics, caused by adsorption of nitrogen into the electrode material, didn't occur under the high temperature environment. As a result of this research, it was confirmed that the WRM detectors of HTTR are usable for 5 years under the high temperature environment of 450degC in normal operation. This report describes the results of consideration about the life-extension of WRM detectors of HTTR. (author)

  18. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  19. Plant condition assessments as a requirement before major investment in life extension for a CANDU nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since, to extend the life of a CANDU-6 reactor beyond its original design life requires the replacement of reactor components (380 pressure and calandria tubes), a major investment will have to be done. After a preliminary technical and economical feasibility study, Hydro- Quebec, owner of the Gentilly-2 NPP, has decided to perform a more detailed assessment to: 1. Get assurance that it is technically and economically viable to extend Gentilly-2 for another 20 years beyond the original design life; 2. Identify the detailed work to be done during the refurbishment period planned in 2008-2009; 3. Define the overall cost and the general schedule of the refurbishment phase; 4. Ensure an adequate licensing strategy to restart after refurbishment; 5. Complete all the Environmental Impact Studies required to obtain the government authorizations. The business case to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2 has to take in consideration the reactor core components, which will be the major work to be completed during refurbishment. In summary the following main component will have to be changed or refreshed: The pressure and calandria tubes and the feeders (partial replacement only) (ageing mechanisms); The control computers (obsolescence); The condenser tubes (tubes plugging); The turbine control and electric-governor (obsolescence). An extensive campaign is under way to assess the 'health' of the station systems, structures and components (SSC). Two processes have been used for this assessment: Plant Life Management Studies (PLIM) for approximately 10 critical SSC or families of SSC (PLIM Studies); Condition Assessment Studies for other SSC with a lower impact on the Plant production or safety). The PLIM Studies are done on SSC's, which were judged critical because they are not replaceable (Reactor Building, Calandria), or that their failure could have a significant impact on safety or production (electrical motors, majors pumps, heat exchangers and pressure

  20. Food irradiation and its role in shelf life extension of horticulture produce: a comprehensive evaluation of studies carried out in India and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is the process of treating foods to a controlled source of ionizing radiation, to reduce post-harvest losses and ensure its safety. With respect to horticulture produce, the role of food irradiation has been well established to fulfill the phytosanitary requirement of the importing countries and also to ensure food safety in certain commodities. Still for establishing its relevance in extending the shelf-life of horticulture produce, substantial scientific inputs are required. Our objective was therefore to summarize in brief the research findings where role of radiation processing in shelf-life extension of horticulture produce has been addressed. Low dose (0.1 kGy) of γ-radiation resulted in sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, thus prolonging their storage life upto 4 months at 11-12℃. Radiation processing also delayed ripening process in the climacteric fruits by a week upto one month depending on the cultivars and stored condition. Shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was extended up to 10-15 days by γ-radiation treatment of 2-3 kGy and storage at 10±2℃ . A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10℃ storage temperature increased the shelf life of peeled ginger samples upto 70 days. Irradiation of guava fruits with 0.1 kGy γ-radiation increased its post harvest life by 8 days. Shelf-life of Litchi was increased upto 28 days by radiation treatment at 0.5 kGy and subsequent low temperature storage. Shelf-life of leafy vegetables increased upto 20 days by a combination process including γ-radiation (Khade, et.al., unpublished data). Electron beam irradiation (2 kGy) extended shelf-life of fresh strawberry fruits upto 4 day. Apples irradiated at 0.2-0.4 kGy showed improved quality upto 3 months of storage. Shelled sweet corn kernels treated with combination process including γ-radiation (5 kGy) treatment showed prolonged shelf-life of 30 days at 4℃ (Kumar S. et.al., unpublished data). In recent study conducted by us on shelf life

  1. The Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services: A Legacy of Excellence and Access to Life-long Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahming-Nwosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A review of the history and evolution of the Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services and the various programmes it has developed to support the work of the College of The Bahamas.

  2. A study on economic viability of life extension of nuclear power plants in Korea : a case study of Kori no.1 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study would assess the viability of life extension of nuclear power plants, specially Kori no.1 unit, as an economical electric source in the present long-term expansion planning of generating units in Korea. For the purpose of this study, replacement power cost would be evaluated by using probabilistic simulation method, and then break-even refurbishment costs would be calculated by means of levelized generation cost comparison, and compared with reference cost to assess the economic viability of Kori no.1 unit life extension. Under the baseline scenario, break-even overnight refurbishment cost range is appeared as from about 800/kWe in the case of replacing PWR-1000MWe to 2,000/kWe in the case of replacing coal-700MWe, being about 1.4 sim 3.5 times of reference cost. Therefore, absent major technological breakthroughs making present generating options obsolete, life extension of Kori no.1 unit should be the most economical option in the present expansion planning of generating unite in Korea

  3. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-09-15

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  4. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  5. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification; Analisis del metodo de extension y reduccion de vida calificada utilizado en equipo con calificacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M.L. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)].e -mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  6. Vase Life Extension of Rose Cut Flowers (Rosa Hybirida as Influenced by Silver Nitrate and Sucrose Pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohy E.N.E. Elgimabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of the Biology, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Approach: The study was conducted to investigated the silver nitrate (AgNO3 and sucrose at different concentration on rose cut flowers longevity, which determined on the basis of wilting, chlorophyll retention and carbohydrate degradation .The treatments were, water control, 20, 30 or 50 ppm AgNO3 and sucrose at 1,2or 3% w/v. Results: The results showed, flower vase life was prolonged by all AgNO3 treatments. The best concentration was 30 ppm .The effect was further improved when AgNO3 was combined with 3% sucrose, which recorded the best vase life compared to other concentrations of sucrose .The per cent of wilting was minimized as result of using this combined treatment However the per cent of wilting increased with the increase in concentrations of AgNO3 and complete wilting occurred after 10, 8 and 7 days when treated with 20, 30 and 50 ppm of AgNO3, respectively, while sucrose shortened the period to reach wilting. Also AgNO3 at 30 ppm retarded the chlorophyll as well as carbohydrate degradation during the postharvest life. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The experiments extended from February, 2006-September, 2008. The difference between means was performed using Duncan multiple range test at 0.05 levels. Conclusion: A significant improvement in vase life of rose cut flowers was occurred when treated with 30 ppm (AgNO3 more effects when combined with 3% (w/v sucrose, so we recommended that to use the previous treatments with this concentrations for a long vase life and commercial productions.

  7. [Everyday competencies and learning processes in old age. Results and perspectives of the PIAAC extension study "Competencies in later life"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, J; Knauber, C; Weiß, C; Setzer, B

    2014-11-01

    This article deals with the study "Competencies in later life" (CiLL), a parallel study to the German program for the international assessment of adult competencies (PIAAC) survey which assesses the level and distribution of skills of the adult population in a representative study. Assuming the growing importance of learning and education in a society challenged by demographic changes, the first section of the paper outlines the qualitative research of learning activities of focus groups in the daily life of elderly people. The second section of the paper presents the survey design and exemplary findings of the quantitative CiLL study. Initial results show that basic skills of the elderly are highly influenced by personal and sociodemographic variables, particularly by educational background. The data available indicate that the participation of the elderly in adult education and the options available for competence development have to be increased. PMID:25139446

  8. Quality improvement and shelf-life extension of refrigerated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets using natural herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was preformed to evaluate the effect of dip treatments by thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract (0.5% and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract (1.5% on the quality and shelf life of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fillets during refrigerated storage at 2 ± 1 °C. The control (untreated and treated groups were examined periodically at day zero and every 3 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, .... during refrigeration until apparent decomposition of each group, with sensory, physicochemical and microbiological methods. The obtained results showed that thyme extract has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and can maintain the quality parameters and extend the shelf life of refrigerated Nile tilapia fillets for 9 days longer than control one, while rosemary extract had efficient antioxidant activity with weak antimicrobial action.

  9. The role of food irradiation in terms of value addition and extension of shelf life of agri. materials (from FARM to Consumer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, with the advent of modern processing techniques in the area of value addition to agri resources, food irradiation has made a big dent in terms of extension of shelf life and confidence of making the food free from microbial and other contaminants and need to be really harnessed more than what we are doing. However, there is still certain amount of stigma attached to this technology not because the technology is un-ripe but it is because of lack of awareness with the masses as regards to the safety of the foods that are processed by irradiation

  10. Analysis of shelf-life extension of Asiatic red spot emperor (Lethrinus lentjan) using low dose of gamma rays and evaluation of biomolecular alterations during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation, in combination with good refrigeration and handling practices, provides means to increase fish product shelf-life. Irradiation is effective in reducing microorganisms is known as a good method for inactivating pathogens in food materials. The present work focuses on the effect of the gamma radiation in aspect of finding microbiological, biochemical and sensory attribute over a period of 0 to 60 days of the storage. Variations in pH, FFA, TVBN, TMAN and TBA were observed throughout the storage period, present observation provide a possibility of irradiation treatment up to 6 kGy as a prerequisite for shelf life extension and by the SDS analysis most intense proteins were retained at the end of the cold storage

  11. Extension of shelf-life of iced fresh channel catfish fillets using modified atmospheric packaging and low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh iced catfish fillets, processed with low dose irradiation (50-100 krad) in combination with modified atmosphere packaging were sampled every 10 days during 30-day storage period and analyzed for microbial load, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid values (TBA) as indices of change in quality. No difference was observed between microbial counts of packages flushed with elevated carbon dioxide atmospheres (80:20 CO2/air, 100% CO2) and controls flushed with 100% air. Therefore, irradiation treatments with or without elevated carbon dioxide-modified atmospheric packaging significantly reduced the bacterial load and extended shelf-life from 5 to 7 days to between 20 and 30 days

  12. Quality improvement and shelf-life extension of refrigerated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets using natural herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Fathy A. Khalafalla; Fatma H.M. Ali; Abdel-Rahim H.A. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was preformed to evaluate the effect of dip treatments by thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract (0.5%) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract (1.5%) on the quality and shelf life of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fillets during refrigerated storage at 2 ± 1 °C. The control (untreated) and treated groups were examined periodically at day zero and every 3 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, ....) during refrigeration until apparent decomposition of each group, with sensory, ph...

  13. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the preservation of strawberry and the extension of its shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP with low oxygen & high carbon dioxide in combination with ozone and an edible film coating on the preservation of strawberry was studied. A combination of 2.5% O2 with 15% CO2 was the optimum gas composition for strawberry MAP, which prolonged the shelf-life of strawberry – compared to storage in the open air – by 4~6 days. When strawberry was pre-treated with a 4.3 mg m–3 ozone water dip and an edible coating prior to packaging, the shelf-life was extended to 8~10 days. The results showed that Nos 1 and 2 treatments (No. 1: polyvinyl alcohol 134 (2%; monostearatacylglycerol (0.5%; phytic acid (0.05%; sorbitol (0.05%; sodium alginate (0.1%; absolute alcohol (8%; No. 2: polyvinyl alcohol 134 (1%; soluble starch (1%; glucose (1%; sucrose (1%; sodium alginate (0.1%; sorbitol (0.05% had better effects on strawberry as compared with Nos 3 and 4 treatments, and with C.K (check experiments. The contents of soluble sugar, ascorbic acid, acidity and anthocyanin of Nos 1-4 treatments were obviously superior to C.K. Furthermore, the browning index and the commodity ratio and the permeability of the cell membrane also show the same results.

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for inactivation of microorganisms and shelf-life extension under defrosted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on inactivation of microorganisms in frozen shrimps was investigated for improving the hygienic quality and shelf-life after defrosted. Count of total aerobic bacteria in three different kinds of frozen shrimps were decreased below 104 per gram at 4 kGy of irradiation, and showed the similar pattern of inactivation curves under the same frozen condition . Coliforms were eliminated below 4 kGy of irradiation. Radiation-resistance of aerobic bacteria in frozen condition was larger than defrosted condition, and the necessary dose for inactivation of aerobic bacteria below the count of 104 per gram was required 3 kGy at defrosted condition, and 4 kGy at frozen condition. However, freezing could remarkably reduce the production of radiation induced off-odor from shrimps. Trimethylamine content in frozen shrimps did not get effect up to 50 kGy irradiation. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 1 to 3 numbers in 100g of frozen shrimps, and necessary dose for elimination was decided as 1.5 to 2.0 kGy in frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of irradiated shrimps at 3 and 5 kGy was found to be 6 days at the storage condition of 5degC, whereas the unirradiated samples were putrefied below 3 days of storage. (author)

  15. Shelf-life extension and improving micro-biological quality of mixed peas with diced carrot by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed peas with diced carrot were collected and examined for their microbiological quality. All the examined samples had high level of microbial load. All examined samples contained Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis). Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was detected in only 4 of samples (26.3%). The tested samples were free from Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), Listeria monocytogenes (L monocytogenes) and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation caused a great reduction in all microbial loads. During refrigerated storage, the counts of all microorganisms increased, but the rate of increase was slower as the irradiation dose increased. Irradiation dose of 3 kGy was the optimum dose for preservation of mixed peas with diced carrot which extended the refrigeration shelf-life up to 21 days and it was sufficient in eliminating pathogenic bacteria without affecting their sensory quality and with negligible effect on chemical quality.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on shellstock oysters. Extension of shelf-life and reduction in bacterial numbers, with particular reference to Vibrio vulnificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellstock oysters from Apalachicola Bay, Florida, United States of America, were irradiated at the nation's first commercial food irradiator, Vindicator, Inc. in Mulberry, Florida, with four doses, and analysed for their shelf-life and bacterial levels. A 2-3 log cycle reduction in bacterial numbers was observed at all the doses immediately after irradiation. The shelf-life was limited in that the D50 values were found to be 30, 25, 7 and 6 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. The D20 values were calculated as 17, 9, 4 and 4 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Even though the bacterial numbers were significantly lower in the irradiated oysters, the shelf-life was reduced markedly at doses higher than 1 kGy. The irradiated shellstock did not demonstrate any extension in shelf-life, above that of the non-irradiated controls; in fact, they experienced a reduction in shelf-life and there was a growing back of the surviving organisms, which reached levels that were higher than those observed in the controls. Vibrio vulnificus demonstrated high radiosensitivity, with D10 values of 0.062 and 0.037 kGy for the virulent and avirulent forms, respectively. Preliminary data indicate that the viable but non-culturable form of V. vulnificus is more radioresistant than the corresponding viable and culturable forms, but this needs further elucidation. Also, current research is directed at analysing the effects of the shell to meat ratio of the oysters, and how this affects their radioresistance. Furthermore, oysters from different locations have different shell to meat weight ratios, and this can influence the efficiency of radiation treatment. (author)

  17. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. PMID:24463155

  18. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode

  19. Application of the combined cycle LWR-gas turbine to PWR for NPP life extension, safety upgrade and improving economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The unconventional technology to extend the lifetime for the NPPs now in operation and make a construction of new NPPs cheaper - erection of steam-gas toppings to the nuclear power units - is considered in the paper. Application of the steam-gas toppings permits through reducing power of ageing reactors to extend lifetime of nuclear power unit, enhance its safety and at the same time to keep full load operation of NPP turbine and other balance-of-plant equipment. Proposed technology is examined for Russian VVER-440 reactor as an example and, also, as a pilot project, for Russian boiling VK-50 reactor now in operation Application of the steam-gas topping permits: extend the service life of ageing VVER-440 reactor by 10...15 years; use the turbine and other NPP balance-of-plant equipment at full power; increase the efficiency of combined cycle up to 48% and more; enhance the safety of NPP operation; utilize NPP balance-of-plant equipment after reactor decommissioning; perform the cost-effective operation in maneuvering modes; increase capacity factor of the plant. The construction of pilot project on the basis of the VK-50 reactor will allow not only to demonstrate new technology but also to attain appreciable economic effect including that obtained due to using the available reserves of the NPP turbine. (author)

  20. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment. PMID:25892768

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life extension, total counts of microbials and biochemical sensory change on luncheon meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation and sodium nitrate on storability and marketability of luncheon, packed luncheon was exposed to several treatments; gamma irradiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy using a 60 CO package irradiator, mixed with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) 60 mg/Kg meat, with no irradiation and a combined treatment of both NaNO2 treatment and irradiated with a dose of 2 KGy only. Half of the irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored in refrigeration (1-4 centigrade), to study storability and the second half were stored at room temperature (18-20 centigrade) to study marketability of luncheon. During storage period the population of microorganisms, biochemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every two weeks for the refrigerated samples and weekly for the unrefrigerated samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation and sodium nitrite reduced the counts of microorganisms and increased the shelf-life of luncheon. Both treatments (irradiation, sodium nitrite) increased total acidity, lipid oxidation, and the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) immediately after processing and reduced all of them through out storage. Sensory evaluation (firmness, color, taste, and flavor) indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) between treated and untreated samples. (author)

  2. Depression of nuclear transcription and extension of mRNA half-life under anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, F; Maier, R; Hand, S C

    2000-04-01

    Transcriptional activity, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays, was constant during 10 h of normoxic development for embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Exposure of embryos to only 4 h of anoxia resulted in a 79.3+/-1 % decrease in levels of in-vivo-initiated transcripts, and transcription was depressed by 88. 2+/-0.7 % compared with normoxic controls after 24 h of anoxia (means +/- s.e.m., N=3). Initiation of transcription was fully restored after 1 h of normoxic recovery. Artificially lowering the intracellular pH of aerobic embryos to the value reflective of anoxia (pH 6.7) showed that acidification alone explained over half the transcriptional arrest. Initiation of transcription was not rescued by application of 80 % carbon monoxide under anoxia, which suggests that heme-based oxygen sensing is not involved in this global arrest. When these transcriptional data are combined with the finding that mRNA levels are unchanged for at least 6 h of anoxia, it is clear that the half-life of mRNA is extended at least 8.5-fold compared with that in aerobic embryos. In contrast to the activation of compensatory mechanisms to cope with anoxia that occurs in mammalian cells, A. franciscana embryos enter a metabolically depressed state in which gene expression and mRNA turnover are cellular costs apparently not compatible with survival and in which extended tolerance supercedes the requirement for continued metabolic function. PMID:10708633

  3. Improvement Shelf-Life Extension of Apple by Pre storage Thermal Treatment, CaCl2 and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical methods to extend the shelf life of apple fruits by control the blue mold disease causing by Penicillium expansum. Apple fruits are subjected to different temperatures between 38, and 50 degree C for 24 hr. and stored at 0 degree C for 4 months. Increasing in temperature caused decreasing in firmness and blue mold incidence percentage (%) caused by P. expansum. At 50 degree C the treated apple fruits gave sharp softness and inhibition of blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum exposing for 4 days and cold storage at 0 degree C for 4 months and 5 days at 20 degree C. Dipping apple fruits in CaCl2 at 2% and 4% decreased blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum and increased apple fruits firmness at 2 and 4 months storage periods. Also, CaCl2 treatments gave insignificant change in total soluble solid (TSS%) and in titratable acidity (TA%) of apple fruits. Gamma irradiation doses above 1 kGy significantly decreased firmness of apple fruits with the decrement being higher at higher doses.

  4. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases. PMID:26433219

  5. Life extension activities and modernization strategies for instrumentation ampersand control systems of research and power reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on three and half decades of experience gained in the operation and maintenance of Instrumentation and Control Systems of nuclear reactors in India, specific investigations were made to understand various aspects of aging. The analysis of the failure rates of various instruments, plant outage figures and obsolescence of components have necessitated the replacement of instrumentation to improve the reliability and performance. The aging models available were used to determine the extent of performance degradation and to formulate maintenance strategies. The nuclear instrumentation of the aging research reactors at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been replaced with high reliability equipment using modern integrated circuits. This has resulted in an improvement in the mean time between failure (MTBF) by a factor of five. The neutronic instrumentation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Madras is currently being upgraded with the introduction of microprocessor based safety units for reactivity computation and online testing of safety logic with Fine Impulse Technique. The operating experience has also indicated the necessity of developing online surveillance methods and status monitoring of various systems to detect aging. Online cable insulation measurement technique and noise analysis methods for vibration monitoring have been developed. Campbell method of signal processing has been successfully used in extending the useful life of Local Power Range monitors in the Boiling Water Reactor at Tarapur. In order to improve reliability, accuracy and provide efficient man machine interface, microprocessor based systems with online testing features have been installed in power reactors. These include the high performance reactor regulating system and centralised radiation monitoring systems commissioned at Kakrapara power station. The paper describes the above systems and the modernization strategies for nuclear instrumentation and control

  6. The extension of shelf-life of chicken meat after application of caraway and anise essential oils and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kluz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The effect of caraway (CEO and anise (AEO essential oils as well as vacuum packaging (VP in extending of the shelf life of fresh chicken breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. CEO and AEO were used at concentrations 0.2% v/w with and without VP. Microbiological properties of chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 day period. The microbiological parameters as the anaerobic plate count (AC, Enterobacteraceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were detected. The anaerobic plate counts ranged from 2.77 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 5.45 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.20 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 4.75 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Enterobacteriaceae counts ranged from 0.00 to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of Pseudomonas spp. ranged from 0.00 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 2.65 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.001 were found among tested group in all tested microorganisms. Among the antimicrobial combination treatments were examined in the study, the as application of vacuum packaging, EDTA, and essential oils were the most effective against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobactericeae and to a less extent on anaerobic plate count. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of caraway and anise as natural food preservatives and potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for chicken breast meat.

  7. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  8. The effect of organic manures in soilless culture on shelf-life extension of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bidaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Growing media could affect quality and shelf life of strawberry fruits. In the present study, effect of seven growing media including a control medium (50% cocopeat + 50% perlite v/v , and media supplemented with either 10, 20 and 40% of vermicompost or cattle manure in a completely randomized design with three replications was studied on postharvest quality and shelf life extension of Camarosa strawberry fruits . Freshly picked strawberry fruits were submerged in 1 mM putrescine solution for 5 minutes and after being air-dried at room temperature, were kept in plastic containers at 4 ºC refrigerator. After 15 days, total soluble solids ( TSS, total acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, fruit firmness and the percentage of fruit weight loss were determined . The results of analysis of variance showed that growing media had significant effect on fruit firmness, TA, TSS, TSS/TA ratio and percentage of fruit weight loss. The lowest fruit weight loss (16.2% belonged to 10% cattle manure medium and the highest weight loss (36% was observed in control medium. The highest fruit TSS content (19.13% was observed in the growing medium containing 40% vermicompost. Since soilless culture growing media of strawberry are pathogen-free, no fruit was rotted before or after the harvest. Therefore, by using organic fertilizers in growing media, not only there is no need to use chemical fungicides, but also it would be possible to increase postharvest shelf life of strawberry fruits.

  9. Nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current licensing emphasis is different from that existing when older nuclear power plants received their operating licenses. Today, there is increased regulatory focus on utility performance measured through new inspections such as the safety system functional inspection and the safety systems outage modifications inspection; and the use of performance indicators. These programs are intended to identify poorer performing plants and concentrate on improving overall plant performance. This paper discusses how, in an attempt to improve the maintenance performance of the nuclear industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recently began work on a maintenance rule. In addition, the NRC will require partial probabilistic risk evaluations for each plant that will provide new insights as to a plant's risk. Risk information is being used to prioritize inspections

  10. Safety reassessment and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety reassessment policy implemented in France is a means of ensuring that no important point has been overlooked in the continuous safety reassessment process constituted by the integration of operating feedback. It also provides an opportunity for reappraisal of the basic design of a plant and examination of discrepancies between the safety options prevailing when it was built and those currently adopted. After a ten-year operating period, safety reassessment should enable identification of aging effects on structures and equipment, leading to improvement of component servicing and surveillance programs and provision for replacements which could be necessary

  11. Aging management and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 20% of the present electric generating capacity in the United States is supplied by nuclear power plants and may be retired due to initial license expiration between the years 2002 and 2030. One of the recommended actions for implementing the National Energy Strategy (Bill H.R. 776) is license renewal of currently operating nuclear power plants which DOE has estimated would save between $800 million and $1 billion in avoided new construction costs - and represent a nationwide benefit of as much as $350 billion - assuming the licenses are renewed for 20 years. The U.S. Atomic Energy Act of 1954 limits the duration of operating licenses of nuclear power plants to a maximum of 40 years but permits their renewal. And, although Title 10, Part 50.51 of Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR50.51) permitted license renewal, it provided no standards or procedures for renewal applications. License renewal requirements were established on January 13, 1992 when NRC's Final Rule (10 CFR Part 54) went into effect. The Final rule established the requirements that an applicant for license renewal must meet, the information that must be submitted to the NRC for review. This involves the performance of an Integrated Plant Assessment (IPA) which is designed to ensure that the effects of aging on important equipment will be adequately managed during the renewal term. The issuance of 10 CFR Part 54 established the regulatory and legal requirements for license renewal. The technical basis for, or viability of, license renewal has been explored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The NRC as well as industry organizations such as EPRI have studied aging effects for close to two decades. The NRC's research program on plant aging degradation, which began formally in the early 1980s, is a comprehensive effort for the understanding and management of age-related degradation in safety-related systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and has contributed to the technical and regulatory bases for license renewal rulemaking. Research results have shown that many identified aging phenomena do not pose technical safety issues provided that plant systems, structures, and components are effectively managed through surveillance, inspection, testing, maintenance, repair, and replacement. (author)

  12. Introduction of Shelf Life Extension Program in America and its inspiration%美国药品效期延长计划简介及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彬; 李铮; 刘妍; 郭志刚

    2013-01-01

    药品效期延长计划(shelf life extension program,以下简称SLEP)是美国国防部和美国食品药品监督管理局联合推出的一项计划,最初目的只是为了减少药品战略储备的成本,现在趋向于解决公共危机中药品潜在不足问题.本文回顾了SLEP的发展历史,全面介绍了SLEP的参与机构及职能、运行流程、产品范围、产品检测方法及产品贴标签要求,简述了SLEP延伸应用情况,并结合SLEP在实际问题中的应用进行了分析讨论.美国药品效期延长计划对我国具有启示和借鉴作用,为我国应对公共卫生突发事件奠定了理论依据.%The Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) is a program jointly launched by the United States Department of Defense and the Food and Drug Administration,initially only for the purpose of reducing the cost of maintaining military strategic stockpiles of certain pharmaceuticals,and now for the intent to solve the problem of potential drug shortage in public crisis.In this paper,we review the development history of SLEP,comprehensively introduce the participating institutions and their functions,operation processes,product range,product testing methods and labeling requirements under SLEP,and describe the application of SLEP in practice and its extended application.Relative proposals are presented for our reference based on the above analysis and discussion.The SLEP in America has enlightenment and reference for our country to respond to public emergencies.

  13. A Review of On-Orbit Life-Time Extension Technologies for GEO Satellites%静止轨道卫星在轨延寿技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟光; 张景瑞; 周志成

    2012-01-01

    With the reliability enhancement of on board elements and components, propellant-exhausition will become the main reason for retirement of geostationary satellites. The on-orbit life time extension technology is to launch life-time extension vehicle and dock with the retired satellite, and then prolong the life time of retired satellite by refuelling or assisted control. Statistics and analysis of retired geostationary satellites in recent years are carried out in this paper, and then the basic concept of the on-orbit life extension technique and task are introduced, after that, typical GEO life-time extension projects are investigated, moreover the advance of key technique, such as rendezvous orbit planning and control, vision based measurement and relative navigation are introduced respectively. The development of on-orbit life time extension technique will have great impact on design and operation in the future of GEO satellites.%随着星上设备及元器件可靠性的提高,推进剂耗尽将成为未来静止轨道卫星的主要失效模式.静止轨道卫星在轨延寿技术可通过发射延寿飞行器与失效卫星对接,采用辅助控制或燃料加注方式,进一步延长卫星在轨工作寿命.本文首先对近年来静止轨道失效卫星进行了统计和分析,随后介绍了静止轨道卫星在轨延寿技术的基本概念和任务特点,在国外典型项目调研的基础上,对在轨延寿任务所涉及的交会轨迹规划与控制、视觉测量与导航等关键技术进行了分析.在轨延寿技术的发展必将对未来静止轨道卫星的设计及运营模式产生重要的影响.

  14. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  15. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  16. Shelf-life extension of preservative-free hydrated feed using gamma pasteurization and its effect on growth performance of eel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish by increasing the efficiency of digestion. However, the shelf-life of HF is a concern due to its relatively higher water content. In this study, radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. Preservative-free HF containing 25% moisture was gamma-irradiated and its microbiological and nutritional properties evaluated in addition to a practical feeding trial carried out using eel. The viable counts of bacteria and fungi in HF were 106 and 104 CFU/g, respectively. All coliform bacteria and yeast in HF were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy, and total aerobic bacteria were eliminated at 10 kGy. The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. The nutritional composition of HF was stable up to 10 kGy of irradiation. Based on a feeding trial, it was proven that eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed. - Highlights: ► Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish but shelf-life is a concern. ► Radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. ► The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. ► Eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed in feeding trial.

  17. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  18. Shelf-Life Extension of Chill-Stored Beef Longissimus Steaks Packaged under Modified Atmospheres with 50% O2 and 40% CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyin; Niu, Lebao; Zhu, Lixian; Liang, Rongrong; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the shelf-life of beef steaks stored in different packaging conditions: overwrapped (OW) packaging and 2 modified atmosphere packaging systems (MAP): 80% O2 MAP (80% O2 /20% CO2 ) and 50% O2 MAP (50% O2 /40% CO2 /10% N2 ). Steaks were stored at 2 °C for 20 d. Headspace gas composition, microbial counts, color stability, pH, purge loss, and lipid oxidation were monitored. Among the packaging types, 50% O2 MAP was superior to OW packaging and 80% O2 MAP in delaying bacterial growth and extending shelf-life to 20 d. 50% O2 MAP also gave steaks an acceptable color during storage. No significant differences were observed in color stability of steaks packaged in both 50% O2 MAP and 80% O2 MAP. This study reveals 50% O2 MAP is a realistic alternative to preserve beef steaks efficiently. PMID:27240016

  19. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporus were studied by applying vinegar suspension on both blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus at 4oC and 27oC. Treated blanched Agaricus bisporus which were stored at 4oC showed least microbial load as compared to other blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus kept at 4oC and 27oC. Based on survey analysis minimal change was observed in sensory quality, color and texture on Agaricus bisporus due to applied suspension.

  20. Extension of shelf-life of a vacuum-packaged chilled meat product by combination of gamma radiation, ascorbic acid and sodium lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies demonstrated that low doses of ionizing radiation which do not change the sensory quality and physical state of the product can extend considerably the self-life of specific refrigerated foods. Therefore, exploring the possibilities of using ionizing radiation in combination with environmental stress factors may significantly contribute to the development of new types of combination processes and new types of preserved foods. (author). 1 fig

  1. Shelf-life extension of preservative-free hydrated feed using gamma pasteurization and its effect on growth performance of eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Minho; Song, Duseop; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish by increasing the efficiency of digestion. However, the shelf-life of HF is a concern due to its relatively higher water content. In this study, radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. Preservative-free HF containing 25% moisture was gamma-irradiated and its microbiological and nutritional properties evaluated in addition to a practical feeding trial carried out using eel. The viable counts of bacteria and fungi in HF were 106 and 104 CFU/g, respectively. All coliform bacteria and yeast in HF were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy, and total aerobic bacteria were eliminated at 10 kGy. The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. The nutritional composition of HF was stable up to 10 kGy of irradiation. Based on a feeding trial, it was proven that eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed.

  2. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  3. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C. PMID:26396373

  4. PSAD-a monitoring and aid to diagnosis system participating in saving on maintenance and operation costs and for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring nuclear plants components enable to save on operation and maintenance costs by reducing incidents gravity and casual plant stoppages thank to early detection and fast diagnosis. Improving the knowledge of the behaviour of the plant will also allow to optimize maintenance and to increase plant life. In order to improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants. Electricite de France (EDF) is extending the existing data processing chains towards automatic aided interpretation and diagnosis. Therefore, EDF has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD-Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic, including several monitoring functions of the main components. It integrates on-line monitoring, off-line diagnosis and knowledge based systems. PSAD stations provide homogeneous aids to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behaviour of plant equipment. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerabily free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French Plant. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the Reactor Coolant Pumps and the Turbo-generator Monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring function and Loose Parts Detection are still under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1998

  5. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  6. The IAEA international database on irradiated nuclear graphite properties: A success story for both new build and life extension of commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Graphite has enjoyed extensive use as a nuclear moderator (and de facto construction material) since the late 1940s. In commercial plant it has seen the greatest use in gas-cooled reactors of the Magnox and AGR types (UK designs) and the French UNGG reactors. It has also been employed in water-tube reactors such as RBMKs. These reactor types may be thought of as 'Generations I and II', and many (Magnox, UNGG) are approaching the end of their commercial operating lives or are already in decommissioning. However, thoughts have turned in a number of countries to the 'Generation III' high-temperature helium-cooled reactor, employing graphite as a reflector and as part of the fuel matrix, either in the form of prismatic replaceable structures (current Japanese prototype HTTR and US Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain and early European experimental 'Dragon' reactor) or in the form of spherical fuel elements (former German design for AVR and THTR, used in Chinese HTR-10 prototype and the basis of South Africa's PBMR design). 'Generation IV', which may include Very High Temperature Plant containing graphite structures, is now also under active consideration. Concern was expressed in the mid 1990's by the authors that the huge body of expertise and the knowledge base on the irradiation behaviour of graphite could be lost to the future designers through both loss of experienced personnel with time and the generally poor quality of record keeping which characterised the mid-to-late twentieth century industry. Graphite undergoes complex changes in its physical, mechanical and chemical properties under irradiation which need to be fully understood in terms of the microstructure of particular graphite formulations and types in order to best specify future materials for the more arduous environments. The issue remains important too for existing reactors where the fluences experienced by the graphite in commercial plant are now moving ahead of databases created using

  7. Shelf-life extension and decontamination of fish fillets (Trachurus picturatus murphyi and Mugil cephalus) and shrimp tails (Penaeus vannamei) inoculated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D10) of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Inaba was determined in vitro (0.13 kGy) and in inoculated fresh fillets of saurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi) (0.12 kGy) and another Pacific fish species known in Peru as ''lisa'', Mugil cephalus (0.13 kGy), both of which are frequently consumed raw in ''ceviche''. The D10 value was similarly determined in tails of the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei (0.13 kGy). In a second phase of the study, radiation doses in the range 1.0-4.0 kGy were evaluated for use in microbiological shelf-life extension of the selected seafood, and for adverse effects on various sensory attributes (appearance, odor, flavor, and texture). A dose of 1.0 kGy doubled the microbiological shelf-life of fish fillets during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C to approximately 30 days. This dose was deemed optimal also for preserving all sensory characteristics evaluated except appearance, due to a darkening of fillets. Best results in shrimp tails were obtained using 2.0 kGy, which doubled their microbiological shelf-life to 20 days at 0-1 deg. C. Dipping the fillets in a 10% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate before irradiation prevented radiation-induced drip losses. (author)

  8. Nuclear power plant life extension and management aspects; neutron irradiation embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking - two possible degradation mechanisms and methods for their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a mock-up low alloy ferritic reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel and associated weldments to neutron irradiation has been studied using a combination of hardness, tensile, fracture mechanical and toughness tests in combination with annealing treatments. Thermal analysis using isochronal and isothermal techniques has indicated that annealing at a minimum of 440oC for 168h is needed to mitigate neutron embrittlement received at 290oC. Rates of re-embrittlement after annealing and reirradiating are no faster than initial rates, even up to neutron fluences as high as 5x1019cm-2 (energy E>1 MeV). All mechanical properties measured benefited from annealing. Thus, annealing is indicated as one measure for maintaining mechanical properties in irradiated low alloy steels and welds and should be considered in plant life management strategies. The influence of simulated reactor coolant water chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ferritic low alloy steel specimens in autoclave loop experiments has also been studied. The double cantilever bend specimens were fatigue pre-cracked and wedge-loaded to different degrees to induce nominal stress intensity factors between 15-95 MPa.m1/2. Other specimens were subjected to stress using a tensile loading device integral with the test autoclave. The importance of close control of the dissolved oxygen content and the conductivity of the water has become evident under these experimental conditions. The RPV material and degree and mode of loading are also important parameters in SCC studies; stress intensity factors above 30 MPa.m1/2 have been associated with SCC in these studies. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs

  9. Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of Red delicious apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Meena, R S; Dar, M A; Wani, A M

    2012-08-01

    Freshly harvested Red delicious apples were dipped in calcium chloride solution of varying concentrations (0.5-2.0% w/v) for 1 h prior to irradiation at dose level of 0.4 kGy. Fruits after radiation treatment were stored at 2 ± 1°C, RH 90% and evaluated at intervals of 30 days for various quality parameters. Results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) retention in firmness, juice yield and ascorbic acid content in samples treated with combination of calcium chloride at 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (0.4 kGy) during storage. Water soluble pectin was inversely correlated with firmness (r = 0.88) and was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower in samples subjected to combination treatment of 2.0% w/v CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation throughout the storage. The combination treatment of 2.0% CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation gave about 4.3 log reduction in yeast and mold count of apple samples. Results of the post refrigeration weight loss, firmness and overall acceptability revealed that combination treatment was helpful in extending the shelf-life of Red Delicious apples by around 20-25 days at 17 ± 2°C, RH 75% following 90 days of refrigeration. PMID:23904650

  10. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM); Experiencias con el proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53. Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde. Programa de Manejo de vida de planta (PLIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C. [CFE, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin, Km. 7.5 Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: craj@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  11. Study of the state of the art of the technologies for the extension of the useful life of the gas turbine buckets; Estudio del estado del arte de las tecnologias de extension de la vida util de los alabes de turbina de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gutierrez, Ramiro Arturo

    1995-10-01

    In the present work a revision of the state of the art of the technologies involved in the extension of useful life of the buckets of a gas turbine is made. Among the subjects that are presented, stand out the following ones: materials for the manufacture of blades; processes of blade manufacturing; Wearing down of blades after a prolonged service; evaluation methods for blades; Limits of repair for blades rehabilitated by welding and strong welding; cleaning of blades; recovery heat treatments; Isostatic compression in hot; Welding of blades; electrical laser beam machining; coating for blades; shotpeening of the blades; balance of blades. In addition as a contribution of the present work, the development of a flow chart for the repair of buckets of gas turbines that exhibit the following typical wearing downs: corrosion, oxidation, erosion, frictions, impact and thermofluency. It is also included as a contribution, a proposal of rehabilitation for the extension of the useful life of the first stage blades of the 3 gas turbines Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) model 11 D-5 MCA, 61.2 MW that operate in the combined cycle thermoelectric power station El Sauz located in the state of Queretaro, Mexico. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se realiza una revision del estado del arte de las tecnologias involucradas en la extension de vida util de los alabes de turbina de gas. Entre los temas que se presentan destacan los siguientes: materiales para la fabricacion de alabes; procesos de fabricacion de alabes; desgaste en alabes despues de un servicio prolongado; Metodos de evaluacion para alabes; limites de reparacion para alabes rehabilitados por soldadura y soldadura fuerte; limpieza de alabes; tratamientos termicos de recuperacion; Compresion isostatica en caliente; soldadura de alabes; maquinados electricos y con rayo laser; Recubrimientos para alabes; granallado de alabes; balance de alabes. Ademas se presenta como aportacion del presente trabajo, el desarrollo de un diagrama de

  12. Life extension of German nuclear power plants only with the consent of the Federal Council? The importance and extent of the need for consent to an amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its coalition agreement of October 26, 2009, the new German federal government plans ''to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants while, at the same time, complying with the strict German and international safety standards.'' This has triggered a debate not only about (nuclear) energy, as in the past election campaign in the summer of 2009, but also about the constitutional law issue whether an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act resulting in longer operating life of nuclear power plants required the consent of the Federal Council (the ''Bundesrat,'' the second chamber of parliament). After the election to the state parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia on May 9, 2010, majority in the Federal Council changed. As a consequence, no consent to an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act must be expected. In view of the large number of recent statements about constitutional law in opinions for various federal and ministerial accounts as well as firms and associations, the outline by R. Scholz in the May issue of atw 2010 will be followed in this issue by the key points of examination of the need for consent, under aspects of constitutional law, and an attempt will be made to explain the evaluations underlying the generation of a legal concept about these items. The decision by the German Federal Constitutional Court of May 4, 2010, published on June 11, 2010, plays a major role in this respect because it established clarity in some important aspects of a legal subject matter in the field of state admini-stration on behalf of the federation, albeit in the field of air traffic law, not nuclear law. However, the structures of the norms in the German Basic Law (Art. 87c and Art. 87d, para.2) to be applied are almost identical. The energy policy and energy economy aspects of a plant life extension are considered along with the option of an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court against any plant life extension. Finally, the key findings are summarized briefly

  13. GIDROPRESS development center experience in the field of extension of the BN-600 NPP steam generator service life and steam generator development tasks for new fast reactor power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the work of the GIDROPRESS development center both on evaluation of residual life and lifetime extension of the BN-600 power unit PGN-200M steam generators. The strength of the steel constructions was justified; the recommendations were given on seismic resistance improvement. The imperfection of the standing regulatory base was noted, the measures to correct this situation were highlighted. The BN-600 steam generators positive operating experience as well as the examination results of the critical components condition after the steam generators long performance enables to confidently change over to the new generation of large steam generators, thus considerably improving technical and economic characteristics of prospective designs of fast reactors

  14. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  15. Studies of the effect of radurization of dried mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) for extension of shelf life - a semi pilot scale. Part of a coordinated programme in the Asian regional cooperative project of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale experiments on the effect of irradiation on the shelf life extension of semi-dried mackerel having a moisture content of 41-48% and a salt content of 14-15% were carried out. The samples were packaged either in retail or bulk packaging before irradiation with 325 Krad and stored either at ambient temperatures (30 +- 2 deg. C), or at 2 +- 1 deg. C. Results of objective and subjective tests showed that irradiation offers a potential for extending by twofold the shelf-life of semi-dried mackerel at ambient temperature. At chilling temperatures, no significant difference in quality was observed, as all samples were acceptable after 12 months of storage. Retail packaging appears to provide better quality products than bulk packaging. Irradiated samples packed in retail packaging became totally unacceptable in the 9th week of storage at ambient temperature, compared to the 5th week for samples packed in bulk packaging. Sensory evaluation of samples showed that irradiated samples received higher scores than unirradiated ones, especially after three weeks of storage at ambient temperatures

  16. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-02-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5-1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety.

  17. ASIC life extension through hardware patch interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bryksin, Vladyslav Sergeevich

    2009-01-01

    Specialized processor designs and ASICs offer lower power consumption and greater efficiency compared to general purpose processors. However, the drawback of specialized hardware designs is the reduction in the generality of workloads that they are able to handle. An important characteristic of specialized hardware designs is the inability to manage changes in the underlying applications. This thesis describes and analyzes the concept of ASIC patching in the Arsenal design: a mechanism to mit...

  18. Least cost options for life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  19. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project; Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde- Programa de manejo de vida de planta (PLIM). Proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  20. Life Insurance. Universal-Life Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mike; Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2009-01-01

    Universal-life insurance was created to address many of the problems associated with whole-life insurance. One problem with whole-life insurance is its lack of flexibility. A second problem with whole life is that it is much like a black box. The owner cannot see exactly how it works. Universal life provides solutions to these problems. To fully understand universal life, refer to "Life Insurance: Whole-Life Insurance", Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 354-145, for some backgroun...

  1. Life Skills Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jan P.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

  2. Rod Youngman receives Alumni Award for Excellence in Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Rod Youngman of Blacksburg, Va., professor of entomology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Virginia Cooperative Extension specialist, has received Virginia Tech's 2008 Alumni Award for Excellence in Extension.

  3. Research and application of multiple model predictive control in Ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hengfeng; Yan, Weiwu; Wang, Guoliang; Hu, Yong; Li, Nan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of System Control and Information Processing; Chen, Shihe; Zhang, Xi [Guangdong Electric Power Research Institute, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-07-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of Ultra-supercritical unit, this paper introduced a multiple model MCPC (Multivariable Constrained Predictive Control) structure with three inputs and three outputs for coordination control of Ultra-supercritical unit. In the structure, double-layer structure of optimization was used to obtain good steady and dynamic performance, and piecewise linear models at the different operating points of Ultra-supercritical unit were used to deal with nonlinearity. In the real-time simulation, nonlinear model of 1000MW Ultra-supercritical unit in was considered. Finally, the result of real-time simulation was given in the paper.

  4. Adaptive Regulation of the Boiler-Turbine Unit of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified nonlinear model of a CHP system is used to investigate the steady state errors, hunting phenomena and high interactions produced in the linear regulators currently employed in industry. A gain-scheduling regulator is designed to overcome these shortcomings.

  5. Mount Davis Road Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Mt Davis Road Extension. The Mount Davis Road Extension was part of the Smithfield Extension and Associated Roadworks which was completed by the Highways Department (Hong Kong S.A.R. ) in December 1997. The considerable increase in traffic volume necessitated the construction of a road link between Smithfield and Pokfulam Road. The construction of an elevate...

  6. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  7. Extensive disseminated cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sujay Khandpur; Sunil Kumar Kothiwala; Binamra Basnet; Rattan Nangia; H A Venkatesh; Raju Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis, especially neurocysticercosis, is a major public health problem in India. We report an unusual case of disseminated cysticercosis with extensive infiltration of the skin, central nervous system, skeletal muscles, eye, lung, and heart. A patient with extensive cutaneous cysticercosis must be thoroughly investigated for widespread internal organ involvement.

  8. On asymptotic extension dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Repovš, Dušan; Zarichnyi, Mykhailo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce an asymptotic counterpart of the extension dimension defined by Dranishnikov. The main result establishes a relation between the asymptotic extensional dimension of a proper metric space and extension dimension of its Higson corona.

  9. Symmetrical extensions of graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study symmetrical extensions of graphs, with special emphasis on symmetrical and Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of d-dimensional grids Λd by finite graphs. These topics are of interest in group theory and graph theory and possibly also in crystallography and some branches of physics. We prove the existence of a connected locally finite graph admitting infinitely many symmetrical extensions by a fixed finite graph. On the other hand, we prove that the number of symmetrical and Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of the d-dimensional grid Λd by a finite graph is finite in several interesting cases. Moreover, for every positive integer d we construct all Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of the d-dimensional grid Λd by two-vertex graphs

  10. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  11. Cotorsion Pair Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Xu ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Assume that S is an almost excellent extension of R. Using functors Hom R(S,-) and -(×)R S, we establish some connections between classes of modules (L)R and (L)S, cotorsion pairs ((A)R, (A)R)and ((A)S, (B)S). If (L)S is a T-extension or (and) H-extension of (L)R, we show that (L)S is a (resp., monomorphic, epimorphic, special) preenveloping class if and only if so is (L)R. If (S, S) is a TH-extension of ((A)R,(B)R), we obtain that ((A)S,(B)S) is complete (resp., of finite type, of cofinite type, hereditary, perfect, n-tilting) if and only if so is ((A)R,(B)R).

  12. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of...... attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  13. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-01-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging...

  14. When non-extensive entropy becomes extensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuaki, Wada; Takeshi, Saito

    2001-12-01

    Tsallis’ non-extensive entropy S- q enables us to treat both power and exponential evolutions of underlying microscopic dynamics on an equal footing by adjusting the variable entropic index q to proper one q ∗. We propose an alternative constraint of obtaining the proper entropic index q ∗ that the non-additive conditional entropy becomes additive if and only if q=q ∗ in spite of the fact that the associated system cannot be decomposed into statistically independent subsystems. Long-range (time) correlation expressed by the q-exponential function is discussed based on the nature that the q-exponential function cannot be factorized into independent factors when q≠1.

  15. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  16. Recent extensions to GALPROP

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, A W

    2015-01-01

    Some recent extensions to the GALPROP cosmic-ray propagation package are described. The enhancements include: an accurate solution option, improved convection formulation, alternative spatial boundary conditions, polarized synchrotron emission, new magnetic field models, updated gamma-ray production cross-sections, free-free radio emission and absorption, primary positrons, additional injection spectral breaks, deuterium production by pp fusion, hadronic energy losses, improved HEALPix skymap format, compatibility with latest HEALPix release, and various bug fixes. The Explanatory Supplement has been extensively updated, including details of these enhancements. A compatible plot package GALPLOT for GALPROP output is also provided, as well as other related software.

  17. Densification via polynomial extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galatos, N.; Horčík, Rostislav

    Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, 2014 - (Baaz, M.; Ciabattoni, A.; Hetzl, S.). s. 179-182 [LATD 2014. Logic, Algebra and Truth Degrees. 16.07.2014-19.07.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : densification * commutative ordered monoid * commutative residuated chain * idempotent semiring * polynomial extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  19. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  20. Studies and development of essential systems in the surveillance program, life extension potential of the vessel and master curve in nuclear power plants; Estudios y desarrollo de sistemas necesarios en el programa de vigilancia, potencial extension de vida de la vasija y curva maestra en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Automatizacion e Instrumentacion, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear power plants owners should demonstrate that the effects of the embrittlement by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the nuclear reactors, so much under conditions of routine operation as below an accident postulate. In consequence, in Mexico surveillance programs of the vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde exist, in which three surveillance capsules are have by reactor. A surveillance capsule is composed by a support and between six and eight containers for test tubes and dosemeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for Charpy V test tubes and cylindrical container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow that of the vessel, being representative witness of the mechanical conditions of the vessel. The objective of to assay the test tubes to impact is to evaluate the embrittlement grade of the vessel beforehand during its useful life of operation, as well as to determinate the running of the ductile-fragile transition temperature in function of the time. (Author)

  1. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  2. Application of radiation for eliminating Salmonella and shelf-life extension of poultry and its products. Part of a coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey on the incidence of contamination of Salmonella in chicken put on sale in Cairo showed that from 559 samples investigated, 46% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella of 8 different serotypes, i.e., S. kottbus, S. sofia, S. typhimurium, S. zanzibar, S. muenchen, S. bovis-morbificans, S. ohio and S. enteritidis. The level of contamination was higher in summer and spring than in winter and autumn. Irradiation at 1.0 to 5.0 kGy resulted in marked suppression of all pathogenic microorganisms. The D10 values of different serotypes of Salmonella ranged from 0.26 to 0.40 in chilled chicken (4 deg. C) and from 0.53 to 1.09 in frozen chicken (-18 deg. C). S. ohio was the most resistant serotype in chilled and frozen samples while S. kottbus and S. sofia were the most radio-sensitive in chilled and frozen chickens, respectively. D10 values of S. aureus, E. coli and S. faecalis were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.95 kGy in chilled chicken and 0.51, 0.42 and 1.4 kGy in frozen chicken, respectively. Irradiation extends shelf-life of chilled chicken from 5 days for the unirradiated samples to 7, 13 and 25 days for samples treated with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy, respectively. Irradiating chilled chicken with 5 kGy resulted in significant changes of odour immediately after the treatment. No difference was observed in frozen chicken treated with doses up to 5 kGy

  3. Crandell named superintendent of Middleburg Agricultural Research and Extension Center

    OpenAIRE

    Roan, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Kathleen Crandell, has been named superintendent of the Middleburg Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) in Middleburg, Va., one of 12 centers within the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station part of the Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

  4. Life extension of German nuclear power plants only with the consent of the Federal Council? The importance and extent of the need for consent to an amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Laengerer Betrieb der deutschen Kernkraftwerke nur mit Zustimmung des Bundesrates? Bedeutung und Reichweite der Zustimmungsbeduerftigkeit bei Aenderung des Atomgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-08-15

    In its coalition agreement of October 26, 2009, the new German federal government plans ''to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants while, at the same time, complying with the strict German and international safety standards.'' This has triggered a debate not only about (nuclear) energy, as in the past election campaign in the summer of 2009, but also about the constitutional law issue whether an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act resulting in longer operating life of nuclear power plants required the consent of the Federal Council (the ''Bundesrat,'' the second chamber of parliament). After the election to the state parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia on May 9, 2010, majority in the Federal Council changed. As a consequence, no consent to an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act must be expected. In view of the large number of recent statements about constitutional law in opinions for various federal and ministerial accounts as well as firms and associations, the outline by R. Scholz in the May issue of atw 2010 will be followed in this issue by the key points of examination of the need for consent, under aspects of constitutional law, and an attempt will be made to explain the evaluations underlying the generation of a legal concept about these items. The decision by the German Federal Constitutional Court of May 4, 2010, published on June 11, 2010, plays a major role in this respect because it established clarity in some important aspects of a legal subject matter in the field of state admini-stration on behalf of the federation, albeit in the field of air traffic law, not nuclear law. However, the structures of the norms in the German Basic Law (Art. 87c and Art. 87d, para.2) to be applied are almost identical. The energy policy and energy economy aspects of a plant life extension are considered along with the option of an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court against any plant life extension. Finally

  5. Farmer research and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Anna; Lilja, Nina

    2004-01-01

    In this brief, we learn that "combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective action for different purposes and at different stages in the innovation process. Collective action can be useful in sharing knowledge, setting priorities, and experimenting with, evaluating, and disseminating technologies." The authors describe various partic...

  6. Android Access Control Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Baláž; Branislav Madoš; Michal Ambróz

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by pr...

  7. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  8. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  9. Extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Muangman, Nisa; Ruangchira-Urai, Ruchira

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare pulmonary disorder that is caused by abnormal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter from the mutation of SLC34A2 gene, leading to accumulation of microliths in the alveoli. We report the extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an elderly woman who presented with progressive dyspnea for 2 months. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse pulmonary calcification. Tissue histopathology from open lung biopsy demonstrated widespread intra-alveolar lam...

  10. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  11. Prospective of the agricultural extension in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of the agricultural extension is described in next twenty years, together with the regional programs of investigation and technology transfer, based in the rational use of the natural resources, the exploitation of markets, the former evaluation before and the expert systems. It proves the dynamic participation of producing leaders and their operation inside an outline of decentralization, privatization, sustainability, competitiveness, justness and invigoration and rural signification. It is supposed that the extension rural functional, bound to the investigation processes, transfer, development, technological development and markets. Institutionally it is expected that the extension is a service of regional and private character with an opportune and enough assignment of resources for the improvement of the quality of the rural population's life

  12. Ultrafilter Extensions of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Denis I.

    We show that any model A can be extended, in a canonical way, to a model βA consisting of ultrafilters over it. The extension procedure preserves homomorphisms: any homomorphism of A into B extends to a continuous homomorphism of βA into βB. Moreover, if a model B carries a compact Hausdorff topology which is (in a certain sense) compatible, then any homomorphism of A into B extends to a continuous homomorphism of βA into B. This is also true for embeddings instead of homomorphisms.

  13. Ethiopia Health Extension Program

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...

  14. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  15. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 07/ ... treatment become as overwhelming for others in your life as they are for you. Understanding the potential ...

  16. Non-extensive radiobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  17. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  18. Baseline characterization of electrical circuits to support plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To (a) provide data on the relative condition of certain electrical cable in use on one of its nuclear plants, and (b) gain experience with state-of-the-art equipment and procedures for obtaining these data under the US Department of Energy (DOE) technology transfer to industry program, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) performed a program in association with EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS), Unit 1 during the Cycle IX Refueling Outage in April and May 1986. The program obtained baseline data for characterization of electrical circuits utilizing the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic (ECCAD) System, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. under contract to the DOE. The ECCAD system and the SONGS 1 program to utilize it are described to show a method for characterizing electrical circuits by comparison to baseline data or to data from similar circuits. This demonstrates a capability to identify the effects of environment and aging on electrical circuits. This technique was shown to have both short-term (diagnostic) potential and long-term (characterizing aging effects) potential for use in applications where electrical circuits may be subjected to environmental conditions that can lead to cable degradation

  19. I and C systems refurbishment projects for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the approach to implementation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems refurbishment projects using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform. The analysis identifying advantages of refurbishment projects for NPPs is performed. The main goals of the utilities with respect to refurbishment of NPPs I and C systems are outlined. The advantages of FPGA technology application for NPP I and C systems are described. Regulatory framework of FPGA technology for NPPs I and C systems is presented. General principles which may be used for implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects are presented. The experience of Research and Production Corporation (RPC) Radiy in implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects is considered. (author)

  20. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  1. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H

    2012-01-01

    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  2. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-28

    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  3. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  4. Quotient Semigroups and Extension Semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rong Xing; Changguo Wei; Shudong Liu

    2012-08-01

    We discuss properties of quotient semigroup of abelian semigroup from the viewpoint of *-algebra and apply them to a survey of extension semigroups. Certain interrelations among some equivalence relations of extensions are also considered.

  5. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  6. Extensible Wind Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  7. Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Sharafat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jordans agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordans agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service and control group (30 farmers. The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of

  8. Life's crucible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers. PMID:11541839

  9. Life insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Topič, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor's project is life insurance. The theoretical part consists of literary research focussed not only on life insurance. The research begins with general introduction to the insurance issue, the basic division of insurance, its rules of law and as well some historical facts. The rest of the theoretical part is focussed on life insurance, where we can find basic division of life insurance, description of particular insurance types and various supplementary insurances. In...

  10. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  11. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  12. Multilayer Multidimensional Extension Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shao-zhong; YANG Guo-wei; TU Xu-yan

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the contradiction problem of multilayer multidimensional complex systems, the concepts of extension field and stable field of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional extension set are given. Then the related operations and properties are discussed. The results of study expand the concepts of intersection and union of extension set to a general situation, and provide the theoretical basis for production of the concepts of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional matter element system extension set. In this way, it will be possible that matter element system theory is used to creative designs of complex systems.

  13. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  14. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  15. Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))/2≤e(0)≤M+e(M)/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ℓ(x) is the fraction of a cohort surviving to age x at least, then (x+e(x))≤l(x)≤e(0)≤x+l(x)∙e(x). For any two ages 0≤w≤x≤ω, (x-w+e(x))∙ℓ(x)/ℓ(w)≤e(w)≤x-w+e(x)∙ℓ(x)/ℓ(w) . These...

  16. Life cycle of transformer oil

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević Ksenija R.; Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana; Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil pla...

  17. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  18. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  19. Defining Life

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they ...

  20. Torque-Wrench Extension Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, T. J.; Trujillo, D. D.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension arm makes possible to apply torque to bolt, screw, or nut inaccessible to conventional wrenches or in areas where wrench cannot be manipulated. Used in narrow pockets and behind panels and walls.

  1. COCLEFT EXTENSIONS OF HOPF ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝家贵

    2006-01-01

    Let B and H be finitely generated projective Hopf algebras over a commutative ring R,with B cocommutative and H commutative. In this paper we investigate cocleft extensions of Hopf algebras, and prove that the isomorphism classes of cocleft Hopf algebras extensions of B by H are determined uniquely by the group C(B, H) = ZC(B, H)/d(B, H) .

  2. Extensive vegetated roofs in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses extensive vegetated roofs, i.e. vegetation systems placed on top of buildings as an aesthetical and/or ecological cover. Specific objectives was to (1) quantify how establishment techniques, substrates and plant mixes influence establishment and development of extensive vegetated roofs, (2) investigate effect of vegetated roofs on stormwater quality, and quantify how maintenance and starting fertilisation influences stormwater quality, and (4) investigate the role of veg...

  3. Bivariate Exponentiated Modified Weibull Extension

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gohary, A.; El-Morshedy, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new bivariate distribution we called it bivariate expo- nentiated modified Weibull extension distribution (BEMWE). The model introduced here is of Marshall-Olkin type. The marginals of the new bivariate distribution have exponentiated modified Weibull extension distribution which proposed by Sarhan et al.(2013). The joint probability density function and the joint cumulative distribu- tion function are in closed forms. Several properties of this distribution have...

  4. Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai

    2011-01-01

    Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...

  5. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF EXTENSIVE LYMPHADENECTOMY IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:The therapeutic value of extensive gastric lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer is controversial.We retrospectively investigated the effect of extended lymphadenectomy on survival in 485 patients with gastric cancer.Methods:From 485 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy, extensive lymphadenectomy was performed on 341 patients and the 5-year survival rate of patiens who had undergone extensive lymphadenectomy was compared with that of patients who had not undergone extensive lymphadenctomy.Survival was estimated using the Life Table method and difference in survival was tested by the Wilcoxon (Gehan) test.Multivariate analysis was done by the Cox proportional hazard model.Results:The overall 5-year survival rate was 37.75%.For patients undergoing extensive and without extensive lymphadenectomy,the 5-year survival rates were 43.27% and 16.36%, respectively (P<0.001).Multivariate analysis also showed that extensive lymphadenectomy was an important independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with gastric cancer after gastrectomy.Conclusions:These results indicate that extensive lymphadenectomy might provide a survival benefit for patients with gastric cancer.

  6. LIFE: bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, J

    2006-01-01

    The following bibliography came out of the research which formed the first phase of the joint British Library-UCL LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature) project. The references are not an exhaustive review of digital preservation activities, they are a reflection of the aims of the LIFE project. Any suggestions for additions or comments can be emailed to

  7. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  8. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  9. Embryonic life and human life.

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, M C

    1985-01-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body a...

  10. Defining Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  11. Parameterized Picard--Vessiot extensions and Atiyah extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gillet, Henri; Ovchinnikov, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    Generalizing Atiyah extensions, we introduce and study differential abelian tensor categories over differential rings. By a differential ring, we mean a commutative ring with an action of a Lie ring by derivations. In particular, these derivations act on a differential category. A differential Tannakian theory is developed. The main application is to the Galois theory of linear differential equations with parameters. Namely, we show the existence of a parameterized Picard--Vessiot extension and, therefore, the Galois correspondence for many differential fields with, possibly, non-differentially closed fields of constants, that is, fields of functions in parameters.

  12. On Nilpotent Extensions of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam W. Marczak; Jerzy Plonka

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate essentially n-ary term operations of nilpotent extensions of algebras. We detect the connection between term operations of an original algebra and its nilpotent extensions. This structural point of view easily leads to the conclusion that the number of distinct essentially n-ary term operations of a proper algebraic nilpotent extension (ひ) of an algebra (ワ) is given by the formula pn(ひ)={pn(ワ)+1 for n=1,{pn(ワ) otherwise. We show that in general the converse theorem is not true. However, we suppose that if a variety V is uniquely determined by its pn-sequences, the converse theorem is also satisfied. In the second part of the paper, we characterize generics of nilpotent shifts of varieties and describe cardinalities of minimal generics. We give a number of examples and pose some problems.

  13. Deductive reasoning in extensive games

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Dufwenberg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We justify the application to extensive games of the concept of ‘fully permissible sets’, which corresponds to choice sets when there is common certain belief of the event that each player prefer one strategy to another if and only if the former weakly dominates the latter on the set of all opponent strategies or on the union of the choice sets that are deemed possible for the opponent. The extensive games considered illustrate how our concept yields support to forward induction, without nece...

  14. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  15. Extensions of Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Brik, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses two new extensions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) and a new computational method for solving the following two problems : (1) given a finite propositional logic program P which has a stable model, find a stable model M of P, and (2) given a finite propositional logic program P which has no stable model, find a maximal program P' which is a subset of P which has a stable model and find a stable model M' of P'. The first extension called Preference Set Constraint (PSC) prog...

  16. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  17. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the PecceiQuinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the ''second hierarchy problem'' which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems

  18. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  19. EXTENSIONS OF EULER HARMONIC SUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdje Cvijović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new closed-form summation formulae involving harmonic numbers are established using simple arguments and they are very general extensions of Euler’s famous harmonic sum identity. Some illustrative special cases as well as immediate consequences of the main results are also considered.

  20. Finite extensions of Bessel sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić, Damir; Berić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies finite extensions of Bessel sequences in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We provide a characterization of Bessel sequences that can be extended to frames by adding finitely many vectors. We also characterize frames that can be converted to Parseval frames by finite-dimensional perturbations. Finally, some results on excesses of frames and near-Riesz bases are derived.

  1. Homomorphisms between $C^*$-Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we consider the question when a homomorphism between two extension algebras preserves the essential ideal in the corresponding extension. Some conditions of two essential extensions being isomorphic are given. We also describe the relationship between the induced extensions and the Kasparov products and give the completely positive liftings of the induced extensions.

  2. What about Eternal Life? A Transhumanist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana TEREC-VLAD

    2015-01-01

    The human individual has been preoccupied with the phenomenon of death since death expresses the end of the existence on earth. The issue of life and death has not lost its actuality, whereas nowadays life extension (and why not immortality) is considered the ultimate goal of scientists. The aim of this article is to highlight the problems that will arise along with the achievement of eternal life. In this regard, I shall focus on human enhancement and the principle of procreative benefice...

  3. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used to...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...... resource conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are...

  4. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG

    2009-01-01

    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  5. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  6. Mosaic: Policy Homomorphic Network Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L Erran; Yang, Y R

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale cloud computing infrastructure, network extension and migration has emerged as a major challenge in the management of modern enterprise networks. Many enterprises are considering extending or relocating their network components, in whole or in part, to remote, private and public data centers, in order to attain scalability, failure resilience, and cost savings for their network applications. In this paper, we conduct a first rigorous study on the extension and migration of an enterprise network while preserving its performance and security requirements, such as layer 2/layer 3 reachability, and middle-box traversal through load balancer, intrusion detection and ACLs. We formulate this increasingly important problem, present preliminary designs, and conduct experiments to validate the feasibility of our designs.

  7. General integration and extensions I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwabik, Štefan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2010), s. 961-981. ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : abstract integration * extension of integral * Kurzweil-Henstock integration Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.265, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3933105376t576w/

  8. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    van Hateren, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are m...

  9. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  10. Analytic extensions of algebraic isomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim

    2015-01-01

    Let $\\Psi : X_1 \\to X_2$ be an isomorphism of closed affine algebraic subvarities of $\\C^n$ such that $n > \\max (2\\dim X_1, \\dim TX_1)$. We prove that $\\Psi$ can be extended to a holomorphic automorphism of $\\C^n$. Furthermore, when $\\Psi$ is an isomorphism of curves such an extension exists for every $n\\geq 3$ even when $\\dim TX_1=n$.

  11. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  12. Degree Extension for Technicians (DEFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, F.; Monaghan, K.; RINGWOOD, John; Villing, R.; Ward, T

    2004-01-01

    The Degree Extension for Technicians (DEFT) programme addresses a particular niche in Irish engineering education by offering qualified technicians (currently working in Irish electronics industry) an opportunity to undertake, principally via the Internet, a flexible learning programme leading to a professional engineering degree. This paper addresses the various aspects that make such a mode of learning appropriate to the programme and also looks at the motivation behind the decision to deve...

  13. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  14. General integration and extensions II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwabik, Štefan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2010), s. 983-1005. ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : abstract integration * extension of integral * Kurzweil-Henstock integration Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.265, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k618v2520x264721/

  15. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  16. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  17. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton

    2012-01-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  18. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power; Laufzeitverlaengerung von Atomkraftwerken. Nein, Danke.? Eine kommunikationswissenschaftliche Studie zum Einfluss medialer Kommunikation auf Einstellung gegenueber Atomkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlt, Dorothee

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  19. Life Wish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJUAN

    2004-01-01

    Three career women playing multiple roles: daughter, wife, mother, colleague and friend, handle everyday pressure and enjoy life to the full. Suddenly one day, their lives change. They become patients, identified with their medical case history rather than business card. Facing death, these three women pool their courage, wisdom and tenacity.

  20. Life Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Zhang Wenzhi creates a rich variety of pottery works by coveringpottery roughcasts of different qualities with a range of coloredglazes,patterns and textures.Her works principally reflect differentsocial and personal themes,are not for practical use but moreendorse her interest in pottery,her feelings on life,and a sense ofmodernity.

  1. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    –Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  2. La optica de imagenes en la extension universitaria de Unicamp

    OpenAIRE

    Lunazzi, Jose Joaquin; Magalhaes, Daniel Souza Ferreira; Amon, Maria Clara Igrejas; Toledo, Rolando Serra

    2012-01-01

    The physics teaching particularly the optics teaching always have faced motivational problems, mostly due to the loss of the link between the social practice and the daily life of the student. Moreover, the laboratory practices have lost space in high school attributable to a lack of resources or caused by the fact that the main purpose of the high school is being no more than the access to the University. This work shows how an extension activity called "Holographic Exhibit" tries to motivat...

  3. Extension lectures: the effects of radiation from atomic bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 56,000 A-bomb survivors are living in Nagasaki city even today. Nagasaki citizens, whether they are A-bomb survivors or not, can not live without concerns on the existence of radiation effects. They have fears of any amount of radiation and are afraid that it may harm their life. As results of studies in the university on radiation effects are not familiar to the citizens, we have started extension lectures on 'the effects of radiation from A-bombing' to them since 1990. We discuss the problems as well as significance of the extension lectures by reporting the details of the extension lectures which we have managed in the past. (author)

  4. Universal Lie algebra extensions via commutative structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yanovski, A B

    2001-01-01

    We consider some special type extensions of an arbitrary Lie algebra, which we call universal extensions. We show that these extensions are in one-to-one correspondence with finite dimensional associative commutative algebras. We also construct a special kind of these extensions, that correspond to a finite commutative monoids.

  5. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  6. Deductive reasoning in Extensive Games

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2000-01-01

    We justify the application to extensive games of the concept of ‘fully permissible sets’, which corresponds to choice sets when there is common certain belief of the event that each player prefer one strategy to another if and only if the former weakly dominates the latter on the set of all opponent strategies or on the union of the choice sets that are deemed possible for the opponent. he e tensive games considered illustrate how our concept yields support to forward induction, without neces...

  7. Two extensions of Ramsey's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, David; Fox, Jacob; Sudakov, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Ramsey’s theorem, in the version of Erdős and Szekeres, states that every $2$ -coloring of the edges of the complete graph on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ contains a monochromatic clique of order $({1}/{2})\\log n$ . In this article, we consider two well-studied extensions of Ramsey’s theorem. Improving a result of Rödl, we show that there is a constant $c\\gt 0$ such that every $2$ -coloring of the edges of the complete graph on $\\{2,3,\\ldots,n\\}$ contains a monochromatic clique $S$ for which the sum of...

  8. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  9. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  10. On Harnack's theorem and extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio F.; Parlier, Hugo

    Harnack's theorem states that the fixed points of an orientation reversing involution of a compact orientable surface of genus g are a set of k disjoint simple closed geodesic where 0≤ k≤ g+1 . The first goal of this article is to give a purely geometric, complete and self-contained proof of this fact. In the case where the fixed curves of the involution do not separate the surface, we prove an extension of this theorem, by exhibiting the existence of auxiliary invariant curves with interesting properties. Although this type of extension is well known (see, for instance, Comment. Math. Helv. 57(4): 603-626 (1982) and Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 225, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2004), our method also extends the theorem in the case where the surface has boundary. As a byproduct, we obtain a geometric method on how to obtain these auxiliary curves. As a consequence of these constructions, we obtain results concerning presentations of Non-Euclidean crystallographic groups and a new proof of a result on the set of points corresponding to real algebraic curves in the compactification of the Moduli space of complex curves of genus g , overline{M_{g}} . More concretely, we establish that given two real curves there is a path in overline{M_{g}} which passes through at most two singular curves, a result of M. Seppaelae (Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 24(5), 519-544 (1991)).

  11. LIFE2 conference: the Life model

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary and aims: Summary: Introduction to the LIFE Model and a recap of LIFE Model v1.0; Development of the LIFE Model v1.1; Looking ahead to LIFE Model v2.0; Scope of lifecycle costs and aims of costing; LIFE Methodology; Generic Preservation Model; Future work: LIFE3? Aims: Summarise recent developments in the LIFE approach and costing tools; Provide a foundation for the Case Study discussions later today; Highlight some outstanding issues for discussio...

  12. Life: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealson, K. H.; Conrad, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

  13. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create a...

  14. Extensible numerical library in JAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the current status of the project for developing the numerical library in JAVA. The authors have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference. The authors need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language, for example, good random number generators, special functions and so on. Authors' development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers. In HPC field, there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA. However, their focus is on the performance of execution, not easiness of extension. Following the strategy, the authors have designed and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on

  15. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  16. Floating Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ One in six people in China have left their hometown in search of a better life and the number continues to grow,creating a challenge for host cities,according to a government report.The floating population,or people who live and work outside their permanent home,reached 211 million last year and the number could reach 350 million by 2050 if govemment policies remain unchanged,said the Report on the Development of China's Floating Population issued on June 26 by the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC).

  17. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  18. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  19. On transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Radul, Taras

    2006-01-01

    We prove that a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asind is trivial. We introduce a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asdim and give an example of metric proper space which has transfinite infinite dimension.

  20. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family of...... membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  1. Research and extension: A gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record Research and Extension services can help improve food availability, provide employment, and reduce environmental degradation. This site highlights the important role women play with food crops. To increase women's participation in research and extension services, the site recommends: 1- A mandate to target rural women. 2- Move toward demand-led research and extension systems. 3- Broaden the range of research and extension strategies and activities. 4- Collect gender-di...

  2. Java Modular Extension for Operator Overloading

    OpenAIRE

    Melentyev, Artem

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a modular extension (plugin) for Java language compilers and Integrated Development Environments (IDE) which adds operator overloading feature to Java language while preserving backward compatibility. The extension use the idea of library-based language extensibility similar to SugarJ. But unlike most language extensions, it works directly inside the compiler and does not have any external preprocessors. This gives much faster compilation, better language compatibility an...

  3. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  4. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  5. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  6. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep; Bishai, William R

    2009-01-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, any fluoroquinolone, and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, capreomycin, or kanamycin). The definition has applicable clinical value and has allowed for more uniform surveillance in varied international settings. Recent surveillance data have indicated that the prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance has risen to the highest rate ever recorded. The gold standard for drug-susceptibility testing has been the agar proportion method; however, this technique requires several weeks for results to be determined. More sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are still unavailable in resource-limited settings. Clinical manifestations, although variable in different settings and among different strains, have in general shown that XDR tuberculosis is associated with greater morbidity and mortality than non-XDR tuberculosis. The treatment of XDR tuberculosis should include agents to which the organism is susceptible, and should continue for a minimum of 18-24 months. However, treatment continues to be limited in tuberculosis-endemic countries largely because of weaknesses in national tuberculosis health-care models. The ultimate strategy to control drug-resistant tuberculosis is one that implements a comprehensive approach incorporating innovation from the political, social, economic, and scientific realms. PMID:18990610

  7. Phenomenology of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy primary cosmic rays, when penetrating from the outer space into the Earth's atmosphere initiate the development of so called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by the multiparticle production of the cascading interactions of the primary particle with nuclei of atmospheric molecules and nuclei. A careful study of the EAS development, distributing the large energy of the primary particle (p, He, C, N, O, . . .Fe) among billions of secondary particles, which move like a wide particle pancake through the atmosphere and can be experimentally studied with largely extended ground based detector arrays, provide an indirect access to information about the energy and nature of the primary radiation. The lecture introduces in a tutorial way the phenomenological features of the EAS development, the formation of the different shower components (electrons, photons, muons, hadrons and air-Cherenkov radiation) and considers various EAS parameters (total intensities (sizes), lateral and arrival time distributions, etc.) as observables of experimental studies. The most important interaction ingredients which drive the EAS development and lead to the appearance at ground are discussed, in particular in view of a basic understanding and conducting realistic Monte Carlo simulations of the EAS features. The presentation will be illustrated with various recent results of the KASCADE experiment, for which a short account is given. (author)

  8. Two extensions of Ramsey's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, David; Sudakov, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Ramsey's theorem, in the version of Erd\\H{o}s and Szekeres, states that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {1, 2,...,n} contains a monochromatic clique of order 1/2\\log n. In this paper, we consider two well-studied extensions of Ramsey's theorem. Improving a result of R\\"odl, we show that there is a constant $c>0$ such that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on \\{2, 3,...,n\\} contains a monochromatic clique S for which the sum of 1/\\log i over all vertices i \\in S is at least c\\log\\log\\log n. This is tight up to the constant factor c and answers a question of Erd\\H{o}s from 1981. Motivated by a problem in model theory, V\\"a\\"an\\"anen asked whether for every k there is an n such that the following holds. For every permutation \\pi of 1,...,k-1, every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {1, 2, ..., n} contains a monochromatic clique a_1a_{\\pi(2)+1}-a_{\\pi(2)}>...>a_{\\pi(k-1)+1}-a_{\\pi(k-1)}. That is, not only do we want a monochromatic clique, but the difference...

  9. Effective Ways of Extensive Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2012-01-01

    COmpared with intensive reading; extenSiVe reading Can arouse Students' interest in reading, and enrich their back- ground knowledge about western COuntries. Therefore, we Should improve both and pay Special attention tO the extensive reading So that students' reading ability can be enhanced: The following points Should be noticed when teaching extensive reading.

  10. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that...

  11. Self-Adjoint Extension of Symmetric Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, H. N.

    2011-01-01

    A densely-defined symmetric linear map from/to a real Hilbert space extends to a self-adjoint map. Extension is expressed via Riesz representation. For a case including Friedrichs extension of a strongly monotone map, self-adjoint extension is unique, and equals closure of the given map.

  12. The impact of extension category characteristics : on the attitdude towards brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is aiming to find out whether extension category characteristics have impact on consumer attitude towards brand extension. In this study, the author focused on three specific extension category characteristics, which are respectively (1) the role of dominant brands in the extension category, (2) the potential for a differentiated brand positioning in the extension category, (3) the consumer attitude towards the extension category. The author conducted an experiment ...

  13. Expectations, Life Expectancy, and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1982-01-01

    Unlike price expectations, which are central to macroeconomic theory and have been examined extensively using survey data, formation of individuals' horizons, which are central to the theory of life-cycle behavior, have been completely neglected. This is especially surprising since life expectancy of adults has increased especially rapidly in Western countries in the past ten years. This study presents the results of analyzing responses by two groups--economists and a random sample--to a ques...

  14. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  15. Aging and Life Management System of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-jin Liu; Jiang Guo; Kai-kai Gu

    2011-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the only key component that can not be replaced in nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the main barrier against the radioactive leakage. The lifetime of NPPs is dependent heavily on the life of RPV, and thus, the aging and life research on a RPV is a key factor in determining the life extension of NPPs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an aging and life management system for an operating RPV which can be used as a reference of the lifetime extension. In ord...

  16. Life's Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  17. The unresolved puzzle why alanine extensions cause disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Reno; Liebold, Jens; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    The prospective increase in life expectancy will be accompanied by a rise in the number of elderly people who suffer from ill health caused by old age. Many diseases caused by aging are protein misfolding diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders receive constant scientific interest. In addition to old age, mutations also cause congenital protein misfolding disorders. Chorea Huntington, one of the most well-known examples, is caused by triplet extensions that can lead to more than 100 glutamines in the N-terminal region of huntingtin, accompanied by huntingtin aggregation. So far, nine disease-associated triplet extensions have also been described for alanine codons. The extensions lead primarily to skeletal malformations. Eight of these proteins represent transcription factors, while the nuclear poly-adenylate binding protein 1, PABPN1, is an RNA binding protein. Additional alanines in PABPN1 lead to the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). The alanine extension affects the N-terminal domain of the protein, which has been shown to lack tertiary contacts. Biochemical analyses of the N-terminal domain revealed an alanine-dependent fibril formation. However, fibril formation of full-length protein did not recapitulate the findings of the N-terminal domain. Fibril formation of intact PABPN1 was independent of the alanine segment, and the fibrils displayed biochemical properties that were completely different from those of the N-terminal domain. Although intranuclear inclusions have been shown to represent the histochemical hallmark of OPMD, their role in pathogenesis is currently unclear. Several cell culture and animal models have been generated to study the molecular processes involved in OPMD. These studies revealed a number of promising future therapeutic strategies that could one day improve the quality of life for the patients. PMID:23612654

  18. From full life to balanced life: Extending Martin Seligman's route to happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, Aloys; Bünger, Björn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a formalization of Martin Seligman’s concept of full life is presented by employing basic microeconomics. With the formalized version of the concept, it can be explained why people differ with respect to the levels of pleasant, engaged and meaningful life they are trying to realize. Moreover, it is suggested to extend Seligman’s concept of full life to the concept of balanced life. This extension requires that in addition to differences in people’s preferences regarding aspects...

  19. [Need for extensive education when implementing new foetal monitoring technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colov, Nina S Palmgren

    2007-09-24

    ST-waveform analysis of the foetal electrocardiogram (STAN) has been shown to reduce the frequency of metabolic acidosis in newborns and to reduce the rate of caesarean sections. However, STAN technology requires an extensive educational effort during the initial implementation with certification of all midwives and doctors involved. This study shows that the positive results of using STAN could be reproduced over a five-year-period after completion of the initial teaching effort and certification of personnel and when STAN was part of everyday life at the labour ward at Gentofte Hospital. PMID:17953889

  20. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  1. The Greenlandic Life Script and Life Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of personal life events from their 15 - 30 years of age. This phenomenon is known as the reminiscence bump (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998). The reminiscence bump is highly populated by emotionally positive events (Rubin & Berntsen......, 2003), when cued by requests for important events. This dominance of positive events is not seen when cued by random words. Berntsen and Rubin (2004) presented a cultural explanation for the bump: cultural life script theory. Their theory claims that the bump for the life story can be explained by the...... life script; that is, culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealized life course. According to the cultural life script theory, the life script is used as a guideline for the recall of autobiographical memories, which help construct personal life...

  2. Extensive white-matter changes in case of adult polyglucosan body disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive white matter signal changes were observed on T2-weighted images of a 49-year-old man. He presented with a slowly progressive gait disorder, and finally developed severe dementia. Extensive metabolic and infectious investigations failed to disclose the underlying cause during life. Autopsy revealed adult polyglucosan body disease. We discuss MRI findings likely to permit this diagnosis if combined with clinical findings and nerve or skin biopsy. (orig.)

  3. Extensions of linear regression models based on set arithmetic for interval data

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Fernández, Angela; García-Bárzana, Marta; Colubi, Ana; Kontoghiorghes, Erricos J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensions of previous linear regression models for interval data are presented. A more flexible simple linear model is formalized. The new model may express cross-relationships between mid-points and spreads of the interval data in a unique equation based on the interval arithmetic. Moreover, extensions to the multiple case are addressed. The associated least-squares estimation problem are solved. Empirical results and a real-life application are presented in order to show the applicability ...

  4. Elders’ Attitudes toward Extending the Healthy Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuing debate between anti-aging researchers seeking major life span extension and concerned gerontologists and bioethicists, elders’ views have received little research attention. Study aimed to relate elders’ attitudes toward strong life span extension to psychosocial and background factors. Participants were 109 American elders (65% women) aged 60-99 (M = 77.08, SD = 9.05). Measures included attitudes toward living long and living forever, Desired Age, Death Acceptance, Goal...

  5. NPP Krsko Lifetime Extension - Business Impact for Hrvatska Elektroprivreda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the analysis of possible business impacts for HEP in the case of NPP Krsko life extension. Due to numerous reasons nuclear power plant life extension of ten to twenty years is a common procedure abroad. Having this practise in mind as well as other circumstances in Croatian and Slovenian electric power system, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime is considered to be a possible scenario. Foreseeable impacts of this decision are evaluated primarily with consideration of its effect on HEPs projected cash flows, though other aspects will be addressed as well. Preserving a well maintained production facility with an extraordinary operational record and stable, or possibly falling overall production costs seems as a very rational choice. This is particularly true having in mind expected rise of electricity demand and energy prices in the region. Having NPP Krsko in operation beyond 2023 implies that no replacement source for NPP Krsko capacity needs to be built. This means avoiding all costs connected with the construction and operation of the replacement plant, assuming it will be fossil fuelled. Due to the high uncertainty of the future fossil fuel prices, the avoidance of replacement plant operational cost is likely to prove as highly rewarding. It should be kept in mind that avoided costs also include the replacement plant greenhouse gases emission costs, thus further enlarging the list of value adding impacts. The latter is valid anticipating the ratification of the Kyoto protocol and joining the European emission trading scheme. In addition to that, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime would mean that the majority of costs connected with the decommissioning and final waste disposal can be postponed further down the time line. This will have very positive financial and possibly technological impact. Other value creating effects for HEP that are foreseeable as a consequence of the plant lifetime extension include: maintaining the knowledge of

  6. Ext JS 4 plugin and extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Abdullah Al

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step tutorial that practically teaches Ext JS plugin and extension development through sample examples that increase in complexity.Ext JS 4 Plugin and Extension Development is ideal for experienced ExtJS developers who want to expand their knowledge in developing plugins and extensions. This book is also for those developers who are new to ExtJS development, with at least some knowledge on ExtJS basics.

  7. Ageing of materials and methods for the assessment and extension of lifetimes of engineering plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-extension (LIFEX) strategies for engineering plant are discussed against the background of the decline in the level of sustainability of the global environment. By directing LIFEX strategies towards better energy efficiency, better pollution control and higher quality throughputs, a significant contribution can be made to establishing more acceptable limits of sustainability. The decision-making process and implementation management of life extension are briefly examined. The question as to whether LIFEX programmes can contribute to the creation of wealth within acceptable limits of sustainability is addressed by considering past trends and future developments in both the fossil-fuelled and nuclear power industries. (UK)

  8. Life management of SG for WWER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, 252 steam generators (SG) of horizontal type are in operation at WWER plants constructed by the Russian designs. In connection with end of the specified service life of the reactor plant equal to 30 years the activities are performed on service life extension of the main equipment including the SG. At some Units, throughout the design service life of SG there were problems resulting in necessity of SG replacement. At the same time the SGs at some Units are in successful operation above the design service life. This report deals with the peculiarities of operation of the horizontal SGs and the problems to be highlighted as the most important for service life extension. The main component to determine possibility for SG service life extension is the SG tubing. As the operating experience shows it is water chemistry of the secondary circuit that is the main factor influencing operability of the SG tubing. Therefore, differences in water chemistry organization leads to significant differences in operability of the SG tubing at various Units and in some cases within one Unit. Owing to the fact that the cases of water chemistry disturbance and the process of tubes fouling with the corrosion products of the main condensate system are not excluded, the damages continue to occur. Tube integrity shall be inspected by eddy current method using the various instrument complexes. This method has certain disadvantages but allows to estimate the degree and direction of degradation processes. The results of eddy current test (ECT) can be used to determine the plugging criterion for defective tubes. The significant number of defective tubes at some Units makes a choice of the plugging criterion to be an important problem, on which solution the SG safety, reliability and service life depends. The report deals with directions of activities in service life management for the SG at WWER plants. Main activities are improvement of water chemistry and non-destructive tests.(author)

  9. Solving Problems, Ensuring Relevance and Facilitating Change: The Evolution of Needs Assessment Within Cooperative Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry A. Garst

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Helping people solve the practical problems of everyday life while maintaining contemporary relevance describes the mission of Cooperative Extension. To achieve that mission, Extension professionals have increasingly relied on information gathered from stakeholders to identify relevant problems and potential educational solutions. The methods, efforts, and activities to understand people and their problems are collectively referred to as needs assessment. This article explores the history and evolution of needs assessment in Cooperative Extension, as well as in a broader educational context. While tracing needs assessment through the decades, this article examines the needs assessment opportunities and challenges faced by Cooperative Extension. Emerging trends and implications for the future of Extension needs assessment are also discussed.

  10. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the... seeking extensions of 2 weeks or less of the certified Application for Temporary Employment Certification... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to...

  11. 76 FR 78252 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its ``Technology Partnerships... information necessary to implement a statutory requirement that the Technology Transfer Ombudsmen...

  12. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  13. CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH

    2006-01-01

    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  14. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  15. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  16. Developing a Roadmap for Excellence in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kristine S.; Reese, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Trying to figure out the promotion and tenure system is one of the major stressors for new Extension faculty. To help new county-based Extension faculty, their supervisors, committee chairs, and other mentors evaluate progress in the probationary years, a Roadmap with specific guideposts delineating expectations for pre-tenure years was developed.…

  17. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Tod, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We analyse conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem.

  18. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's…

  19. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  20. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  1. Colour Octet Extension of 2HDM

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, German

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we consider some aspects of the Manohar-Wise extension of the SM with a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar applied to 2HDM. We present theoretical constraints on the parameters of this extension to both the SM and the 2HDM and discuss related phenomenology at LHC.

  2. On extensions of ALGOL-like languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1974-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of a level grammar and a level language. We define an extension to the extended definable sets and we characterize ALGOL-like languages, extended definable sets, and extensions of those as languages generated by level grammars with different kinds...

  3. Invariant properties of representations under cleft extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to give the invariant properties of representations of algebras under cleft extensions over a semisimple Hopf algebra. Firstly, we explain the concept of the cleft extension and give a relation between the cleft extension and the crossed product which is the approach we depend upon. Then, by making use of them, we prove that over an algebraically closed field k, for a finite dimensional Hopf algebra H which is semisimple as well as its dual H*, the representation type of an algebra is an invariant property under a finite dimensional H-cleft extension . In the other part, we still show that over an arbitrary field k, the Nakayama property of a k-algebra is also an invariant property under an H -cleft extension when the radical of the algebra is H-stable.

  4. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  5. Lifetime management and lifetime extension at PAKS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant strategy is to extend the operational lifetime of the plant and renew the operational licence for 20 years over the designed and licensed lifetime. At Paks NPP the systematic ageing management activities were started eight years ago. It is now a deliberate and programmatic activity, which ensures the plant safety. The programme started with selection of equipment important from both lifetime and safety point of view. The systematic ageing management includes the definition of ageing processes, identification of sensitive parts of the components and the dominant ageing processes, and their control and monitoring. A computerized monitoring system supports the ageing management activity of the plant. The feasibility of plant lifetime extension has been investigated. The study includes a detailed plant assessment, ageing and lifetime prognosis of representative set of structures, systems and components, definition of necessary reconstructions and detailed business analysis. It has been found that a 20 years extension of operation is feasible from both technical and business point of view. Basic results of plant assessment and business analysis are discussed in the paper. A project has been launched by NPP Paks for preparation of plant life extension and licence renewal. The project tasks and conditions of success are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  7. Life stress as potential risk factor for depression and burnout

    OpenAIRE

    T. Plieger; Melchers, M.; Montag, C.; Meermann, R; Reuter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Depression and burnout are two psychopathological labels that have been subject to an extensive discussion over the last decades. The crucial question is whether they can be seen as conceptually equal or as two distinct syndromes. One argument for the distinction is that depression impacts on the whole life of a suffering person whereas burnout is restricted to the job context. Depression has been shown to be affected by life stress. The more stressful life events a person experien...

  8. Dyck tilings, linear extensions, descents, and inversions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jang Soo; Panova, Greta; Wilson, David B

    2012-01-01

    Dyck tilings were introduced by Kenyon and Wilson in their study of double-dimer pairings. They are certain kinds of tilings of skew Young diagrams with ribbon tiles shaped like Dyck paths. We give two bijections between "cover-inclusive" Dyck tilings and linear extensions of tree posets. The first bijection maps the statistic (area + tiles)/2 to inversions of the linear extension, and the second bijection maps the "discrepancy" between the upper and lower boundary of the tiling to descents of the linear extension.

  9. Representation theory of partial relation extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Assem, Ibrahim; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Dionne, Julie; Meur, Patrick Le; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Let C be a finite dimensional algebra of global dimension at most two. A partial relation extension is any trivial extension of C by a direct summand of its relation C-C-bimodule. When C is a tilted algebra, this construction provides an intermediate class of algebras between tilted and cluster tilted algebras. The text investigates the representation theory of partial relation extensions. When C is tilted, any complete slice in the Auslander-Reiten quiver of C embeds as a local slice in the ...

  10. Representation Theory of Partial Relation Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Assem, Ibrahim; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Dionne, Julie; Le Meur, Patrick; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Let C be a finite dimensional algebra of global dimension at most two. A partial relation extension is any trivial extension of C by a direct summand of its relation C − C-bimodule. When C is a tilted algebra, this construction provides an intermediate class of algebras between tilted and cluster tilted algebras. The text investigates the representation theory of partial relation extensions. When C is tilted, any complete slice in the Auslander-Reiten quiver of C embeds as a local slice in th...

  11. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  12. Stakeholder Satisfaction with a 4-H Extension Program for Five- to Eight-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Lafontaine, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    A 4-H K-2 program was evaluated by 277 parents, 144 volunteers, and 44 extension agents. These stakeholders believed the program was beneficial and effective in improving children's life skills (self-esteem, making friends, making choices, learning and physical skills). (SK)

  13. Combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Lönn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    An extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition and remains a technical challenge to surgeons. Over the past decade, repair of aortic arch aneurysms has been accomplished using both hybrid (open and endovascular) and totally endovascular techniques. Thoraci...

  14. Helping Memory-Impaired Elders: A Guide for Caregivers. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Cleland, Marilyn

    This cooperative extension bulletin is designed to help family and professional caregivers understand dementia in later life and learn to cope more effectively with the changes resulting from a progressive dementing illness. The first three sections describe the differences between senility and dementia, causes of dementia, and adjustments that…

  15. 75 FR 38514 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... forms of information technology. DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must...

  16. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  17. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  18. Teachers offered environmental education training through Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Burcham, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension - in collaboration with the Southwest Virginia Chapter of the Society of American Foresters and other members of the forest industry - is offering an environmental education opportunity for teachers from July 20-23.

  19. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile LUPSE; Ovidiu COSMA

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM), together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  20. A New Extension Theorem for Concave Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-wen Peng; Wei-dong Rong; Jen-Chih Yao

    2009-01-01

    We present a new and interesting extension theorem for concave operators as follows. Let be a real linear space, and let be a real order complete PL space. Let the set be convex. Let be a real linear proper subspace of , with , where for some . Let be a concave operator such that whenever and . Then there exists a concave operator such that (i) is an extension of , that is, for all , and (ii) whenever .

  1. Strategies for Teaching English Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄立国

    2008-01-01

    Extensive reading can make a major difference in student reading development over time.To endure that the students benefit most from extensive reading class,a few strategies must be adopted for teaching. The teacher is advised to attach importance to the significance of reading to language learning.Choosing understandable materials, protecting the students’enthusiasm, engaging the students in after-class reading,and playing a good role model are four important strategies discussed in the article.

  2. Extensions of the TEP neutral transport methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent extensions of the Transmission and Escape Probability methodology and its implementation in the 2-D neutral transport code GTNEUT are presented. These extensions address the issues of anisotropy of the neutral distribution function at the interfaces and the non-uniformity of the first collision source in short mean free path regions. Comparisons with Monte Carlo for a number of model problems are discussed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    objective of these programs is to assure safe, economic operation of the CANDU 6 unit stations for the remaining portion of their design life, and to preserve the option for plant life extension to about double their original life. Work on comprehensive PLIM programs building on this generic work has started with 2 CANDU utilities. Results of the program are being fed back into the new CANDU 6 and 9 products, to provide customers with the improved assurance of safe and economic operation, with the opportunity for plant life extension. This paper describes the status of the programs undertaken by both the utilities and AECL to safeguard the investment they have made in CANDU stations and technology. (author)

  4. Multiple origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  5. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  6. Restrictions and extensions of semibounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Palle; Tian, Feng

    2012-01-01

    We study restriction and extension theory for semibounded Hermitian operators in the Hardy space of analytic functions on the disk D. Starting with the operator zd/dz, we show that, for every choice of a closed subset F in T=bd(D) of measure zero, there is a densely defined Hermitian restriction of zd/dz corresponding to boundary functions vanishing on F. For every such restriction operator, we classify all its selfadjoint extension, and for each we present a complete spectral picture. We prove that different sets F with the same cardinality can lead to quite different boundary-value problems, inequivalent selfadjoint extension operators, and quite different spectral configurations. As a tool in our analysis, we prove that the von Neumann deficiency spaces, for a fixed set F, have a natural presentation as reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, with a Hurwitz zeta-function, restricted to FxF, as reproducing kernel.

  7. Improved Approximations for Some Polymer Extension Models

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, Rafayel

    2016-01-01

    We propose approximations for force-extension dependencies for the freely jointed chain (FJC) and worm-like chain (WLC) models as well as for extension-force dependence for the WLC model. Proposed expressions show less than 1% relative error in the useful range of the corresponding variables. These results can be applied for fitting force-extension curves obtained in molecular force spectroscopy experiments. Particularly they can be useful for cases where one has geometries of springs in series and/or in parallel where particular combination of expressions should be used for fitting the data. All approximations have been obtained following the same procedure of determining the asymptotes and then reducing the relative error of that expression by adding an appropriate term obtained from fitting its absolute error.

  8. Force-extension curves of bacterial flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Reinhard; 10.1140/epje/i2010-10664-5

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial flagella assume different helical shapes during the tumbling phase of a bacterium but also in response to varying environmental conditions. Force-extension measurements by Darnton and Berg explicitly demonstrate a transformation from the coiled to the normal helical state [N.C. Darnton and H.C. Berg, Biophys. J. {92}, 2230 (2007)]. We here develop an elastic model for the flagellum based on Kirchhoff's theory of an elastic rod that describes such a polymorphic transformation and use resistive force theory to couple the flagellum to the aqueous environment. We present Brownian dynamics simulations that quantitatively reproduce the force-extension curves and study how the ratio $\\Gamma$ of torsional to bending rigidity and the extensional rate influence the response of the flagellum. An upper bound for $\\Gamma$ is given. Using clamped flagella, we show in an adiabatic approximation that the mean extension, where a local coiled-to-normal transition occurs first, depends on the logarithm of the extensio...

  9. A Graph Library Extension of SVG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of SVG that supports the drawing of graphs in terms of nodes and edges in between nodes. The graph drawing primitives support a variety of different node shapes, edge connection points, and edges. Both nodes and edges can be labeled. Two or more nodes can be...... aggregated as a single node, and an entire graph can be embedded in a single node. In addition, a number of different graph animations are described. The starting point of the SVG extension is a library that provides an exact of mirror of SVG 1.1 in the functional programming language Scheme. Each element of...... SVG 1.1 is represented as a specific function in Scheme. The graph drawing primitives are implemented as functional abstractions on top of the SVG 1.1 mirror functions. It is argued that the SVG extension approach, as exemplified by the graph drawing facilities, is useful whenever an author wishes to...

  10. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    While the extensibility of many software systems has been greatly improved during the past two decades, nontrivial control systems remain to be a category of software systems that are remarkably difficult for independent parties to extend. Support for independent extension is the ability to...... introduce a new component without performing a global integrity check. Avoiding a global integrity check relies on anticipating what kind of extensions are required in the future and designing a suitable interface and coordination mechanism, so that conflicts among mutually unaware components can be...... resolved automatically. Typical control system components are concerned with the way in which actuators are controlled. Combining mutually unaware control system components that share interest in the same actuators are likely to lead to complex conflicts, thus making control systems a particularly...

  11. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    “Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. [In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost.]” (Dante 1308-1320) We have reached halfway in life when our age equals our remaining...... life expectancy at that age. This relationship in stable population models between life lived and life left has captured the attention of mathematical demographers since Lotka. Our paper aims to contribute to the halfway-age debate by showing its time trends under mortality models and with current data...... from high longevity countries. We further contrast the halfway-age results by sex, and between period and cohort perspectives. We find that in 1850 life expectancy at birth was higher than halfway-age by around ten years (HMD-mean halfway-age of 33.3 and 32.2 against HMD-mean life expectancy of 44...

  12. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  13. Timeability of Extensive-Form Games

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Sørensen, Troels B.; Conitzer, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Extensive-form games constitute the standard representation scheme for games with a temporal component. But do all extensive-form games correspond to protocols that we can implement in the real world? We often rule out games with imperfect recall, which prescribe that an agent forget something that she knew before. In this paper, we show that even some games with perfect recall can be problematic to implement. Specifically, we show that if the agents have a sense of time passing (say, access ...

  14. Method for measuring low activity extensive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a method of measuring low intensity gamma radiation from extensive sources using solid state detectors. In the first part the variation of the detector efficiency for a point source as a function of source position is measured. It is seen that the angular dependence is particularly important. With this response function known, a semi empirical model is developed for the computation of the efficiency in cases of extensive radiation fields. Measurements are carried out which show the adequacy of the model. The method is suitable for liquid samples such as drinkable water, industrial waste liquids and sewage liquids. It is therefore useful for water quality monitoring and pollution control. ((orig.))

  15. Category Extensions : Factors enhancing brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Andreas; Johansson, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In today’s world, where the consumer is constantly exposed to more and more brands in almost any kind of environment, the importance of exploiting those brands which have managed to reach the consumer’s mind and gained a strong position has increased. A majority of new product launches are extensions of existing brands. Brand extensions can be seen as a less expensive as well as less risky way to satisfy the consumer’s demands and needs within several segments by providing several products un...

  16. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  17. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consist......-handle lesion and one pathological synovial plica). MRI of the knee with acute, traumatic extension deficit is in the acute or subacute phase a safe method to identify the patients that have a mechanical reason for locking and therefore can benefit from arthroscopic treatment....

  18. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie;

    2005-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  19. Rough Sets, Their Extensions and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Shen; Richard Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Rough set theory provides a useful mathematical foundation for developing automated computational systems that can help understand and make use of imperfect knowledge. Despite its recency, the theory and its extensions have been widely applied to many problems, including decision analysis, data mining, intelligent control and pattern recognition. This paper presents an outline of the basic concepts of rough sets and their major extensions, covering variable precision, tolerance and fuzzy rough sets. It also shows the diversity of successful applications these theories have entailed, ranging from financial and business, through biological and medicine, to physical, art, and meteorological.

  20. Grassmann extensions of Yang–Baxter maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we show that there are explicit Yang–Baxter (YB) maps with Darboux–Lax representation between Grassman extensions of algebraic varieties. Motivated by some recent results on noncommutative extensions of Darboux transformations, we first derive a Darboux matrix associated with the Grassmann-extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation, and then we deduce novel endomorphisms of Grassmann varieties, which possess the YB property. In particular, we present ten-dimensional maps which can be restricted to eight-dimensional YB maps on invariant leaves, related to the Grassmann-extended NLS and DNLS equations. We consider their vector generalisations. (paper)

  1. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  2. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using the KDQOL-36™ to Improve Quality of Life (and Meet Surveyor Expectations) Presented on August 8, ... this article at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research- ...

  3. Life with Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Life With Lupus KidsHealth > For Kids > Life With Lupus Print A ... the symptoms often go away. continue What Causes Lupus? No one really knows what causes lupus, but ...

  4. Donate Life America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  6. YOUR LIFE@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Guinot, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Balancing work and home life, getting support for your family and thriving in an inclusive and respectful workplace: find out more about the support structures in place to enhance your working life@CERN!

  7. Sexuality in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raquo Sexuality in Later Life Heath and Aging Sexuality in Later Life What Are Normal Changes? What ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

  8. A techno-economic approach to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the need for changing priorities in plant life management. Following a brief review of the major world-wide trends which are affecting plant life management, the fundamental nature of the plant life management process itself is considered. It is suggested that a consistent approach to the management of economic and safety risk can provide a mechanism for continuous improvement of the process. One such approach, Techno-Economic Ageing and Maintenance Management - TEAMM, is described. The tool required for this process are discussed and examples given of its application to ageing plant and evaluation of life extension. 2 figs

  9. What Is Life? - Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    1999-01-01

    The problem of the origin of life is very old one. While there have been some distinguished supporters for theories suggesting extra-terrestrial origin and subsequent transport of life to earth, the remaining scientific community has built up progreesively more convincing, if more complex , reconstruction of the possible events leading to the origin of life on primitive earth. As it happens so often, our present beliefs about the origin of life on earth go to Charles Darwin in whose inmitable...

  10. Evaluation of Crassulaceae species on extensive green roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhman, A.K.; VanWoert, N.D.; Rowe, B. [Michigan State Univ., MI (United States). Dept. of Horticulture; Rugh, C.L. [Michigan State Univ., MI (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences; Ebert-May, D. [Michigan State Univ., MI (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2004-07-01

    Environmental conditions are often more extreme on a rooftop than at ground level. As such, plants selected for use on green roofs must be able to tolerate higher winds, sun exposure, extreme heat, cold, and drought conditions, and shallow root depths. Water availability is one of the most limiting factors for a green roof. Since extensive green roof systems rely on natural precipitation events, a drought tolerance study was conducted in which 2 Michigan natives plants and 3 species of sedum were compared under greenhouse conditions. The plants were subjected to 5 watering regimes over a period of 4 months. Plant physiological stress was quantified over time by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, which is an early indicator of plant stress. Species were evaluated in this long-term study for life-form habits and characteristics such as propagation success, rate of establishment, ground cover density, competition among species, persistence, tolerance to low winter temperatures and drought resistance. The knowledge gained from these experiments will help in recommending plant species diversity for green roofs based on the selective criteria. Sedum plants sustained photosynthetic activity over a period of 4 months without watering, though biomass was reduced compared to plants that were watered more frequently. These results can be extrapolated to many other succulents, herbaceous forbs, and grasses by considering their photosynthetic processes and life-form habits. Based on greenhouse results, watering recommendations can be determined to the specific design goals of each particular green roof project. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  11. La optica de imagenes en la extension universitaria de Unicamp

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, Jose Joaquin; Amon, Maria Clara Igrejas; Toledo, Rolando Serra

    2013-01-01

    The physics teaching particularly the optics teaching always have faced motivational problems, mostly due to the loss of the link between the social practice and the daily life of the student. Moreover, the laboratory practices have lost space in high school attributable to a lack of resources or caused by the fact that the main purpose of the high school is being no more than the access to the University. This work shows how an extension activity called "Holographic Exhibit" tries to motivate high school students by means of experimentation, observation and the application of physics concepts in daily life, awakening their interests to the general physics. La ensenanza de la fisica y en particular de la optica siempre ha enfrentado problemas de aspecto motivacional principalmente por la perdida del vinculo con la practica social y con la vida cotidiana del estudiante. Ademas, las practicas de laboratorio han perdido mucho espacio en la ensenanza media por carencias de las escuelas o debido a que tiene apenas...

  12. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/22/2015; last reviewed 9/22/2015) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  13. First Day of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day of Life Print A A A Text Size What's in ... usually begin within the first few hours of life. previous continue Your Feelings Having a baby is ...

  14. End of Life Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  15. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Go4Life Exercises — Stretching Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises to improve your flexibility! 2:48 ... Exercises — Building Strength Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises to improve your strength! Stronger muscles ...

  16. Life in other planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speculations of life on other planets in space are discussed. The life history of a star in terms of the high temperature fusion reactions taking place in it, is outlined. The phenomenon of gases escaping from planetary atmospheres which destroys life on them is explained. Solar radiation effects, pulsar detection etc. are briefly touched upon. (K.B.)

  17. On characterizations of a center Galois extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianyong Xue

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a ring with 1,  C the center of B,  G a finite automorphism group of B, and BG the set of elements in B fixed under each element in G. Then, it is shown that B is a center Galois extension of BG (that is, C is a Galois algebra over CG with Galois group G|C≅G if and only if the ideal of B generated by {c−g(c|c∈C} is B for each g≠1 in G. This generalizes the well known characterization of a commutative Galois extension C that C is a Galois extension of CG with Galois group G if and only if the ideal generated by {c−g(c|c∈C} is C for each g≠1 in G. Some more characterizations of a center Galois extension B are also given.

  18. 76 FR 69712 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments... forms of information technology. DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must...

  19. 77 FR 71787 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... forms of information technology. This information collection request pertains to the Human...

  20. 75 FR 21285 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for Comments... forms of information technology. DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must be... cooperative agreements under the Department's financial assistance programs. The information is used...