Sample records for boiler-turbine life extension

  1. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  2. Tuning of PID controllers for boiler-turbine units. (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Liu, Jizhen; Fang, Fang; Chen, Yanqiao


    A simple two-by-two model for a boiler-turbine unit is demonstrated in this paper. The model can capture the essential dynamics of a unit. The design of a coordinated controller is discussed based on this model. A PID control structure is derived, and a tuning procedure is proposed. The examples show that the method is easy to apply and can achieve acceptable performance.

  3. Robust H(infinity) tracking control of boiler-turbine systems. (United States)

    Wu, J; Nguang, S K; Shen, J; Liu, G; Li, Y G


    In this paper, the problem of designing a fuzzy H(infinity) state feedback tracking control of a boiler-turbine is solved. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is used to model a boiler-turbine system. Next, based on the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model, sufficient conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(infinity) nonlinear state feedback tracking control are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of the proposed tracking control design is that it does not involve feedback linearization technique and complicated adaptive scheme. An industrial boiler-turbine system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design as compared with a linearized approach.

  4. Fatigue life extension (United States)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.


    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  5. Multi-objective control of nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator magnitude and rate constraints. (United States)

    Chen, Pang-Chia


    This paper investigates multi-objective controller design approaches for nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics subject to actuator magnitude and rate constraints. System nonlinearity is handled by a suitable linear parameter varying system representation with drum pressure as the system varying parameter. Variation of the drum pressure is represented by suitable norm-bounded uncertainty and affine dependence on system matrices. Based on linear matrix inequality algorithms, the magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator and the deviations of fluid density and water level are formulated while the tracking abilities on the drum pressure and power output are optimized. Variation ranges of drum pressure and magnitude tracking commands are used as controller design parameters, determined according to the boiler-turbine's operation range.

  6. Nonlinear inversion-based output tracking control of a boiler-turbine unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Jizhen LIU; Wen TAN


    The capability to perform fast load-following has been an important issue in the power industry. An output tracking control system of a boiler-turbine unit is developed. The system is composed of stable inversion and feedback controller.The stable inversion is implemented as a feedforward controller to improve the load-following capability, and the feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the stability and robustness of the whole system. Loop-shaping H∞ method is used to design the feedback controller and the final controller is reduced to a multivariable PI form. The output tracking control system takes account of the multivariable, nonlinear and coupling behavior of boiler-turbine system, and the simulation tests show that the control system works well and can be widely applied.

  7. Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit: analysis and design. (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Fang, Fang; Tian, Liang; Fu, Caifen; Liu, Jizhen


    Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit is discussed in this paper. Based on the nonlinear model of the unit, this paper analyzes the nonlinearity of the unit, and selects the appropriate operating points so that the linear controller can achieve wide-range performance. Simulation and experimental results at the No. 4 Unit at the Dalate Power Plant show that the linear controller can achieve the desired performance under a specific range of load variations.

  8. Boiler-turbine control system design using continuous-time nonlinear model predictive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Xu-sheng; ZHOU Huai-chun


    A continuous-time nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC) was designed for a boiler-turbine unit. The controller was designed by optimizing a receding-horizon performance index, with the nonlinear system approximated by its Taylor series expansion with a certain order, the magnitude saturation constraints on the inputs satisfied by increasing the predictive time, and the rate saturation conditions on the actuators satisfied by tuning the time constant of the reference trajectories in a reference governor. Simulation results showed that the controller can drive the drum pressure and output power of the nonlinear boiler-turbine unit to follow their respective reference trajectories throughout a varying operation range and keep the water level deviation within tolerances. Comparison of the NMPC scheme with the generic model control (GMC) scheme indicated that the responses are slower and there are more oscillations in the responses of the water level, fuel flow input and feed water flow input in the GMC scheme when the boiler-turbine unit is operating over a wide range.

  9. Life extension and life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H., E-mail: [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Rd., Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)


    To continue the effort of nuclear energy as the clean energy offsetting the increase in greenhouse gas emission that contributes to the increased global warming effect, the nuclear industry is focused on the optimization of their current nuclear generation assets. Plant life extension (Plex) and Plant life management (Plim), together with power up rate, are the key strategies for the optimization effort. Plex begins with the process to obtain the regulatory approval for an additional 20 years of operation, beyond the current 40-year limit. This highly standardized process consists of the following steps: 1) Scoping: identify the systems, structures and components for inclusion in the license renewal scope of work. 2) Screening: narrow down the selection of the in-scope systems, structures and components based on passive and long-lived characteristics. 3) Aging management review: demonstrate that aging effects will continue to be managed during the additional 20 years of operation. 4) Time limiting aging analyses: confirm the acceptability of design bases analyses that assume the 40-year plant life as a key input assumptions. To provide a consistent approach for the preparation of the license renewal application, the following are the key guidance documents: NUREG-1800: Standard review plan; NUREG-1801: Generic aging lessons learned; Nuclear Energy Institute NEI 95-10. The objectives of Plim are to focus on improving plant reliability/availability, and to plan for equipment upgrades for efficiency improvement as well as technological obsolescence. Plim is a technical evaluation combined with a risk assessment to produce a long-range business plant with a time horizon of 10 years or longer. Due to its long view nature, this plan will be reviewed on a yearly basis for any required adjustments. The technical evaluation consists of the following major steps: 1) Select systems, structures and components with performance deficiencies experience. 2) Collect operating data

  10. Gain tuning PI controllers for boiler turbine unit using a new hybrid jump PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new hybrid jump PSO (HJPSO is proposed for tuning the gains of PI controllers to the boiler turbine unit. HJPSO based Gaussian and Cauchy mutation is proposed to improve the standard PSO performance. The new strategy is based on observing the local and global best particles which are not improved in a predefined number of iterations and moving these particles to a new best position. Besides, forming a new particle that handles the minimum error of each controller to replace the global best particle if it has best fitness. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has its ability in optimizing the control parameters and effectively achieved better performance when compared with other PSO algorithms.

  11. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant. (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T


    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  12. A genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a boiler-turbine system. (United States)

    Yang, Shizhong; Qian, Chunjiang; Du, Haibo


    This paper proposes a genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a drum-type boiler-turbine system. Based on a second order nonlinear model, a finite-time convergent controller is first designed to drive the states to their setpoints in a finite time. In the case when the state variables are unmeasurable, the system will be regulated using a constant controller or an output feedback controller. An adaptive controller is also designed to stabilize the system since the model parameters may vary under different operating points. The novelty of the proposed controller design approach lies in fully utilizing the system nonlinearities instead of linearizing or canceling them. In addition, the newly developed techniques for finite-time convergent controller are used to guarantee fast convergence of the system. Simulations are conducted under different cases and the results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controllers.

  13. Substantial Life Extension and Meanings of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.


    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001 and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research the project enables. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology (Aust

  14. Data-driven modeling and predictive control for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace methods. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Shen, Jiong; Li, Yiguo; Lee, Kwang Y


    This paper develops a novel data-driven fuzzy modeling strategy and predictive controller for boiler-turbine unit using fuzzy clustering and subspace identification (SID) methods. To deal with the nonlinear behavior of boiler-turbine unit, fuzzy clustering is used to provide an appropriate division of the operation region and develop the structure of the fuzzy model. Then by combining the input data with the corresponding fuzzy membership functions, the SID method is extended to extract the local state-space model parameters. Owing to the advantages of the both methods, the resulting fuzzy model can represent the boiler-turbine unit very closely, and a fuzzy model predictive controller is designed based on this model. As an alternative approach, a direct data-driven fuzzy predictive control is also developed following the same clustering and subspace methods, where intermediate subspace matrices developed during the identification procedure are utilized directly as the predictor. Simulation results show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  16. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  17. Life Assessment and Life Extension of an Aircraft Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghaie-Khafri


    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment and shot peening on the fatigue life of an aluminum aircraft wheel was studied. The effect of residual stress and heat treatment on the fatigue of specimens was studied by means of fatigue testing, residual stress measurement, and fractography. Finite element simulation was used for life assessment and evaluation of the effect of surface treatments on the life extension of the aircraft wheel. The results obtained show that the operational life of the aircraft wheel extended by imposed compressive residual stress and aging treatment.

  18. 锅炉-汽轮机组的协调控制器整定%Tuning of Coordinated Controllers for Boiler-turbine Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房方; 谭文; 刘吉臻


    A simple two-by-two model for a boiler-turbine unit is derived in this paper, which can capture the essential dynamics of the typical process. The coordinated controller is designed based on this model. A PID control structure and a tuning procedure are proposed. The example shows that the method is easy to use and can achieve an acceptable performance.

  19. Mixed views about radical life extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Alvarez


    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies on public attitudes toward life extension technologies show a mix of ambivalence toward and support for extending the human lifespan (Partridge 2009; Dragojlovic 2013; Funk et al. 2013. Attitudes toward genetic modification of organisms and technological enhancements may be used to categorize individuals according to political or ideological orientation such as technoprogressive or conservative (Hughes 2010 and it could be easy to assume that these categories are related to more general categorizations related to culture, e.g. between Traditional and Secular-rational values in the World Values Survey (Ingelhart & Welzel 2010. This paper discusses how attitudes toward aspects of radical life extension may be related to cultural values as revealed in an online deliberative survey among university students conducted between January 2012 to January 2013. Survey results suggest that attitudes toward radical life extension tend to be mixed among groups categorized as Traditional, Secular-rational, Survivalist, and Self-expressionist. The study explored the relation between responses of 326 university students to 5 key questions on radical life extension (RLE and the cultural values they tend to favor as indicated by their response to 20 statements from the World Values Survey. Design and Method: The survey consisted of 3 stages: an online pre-discussion survey, face-to-face discussion, and post-discussion survey. After completing the 5 main survey questions in stage 1, participants were presented two additional questionnaires: one on cultural attitudes using 20 statements from the 2004-2008 World Values Survey (WVS and another on health attitudes with 12 statements from Dutta-Bergman’s 2004 study. In stage 2, participants were engaged in a face-to-face discussion in class focusing on their responses to the five key questions. After the discussion, they were invited to reconsider the choices and reasons they posted in stage

  20. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  1. Nonlinear predictive control of a boiler-turbine unit: A state-space approach with successive on-line model linearisation and quadratic optimisation. (United States)

    Ławryńczuk, Maciej


    This paper details development of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for a boiler-turbine unit, which is a nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output process. The control objective is to follow set-point changes imposed on two state (output) variables and to satisfy constraints imposed on three inputs and one output. In order to obtain a computationally efficient control scheme, the state-space model is successively linearised on-line for the current operating point and used for prediction. In consequence, the future control policy is easily calculated from a quadratic optimisation problem. For state estimation the extended Kalman filter is used. It is demonstrated that the MPC strategy based on constant linear models does not work satisfactorily for the boiler-turbine unit whereas the discussed algorithm with on-line successive model linearisation gives practically the same trajectories as the truly nonlinear MPC controller with nonlinear optimisation repeated at each sampling instant.

  2. The Article Deals with the Improvement of Professional Activity Efficiency of Operational Personnel for Boiler-Turbine Department of Power Stations


    Dmitriev, P.


    Human factor is one of the main determining factors in providing stability and reliability of power systems operation. In this context it is significant to estimate the level of professional activity efficiency of operational staff for boiler-turbine department of power stations.The article presents developed by the author algorithm of carrying out such research as well as the results of experimental research, carried out in one of the power stations of the state industrial unity “Belenergo” ...

  3. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan


    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer.

  4. A business model framework for product life extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, M.C.; Bakker, C.A.


    Product life extension is an increase in the utilization period of products. Design research on product life extension strategies has so far mainly focused on technical aspects of products, like ‘prevention engineering’ or ‘design for repair, maintenance and upgradability’, and on individual consume

  5. Life Extension Factor Klotho Enhances Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena B. Dubal


    Full Text Available Aging is the primary risk factor for cognitive decline, an emerging health threat to aging societies worldwide. Whether anti-aging factors such as klotho can counteract cognitive decline is unknown. We show that a lifespan-extending variant of the human KLOTHO gene, KL-VS, is associated with enhanced cognition in heterozygous carriers. Because this allele increased klotho levels in serum, we analyzed transgenic mice with systemic overexpression of klotho. They performed better than controls in multiple tests of learning and memory. Elevating klotho in mice also enhanced long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and enriched synaptic GluN2B, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunit with key functions in learning and memory. Blockade of GluN2B abolished klotho-mediated effects. Surprisingly, klotho effects were evident also in young mice and did not correlate with age in humans, suggesting independence from the aging process. Augmenting klotho or its effects may enhance cognition and counteract cognitive deficits at different life stages.

  6. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)


    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  7. The Article Deals with the Improvement of Professional Activity Efficiency of Operational Personnel for Boiler-Turbine Department of Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dmitriev


    Full Text Available Human factor is one of the main determining factors in providing stability and reliability of power systems operation. In this context it is significant to estimate the level of professional activity efficiency of operational staff for boiler-turbine department of power stations.The article presents developed by the author algorithm of carrying out such research as well as the results of experimental research, carried out in one of the power stations of the state industrial unity “Belenergo” in order to show up the levels of professional activity efficiency of operational personnel (operator of central heat control panel of boilers, senior operator of boiler equipment of turbo-boiler room.

  8. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K. [TWI, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Magne, E. [Schlumberger Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)


    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  9. Structural integrity and life extension of high-temperature components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun; SHEN Shi-ming


    Four different topics for high-temperature components, namely the development of the assessment codes for the structural integrity of high-temperature components, the application of continuous damage mechanics and probabilistic damage mode on the life assessment of high-temperature components, the life extension for high-tem perature components and a proposed strategy for remanufacturing of high-temperature components were discussed in this paper. These topics should provide some important insights for the design and re-design of high- temperature components.

  10. Comprehensive life extension evaluated for three-unit station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.; Field, J.R.; Wittig, S.


    This is an account of a project carried out at the Independence City Power and Light's Blue Valley Station, Missouri, USA. The purpose of this project was to assess the condition of each of the three generating units, to investigate the feasibility and cost of a life extension and turbine capacity improvement program, and to make recommendation for life extension measures. The effort was prompted by deteriorating performance and availability of the units. Also considered were plant modifications to meet anticipated stricter environmental regulations such as acid rain legislation. This project has demonstrated the benefits of a comprehensive program that evaluates the entire plant condition rather than simply reacting to problems as they occur. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Orion: a glimpse of hope in life span extension? (United States)

    Muradian, K; Bondar, V; Bezrukov, V; Zhukovsky, O; Polyakov, V; Utko, N


    Orion is a multicomponent drug based on derivatives of taurocholic acid and several other compounds. Application of Orion into the feeding medium of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in increased life span and survival at stressful conditions. Two paradoxical features of the drug should be stressed: The "age-threshold" (life span extension was observed only when the drug was applied starting from the second half of life) and induction of "centenarian" flies (older 100 days). Orion enhanced survival at heat shock (38 degrees C) and acidic (pH = 1.6) or alkaline (pH = 11.8) feeding mediums, but not at oxidative stresses modeled by 100% oxygen or application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)).

  12. The Tortoise Transformation as a Prospect for Life Extension. (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F


    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could persist in some measure, but he thinks little is to be gained from the transformation because the experiences available to tortoises pale in comparison to those available to human beings. Moreover, he thinks persisting human consciousness and values would degrade over time, being remade by tortoise needs and environment. The value available in the transformation would not, then, make the additional years of life desirable. Agar's account does not, however, dispose of the tortoise transformation as a defensible preference. Some people might still want this kind of transformation for symbolic reasons, but it would probably be better that no human consciousness persist, since that consciousness would be inexpressible as such. Even so, it is not irrational to prefer various kinds of lifespan extension even if they involve significant modifications to human consciousness and values.

  13. LANL Contributions to the B61 LIfe Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpion, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a long, proud heritage in science and innovation that extends 70 years. Although the Laboratory’s primary responsibility is assuring the safety and reliability of the nation’s nuclear deterrent, Laboratory staff work on a broad range of advanced technologies to provide the best, most effective scientific and engineering solutions to the nation’s critical security challenges. The world is rapidly changing, but this essential responsibility remains the LANL’s core mission. LANL is the Design Laboratory for the nuclear explosive package of the B61 Air Force bomb. The B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) activities at LANL will increase the lifetime of the bomb and provide safety and security options to meet security environments both today and in the future. The B61’s multiple-platform functionality, unique safety features, and large number of components make the B61-12 LEP one of the most complex LEPs ever attempted. Over 230 LANL scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel from across the Laboratory are bringing decades of interdisciplinary knowledge, technical expertise, and leading-edge capabilities to LANL’s work on the LEP.

  14. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Cheol Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Current status of regulatory aspects of life extension and upgrading of NPPs is reviewed for major foreign countries. Most countries require similar technical requirements; however, procedural aspects differ country by country. Regulatory systems suitable for NPP life extension is investigated. The procedure and requirements for reassessment of design life should be established first; then it can be incorporated into the PSR system. The concept of 'Current Licensing Basis (CLB)' can be adopted in Korea, but further elaboration for terms and definitions is needed for common understanding between interested groups. The procedure for maintenance and backfitting should also be improved. The Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) that require development of regulatory requirements for life extension are identified based on extensive analysis of foreign experiences. By analyzing the rules and regulations related to life extension. Basic directions are suggested to harmonize or establish regulatory systems for life extension, two-step licensing, PSR, and backfitting.

  15. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller. (United States)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza


    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions.

  16. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans. (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher S


    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics.

  17. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok


    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  18. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  19. Organic Finishing Technologies B-52 Paint Life Cycle Extension (United States)


    Material Usage How Project Responds to Goal • Supports C+6 reduction mandated by OSD • Increase Paint Facility availability • Facilitates USAF...2007 MIL-PRF-23377 MIL-PRF-85285 60-001 27 Mar 2006 MIL-PRF-23377 Deft Extended Life Topcoat ( ELT ) 99-GY-001 60-008 24 May 2010 Akzo Nobel 10P20...Akzo 10P20-13 Akzo ECM-6118 (APC) 61-034 UNK UNK UNK 60-055 15 Apr 2010 Deft 02Y-40A Deft ELT 99-GY-13 (APC) 60-018 16 Oct 2008 Akzo 10P20-13 Akzo ECM


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.


    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  1. PEGylation of antibody fragments for half-life extension. (United States)

    Jevševar, Simona; Kusterle, Mateja; Kenig, Maja


    Antibody fragments (Fab's) represent important structure for creating new therapeutics. Compared to full antibodies Fab' fragments possess certain advantages, including higher mobility and tissue penetration, ability to bind antigen monovalently and lack of fragment crystallizable (Fc) region-mediated functions such as antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). The main drawback for the use of Fab's in clinical applications is associated with their short half-life in vivo, which is a consequence of no longer having the Fc region. To exert meaningful clinical effects, the half-life of Fab's need to be extended, which has been achieved by postproduction chemical attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to protein using PEGylation technology. The most suitable approach employs PEG-maleimide attachment to cysteines, either to the free hinge cysteine or to C-terminal cysteines involved in interchain disulfide linkage of the heavy and light chain. Hence, protocols for mono-PEGylation of Fab via free cysteine in the hinge region and di-PEGylation of Fab via interchain disulfide bridge are provided in this chapter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.


    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  3. Methods for preservation and extension of shelf life. (United States)

    Gould, G W


    There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or manufacture and spoilage may occur at any of the stages between the acquisition of raw materials and the eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing, packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer. They are under varying degrees of control that aim to deliver a satisfactory shelf life, to ensure that the finally-consumed product is of high quality and to ensure that it is safe. Spoilage may be caused by a wide range of reactions including some that are essentially physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of microbiological spoilage are preventable to a large degree by a wide range of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or inhibiting microbial growth (e.g., chilling, freezing, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting and adding preservatives). A smaller number of techniques act by inactivating microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation). Additional techniques restrict the access of microorganisms to products (e.g., aseptic processing and packaging. A major trend is that new and emerging preservation techniques which are coming into use or are under development include more that act by inactivation (e.g., ultrahigh pressure, electroporation, manothermosonication and addition of bacteriolytic enzymes). A further trend is towards the use of procedures that deliver products that are less heavily preserved, have higher quality, are more natural, freer from additives and nutritionally healthier. Less severe preservation procedures are therefore being developed that make use of preservative factors in combinations to deliver (a) less damage to product quality (hurdle technologies); (b) new methods of heating that are better controlled and therefore deliver milder

  4. Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic Prediction and Extension through Prevention of Water Ingress (United States)


    Inspection. Reliability Engineering and System Safety , 271-292. 47 Shi, P., & Mahadevan, S. (2001). Damage Tolerance Approach for Probabilistic ...Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic Prediction and Extension through Prevention of Water Ingress By Douglas E. Jonart M.S. Systems...number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Submarine Propulsion Shaft Life: Probabilistic

  5. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞


    Balan, Vitaly; Gregory S Miller; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; Mark F A VanBerkum; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri


    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone ...

  6. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)


    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  7. Establishment of safety verification method for life extension based on periodic safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soong Pyung; Yeom, Yu Son; Yoon, In Sik; Lee, Jeo Young [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Safe management of operating lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants is a subject of prime interests. As the design life of the Nuclear Power Plant will be ended in 2008, an appropriate procedure for the design life re-assessment or lifetime extension is necessary in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedural requirements which can be applied to the regulation of lifetime management or life extension of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. Review on the linkage of the PSR with the extension of the operating lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants was performed to enhance the utilization of PSR results and analysis of the insufficiencies in the license rule in Korea.

  8. Nuclear power plant life extension: How aging affects performance of containments & other structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A Dameron; Sun Junling


    This paper focuses on how aging can affect performance of safety-related structures in nuclear power plant (NPP).Knowledge and assessment of impacts of aging on structures are essential to plant life extension analysis,especially performance to severe loadings such as loss-of-coolant-accidents or major seismic events.Plant life extension issues are of keen interest in countries (like the United States) which have a large,aging fleet of NPPs.This paper addresses the overlap and relationship of structure aging to severe loading performance,with particular emphasis on containment structures.

  9. The Ethics of Human Life Extension: The Second Argument from Evolution. (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris


    One argument that is sometimes made against pursuing radical forms of human life extension is that such interventions will make the species less evolvable, which would be morally undesirable. In this article, I discuss the empirical and evaluative claims of this argument. I argue that radical increases in life expectancy could, in principle, reduce the evolutionary potential of human populations through both biological and cultural mechanisms. I further argue that if life extension did reduce the evolvability of the species, this will be undesirable for three reasons: (1) it may increase the species' susceptibility to extinction risks, (2) it may adversely affect institutions and practices that promote well-being, and (3) it may impede moral progress.

  10. Relationship between mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction, development, and life extension in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane L Rea


    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can result in life extension. Counter to these findings, many mutations that disrupt ETC function in humans are known to be pathologically life-shortening. In this study, we have undertaken the first formal investigation of the role of partial mitochondrial ETC inhibition and its contribution to the life-extension phenotype of C. elegans. We have developed a novel RNA interference (RNAi dilution strategy to incrementally reduce the expression level of five genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in C. elegans: atp-3, nuo-2, isp-1, cco-1, and frataxin (frh-1. We observed that each RNAi treatment led to marked alterations in multiple ETC components. Using this dilution technique, we observed a consistent, three-phase lifespan response to increasingly greater inhibition by RNAi: at low levels of inhibition, there was no response, then as inhibition increased, lifespan responded by monotonically lengthening. Finally, at the highest levels of RNAi inhibition, lifespan began to shorten. Indirect measurements of whole-animal oxidative stress showed no correlation with life extension. Instead, larval development, fertility, and adult size all became coordinately affected at the same point at which lifespan began to increase. We show that a specific signal, initiated during the L3/L4 larval stage of development, is sufficient for initiating mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent life extension in C. elegans. This stage of development is characterized by the last somatic cell divisions normally undertaken by C. elegans and also by massive mitochondrial DNA expansion. The coordinate effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on several cell cycle-dependent phenotypes, coupled with recent findings directly linking cell cycle progression with mitochondrial activity in C. elegans, lead us to propose that cell cycle checkpoint control

  11. Role of mechanics in PLEX [plant life extension]: A technical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garud, Y.S. (S. Levey, Inc., Campbell, CA (United States))


    The mechanics of materials and structures plays an important role in the majority of life prediction and structural integrity evaluations. In many industrial systems this role gets integrated with effects of service environment and material aging; corrosion, oxidation, and irradiation are examples of such effects which require an interdisciplinary approach. Degradation mechanisms related to these effects have been identified as potentially significant to plant life extension (PLEX). In-service inspection and component monitoring are some of the cost effective steps emphasized in the life extension works; usefulness of the results of these steps can be enhanced through the methods needed for the component condition assessment. These methods, therefore, demand an ever increasing accuracy and improvements requiring a better appreciation and integration of the mechanics. The above aspects of PLEX are critically examined with a review of key degradation mechanisms elucidating the role of mechanics. Current design basis and recent developments in the life prediction techniques are discussed identifying areas of further work. Stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, pressurized thermal shock, and long term material stability under thermal and irradiation aging are some of the phenomena emphasized in this work. The significance of mechanics in treating the subcritical crack growth due to these phenomena is discussed. Also, from the point of view of final failure step, the role of impact energy and fracture toughness is examined with consideration of the time dependant changes in these properties. A perspective is also provided on the assessment of remaining life and safety margins with particular reference to the needs and challenges of the plant life extension. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Moral pluralism versus the total view: why Singer is wrong about radical life extension. (United States)

    Blackford, R


    Peter Singer has argued that we should not proceed with a hypothetical life-extension drug, based on a scenario in which developing the drug would fail to achieve the greatest sum of happiness over time. However, this is the wrong test. If we ask, more simply, which policy would be more benevolent, we reach a different conclusion from Singer's: even given his (admittedly questionable) scenario, development of the drug should go ahead. Singer's rigorous utilitarian position pushes him in the direction of an implausible "total view" utilitarianism when it encounters the problems presented by certain thought experiments. A more pluralistic account of the nature of morality promises to solve these problems, and in this case it reaches a benevolent recommendation on life-extension technology.

  13. Radurization of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 2. Shelf- or market-life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thord-Gray, R.S.; Strydom, G.J. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)


    In two large-scale commercial trials with bananas, a 2 to 4 d extension in marketable life was achieved by radurisation at a dose of 0,60 kGy. The criteria for marketability were based primarily on skin colour and fruit firmness. It was also observed that browning associated with the handling of ripe fruit was significantly less in the radurised fruits.

  14. Sensory acceptability of squid rings gamma irradiated for shelf-life extension (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.


    The feasibility of extending the shelf-life of a squid product by gamma irradiation was analyzed. Illex argentinus rings were irradiated at 4 and 8 kGy; and stored at 4±1 °C during 77 days. No mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in irradiated rings during storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced by irradiation; their counts were fitted to a growth model which was further used for shelf-life estimations: 3 and 27 days for 0 and 4 kGy, respectively. Initially, non-irradiated as well as irradiated rings had very good sensory scores. The overall acceptability of 4 and 8 kGy rings did not decrease during 27 and 64 days, respectively, while control samples spoiled after 3 days. A radiation dose range for squid rings preservation was defined, which attained the technological shelf-life extension objective, without impairing sensory quality.

  15. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S


    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.

  16. SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO (United States)

    Kaiser, Clemens; Sjöberg, Fredrik; Delcura, Juan Manuel; Eilertsen, Baard


    Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several space agencies during the development phase. The business plan is based on life extension for high value commercial satellites while also providing the satellite operators with various fleet management services such as graveyard burns, slot transfers and on orbit protection against replacement satellite or launch failures. The OLEV spacecraft will be able to dock with a geostationary satellite and uses an electrical propulsion system to extend its life by taking over the attitude control and station keeping functions. The OLEV system is building on the SMART-1 platform developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for ESA as a technology test-bed to demonstrate the use of electrical propulsion for interplanetary orbit transfer manoeuvres. The concept is called SMART-OLEV and takes advantage of the low cost, low mass SMART-1 platform by a maximum use of recurrent platform technology.

  17. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Mireles DeWitt


    Full Text Available This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  18. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  19. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide. (United States)

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Debevere, J


    Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas is a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent that has a broad and high biocidal effectiveness and big penetration ability; its efficacy to prolong the shelf-life of a minimally processed (MP) vegetable, grated carrots (Daucus carota L.), was tested in this study. Carrots were sorted, their ends removed, hand peeled, cut, washed, spin dried and separated in 2 portions, one to be treated with ClO(2) gas and the other to remain untreated for comparisons. MP carrots were decontaminated in a cabinet at 91% relative humidity and 28 degrees C for up to 6 min, including 30 s of ClO(2) injection to the cabinet, then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere (4.5% O(2), 8.9% CO(2), 86.6% N(2)) at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. ClO(2) concentration in the cabinet rose to 1.33 mg/l after 30 s of treatment, and then fell to nil before 6 min. The shelf-life study included: O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality (odour, flavour, texture, overall visual quality, and white blushing), and pH. ClO(2) did not affect respiration rate of MP carrots significantly (alphacarrots was not impaired significantly (alphaview. The shelf-life extension was limited to one day due to the restricted effect of the ClO(2) treatment on yeast counts. Nevertheless, ClO(2) seems to be a promising alternative to prolong the shelf-life of grated carrots.

  20. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe (United States)

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  1. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii). (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U


    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  2. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M. [Alstom Power Heat Exchange, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)


    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  3. Community perceptions on the significant extension of life: an exploratory study among urban adults in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Underwood, Mair; Bartlett, Helen P; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D


    Some researchers in the field of ageing claim that significant extension of the human lifespan will be possible in the near future. While many of these researchers have assumed that the community will welcome this technology, there has been very little research on community attitudes to life extension. This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study of community attitudes to life extension across age groups and religious boundaries. There were 57 individual interviews, and 8 focus groups (totalling 72 focus group participants) conducted with community members in Brisbane, Australia. Community attitudes to life extension were more varied and complex than have been assumed by some biogerontologists and bioethicists. While some participants would welcome the opportunity to extend their lives others would not even entertain the possibility. This paper details these differences of opinion and reveals contrasting positions that reflect individualism or social concern among community members. The findings also highlight the relationship between Christianity, in particular belief in an afterlife, and attitudes to life extension technology. Overall, the study raises questions about the relationship between interest in life extension, the medicalisation of ageing and the increasing acceptability of enhancement technologies that need to be addressed in more representative samples of the community.

  4. Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.


    Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Shelf life extension of whole Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus using modified atmosphere packaging. (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Albalat, Amaya; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Neil, Douglas M


    Once a nuisance by-catch, today the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is a valuable UK fisheries commodity. Unfortunately, the species is very susceptible to quality deterioration post harvest as it quickly develops black spots and also spoils rapidly due to bacterial growth. Treatment with chemicals can stop the blackening and carefully monitored cold storage can result in a sensory shelf life of up to 6.5 days. The high susceptibility to spoilage greatly restricts the extent to which N. norvegicus can be distributed to retailers and displayed for sale. The application of modified atmosphere (MA) could be extremely beneficial, allowing the chilled product to stay fresh for a long period of time, thus ensuring higher sales. In the present study, we identified a gas mix for the MA packaging (MAP) of whole N. norvegicus lobster into 200 g retail packs. Our results show that a shelf life extension to 13 days can be achieved when retail packs are stored in MAP at 1 °C. Effectiveness of the MAP was evaluated by using a newly developed QIM for MA-packaged whole N. norvegicus and also by analyzing bacterial plate counts. Changes in the microflora and effects of different storage temperatures on the quality of the MA packs are also presented. The main specific spoilage organism (SSO) of modified atmosphere packaged Norway lobster is Photobacterium phosphoreum.

  6. Protein HESylation for half-life extension: synthesis, characterization and pharmacokinetics of HESylated anakinra. (United States)

    Liebner, Robert; Mathaes, Roman; Meyer, Martin; Hey, Thomas; Winter, Gerhard; Besheer, Ahmed


    Half-life extension (HLE) is becoming an essential component of the industrial development of small-sized therapeutic peptides and proteins. HESylation(®) is a HLE technology based on coupling drug molecules to the biodegradable hydroxyethyl starch (HES). In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and pharmacokinetics of HESylated anakinra, where anakinra was conjugated to propionaldehyde-HES using reductive amination, leading to a monoHESylated protein. Characterization using size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering confirmed conjugation and the increase in molecular size, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the secondary structure of the conjugate was not affected by coupling. Meanwhile, microcalorimetry and aggregation studies showed a significant increase in protein stability. Surface plasmon resonance and microscale thermophoresis showed that the conjugate retained its nanomolar affinity, and finally, the pharmacokinetics of the HESylated protein exhibited a 6.5-fold increase in the half-life, and a 45-fold increase in the AUC. These results indicate that HESylation(®) is a promising HLE technology.

  7. Life-time of turbogenerators and possibilities of its extension. Turbogeneraattoreiden kaeyttoeikae ja sen pidentaemismahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, P.; Bovellan, K.; Koistinen, T.; Eerola, H. (Ekono, Helsinki (Finland))


    This report has been prepared on an initiative taken by the Industrial Electric and Automation Committee of The Finnish Energy Economy Association. The average running time of turbogenerators of industrial users in Finland is about 100.000 hours and the age about 15-20 years. Under these circumstances the problems of ageing for different components are becoming evident. As and obvious sign of this is the increased number of generator faults and damages in the last few years. The development of structure of different parts and components as well as the development of manufacturing methods and material used during the part 30 years have been described. A special attention has been paid to those matters which are involved in estimated life-time expectance of turbogenerators. Time of introducing new manufacturing methods and material has been defined. Stresses against different components in view of life-time expectance considering the development of structure and material in different manufacturing periods have been explained. Test and inspection methods for defining the state of condition of different components, for locating possible faults and for specifying the preparing measures to be taken, have been explained. Also the requirements for periodic maintenance of different degrees as well as measures to be taken for life-time extension have been described. Factors during different kind of operation of generators and in different operation conditions, which may cause abnormal stresses to certain components have been examined. Also the guidelines for operation as well as criteria for continuation of operation in faulty conditions have been given. A detailed description on generator protection and their testing has been given.

  8. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program (United States)

    Cook, Donald


    required to assess many changes at once, or confidence in these weapons would be reduced. The strategy and details of the U.S. Stockpile Life Extension Program will be described in this talk. In brief, the strategy is to reduce the number of weapons in the stockpile while increasing confidence in the weapons that remain and, where possible, increase their safety, increase their security, and reduce their nuclear material quantities and yields. A number of ``myths'' pertaining to nuclear weapons, the SSP, and the Stockpile Life Extension Program will be explored.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory


    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  10. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  11. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y


    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  12. What reassurances do the community need regarding life extension? Evidence from studies of community attitudes and an analysis of film portrayals. (United States)

    Underwood, Mair


    It is increasingly recognized that community attitudes impact on the research trajectory, entry, and reception of new biotechnologies. Yet biogerontologists have generally been dismissive of public concerns about life extension. There is some evidence that biogerontological research agendas have not been communicated effectively, with studies finding that most community members have little or no knowledge of life extension research. In the absence of knowledge, community members' attitudes may well be shaped by issues raised in popular portrayals of life extension (e.g., in movies). To investigate how popular portrayals of life extension may influence community attitudes, I conducted an analysis of 19 films depicting human life extension across different genres. I focussed on how the pursuit of life extension was depicted, how life extension was achieved, the levels of interest in life extension shown by characters in the films, and the experiences of extended life depicted both at an individual and societal level. This paper compares the results of this analysis with the literature on community attitudes to life extension and makes recommendations about the issues in which the public may require reassurance if they are to support and accept life extension technologies.

  13. A study of storage life extension for high performance chemically amplified resist coated blanks (United States)

    Yang, Sin-Ju; Seo, Sung-Min; Ko, Sang-Hoon; Cha, Han-Sun; Kang, Geung-Won; Nam, Kee-Soo; Seo, Woong-Won; Jung, Woo-Kyun; Cho, Hyun-Kyoon; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo


    The importance of advanced e-beam writing system and chemically amplified resist (CAR) coated blank is increasing gradually in high-end grade photomask manufacture according to CD embodiment of 90 nm and beyond technology node requiring because of the shrinkage of design rule in the semiconductor industry. However, many studies have been reported that CAR has several troubles and especially, CAR sensitivity change is occurred by airborne molecular contamination (AMC). So, the storage life of CAR coated blank is shortened. This problem may cause the difficulty of high-end grade photomask manufacture because it is hard to secure stable mean to target (MTT) and CD uniformity by sensitivity change, T-top profile and footing profile. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the storage life extension for high performance CAR coated blank through improvement of the packing materials. Firstly, a variety of packing materials were collected and the selected packing materials were analyzed by Automatic Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (ATD GC/MS) and Ion Chromatograph (IC) to examine AMC generated from the packing materials. As a result, molecular condensables such as alcohols, hydrocarbons and fatty acids were detected and molecular acids and molecular bases those are NH4+, Cl-, NOx- and SOx- were also detected from the packing materials, respectively. From the above results, we selected the best packing materials which generated the least AMC and the worst packing materials which generated the most AMC. Additionally, we verified photomask process with CAR coated blanks which were packed with those packing materials with post coating delay (PCD) by 50 kV e-beam writing system. In consequence, dose to clear (DTC) showed 4.6 μC/cm2 at 0 day PCD for both of the best and the worst packing materials of CAR coated blank. After 90 days PCD, DTC variation was only 0.4 μC/cm2 for the best packing materials, but DTC variation of 4.0 μC/cm2

  14. 75 FR 8698 - Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water... (United States)


    ... of the request for scientific views. SUMMARY: On December 30, 2009 (74 FR 69086), EPA announced the... 1, 2010 (a 60-day request for scientific views). Since publication, the Agency has received several... AGENCY Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

  15. Cybernetic principles of aging and rejuvenation: the buffering- challenging strategy for life extension. (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis


    Aging is analyzed as the spontaneous loss of adaptivity and increase in fragility that characterizes dynamic systems. Cybernetics defines the general regulatory mechanisms that a system can use to prevent or repair the damage produced by disturbances. According to the law of requisite variety, disturbances can be held in check by maximizing buffering capacity, range of compensatory actions, and knowledge about which action to apply to which disturbance. This suggests a general strategy for rejuvenating the organism by increasing its capabilities of adaptation. Buffering can be optimized by providing sufficient rest together with plenty of nutrients: amino acids, antioxidants, methyl donors, vitamins, minerals, etc. Knowledge and the range of action can be extended by subjecting the organism to an as large as possible variety of challenges. These challenges are ideally brief so as not to deplete resources and produce irreversible damage. However, they should be sufficiently intense and unpredictable to induce an overshoot in the mobilization of resources for damage repair, and to stimulate the organism to build stronger capabilities for tackling future challenges. This allows them to override the trade-offs and limitations that evolution has built into the organism's repair processes in order to conserve potentially scarce resources. Such acute, "hormetic" stressors strengthen the organism in part via the "order from noise" mechanism that destroys dysfunctional structures by subjecting them to strong, random variations. They include heat and cold, physical exertion, exposure, stretching, vibration, fasting, food toxins, micro-organisms, environmental enrichment and psychological challenges. The proposed buffering-challenging strategy may be able to extend life indefinitely, by forcing a periodic rebuilding and extension of capabilities, while using the Internet as an endless source of new knowledge about how to deal with disturbances.

  16. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems. (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew


    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  17. 77 FR 37839 - Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension (United States)


    ... removal of the words ``Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance or,'' which refers to Retired Reservist SGLI... 38 CFR Part 9 Life insurance, Military personnel, Veterans. Dated: June 20, 2012. Robert C....

  18. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Life extension package LE3 (9975-03203) has been instrumented and subjected to an elevated temperature environment for approximately 8 years. During this time, the cane fiberboard has been maintained at a maximum temperature of ~160 - 165 °F, which was established by a combination of internal (19 watts) and external heat sources. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard samples, including the degradation models based on the laboratory tests. These areas of agreement include the rate of change of fiberboard weight, dimensions and density, and change in fiberboard thermal conductivity. Corrosion of the lead shield occurred at a high rate during the first several weeks of aging, but dropped significantly after most of the moisture in the fiberboard migrated away from the lead shield. Dimensional measurements of the lead shield indicate that no significant creep deformation has occurred. This is consistent with literature data that predict a very small creep deformation for the time at temperature experienced by this package. The SCV O-rings were verified to remain leak-tight after ~5 years aging at an average temperature of ~170 °F. This package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within a typical fiberboard assembly can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 19 watt internal heat load. The majority of water within the fiberboard migrated to the bottom layers of fiberboard, with approximately 2 kg of water (2 liters) eventually escaping from the package. Two conditions have developed that are not consistent with package certification requirements. The axial gap at the top of the package increased to a maximum value of 1.549 inches, exceeding the 1 inch criterion. In addition, staining and/or corrosion have formed in a few spots

  20. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.


    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01 M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B203 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B203 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  1. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension (United States)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang


    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  2. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jamilah


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension employee do have impact their work performance or not. It is necessary to estimate quality of work life function in enhancing work performance, analyze the most important factor and variables on this work performance. The instruments used for collecting data were: A scale on individual and family life, a scale on safety and security on the organization, a scale on interpersonal relationship in the organization, a scale on job satisfaction, a scale on organizational policies and management style, a scale on personnel health and well being, a scale on work environment, a scale on remuneration and a scale on organizational support. The data were analyzed PASW software. Results: Results depict that all of the nine qualities of work life studied have significant and positive relationship with work performance where the highest relationship occurred between individual and family life with work performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that five factors which are individual and family life, job satisfaction, organization policy and management style, work environment and remuneration are the main contributors to work performance among government agricultural extension employees. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that aspect of individual and family life is the highest contributor to work performance among government agriculture extension officer. It can be noted that more courses on how to manage individual and family

  3. A Fab-Selective Immunoglobulin-Binding Domain from Streptococcal Protein G with Improved Half-Life Extension Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Unverdorben

    Full Text Available Half-life extension strategies have gained increasing interest to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of protein therapeutics. Recently, we established an immunoglobulin-binding domain (IgBD from streptococcal protein G (SpGC3 as module for half-life extension. SpGC3 is capable of binding to the Fc region as well as the CH1 domain of Fab arms under neutral and acidic conditions.Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated a Fab-selective mutant (SpGC3Fab to avoid possible interference with the FcRn-mediated recycling process and improved its affinity for mouse and human IgG by site-directed mutagenesis and phage display selections. In mice, this affinity-improved mutant (SpGC3FabRR conferred prolonged plasma half-lives compared with SpGC3Fab when fused to small recombinant antibody fragments, such as single-chain Fv (scFv and bispecific single-chain diabody (scDb. Hence, the SpGC3FabRR domain seems to be a suitable fusion partner for the half-life extension of small recombinant therapeutics.The half-life extension properties of SpGC3 can be retained by restricting binding to the Fab fragment of serum immunoglobulins and can be improved by increasing binding activity. The modified SpGC3 module should be suitable to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins and, thus to improve therapeutic activity.

  4. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans. (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E


    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  5. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y


    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T


    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NG-CSSX), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S operations as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass formulation activities, and melter operations at DWPF. To support programmatic objectives, the downstream impacts of the boric acid strip effluent (SE) to the glass formulation activities and melter operations are considered in this study. More specifically, the impacts of boric acid additions to the projected SB7b operating windows, potential impacts to frit production temperatures, and the potential impact of boron volatility are evaluated. Although various boric acid molarities have been reported and discussed, the baseline flowsheet used to support this assessment was 0.01M boric acid. The results of the paper study assessment indicate that Frit 418 and Frit 418-7D are robust to the implementation of the 0.01M boric acid SE into the SB7b flowsheet (sludge-only or ARP-added). More specifically, the projected operating windows for the nominal SB7b projections remain essentially constant (i.e., 25-43 or 25-44% waste loading (WL)) regardless of the flowsheet options (sludge-only, ARP added, and/or the presence of the new SE). These results indicate that even if SE is not transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), there would be no need to add boric acid (from a trim tank) to compositionally compensate for the absence of the boric acid SE in either a sludge-only or ARP-added SB7b flowsheet. With respect to boron volatility, the Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments also

  7. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.


    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence

  8. 77 FR 66069 - Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension (United States)


    ...,'' which refer to Retired Reservist SGLI, which was discontinued by Public Law 104-275 as an independent..., 2012, for publication. List of Subjects in 38 CFR Part 9 Life insurance, Military personnel,...

  9. An Analysis of the U.S. Navy P-3C Orion Service Life Extension Program (United States)


    service life assessment program ( SLAP ) to determine not only the severity of the corrosion problem, but also the structural life remaining on the...airframe. In addition, SLAP offered corrective structural remedies if the aircraft were suitable for SLEP. SLAP results were promising: The airframe...a third of its fleet on the ramp. This thesis analyzes the challenges of SLEP. 14. SUBJECT TERMS P-3C Orion, SLEP, SLAP , SRP 15

  10. The unexpected outcomes of anti-aging, rejuvenation, and life extension studies: an origin of modern therapies. (United States)

    Stambler, Ilia


    The search for life-extending interventions has been often perceived as a purely academic pursuit, or as an unorthodox medical enterprise, with little or no practical outcome. Yet, in fact, these studies, explicitly aiming to prolong human life, often constituted a formidable, though hardly ever acknowledged, motivation for biomedical research and discovery. At least several modern biomedical fields have originated directly from rejuvenation and life extension research: (1) Hormone replacement therapy was born in Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard's rejuvenation experiments with animal gland extracts (1889). (2) Probiotic diets originated in Elie Metchnikoff's conception of radically prolonged "orthobiosis" (c. 1900). (3) The development of clinical endocrinology owed much to Eugen Steinach's "endocrine rejuvenation" operations (c. 1910s-1920s). (4) Tissue transplantations in humans (allografts and xenografts) were first widely performed in Serge Voronoff's "rejuvenation by grafting" experiments (c. 1910s-1920s). (5) Tissue engineering was pioneered during Alexis Carrel's work on cell and tissue immortalization (c. 1900-1920). (6) Cell therapy (and particularly human embryonic cell therapy) was first widely conducted by Paul Niehans for the purposes of rejuvenation as early as the 1930s. Thus, the pursuit of life extension and rejuvenation has constituted an inseparable and crucial element in the history of biomedicine. Notably, the common principle of these studies was the proactive maintenance of stable, long-term homeostasis of the entire organism.

  11. Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria. (United States)

    Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A


    Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria.

  12. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension; El proyecto {sup P}reev del Foro Iberoamericano. Practicas reguladoras en envejecimiento y extension de vida.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras, J. M.


    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  13. High-cycle Fatigue Life Extension of Glass Fiber/Polymer Composites with Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher S Grimmer; C K H Dharan


    The present work shows that the addition of small volume fractions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the matrix results in a significant increase in the high-cycle fatigue life. It is proposed that carbon nanotubes tend to inhibit the formation of large cracks by nucleating nano-scale damage zones. In addition, the contribution to energy absorption from the fracture of nanotubes bridging across nano-scale cracks and from nanotube pull-out from the matrix are mechanisms that can improve the fatigue life. An energy-based model was proposed to estimate the additional strain energy absorbed in fatigue. The distributed nanotubes in the matrix appear to both distribute damage as well as inhibit damage propagation resulting in an overall improvement in the fatigue strength of glass fiber composites.

  14. The Whyalla No. 2 blast furnace life extension with improved productivity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.F.; Broadbent, P.F.; Tsalapatis, J.


    The performance of the Whyalla No. 2 Blast Furnace has previously been reported, and at the time of that report it was planned that the furnace would be relined in January 1993. The actions and improvements previously reported have proved to be more beneficial than it was initially thought possible, and have since been progressed to the stage where a campaign life in excess of 15 years is now realistically targeted. This paper highlights the actions that have proved successful in exceeding 12 years of campaign life and current average productivity of 2.1 t/m[sup 3]/d I.V., fuel rate of less than 500 kg/thm and Hot Metal Silicon standard deviation less than 0.1%.

  15. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel


    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  16. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)], E-mail:; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel [DMJM International (Cansult Maunsell/AECOM Ltd.), Consultant of Gardens Sector Projects, Alain Municipality and Eastern Emirates, P.O. Box 1419, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail:


    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 {sup o}C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  17. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  18. Shelf-life extension and sanitation of fresh pork loin by E-beam treatment. (United States)

    García-Márquez, Irene; Cambero, María I; Ordóñez, Juan A; Cabeza, María C


    The usefulness of electron beam (E-beam) irradiation to increase the shelf life of whole fresh pork loin stored at 4°C has been studied. The shelf life was extended from 5 to 11 and 20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. If a temperature abuse situation were to occur during product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf life would be extended from 3 to 8 and 15 days, respectively, after application of the same doses. When considering Listeria monocytogenes from a public health point of view, the irradiated whole fresh loin may be marketable for periods longer than 2 weeks, thus guaranteeing a practically Listeria-free product. Irradiation produced no important changes in the rheological characteristics of the meat. Although the sensory quality of irradiated meat was scored lower than the control immediately after irradiation, after 5 days in storage, irradiated meat scored higher than or not different from the control.

  19. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.


    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  20. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.


    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  1. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule. (United States)


    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  2. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W; Bush, Spencer H; Berman, Herbert Stanton; Czajkowski, Carl J; Divine, James R; Posakony, Gerald J; Johnson, A B; Elmore, Monte R; Reynolds, D A; Anantatmula, Ramamohan P; Sindelar, Robert L; Zapp, Philip E


    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection.

  3. Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) no-health period extension. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing eligibility for Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day "no-health" period during which veterans can apply for VGLI without proving that they are in good health for insurance purposes. The purpose of this rule is to increase the opportunities for disabled veterans to enroll in VGLI, some of whom would not qualify for VGLI coverage under existing provisions. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2012.

  4. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.


    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  5. Effect of nisin on shelf-life extension of filleted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Behnama


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate influence of nisin on quality and shelf-life of filleted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during 16 days storage at 4oC by biochemical and microbial assessments. The obtained results revealed that nisin treated samples showed lower (P<0.05 biochemical (peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid-index, pH, free fatty acids, and total volatile base nitrogen and bacteriological (total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria attributes during whole storage time compared with the untreated fillets, which can be related to bactericidal and antioxidant activity of the nisin. However, total volatile base nitrogen and total viable count values exceeded above the acceptability on day 8 and 12 of storage for the samples treated without and with nisin, respectively. The results of this study according to biochemical and bacteriological data indicated that nisin enhanced the quality and shelf-life of filleted rainbow trout from 4 to 8 days during storage at 4oC.

  6. Extension of the shelf life of guava by individual packaging with cling and shrink films. (United States)

    Rana, Seema; Siddiqui, Saleem; Goyal, Ankit


    Guava is a climacteric fruit so physico-chemical changes continuously occur after harvest till fruit become unfit for consumption and suffers from post harvest losses. The main objective of this work was to assess the effectiveness of individual film in form of Shrink and Cling wrap on shelf life of guava. Fruits were individually packed in polythene bags (LDPE) of 200 gauge thickness by Shrink and Cling wrapping and stored at 7 ± 3 °C. Individual wrapping reduced the magnitude of changes during storage i.e., ripening process drastically as evident from lower total soluble solids, higher ascorbic acid, polyphenol content with lower polyphenol oxidase activity and physiological loss of weight (PLW) was less than 3.5 %. Film wrapping preserved freshness of wrapped fruits as they remained acceptable for whole storage time in contrast to control fruits which turned unacceptable by 15(th) day of storage. Control fruits showed significant compositional changes as well as in polyphenol content, ascorbic acid and reduced number of marketable fruits while Cling and Shrink wrapping enhanced the shelf life by 10 days.

  7. Shelf life extension of fresh fruit and vegetables by chitosan treatment. (United States)

    Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Feliziani, Erica; Baños, Silvia Bautista; Sivakumar, Dharini


    Among alternatives that are currently under investigation to replace the use of synthetic fungicides to control postharvest diseases in fresh produce and to extend their shelf life, chitosan application has shown promising disease control, at both preharvest and postharvest stages. Chitosan shows a dual mode of action, on the pathogen and on the plant, as it reduces the growth of decay-causing fungi and foodborne pathogens and induces resistance responses in the host tissues. Chitosan coating forms a semipermeable film on the surface of fruit and vegetables, thereby delaying the rate of respiration, decreasing weight loss, maintaining the overall quality, and prolonging the shelf life. Moreover, the coating can provide a substrate for incorporation of other functional food additives, such as minerals, vitamins, or other drugs or nutraceutical compounds that can be used to enhance the beneficial properties of fresh commodities, or in some cases the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Chitosan coating has been approved as GRAS substance by USFDA, and its application is safe for the consumer and the environment. This review summarizes the most relevant and recent knowledge in the application of chitosan in postharvest disease control and maintenance of overall fruit and vegetable quality during postharvest storage.

  8. Fantastic voyage: live long enough to live forever. The science behind radical life extension questions and answers. (United States)

    Kurzweil, Ray; Grossman, Terry


    Putting an end to human aging is now becoming a reality, and immortality is no longer just a dream. Through what we are calling "Fantastic Voyage," we provide a guide to achieving life extension through various means, thereby slowing down aging and disease processes. The three components of Fantastic Voyage are: Bridge One--Aggressively applying today's knowledge. Bridge Two--Putting biotechnology, such as gene technologies, to use with therapeutic cloning and rejuvenation medicine. Bridge Three--Putting nanotechnology to use by developing a means to rebuild our bodies and brains with nanobots. Many of these technology solutions can be simulated today through the use of targeted supplements, designed to address the specific needs of an individual, such as insulin resistance, cholesterol and homocysteine levels, and inflammation. To slow aging now, we propose a program of supplementing aggressively, eating foods that impede aging and disease processes, and reversing inflammation through diet. We also provide guidance to customize each program to the specific needs of the individual. Emerging technologies in rational drug design, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and nanobots (among others) promise a future of automated life extension. The use of such technologies, and the resulting dramatic increases in productivity in all areas of human endeavor, will enable us to live in a world in which all our physical needs can be met.

  9. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju


    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  10. Water-based oligochitosan and nanowhisker chitosan as potential food preservatives for shelf-life extension of minced pork. (United States)

    Chantarasataporn, Patomporn; Tepkasikul, Preenapha; Kingcha, Yutthana; Yoksan, Rangrong; Pichyangkura, Rath; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Chirachanchai, Suwabun


    Water-based chitosans in the forms of oligochitosan (OligoCS) and nanowhisker chitosan (CSWK) are proposed as a novel food preservative based on a minced pork model study. The high surface area with a positive charge over the neutral pH range (pH 5-8) of OligoCS and CSWK lead to an inhibition against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative microbes (Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7). In the minced pork model, OligoCS effectively performs a food preservative for shelf-life extension as clarified from the retardation of microbial growth, biogenic amine formation and lipid oxidation during the storage. OligoCS maintains almost all myosin heavy chain protein degradation as observed in the electrophoresis. The present work points out that water-based chitosan with its unique morphology not only significantly inhibits antimicrobial activity but also maintains the meat quality with an extension of shelf-life, and thus has the potential to be used as a food preservative.

  11. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro


    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  12. Extreme life extension: investing in cryonics for the long, long term. (United States)

    Romain, Tiffany


    This article explores American conceptualizations of finance, the future, the limits of biological time, and the possibilities of biotechnoscience through an investigation of the social world of cryonics-the freezing of the dead with the hope of future revival. I describe some of the cosmologies of life, death, time, and the management of the future that circulate within cryonics communities, and I draw out relationships between cryonics practices and discourses and more common forms of personal future management prevalent within American neoliberal capitalism. I also illustrate similarities and differences between cryonics and more mainstream biomedical technologies. In doing so, I argue that cryonics is one American manifestation of anxieties about aging, time, and the future. I investigate the impact of biotechnologies on self-making and biosociality, and argue that crafting of selves can be deeply entwined with practices of investment or hope in the future of biomedicine and technology.

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation for shelf life extension of chicken meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prachasitthisak, Y. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Ito, Hitoshi


    On the study of microbiological quality of 12 samples of chicken meat produced in several different area in Japan, total aerobic bacteria were determined as 8x10{sup 4} to 5x10{sup 7} per g. Coliforms were 8x10{sup 1} to 3x10{sup 4} per g with Escherichia, Proteus and Klebsiella. Dominant putrefactive bacteria were determined as lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The shelf life of irradiated chicken meat at 1 kGy extended more than 6 days at 10degC storage. Irradiation of chicken meat at 3 kGy extended 12 days. Coliforms were disappeared at 1 kGy irradiation. (author)

  14. The worker honeybee fat body proteome is extensively remodeled preceding a major life-history transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenie W T Chan

    Full Text Available Honeybee workers are essentially sterile female helpers that make up the majority of individuals in a colony. Workers display a marked change in physiology when they transition from in-nest tasks to foraging. Recent technological advances have made it possible to unravel the metabolic modifications associated with this transition. Previous studies have revealed extensive remodeling of brain, thorax, and hypopharyngeal gland biochemistry. However, data on changes in the abdomen is scarce. To narrow this gap we investigated the proteomic composition of abdominal tissue in the days typically preceding the onset of foraging in honeybee workers. In order to get a broader representation of possible protein dynamics, we used workers of two genotypes with differences in the age at which they initiate foraging. This approach was combined with RNA interference-mediated downregulation of an insulin/insulin-like signaling component that is central to foraging behavior, the insulin receptor substrate (irs, and with measurements of glucose and lipid levels. Our data provide new insight into the molecular underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in the honeybee, invoke parallels with vertebrate metabolism, and support an integrated and irs-dependent association of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism with the transition from in-nest tasks to foraging.

  15. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. (United States)

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A


    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase.

  16. Extension shelf life of batte by using hydrocolloids and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar


    Full Text Available Batte (is baked french one of the most baked coated most prevalent in the markets after the cake wrapping. Batte exposed generally two types of corruption which is occurring phenomenon of (anti-staling and corruption microbial (molds. In this study produced batte with an attempt to prolong the period of its validity by addition 1.5% hydrocolloids, (which is 0.5% sodium alginate, 0.5% k-carrageenan and 0.5% hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC to hard wheat flour 72% (HWF to improve materials for mellowness and anti-staling, whereas batte exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 5 kGy to decrease microbial load. Hydrocolloids at 1.5% improved the rheological properties of dough farinogragh and aextensograph parameters. The hydrocolloids increase flexibility, rubber and freshness of batte to 24 days compared to 8 days in control sample. Thiobarbituric acid (T.B.A values at the end of storage at room temperature (ranged to 0.253–0.352 mg malonaldehyde/kg that were less than these mentioned by the Egyptian Standard. Also, gamma irradiation reduced the total bacterial count of batte product. Sensory evaluation of produced batte was done. The addition of 1.5% hydrocolloids and exposed to gamma irradiation had higher freshness and increase shelf-life for 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days against only 15 days for control sample.

  17. Condition assessment and trending of condenser tube degradation for condenser life extension (United States)

    Friant, C. Lee; Schlegel, Jennifer L.


    Eddy current testing (ET) is routinely used to assess tubing condition in heat exchangers at power plants. Generally, ET results provided by typical final report formats are not well- suited for facilitating condition assessments, especially when the component has a significant number of tubes. The main condenser at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) Unit #1 contains nearly 50,000 tubes. An accurate condition assessment based on 2,500 pages of final reports generated from a 100% condenser inspection in 1992 proved difficult, if not impossible, without some type of automated data management system. With the aid of a data management system, engineering recommendations, founded on database queries and graphics, can be made quickly and reliably. These displays effectively communicate information about overall condition, are helpful in making operating decisions, and aid in predicting future performance. Standard procedures for critical heat exchanger inspections require trending of indication growth over time to determine a rate of tube degradation. Specifically, for the 1994 ET inspection of CCNPP Unit #1 condenser, the size of indications were compared against their 1992 value to determine a mean growth rate. The results of these efforts are presented along with a discussion of how Baltimore Gas and Electric has used eddy current data to prolong the operating life of this condenser while ensuring leak tightness.

  18. A continuous labour supply model in microsimulation: a life-cycle modelling approach with heterogeneity and uncertainty extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Li

    Full Text Available This paper advances a structural inter-temporal model of labour supply that is able to simulate the dynamics of labour supply in a continuous setting and addresses two main drawbacks of most existing models. The first limitation is the inability to incorporate individual heterogeneity as every agent is sharing the same parameters of the utility function. The second one is the strong assumption that individuals make decisions in a world of perfect certainty. Essentially, this paper offers an extension of marginal-utility-of-wealth-constant labour supply functions known as "Frisch functions" under certainty and uncertainty with homogenous and heterogeneous preferences. The lifetime models based on the fixed effect vector decomposition yield the most stable simulation results, under both certain and uncertain future wage assumptions. Due to its improved accuracy and stability, this lifetime labour supply model is particularly suitable for enhancing the performance of the life cycle simulation models, thus providing a better reference for policymaking.

  19. A continuous labour supply model in microsimulation: a life-cycle modelling approach with heterogeneity and uncertainty extension. (United States)

    Li, Jinjing; Sologon, Denisa Maria


    This paper advances a structural inter-temporal model of labour supply that is able to simulate the dynamics of labour supply in a continuous setting and addresses two main drawbacks of most existing models. The first limitation is the inability to incorporate individual heterogeneity as every agent is sharing the same parameters of the utility function. The second one is the strong assumption that individuals make decisions in a world of perfect certainty. Essentially, this paper offers an extension of marginal-utility-of-wealth-constant labour supply functions known as "Frisch functions" under certainty and uncertainty with homogenous and heterogeneous preferences. The lifetime models based on the fixed effect vector decomposition yield the most stable simulation results, under both certain and uncertain future wage assumptions. Due to its improved accuracy and stability, this lifetime labour supply model is particularly suitable for enhancing the performance of the life cycle simulation models, thus providing a better reference for policymaking.

  20. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail:;; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail:; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  1. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program (United States)

    Green, Stephen


    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  2. The Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services: A Legacy of Excellence and Access to Life-long Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahming-Nwosa


    Full Text Available A review of the history and evolution of the Centre for Continuing Education and Extension Services and the various programmes it has developed to support the work of the College of The Bahamas.

  3. Optimization of Life Cycle Extension of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures in regard to Material Properties, Structural Design, and Economic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj


    Full Text Available Design of ACM life cycle is defined with respect to traffic load acting on the pavement and road class for a period of about 20 years. In practice, reconstruction is usually pending until the end of the life cycle after which the reconstruction takes place and the original materials are replaced by new materials. Life cycle of the pavement construction in road structure is significantly longer than that of the ACM; it is therefore necessary to consider ACM from a long term viewpoint, that is, exceeding their life expectancy. This paper describes a methodology which consists of analytical calculations, experimental measurements, and optimization of the ACM life cycle with the use of a rehabilitation action to provide new physical properties of pavement surfacing in different periods of the original life cycle. The aim is to attain maximal economic effectiveness, by minimizing financial costs for rehabilitation and maintenance and economic costs of road user. Presented method allows deriving optimal life cycle from various rehabilitation alternatives for particular ACM with the fact that all the necessary parameters are derived from specific experimental measurements and calculations. The method is applicable to all types of ACM materials; however, for each material, it is necessary to carry out the necessary measurements and tests. The article describes the methodology and case study results for a particular type of ACM material.

  4. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks (United States)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath


    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  5. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.


    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  6. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification; Analisis del metodo de extension y reduccion de vida calificada utilizado en equipo con calificacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M.L. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)].e -mail:


    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  7. Qualification of Life Extension Schemes for Engine Components (Homologation des Programmes de Prolongation du cycle de vie des Organes Moteur) (United States)


    gasses to permeate to the stabilised Zirconia . There are two main production surface of the substrate surface. Another process routes, air plasma spray the paper illustrates that short term life © Crown Copyright 1998/DERA increases of up to 20% are sometimes at the price of less Published with

  8. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.


    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1% citri

  9. Vase Life Extension of Rose Cut Flowers (Rosa Hybirida as Influenced by Silver Nitrate and Sucrose Pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohy E.N.E. Elgimabi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of the Biology, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Approach: The study was conducted to investigated the silver nitrate (AgNO3 and sucrose at different concentration on rose cut flowers longevity, which determined on the basis of wilting, chlorophyll retention and carbohydrate degradation .The treatments were, water control, 20, 30 or 50 ppm AgNO3 and sucrose at 1,2or 3% w/v. Results: The results showed, flower vase life was prolonged by all AgNO3 treatments. The best concentration was 30 ppm .The effect was further improved when AgNO3 was combined with 3% sucrose, which recorded the best vase life compared to other concentrations of sucrose .The per cent of wilting was minimized as result of using this combined treatment However the per cent of wilting increased with the increase in concentrations of AgNO3 and complete wilting occurred after 10, 8 and 7 days when treated with 20, 30 and 50 ppm of AgNO3, respectively, while sucrose shortened the period to reach wilting. Also AgNO3 at 30 ppm retarded the chlorophyll as well as carbohydrate degradation during the postharvest life. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The experiments extended from February, 2006-September, 2008. The difference between means was performed using Duncan multiple range test at 0.05 levels. Conclusion: A significant improvement in vase life of rose cut flowers was occurred when treated with 30 ppm (AgNO3 more effects when combined with 3% (w/v sucrose, so we recommended that to use the previous treatments with this concentrations for a long vase life and commercial productions.

  10. Life span extension by resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin: The promise of dietary restriction mimetics for an healthy aging. (United States)

    Mouchiroud, Laurent; Molin, Laurent; Dallière, Nicolas; Solari, Florence


    Life expectancy at the turn of the 20th century was 46 years on average worldwide and it is around 65 years today. The correlative increase in age-associated diseases incidence has a profound public health impact and is an important matter of concern for our societies. Aging is a complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial phenomenon, which is the consequence of multiple interactions between genes and environment. In this review, we survey animals models that have been of great help for both investigating mechanism of aging and identifying molecules, which slow down the onset of age-related diseases. Resveratrol (RSV) is one of those. We will report evidences supporting RSV as a molecule that acts by mimicking the beneficial effects of dietary restriction, and may share common downstream targets with rapamycin and metformin. Although those molecules do not reveal all the secrets of the fountain of youth, they may help us maintaining the quality of life in the old age.

  11. Generation of life events in bipolar spectrum disorders: a re-examination and extension of the stress generation theory. (United States)

    Bender, Rachel E; Alloy, Lauren B; Sylvia, Louisa G; Urosevic, Snezana; Abramson, Lyn Y


    The extent to which stress generation occurs in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) is not well understood. The present study examined whether 75 BSD participants experienced elevated rates of behavior-dependent life events, as compared with 38 normal control participants. Within the BSD group, we also examined whether depressive or hypomanic symptoms prospectively predicted increases in various types of negative and positive life events. Results indicated that BSD participants experienced overall increases in behavior-dependent events over the follow-up, as compared with normal controls. At the symptom level, the event generation process occurred in more specific event domains. Results suggest that the stress generation theory of unipolar depression can be extended to BSD and that the type of generated events may be polarity-specific.

  12. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage. (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce.

  13. Defectivity and particle reduction for mask life extension, and imprint mask replication for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Emoto, Keiji; Sakai, Fumio; Sato, Chiaki; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Takabayashi, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hattori, Tadashi; Hiura, Mitsuru; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Azuma, Hisanobu; Iwanaga, Takehiko; Choi, Jin; Aghili, Ali; Jones, Chris; Irving, J. W.; Fletcher, Brian; Ye, Zhengmao


    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers. Additionally, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask chuck flatness simulation results were also performed and demonstrate that residual image placement errors can be reduced to as little as 1nm.

  14. Extension of the shelf life of prawns (Penaeus japonicus) by vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment. (United States)

    López-Caballero, M E; Pérez-Mateos, M; Borderías, J A; Montero, P


    The present study has investigated the application of high pressures (200 and 400 MPa) in chilled prawn tails, both conventionally stored (air) and vacuum packaged. Vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment did extend the shelf life of the prawn samples, although it did affect muscle color very slightly, giving it a whiter appearance. The viable shelf life of 1 week for the air-stored samples was extended to 21 days in the vacuum-packed samples, 28 days in the samples treated at 200 MPa, and 35 days in the samples pressurized at 400 MPa. Vacuum packaging checked the onset of blackening, whereas high-pressure treatment aggravated the problem. From a microbiological point of view, batches conventionally stored reached about 6 log CFU/g or even higher at 14 days. Similar figures were reached in total number of bacteria in vacuum-packed samples and in pressurized at 200-MPa samples at 21 days. When samples were pressurized at 400 MPa, total numbers of bacteria were below 5.5 log CFU/g at 35 days of storage. Consequently, a combination of vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment would appear to be beneficial in prolonging freshness and preventing spotting.

  15. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets. (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh


    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  16. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension (United States)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak


    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode

  17. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment. (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela


    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment.

  18. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh


    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases.

  19. The extension of shelf-life of chicken meat after application of caraway and anise essential oils and vacuum packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kluz


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The effect of caraway (CEO and anise (AEO essential oils as well as vacuum packaging (VP in extending of the shelf life of fresh chicken breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. CEO and AEO were used at concentrations 0.2% v/w with and without VP. Microbiological properties of chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 day period. The microbiological parameters as the anaerobic plate count (AC, Enterobacteraceae, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. counts were detected. The anaerobic plate counts ranged from 2.77 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 5.45 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.20 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 4.75 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Enterobacteriaceae counts ranged from 0.00 to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The number of Pseudomonas spp. ranged from 0.00 log cfu.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 2.65 log cfu.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.001 were found among tested group in all tested microorganisms. Among the antimicrobial combination treatments were examined in the study, the as application of vacuum packaging, EDTA, and essential oils were the most effective against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobactericeae and to a less extent on anaerobic plate count. The results of this present study suggest the possibility of using the essential oil of caraway and anise as natural food preservatives and potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for chicken breast meat.

  20. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage. (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat


    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  1. DLK-1, SEK-3 and PMK-3 Are Required for the Life Extension Induced by Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Disruption in C. elegans (United States)

    Lane, Rebecca K.; Borror, Megan B.; Bokov, Alex F.; Link, Christopher D.; Rea, Shane L.


    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies numerous age-related pathologies. In an effort to uncover how the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction might be alleviated, we examined how the nematode C. elegans not only adapts to disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but in many instances responds with extended lifespan. Studies have shown various retrograde responses are activated in these animals, including the well-studied ATFS-1-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Such processes fall under the greater rubric of cellular surveillance mechanisms. Here we identify a novel p38 signaling cascade that is required to extend life when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is disrupted in worms, and which is blocked by disruption of the Mitochondrial-associated Degradation (MAD) pathway. This novel cascade is defined by DLK-1 (MAP3K), SEK-3 (MAP2K), PMK-3 (MAPK) and the reporter gene Ptbb-6::GFP. Inhibition of known mitochondrial retrograde responses does not alter induction of Ptbb-6::GFP, instead induction of this reporter often occurs in counterpoint to activation of SKN-1, which we show is under the control of ATFS-1. In those mitochondrial bioenergetic mutants which activate Ptbb-6::GFP, we find that dlk-1, sek-3 and pmk-3 are all required for their life extension. PMID:27420916

  2. The effect of organic manures in soilless culture on shelf-life extension of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bidaki


    Full Text Available   Growing media could affect quality and shelf life of strawberry fruits. In the present study, effect of seven growing media including a control medium (50% cocopeat + 50% perlite v/v , and media supplemented with either 10, 20 and 40% of vermicompost or cattle manure in a completely randomized design with three replications was studied on postharvest quality and shelf life extension of Camarosa strawberry fruits . Freshly picked strawberry fruits were submerged in 1 mM putrescine solution for 5 minutes and after being air-dried at room temperature, were kept in plastic containers at 4 ºC refrigerator. After 15 days, total soluble solids ( TSS, total acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, fruit firmness and the percentage of fruit weight loss were determined . The results of analysis of variance showed that growing media had significant effect on fruit firmness, TA, TSS, TSS/TA ratio and percentage of fruit weight loss. The lowest fruit weight loss (16.2% belonged to 10% cattle manure medium and the highest weight loss (36% was observed in control medium. The highest fruit TSS content (19.13% was observed in the growing medium containing 40% vermicompost. Since soilless culture growing media of strawberry are pathogen-free, no fruit was rotted before or after the harvest. Therefore, by using organic fertilizers in growing media, not only there is no need to use chemical fungicides, but also it would be possible to increase postharvest shelf life of strawberry fruits.

  3. Orthogonal assembly of a designed ankyrin repeat protein-cytotoxin conjugate with a clickable serum albumin module for half-life extension. (United States)

    Simon, Manuel; Frey, Raphael; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe; Plückthun, Andreas


    The generation of drug conjugates for safe and effective tumor targeting requires binding proteins tolerant to functionalization by rational engineering. Here, we show that Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins), a novel class of binding proteins not derived from antibodies, can be used as building blocks for facile orthogonal assembly of bioconjugates for tumor targeting with tailored properties. DARPin Ec1, which targets the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), was genetically modified with a C-terminal cysteine for conjugation of the small molecule cytotoxin monomethylauristatin F (MMAF). In addition, it was N-terminally functionalized by metabolic introduction of the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine to enable linkage of site-specifically dibenzocyclooctyne-modified mouse serum albumin (MSA) for half-life extension using Cu(I)-free click chemistry. The conjugate MSA-Ec1-MMAF was assembled to obtain high yields of a pure and stable drug conjugate as confirmed by various analytical methods and in functional assays. The orthogonality of the assembly led to a defined reaction product and preserved the functional properties of all modules, including EpCAM-specific binding and internalization, FcRn binding mediated by MSA, and cytotoxic potency. Linkage of MMAF to the DARPin increased receptor-specific uptake of the drug while decreasing nonspecific uptake, and further coupling of the conjugate to MSA enhanced this effect. In mice, albumin conjugation increased the serum half-life from 11 min to 17.4 h, resulting in a more than 22-fold increase in the area-under-the-curve (AUC). Our data demonstrate the promise of the DARPin format for facile modular assembly of drug conjugates with improved pharmacokinetic performance for tumor targeting.

  4. Useful life extension of steam-turbine elements by means of welding processes; Extension de la vida util de los elementos de las turbinas de vapor mediante procesos de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The elements of the flow system in the steam turbines are subjected to a natural or accelerated wear during their operation. The stationary and the rotating blades are parts of the turbine that present damages, faults or materials wear, after some service periods, that can be from mechanical or metallurgical origin and prevent its continuous operation. This is also revealed in the equipment availability, reliability and performance diminution. Several cases are presented of recovery, and useful life extension of worn stationary blades (nozzle blocks and diaphragms), and rotating blades by means of welding processes executed in several fossil fuel power plants of Comision Federal de Electricidad. For each specific case, wear type or damage, the special processes based in welding processes, were developed. The blade recovery process also includes: the stress relieving, machining, special coating, quality control and tool design. Once the recovery process is completed, the components were installed back in the turbines for their utilization. The application of the welding technologies developed for blade recovery, represents just a fraction of the cost of new blades, that results in an economic saving. [Espanol] Los elementos del sistema de flujo de las turbinas de vapor sufren un desgaste natural o acelerado durante su operacion. Los alabes fijos y moviles son las partes de la turbina que despues de ciertos periodos de servicio presentan danos, fallas o desgaste del material que pueden ser de origen mecanico o metalurgico y no permiten su operacion continua. Esto se refleja tambien en la disminucion de la disponibilidad, confiabilidad y rendimiento del equipo. Se presentan varios casos de recuperacion y prolongacion de la vida util de alabes fijos (bloques de toberas y diafragmas) y moviles danados y gastados a causa de procesos de soldadura que se llevaron a cabo en varias plantas termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Para cada caso especifico

  5. Combined effect of an oxygen absorber and oregano essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 degrees C. (United States)

    Mexis, S F; Chouliara, E; Kontominas, M G


    In the present study the combined effect of an O2 absorber and oregano essential oil (0.4% v/w) on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets (Onchorynchus mykiss) stored under refrigeration (4 degrees C) was investigated. The study was based on microbiological [TVC, Pseudomonas spp., Lactic Acid Bacteria, H2S-producing bacteria including Shewanella putrefaciens, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium spp.), physicochemical (pH, PV, TBA, TVBN and Drip loss) and sensory (odor, taste) changes occurring in the product as a function of treatment and storage time. Aerobically-packaged rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 degrees C were taken as control samples. Results showed that TVC exceeded 7 log cfu/g on day 4 of storage for control samples, day 7-8 for samples containing oregano oil, day 9 for samples containing the O2 absorber and day 12-13 for samples containing the O2 absorber and oregano oil. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB were only partially inhibited by the O2 absorber and/or the oregano oil. In all cases the inhibition effect was more pronounced when the combination of O2 absorber with oregano essential oil was used. pH decreased from an initial value of 6.65-6.09 and subsequently increased to 6.86 due to formation of protein decomposition products. % Drip loss ranged between 7% and 11-12% at the end of the product shelf life. PV values ranged between 11.4 and 27.0 meq O2/kg oil while malondialdehyde (MDA) ranged between 9.6 and 24.5 mg/kg. TVBN ranged between 10.6 and 54.6 mg/kg at the time of sensory rejection. Sensory shelf life was 4 days for the control samples, 7-8 days for samples containing oregano oil, 13-14 days for samples containing the O2 absorber and 17 days for samples containing the O2 absorber plus oregano oil.

  6. Aumento da vida útil e microbiologia da carne suína embalada em atmosfera modificada Shelf life extension and microbiology of pork meat packaged in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Borges Mano


    with either 1.0 L of air (100%, nitrogen (100%, 20/80 or 40/60 CO2/O2 and finally sealed. Samples were subdivided into two batches and stored in walk-in cold rooms at 1 and 7ºC. Samples were taken at different days of storage and pH and gas concentration (CO2/O2/N2 were determined. Likewise, total viable, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas were counted. Bacterial growth parameters were assessed using Gompertz equations. As expected, modified atmosphere packaging extended the pork meat shelf life. However, modified atmospheres enriched with CO2 and at 1ºC showed a greater effectiveness. The samples conserved in MAP enriched in CO2, as much to 7 as to 1ºC, maintained the constant pH during the period of storage. At 1 and 7ºC the lag phases and the duplication times of the total microbiota were progressively larger in the following order: air (100%, N2 (100%, 20/80 and 40/60 CO2/O2. In accordance with the results, it can be concluded that, by as much to 1 as to 7ºC, the use of the modified atmospheres slowed the growth of the spoilage bacteria of pork meat, favoring the extension of the useful life, mainly in the MAP enriched with CO2.

  7. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus


    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam


    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  8. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.


    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  9. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)


    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  10. Likelihood Algorithm of Linear Static Sensor Network Life Cycle Maximum Extension%线性静态传感网络生命周期极大似然延展算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The linear static sensor network life cycle is affected by data fusion fault tolerance performance of the network, in order to improve the network life cycle, the need to improve the fault tolerance performance of network data fusion, improve data accuracy of reconstruction. The traditional method is using the sensor nodes in the sensor network credibility extension algorithm based on life cycle analysis, data redundancy cannot effectively remove the cluster head nodes, power consump-tion. A maximum likelihood estimation of life cycle extension algorithm for linear static sensor network based on the method is proposed. To construct the static sensor network linear model, set the number and position of the beacon node and inter node communication radius, data fusion, analyzes the redundancy of data fusion based on the maximum likelihood method, get the perturbation equation of linear sensor network life cycle extension, thus to realize the maximum likelihood algorithm improved life cycle extension. Simulation results show that the algorithm of data fusion quality is good, use fixed point itera-tion to speed up the convergence of the algorithm, greatly saving network energy and delay of the network life cycle.%线性静态传感网络的生命周期受到网络中数据融合容错性能的影响,为了提高网络的生命周期,需要提高网络数据融合的容错性能,提高数据重构精度.传统方法采用基于传感器节点信誉度集分析的传感网络生命周期延展算法,无法有效去除簇头节点的数据冗余,功耗较大.提出一种基于极大似然估计法的线性静态传感网络的生命周期延展算法.进行线性静态传感网络模型构建,设置信标节点的个数和位置以及节点间通信半径,进行数据融合处理,根据极大似然法进行数据融合的冗余性分析,得到线性传感网络的生命周期延展的扰动方程,由此实现了极大似然生命周期延展算法改进.仿真结果表

  11. Research on Life Determination and Extension of Missile Weapon System Based on Multilevel Finite Element%基于多级有限元方法的导弹武器定寿延寿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常新龙; 张有宏; 岳春国; 余堰峰; 刘万雷


    提出了多级有限元的概念,将导弹结构定寿延寿工作划分为3个有限元分析步骤进行,在有限元分析的过程中考虑了导弹结构原始状态、老化缺陷状态及修理/换件的影响,对导弹结构强度及剩余寿命进行了科学准确的评判.利用该理论对含有老化和裂纹等损伤因素的药柱结构质量状态和对出现的裂纹损伤进行修复的效果进行了评价.结果表明,该方法科学合理,可为导弹武器系统定寿延寿工作提供一定的理论参考.%The concept of multilevel finite element was presented. The life determination and extension of missile structure was divided to three finite element analysis steps. In the finite element analysis, the influence of original state, weathering state, and repair or replacement of missile structure was considered. The structural strength and residual life of missile structure was estimated exactly. Using this method, the quality state of grain considering factors such as aging and crack damage and the effect of repair for crack damage were evaluated. The results showed that this method is scientific and can provide a reference for life determination and extension of missile weapon system.

  12. Vase Life Extension and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Yield of Bougainvillea Flower as Influenced by Ethanol to Attain Maximum Environmental Beautification as Ornamental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Hossain


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of ethanol at different concentrations (ET on bougainvillea flower longevity and delay senescence in storage condition. The treatments were water control, 2% ET, 4% ET, 8% ET, 10% ET, 20% ET, 30% ET, 40% ET, 50% ET and 70% ET. Flower longevity was 2 days more in 4, 8% and 10% ethanol than water control and other concentrations of ethanol. Petal wilting and senescence were occurred 2 days later in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control. Percent petal's color changed was later in water 4, 8% and 10% than in control, 2, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70% ET. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity (photosynthetic yield followed by time (ms at different ethanol concentrations was higher in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water control and other concentrations. Fo (lower fluorescence was lower in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in water and other concentrations. However, Fm and Fv [(higher fluorescence and relative variable fluorescence (Fm-Fo] were higher in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in other ET concentrations. Fv/Fm (quantum yield or photosynthetic yield was higher in 4, 8 and 10% ET than in other ET concentrations. The result showed flower vase life was significantly affected by ethanol concentrations and longevity was higher in 4, 8 and 10% ethanol than in water control and other concentrations.

  13. Study of the state of the art of the technologies for the extension of the useful life of the gas turbine buckets; Estudio del estado del arte de las tecnologias de extension de la vida util de los alabes de turbina de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gutierrez, Ramiro Arturo


    In the present work a revision of the state of the art of the technologies involved in the extension of useful life of the buckets of a gas turbine is made. Among the subjects that are presented, stand out the following ones: materials for the manufacture of blades; processes of blade manufacturing; Wearing down of blades after a prolonged service; evaluation methods for blades; Limits of repair for blades rehabilitated by welding and strong welding; cleaning of blades; recovery heat treatments; Isostatic compression in hot; Welding of blades; electrical laser beam machining; coating for blades; shotpeening of the blades; balance of blades. In addition as a contribution of the present work, the development of a flow chart for the repair of buckets of gas turbines that exhibit the following typical wearing downs: corrosion, oxidation, erosion, frictions, impact and thermofluency. It is also included as a contribution, a proposal of rehabilitation for the extension of the useful life of the first stage blades of the 3 gas turbines Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) model 11 D-5 MCA, 61.2 MW that operate in the combined cycle thermoelectric power station El Sauz located in the state of Queretaro, Mexico. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se realiza una revision del estado del arte de las tecnologias involucradas en la extension de vida util de los alabes de turbina de gas. Entre los temas que se presentan destacan los siguientes: materiales para la fabricacion de alabes; procesos de fabricacion de alabes; desgaste en alabes despues de un servicio prolongado; Metodos de evaluacion para alabes; limites de reparacion para alabes rehabilitados por soldadura y soldadura fuerte; limpieza de alabes; tratamientos termicos de recuperacion; Compresion isostatica en caliente; soldadura de alabes; maquinados electricos y con rayo laser; Recubrimientos para alabes; granallado de alabes; balance de alabes. Ademas se presenta como aportacion del presente trabajo, el desarrollo de un diagrama de

  14. Ultraviolet Extensions (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra. Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form. The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue. What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms. The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials. The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of time. In fact, it is one of the

  15. Least cost options for life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  16. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project; Evaluacion de la integridad y extension de vida de la planta de potencia nuclear Laguna Verde- Programa de manejo de vida de planta (PLIM). Proyecto de cooperacion tecnica TC MEX 04/53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  17. Research and application of multiple model predictive control in Ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hengfeng; Yan, Weiwu; Wang, Guoliang; Hu, Yong; Li, Nan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of System Control and Information Processing; Chen, Shihe; Zhang, Xi [Guangdong Electric Power Research Institute, Guangzhou (China)


    Based on analyzing the characteristics of Ultra-supercritical unit, this paper introduced a multiple model MCPC (Multivariable Constrained Predictive Control) structure with three inputs and three outputs for coordination control of Ultra-supercritical unit. In the structure, double-layer structure of optimization was used to obtain good steady and dynamic performance, and piecewise linear models at the different operating points of Ultra-supercritical unit were used to deal with nonlinearity. In the real-time simulation, nonlinear model of 1000MW Ultra-supercritical unit in was considered. Finally, the result of real-time simulation was given in the paper.

  18. Enhanced Life Prediction Technology for Engine Rotor Life Extension (ERLE) (United States)


    Enright , R. Craig McClung, Luc J. Huyse, Harry Millwater, Tom Conquest, Ana Del Amo, and Simeon Fitch Southwest Research Institute SEPTEMBER... ROBERT MARSHALL, Deputy Division Chief Metals, Ceramics, and NDE Division Materials and Manufacturing...ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Hudak, Jr., Michael P. Enright , R. Craig McClung, and Luc J. Huyse (Southwest Research

  19. Torque-wrench extension (United States)

    Peterson, D. H.


    Torque-wrench extension makes it easy to install and remove fasteners that are beyond reach of typical wrenches or are located in narrow spaces that prevent full travel of wrench handle. At same time, tool reads applied torque accurately. Wrench drive system, for torques up to 125 inch-pounds, uses 2 standard drive-socket extensions in aluminum frame. Extensions are connected to bevel gear that turns another bevel gear. Gears produce 1:1 turn ratio through 90 degree translation of axis of rotation. Output bevel has short extension that is used to attach 1/4-inch drive socket.

  20. Type Safe Extensible Programming (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok


    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  1. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J


    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  2. Cotorsion Pair Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Xu ZHOU


    Assume that S is an almost excellent extension of R. Using functors Hom R(S,-) and -(×)R S, we establish some connections between classes of modules (L)R and (L)S, cotorsion pairs ((A)R, (A)R)and ((A)S, (B)S). If (L)S is a T-extension or (and) H-extension of (L)R, we show that (L)S is a (resp., monomorphic, epimorphic, special) preenveloping class if and only if so is (L)R. If (S, S) is a TH-extension of ((A)R,(B)R), we obtain that ((A)S,(B)S) is complete (resp., of finite type, of cofinite type, hereditary, perfect, n-tilting) if and only if so is ((A)R,(B)R).

  3. University of Wisconsin - Extension (United States)

    ... for News Media UW-Extension In The News Social Media Resources Academic Affairs From the Provost Scholarship Governance ... Purchase Order Alert Get help with your small business Read chancellor communications Find online degree programs Explore UW Flexible Option ...

  4. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred


    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IntroductionMost teachers and students in China are quite familiar with the term‘extensive reading’,but how itshould be taught still remains a problem.This paper covers the aims of extensive reading and the methodsand materials used in the course.Then some practical suggestions will be given to make the course moreinteresting and efficient.According to Dzao(1990).extensive reading is‘the course where other reading skills-speed,predictionand making inference-can be developed,’and‘where there is practice in geting the gist,in summarisingmain ideas,in understanding the author’s purpose and theme...’.So the aims of this course are todevelop general reading skills,the ability,to read quickly and to grasp the main ideas of the text.Toachieve these,students must enlarge their vocabulary,so this is also regarded as one of the aims.

  6. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  7. Recent extensions to GALPROP

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, A W


    Some recent extensions to the GALPROP cosmic-ray propagation package are described. The enhancements include: an accurate solution option, improved convection formulation, alternative spatial boundary conditions, polarized synchrotron emission, new magnetic field models, updated gamma-ray production cross-sections, free-free radio emission and absorption, primary positrons, additional injection spectral breaks, deuterium production by pp fusion, hadronic energy losses, improved HEALPix skymap format, compatibility with latest HEALPix release, and various bug fixes. The Explanatory Supplement has been extensively updated, including details of these enhancements. A compatible plot package GALPLOT for GALPROP output is also provided, as well as other related software.

  8. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.


    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the computa

  9. Mobile Applications for Extension (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.


    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  10. Modification of the Fc Region of a Human Anti-oncostatin M Monoclonal Antibody for Higher Affinity to FcRn Receptor and Extension of Half-life in Cynomolgus Monkeys. (United States)

    Nnane, Ivo P; Han, Chao; Jiao, Qun; Tam, Susan H; Davis, Hugh M; Xu, Zhenhua


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-oncostatin M (OSM) IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, CNTO 1119 and its Fc variant (CNTO 8212), which incorporates the LS(Xtend) mutation to extend terminal half-life (T1/2 ), after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in cynomolgus monkeys, and to predict human PK. In study 1, single doses of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 were administered IV or SC at 3 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3 per group). In study 2, single doses of CNTO 8212 were administered IV at 1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, or SC at 5 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5 per group). Serial blood samples were collected for assessment of serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and/or CNTO 8212. A two-compartment population PK model with first-order elimination was utilized to simultaneously describe the serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 over time after IV and SC administration in cynomolgus monkeys. The typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys were clearance (CL) = 2.81 mL/day/kg, volume of distribution of central compartment (V1 ) = 31.3 mL/kg, volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V2 ) = 23.3 mL/kg, absolute bioavailability (F) = 0.84 and T1/2 = 13.4 days. In comparison, the typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 8212 in cynomolgus monkeys were CL = 1.41 mL/day/kg, V1 = 39.8 mL/kg, V2 = 32.6 mL/kg, F = 0.75 and T1/2 = 35.7 days. The mean CL of CNTO 8212 was ~50% lower compared with that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. The overall volume of distribution (V1 +V2 ) for CNTO 8212 was about 32% larger compared with that for CNTO 1119, but generally similar to the vascular volume in cynomolgus monkeys. The T1/2 of CNTO 8212 was significantly (p monkeys. Thus, the modification of the Fc portion of an anti-OSM IgG1 mAb for higher FcRn binding affinity resulted in lower systemic clearance and a longer terminal half-life in cynomolgus monkeys. CNTO 8212

  11. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil. (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee


    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  12. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  13. Studies and development of essential systems in the surveillance program, life extension potential of the vessel and master curve in nuclear power plants; Estudios y desarrollo de sistemas necesarios en el programa de vigilancia, potencial extension de vida de la vasija y curva maestra en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Automatizacion e Instrumentacion, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The nuclear power plants owners should demonstrate that the effects of the embrittlement by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the nuclear reactors, so much under conditions of routine operation as below an accident postulate. In consequence, in Mexico surveillance programs of the vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde exist, in which three surveillance capsules are have by reactor. A surveillance capsule is composed by a support and between six and eight containers for test tubes and dosemeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for Charpy V test tubes and cylindrical container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow that of the vessel, being representative witness of the mechanical conditions of the vessel. The objective of to assay the test tubes to impact is to evaluate the embrittlement grade of the vessel beforehand during its useful life of operation, as well as to determinate the running of the ductile-fragile transition temperature in function of the time. (Author)

  14. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha


    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  15. [Physical rehabilitation in extensively burned patients]. (United States)

    Martín Martínez, V; Díez Sanz, Ma J; Corona Fernández, O; García Aragón, A; González Fraile, L


    The rehabilitation of the extensively burned patient aims to prevent and minimize consequences of the own lesion this is supported by three pillars: 1) postural treatment to prevent contractures; 2) kinesiotherapy to maintain/restore joint range of movement and muscle strength; 3) functional recovery. Physical therapy is essential in the multidisciplinary team. A coordinated team assures better results and positively influences the quality of life of the patients.

  16. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S


    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By using a simple analytic method the following inequalities are proved:(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)≥[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for 0<a<b,x≥1,y>0,x+y≥2;(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)<[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for0<a<b,0<x<1,y>0,x+y≤2.These inequalities are the extensions of inequalities of Qi Feng, Xu Senlin and Zheng Lin. And a conjection of Qi Feng is proved not true.

  18. Quotient Semigroups and Extension Semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rong Xing; Changguo Wei; Shudong Liu


    We discuss properties of quotient semigroup of abelian semigroup from the viewpoint of *-algebra and apply them to a survey of extension semigroups. Certain interrelations among some equivalence relations of extensions are also considered.

  19. Chromium Elimination and Cannon Life Extension for Gun Tubes (United States)


    Ta is refractory, ductile, strong, relatively corrosion and erosion resistant , Minimal thermal variation W adds hardness, strength...completely soluble in Ta MO adds hardness, corrosion and embrittlement resistance properties, substitute for tungsten to increase hardness is an...erosion- resistant chrome cobalt alloy matrix with 15% tungsten. Stellite is used as M60 machine gun barrel liner. Tantalum Cobalt Tungsten

  20. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H


    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  1. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan


    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  2. The BGAN extension programme (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra


    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  3. Prolongamento da vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã submetidas ao 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP - qualidade sensorial e física Extension of postharvest life of 'Apple1 banana subjected to1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP - sensory and physical quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP sobre a qualidade e extensão da vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã. Frutas no grau 2 de coloração da casca foram tratadas com 50 nL.L-1 de 1-MCP durante 0 (controle, 6, 9, 12 e 24 horas. Posteriormente, foram armazenadas sob condição ambiente: 22± 2 ºC 85± 5% UR. Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais: aparência dos frutos no grau 4 (frutos mais verdes que amarelos e grau 7 (frutos amarelos com pontuações marrons de coloração da casca; descasque, aroma, sabor, firmeza da polpa e aspecto global nos frutos no grau 7, utilizando-se um teste de aceitabilidade através de escala hedônica de 9 pontos; e ainda a intenção de compra nos frutos nos graus 4 e 7, através de escala de 5 pontos. Avaliou-se também, visualmente, a extensão da vida pós-colheita, e, instrumentalmente, a coloração da casca e firmeza da polpa. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 50 nL.L-1 por um período de 12 horas é a mais adequada, pois promove extensão na vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã, armazenadas em temperatura ambiente, em aproximadamente 11 dias, sem alterar a qualidade sensorial, a intenção de compra, coloração da casca e firmeza dos frutos quando maduros, comparados ao controle.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the quality and extension of postharvest life of 'Apple1 banana. The fruit, at degree 2 of peel color was treated with 50 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP for 0 (control, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours. Next, It was stored at room temperature: 22± 2 ºC 85± 5 per cent RH. The following sensory characteristics were evaluated: appearance of the fruit at degree 4 (greener than yellow and degree 7 (yellow with brown spots of peel color; peeling, aroma, flavor, firmness of pulp and global aspect of the fruit at degree 7, using a test of acceptability using the 9-point hedonic scale and also the intention of buying the fruit at degrees 4 and 7

  4. Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Sharafat


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jordans agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordans agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service and control group (30 farmers. The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of

  5. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp


    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  6. Developing Extension Professionals to Develop Extension Programs: A Case Study for the Changing Face of Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Cummings


    Full Text Available Development of Cooperative Extension programs depends upon the skills and abilities of competent Extension professionals. The most effective manner of building program development competencies in these Extension professionals is through professional development. A wide variety of competencies are necessary for Extension professionals to develop programs, including strong interpersonal skills. Differences exist between the professional development efforts of Extension institutions and are highlighted herein. Major challenges to delivery of professional development include time and budget, but these can be overcome through planning and innovation and use of online or hybrid methods. Professional development for program development is essential to furthering Extension’s mission, especially during times of rapid change.

  7. An application of modulated poisson processes to aging evaluation for the extension of qualified life of nuclear power plant equipment; Uma aplicacao de processos pontuais modulados a avaliacao do envelhecimento para a extensao da vida qualificada de equipamentos de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da Cruz


    The modulated power law process (MPLP) is a three-parameter stochastic point process model that can be used to describe the failures time of reparable systems. While the power law process implies that a system is exactly on the same condition just after a repair as just before a failure, the MPLP allows for the system to be affected both by failure and repair. For this reason this model is adequate for evaluating the recurrent events that incorporate both time trends and effects of past events such as the renewal type behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MPLP as a model for the rate of occurrence of failures of a repairable system to decide for an extension of qualified life in the context of licence renewal of a nuclear power plant. Standard statistical techniques, such as the maximum likelihood and linear regression models, are applied to estimate parameters of the MPLP. As a conclusion of the study, the MPLP is adequate for modelling rate of occurrence of failures that are time dependent, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in the operation of repairable systems. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红亮; 左飞


    In this paper, we study various properties of algebraic extension of∗-A operator. Specifically, we show that every algebraic extension of∗-A operator has SVEP and is isoloid. And if T is an algebraic extension of∗-A operator, then Weyl’s theorem holds for f (T ), where f is an analytic functions on some neighborhood of σ(T ) and not constant on each of the components of its domain.

  9. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle


    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  10. Multilayer Multidimensional Extension Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shao-zhong; YANG Guo-wei; TU Xu-yan


    In order to study the contradiction problem of multilayer multidimensional complex systems, the concepts of extension field and stable field of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional extension set are given. Then the related operations and properties are discussed. The results of study expand the concepts of intersection and union of extension set to a general situation, and provide the theoretical basis for production of the concepts of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional matter element system extension set. In this way, it will be possible that matter element system theory is used to creative designs of complex systems.

  11. Family Life Program Accountability Norms: How Do Your Results Compare? (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.


    Participants in cooperative extension family life programs (N=916) identified family strains, coping, quality of life, self-esteem, stress, and willingness to support extension services with tax dollars. The resulting normative data can be used to measure the impact of cooperative extension programs. (SK)

  12. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole


    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  13. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu


    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  14. Family Life (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  15. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim


    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  16. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  17. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies. (United States)

    Rivera, William M.


    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  18. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren


    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  19. Preferred extensions as stable models



    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by w...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Let B and H be finitely generated projective Hopf algebras over a commutative ring R,with B cocommutative and H commutative. In this paper we investigate cocleft extensions of Hopf algebras, and prove that the isomorphism classes of cocleft Hopf algebras extensions of B by H are determined uniquely by the group C(B, H) = ZC(B, H)/d(B, H) .

  1. Frames and extension problems II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young


    This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1930 Szpilrajn proved that any strict partial order can be embedded in a strict linear order.This theorem was later refined by Dushnik and Miller (1941), Hansson (1968), Suzumura (1976),Donaldson and Weymark (1998), Bossert (1999). Particularly Suzumura introduced the important concept of compatible extension of a (crisp) relation. These extension theorems have an important role in welfare economics. In particular Szpilrajn theorem is the main tool for proving a known theorem of Richter that establishes the equivalence between rational and congruous consumers. In 1999 Duggan proved a general extension theorem that contains all these results. In this paper we introduce the notion of compatible extension of a fuzzy relation and we prove an extension theorem for fuzzy relations. Our result generalizes to fuzzy set theory the main part of Duggan's theorem. As applications we obtain fuzzy versions of the theorems of Szpilrajn, Hansson and Suzumura. We also prove that an asymmetric and transitive fuzzy relation has a compatible extension that is total, asymmetric and transitive.Our results can be useful in the theory of fuzzy consumers. We can prove that any rational fuzzyconsumer is congruous, extending to a fuzzy context a part of Richter's theorem. To prove that acongruous fuzzy consumer is rational remains an open problem. A proof of this result can somehowuse a fuzzy version of Szpilrajn theorem.

  3. Extensive fitness and human cooperation. (United States)

    van Hateren, J H


    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  4. MEMOS: a mobile extensible memory aid system. (United States)

    Schulze, Hendrik


    Memory disturbances are a frequent outcome of brain damages. Maintenance or enhancement of the patients' quality of life requires enormous effort on the part of caregivers. To support patients with brain injuries, the mobile distributed care system named MEMOS (Mobile Extensible Memory System) was designed, implemented, and tested in the day-care clinic for cognitive neurology at Leipzig University. MEMOS is implemented as a distributed system, using CORBA technologies and Enterprise Java Beans. A special palmtop computer, the Personal Memory Assistant (PMA), reminds the patient of important tasks and supervises the patient's actions. The PMA communicates with the stationary care system via a bi-directional cellular radio connection. The stationary care system was developed to be dependable and scalable. This paper describes the design and function of the MEMOS system.

  5. Strategy for Spacecraft Performance and Mission Extension (United States)

    Canela, M.; Vogel, P.; Lorza-Pitt, R.; Duesmann, B.


    The preservation of the In-Orbit performance of the ESA Earth Observation Satellites and the extension of their operational life as long as possible (or as necessary) is one of the main roles of the Post Launch Support Office (PLSO). In most of the cases, innovative ideas and developments adapted to each particular situation have to be implemented. Specific methods, tools and procedures have been put into practice, but close collaboration with the flight operation and product quality teams, together with the support from the ESA experts and industry is the key of the success. The excellent performance of ERS and ENVISAT are the result of the effort of all the engineers involved in these objectives.

  6. Picturing Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L


    Full Text Available The cover art of the summer 2013 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy provided by Jonathan Darnall reflects his unique life perspective, current roles, and values. An exploration of Jon’s life experience reveals how creative arts, including photography, have positively influenced his life and inform OT practitioners about the benefits of photography as an intervention and an occupation.

  7. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba


    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  8. Preferred extensions as stable models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises


    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by working on representing the defeated arguments. Then we show how to infer the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by using UNSAT algorithms and disjunctive stable model solvers. The relevance of this result is that we define a direct relationship between one of the most satisfactory argumentation semantics and one of the most successful approach of non-monotonic reasoning i.e., logic programming with the stable model semantics.

  9. On Nilpotent Extensions of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam W. Marczak; Jerzy Plonka


    In this paper, we investigate essentially n-ary term operations of nilpotent extensions of algebras. We detect the connection between term operations of an original algebra and its nilpotent extensions. This structural point of view easily leads to the conclusion that the number of distinct essentially n-ary term operations of a proper algebraic nilpotent extension (ひ) of an algebra (ワ) is given by the formula pn(ひ)={pn(ワ)+1 for n=1,{pn(ワ) otherwise. We show that in general the converse theorem is not true. However, we suppose that if a variety V is uniquely determined by its pn-sequences, the converse theorem is also satisfied. In the second part of the paper, we characterize generics of nilpotent shifts of varieties and describe cardinalities of minimal generics. We give a number of examples and pose some problems.

  10. NACRE Update and Extension Project (United States)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki


    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  11. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei


    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  12. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;


    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdje Cvijović


    Full Text Available Three new closed-form summation formulae involving harmonic numbers are established using simple arguments and they are very general extensions of Euler’s famous harmonic sum identity. Some illustrative special cases as well as immediate consequences of the main results are also considered.

  14. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.


    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  15. Unramified extensions of quadratic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Dong Yang; Xianke Zhang


    Let K be a global quadratic field, then every unramified abelian extension of K is proved to be absolutely Galois when K is a number field or under some natural conditions when K is a function field. The absolute Galois group is also determined explicitly.

  16. Selections, Extensions and Collectionwise Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Gutev, Valentin


    We demonstrate that the classical Michael's selection theorem for l.s.c. mappings with a collectionwise normal domain can be reduced only to compact-valued mappings modulo the Dowker's extension theorem for such spaces. The technique developed to achieve this result is applied to construct selections for set-valued mappings whose point images are in completely metrizable absolute retracts.

  17. Homomorphisms between $C^*$-Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei


    In this paper we consider the question when a homomorphism between two extension algebras preserves the essential ideal in the corresponding extension. Some conditions of two essential extensions being isomorphic are given. We also describe the relationship between the induced extensions and the Kasparov products and give the completely positive liftings of the induced extensions.

  18. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)


    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  19. 早期子宫颈癌患者行子宫广泛性切除联合阴道延长术后的生命质量和性生活状态的评估%Quality of life and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy and vaginal extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶双; 杨佳欣; 曹冬焱; 朱兰; 郎景和; 沈铿


    便相关症状的发生风险.所有患者术后均存在性功能障碍问题,应重视患者术后性功能的改善和恢复.%Objective To investigate the quality of life and sexual function of cervical cancer patients following radical hysterectomy (RH) and vaginal extension.Methods Case-control and questionnaire-based method was employed in this study.Thirty-one patients of early-stage (Ⅰ b1-Ⅰ b2) cervical cancer who had undergone vaginal extension following classic RH in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2008 to September 2012 were included in study group,while 28 patients with matching factors and RH only during the same period were allocated to control group.There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of clinical and demographic variables including age at diagnosis,tumor stage and follow-up time (P>0.05).Patients were assessed retrospectively by validated selfreported questionnaires the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Cervix Cancer Module Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CX24) mainly for quality of life and sexual function for cervical cancer patients; the Sexual Function and Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ) further investigates sexual function and vaginal changes of patients with gynecologic malignancy at least 6 months after treatment.Results Vaginal length acquired by pelvic examination by gynecologic oncologists during follow-up visits was (10.0±1.3) cm and (5.9± 1.0) cm in study group and control group respectively (P=0.000).Sixty-eight percent (21/31) of cases in study group and 64% (18/28) of cases in control group had resumed sexual activity at the time of interview,and the time interval between treatment and regular sexual activity was mean 6 months (range 3-20 months) and mean 5 months (range 1-12 months) in study and control group respectively,in which there was not statistical significance (P>0.05).No difference was observed regarding pelvic floor symptoms (P>0.05) while

  20. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam. (United States)

    Poussard, H.


    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  1. From full life to balanced life: Extending Martin Seligman's route to happiness



    In this paper, a formalization of Martin Seligman's concept of full life is presented by employing basic microeconomics. With the formalized version of the concept, it can be explained why people differ with respect to the levels of pleasant, engaged and meaningful life they are trying to realize. Moreover, it is suggested to extend Seligman's concept of full life to the concept of balanced life. This extension requires that in addition to differences in people's preferences regarding aspects...

  2. Mosaic: Policy Homomorphic Network Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L Erran; Yang, Y R


    With the advent of large-scale cloud computing infrastructure, network extension and migration has emerged as a major challenge in the management of modern enterprise networks. Many enterprises are considering extending or relocating their network components, in whole or in part, to remote, private and public data centers, in order to attain scalability, failure resilience, and cost savings for their network applications. In this paper, we conduct a first rigorous study on the extension and migration of an enterprise network while preserving its performance and security requirements, such as layer 2/layer 3 reachability, and middle-box traversal through load balancer, intrusion detection and ACLs. We formulate this increasingly important problem, present preliminary designs, and conduct experiments to validate the feasibility of our designs.

  3. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J


    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  4. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG


    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  5. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  6. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan


    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  7. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton


    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  8. A Family Life Program Accountability Tool. (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Gebeke, Deb


    The Cooperative Extension Program Evaluation Survey tests seven variables: behavioral change, tax dollars, support, family coping, quality of life, self-esteem, and stress and depression. Tests in family life programs in two states with 244 participants demonstrated its usefulness. (SK)

  9. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe


    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill

  10. The Geometric Invariants of Group Extensions Part I: Finite Extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koban, Nic


    In this note, we compute the {\\Sigma}^1(G) invariant when 1 {\\to} H {\\to} G {\\to} K {\\to} 1 is a short exact sequence of finitely generated groups with K finite. As an application, we construct a group F semidirect Z_2 where F is the R. Thompson's group F and show that F semidirect Z_2 has the R-infinity property while F is not characteristic. Furthermore, we construct a finite extension G with finitely generated commutator subgroup G' but has a finite index normal subgroup H with infinitely generated H'.

  11. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services


    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power; Laufzeitverlaengerung von Atomkraftwerken. Nein, Danke.? Eine kommunikationswissenschaftliche Studie zum Einfluss medialer Kommunikation auf Einstellung gegenueber Atomkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlt, Dorothee


    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  13. A Life for a Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The English author, Richard Savage, was once living in London ingreat poverty. In order to earn a little money he had written the story" ofhis life. But not many copies of the book had been sold in the shops, and

  14. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  15. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis with cerebral extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Shikha


    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by fungus belonging to the order Mucorales. A case of a controlled diabetic male with rhino maxillary mucormycosis, with cerebral extension, is described. The patient presented with hemifacial swelling, a nasal twang in his voice, fever, ocular signs, gross tissue destruction, and was sluggish. Early recognition of mucormycosis is necessary to limit the spread of infection, which can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, health practitioners should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of the disease.

  16. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe


    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  17. Maximal right smooth extension chains

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yun Bao


    If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...

  18. Life Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zhang Wenzhi creates a rich variety of pottery works by coveringpottery roughcasts of different qualities with a range of coloredglazes,patterns and textures.Her works principally reflect differentsocial and personal themes,are not for practical use but moreendorse her interest in pottery,her feelings on life,and a sense ofmodernity.

  19. Extensive Mandibular Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cínthia Magalhães; Santos, Tatiana Tavares Marcelino Dos; de Castro, Sérgio Roberto; de Carli, Marina Lara; Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa


    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a mixed odontogenic tumor that presents epithelial and mesenchymal components. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is generally diagnosed between the first and second decades of life and normally shows a slow clinical growth in the posterior portion of the maxilla or mandible, being mostly associated with 1 or more impacted teeth. Radiographic features of AFO show a radiolucent well-defined, uni, or multilocular defect due to containing variable amounts of calcified material. The enucleation of the tumor is the usual conduct and should be followed up for a long period of time. Here, the authors report the case of 17-year-old male patient who presented an extensive AFO on the right posterior side of the mandible. The panoramic radiograph and the tomographic examination revealed a multilocular radiolucent lesion with impacted teeth. Histological examination revealed connective tissue resembling the dental papilla along with epithelial strands or islands, as well as dental hard tissue such enamel and dentin. Enucleation and curettage was performed and led to good outcome. There was no recurrence after an 8-year follow-up, and oral rehabilitation was performed with dental implants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is usually diagnosed and managed easily with a low mortality and morbidity. However, in 20.74% patients, acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening with significant morbidity and mortality . [1] We report a case of 44 year old male, a known case of Diabetes Mellitus since 4 years (on irregular treatment who was brought to our hospital with severe pain in right lower quadrant of abdomen since 4 days. On examination, patient had tachycardia, tender ness and guarding in the right iliac fossa. Laboratory results revealed leucocytosis and raised blood glucose levels. Measures for glycemic control were initiated. At exploratory laparotomy, an inflamed and retrocaecal appendix ruptured at the base with sm all local abscess was found. Abscess was drained and appendectomy done. Initially patient did well but at the end of second post - operative week, the patient started having pain and swelling over posterior chest wall, flank, sacral and occipital regions sug gestive of inflammation. CT abdomen and pelvis showed extensive necrotizing fasciitis of trunk, occiput and sacrum. Repeated multiple fasciotomies were performed over the back. The patient finally recovered fully at the end of 8 th post - operative week

  1. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius


    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  2. Extensible Numerical Library in JAVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Aso; H.Okazawa; 等


    In this paper,we present the current status of the project for developing the numerical librayr in JAVA.We have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference,we need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language,for example,good random number generators.special functions and so on.Our development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers.In HPC filed,there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA,However,their focus is on the performance of execution.not easiness of extension.Following the strategy,we have degigned and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on .

  3. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.


    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  4. Multivariable sliding mode control for boiler-turbine system%锅炉-汽轮机系统的多变量滑模控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文杰; 刘吉臻; 陈彦桥



  5. HVOF Thermal Spray TiC/TiB2 Coatings for AUSC Boiler/Turbine Components for Enhanced Corrosion Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Koc, Rasit [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Fan, Chinbay [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    The high temperatures of operations still pose significant risk of degradation and fatigue from oxidizing, corroding and eroding environment. In addition to unused O2, water from combustion and SOx from the coal sulfur oxidation that result in highly corrosive environment, acid gases such as HCl and other sulfur compounds may also be present. These adverse effects are further accelerated due to the elevated temperatures. In addition, ash particulates and unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur can cause erosion of the surface and thus loss of material. Unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur may also cause localized reduction sites. Thus, fireside corrosion protection and steam oxidation protection alternatives to currently used Ni-Cr overlays need to be identified and evaluated. Titanium carbide (TiC) is a suitable alternative on account of the material features such as the high hardness, the high melting point, the high strength and the low density for the substitution or to be used in conjunction with NiCr for enhancing the fireside corrosion and erosion of the materials. Another alternative is the use of titanium boride as a coating for chemical stability required for long-term service and high erosion resistance over the state-of-the-art, high fracture toughness (K1C ~12 MPam1/2) and excellent corrosion resistance (kp~1.9X10-11 g2/cm4/s at 800°C in air). The overarching aim of the research endeavor was to synthesize oxidation, corrosion and wear resistant TiC and TiB2 coating powders, apply thermal spray coating on existing boiler materials and characterize the coated substrates for corrosion resistance for applications at high temperatures (500 -750 °C) and high pressures (~350 bars) using the HVOF process and to demonstrate the feasibility of these coating to be used in AUSC boilers and turbines.

  6. Analysis of Extension Categorical Data Mining Process for the Extension Interior Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ma; Guangtian Zou


    On the basis of extension architectonics, this paper researches the process of extension categorical data mining for extension interior design. In accordance with the theory of extension data mining, the extension categorical data mining for the extension interior design can be divided into data preparation, the operation of mining and knowledge application. The paper expatiates the main content and cohesive relations of each link, and emphatically discusses extension acquisition, analysis extension, categorical mining extension, knowledge application extension and other several core nodes that are related with data. Through the knowledge fusion of extension architectonics and data mining, the paper discusses the process of knowledge requirements with multiple classification under different mining targets. The purpose of this paper is to explore a whole categorical data mining process of interior design from extension design data to the design of knowledge discovery and extension application.

  7. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.


    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  8. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.


    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  9. On transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension


    Radul, Taras


    We prove that a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asind is trivial. We introduce a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asdim and give an example of metric proper space which has transfinite infinite dimension.

  10. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel


    of membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  11. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John


    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  12. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn


    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  13. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  14. Inductions and coinductions for Hopf extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddy Van Oystaeyen; 许永华; 张印火


    The induction and coinduction functors for the two types of Hopf extensions (Hopf Galois extensions and dual to Hopf Galois extension) and the symmetry between them are studied; by using the theory of separable functors further links between these two classes are provided.

  15. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY: Import... Department of Commerce (the Department) is modifying its regulation concerning the extension of time limits... clarifies that parties may request an extension of time limits before any time limit established under...

  16. Effective Ways of Extensive Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    COmpared with intensive reading; extenSiVe reading Can arouse Students' interest in reading, and enrich their back- ground knowledge about western COuntries. Therefore, we Should improve both and pay Special attention tO the extensive reading So that students' reading ability can be enhanced: The following points Should be noticed when teaching extensive reading.

  17. Human factors that derail extension services delivery in developing countries: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ajani


    Full Text Available The paper examines human factors derailing extension services delivery in developing countries. Poor management of rewards and incentives; quality of work life; poor assessment system; limited quality of human resource; inadequate extension support training materials; inconsistencies of government programmes; inadequate staff training and poor extension programme evaluation were viewed as major constraints. Considering the role of extension to agricultural development, the paper recommends that efforts should be made by the various stakeholders in agricultural extension services to improve the capability of human resources involved in extension services and highlights the need for government agricultural programmes to be consistent to enable the beneficiaries of such programmes derive the benefits that will boost productivity in agriculture.

  18. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D


    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  19. Floating Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ One in six people in China have left their hometown in search of a better life and the number continues to grow,creating a challenge for host cities,according to a government report.The floating population,or people who live and work outside their permanent home,reached 211 million last year and the number could reach 350 million by 2050 if govemment policies remain unchanged,said the Report on the Development of China's Floating Population issued on June 26 by the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC).

  20. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  1. The extensive writing. Teaching writing in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany Comas


    Full Text Available Following the distinction between intensive and extensive reading, we introduce the extensive written tasks to promote the following learning objectives: 1 bringing writing closer to the learner’s personal life; 2 practicing the epistemic and communicative language functions; 3 giving the learner full responsibility for the creative act; 4 facilitating the development of cognitive processes, and 5 developing habits of written production in a variety of situations. As a consequence, extensive writing assignments produce longer texts, last longer, are self-directed by the learner-author, treat interdisciplinary topics and are not in the textbook. These tasks markedly differ from the more frequent written exercises in the classroom, which are teacher-led, contain shorter texts, work on executive or instrumental functions, and their correction is focused on spelling and grammar. We propose several educational tools in order to develop this type of tasks: portfolios (to save drafts, corrections and final versions of each text, formats (such as reading logs, lecture notes and laboratory protocols and contexts (common communicative tasks. We also discuss some basic parameters of extensive tasks, such as the length of the text, the use of several working sessions for text production, the practice of composition processes and the use of peer review, in pairs or teams.

  2. Longitudinally extensive optic neuritis in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer; Kraus, Verena; Soares, Bruno P; Hess, Christopher P; Waubant, Emmanuelle


    Extensive optic nerve demyelinating lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults could indicate a diagnosis other than multiple sclerosis with worse prognosis such as neuromyelitis optica. We report the frequency of longitudinally extensive lesions in children with first events of optic neuritis. Subjects had brain or orbit MRI within 3 months of onset and were evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco, Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center. Lesion length, determined by T2 hyperintensity or contrast enhancement, was blindly graded as absent, focal or longitudinally extensive (at least 2 contiguous segments of optic nerve). Of 25 subjects, 9 (36%) had longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Extensive lesions were not associated with non-multiple sclerosis versus multiple sclerosis diagnosis (P = 1.00). No association between age and lesion extent was observed (P = .26). Prospective studies are needed to determine if longitudinally extensive optic neuritis can predict visual outcome.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng


    In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.

  4. On extensions of ALGOL-like languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven


    In this paper we introduce the notion of a level grammar and a level language. We define an extension to the extended definable sets and we characterize ALGOL-like languages, extended definable sets, and extensions of those as languages generated by level grammars with different kinds of restrict......In this paper we introduce the notion of a level grammar and a level language. We define an extension to the extended definable sets and we characterize ALGOL-like languages, extended definable sets, and extensions of those as languages generated by level grammars with different kinds...

  5. Big bang or continuous creation: does life have multiple origins? (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory A.


    The generally accepted notion of a single origin of life from a primordial soup on the early Earth has been challenged recently by the suggestion of a "second life," "shadow life," and even "biological dark matter." The problem in classifying these microorganisms is in the difficulty or complete failure of the 16s genetic fingerprinting process, suggesting a different underlying biochemistry resulting from at least a second origin of life. We consider an extension of this concept to include continuous origination of life throughout Earth's history, up to the present. The consequences for interpreting the "tree of life" are also considered.

  6. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten


    The author attempts a micro-bio-politics of drugs, starting from an excerpt of an interview with a couple of young drug users in a Copenhagen social youth work facility that pushes harm reduction in 1996. The article is guided by Derrida’s idea of ‘drugs as the religion of atheist poets’ – that t......The author attempts a micro-bio-politics of drugs, starting from an excerpt of an interview with a couple of young drug users in a Copenhagen social youth work facility that pushes harm reduction in 1996. The article is guided by Derrida’s idea of ‘drugs as the religion of atheist poets......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...... practices, but also in the research practice that engaged with them through the interview....

  7. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Tod, Paul


    We analyse conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem.

  8. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole


    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  9. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology (United States)

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.


    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  10. Meckel's cave tuberculoma with unusual infratemporal extension. (United States)

    Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Somasundaram, S; Rao, Ravi M; Radhakrishnan, V V


    The authors describe a rare case of intracranial tuberculoma of the Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus with extension into the infratemporal fossa causing widening of the foramen ovale and adjacent bone destruction. The rarity of the lesion and the unusual extension of the lesion are presented with a brief review of literature.

  11. Paravertebral neurinoma associated with aggressive intravertebral extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, T.; Takahashi, Koji; Hanaoka, Hideto; Aburano, Tamio [Dept. of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College (Japan); Tokusashi, Yoshihiko [Div. of Surgical Pathology, Asahikawa Medical Coll. (Japan); Matsuno, Takeo [Dept. of Orthopedics, Asahikawa Medical Coll. (Japan); Sugimoto, Hideharu [Dept. of Radiology, Showa Univ. Fujigaoka Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Furuse, Makoto [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan)


    Neurinomas are relatively common benign tumors thought to arise from nerve sheath cells. Although intraosseous neurinomas may destroy the bone, extraosseous neurinomas with extensive destruction and invasion of bone are considered rare. We present two unusual cases of a benign extraosseous neurinoma that extensively invaded the vertebral body through the nutrient canal. (orig.)

  12. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl


    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  13. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... an appropriate public process. (d) The formula set forth in paragraph (a) of this section also...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH


    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  15. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett


    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  16. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal (United States)

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.


    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  17. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects (United States)

    Rollins, Dora


    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  18. An Extension to the Weibull Process Model (United States)



  19. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah


    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  20. Extension Excellence in the Information Age. (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn


    The author suggests that the business of extension is getting people to apply knowledge and use information. He makes observations concerning people and their use of information and knowledge. He presents five characteristics upon which future extension programs should be built. (CT)

  1. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals (United States)

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura


    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  2. Invariant properties of representations under cleft extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The main aim of this paper is to give the invariant properties of representations of algebras under cleft extensions over a semisimple Hopf algebra. Firstly, we explain the concept of the cleft extension and give a relation between the cleft extension and the crossed product which is the approach we depend upon. Then, by making use of them, we prove that over an algebraically closed field k, for a finite dimensional Hopf algebra H which is semisimple as well as its dual H*, the representation type of an algebra is an invariant property under a finite dimensional H-cleft extension . In the other part, we still show that over an arbitrary field k, the Nakayama property of a k-algebra is also an invariant property under an H -cleft extension when the radical of the algebra is H-stable.

  3. Utility of the Living (Well Through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise Program as a County-Delivered Extension Program (United States)

    Sowle, Ashleigh J.; Francis, Sarah L.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren D.


    Rural-residing older adults are not participating in regular physical activity. Extension is in an excellent position to fill this programming void through transdisciplinary programming such as the Living (well through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise (LIFE) program. Qualitative evaluation was conducted to assess the LIFE program's utility…

  4. Examining eXtension: Diffusion, Disruption, and Adoption among Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Professionals (United States)

    Taylor, Cayla; Miller, Greg


    As eXtension unveils its new membership model, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach must determine how best to support professionals and clientele using the technology. This article reports on a study that used the diffusion of innovations and disruptive innovation theories to assess Iowa Extension professionals' adoption and perceptions…

  5. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo


    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  6. Extension Approach for an Effective Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Service in India (United States)

    Kumaran, M.; Vimala, D. Deboral; Chandrasekaran, V. S.; Alagappan, M.; Raja, S.


    Purpose: Public-funded fisheries extension services have been blamed as poor and responsible for the slow pace of aquaculture development in India. The present investigation aimed to find concrete interventions to streamline the extension service by understanding the research-extension-farmer linkage indirectly in terms of information sources of…

  7. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States. (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  8. Extensions and Pullbacks in QB-rings


    Ara, Pere; Pedersen, Gert K.; Perera, Francesc


    We prove a new extension result for $QB-$rings that allows us to examine extensions of rings where the ideal is purely infinite and simple. We then use this result to explore various constructions that provide new examples of $QB-$rings. More concretely, we show that a surjective pullback of two $QB-$rings is usually again a $QB-$ring. Specializing to the case of an extension of a semi-prime ideal $I$ of a unital ring $R$, the pullback setting leads naturally to the study of rings whose multi...

  9. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes


    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  10. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program. (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.


    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  11. Offshore extension of Gomati river, Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naik, D.K.; Ganesan, P; Moraes, C.

    ) at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India since 1984. Based on about 40 line-kilometres of echosounding, Side Scan Sonar and Shallow Seismic Profiling carried out in December 1989, underwater extension of the river Gomati has been mapped...

  12. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE


    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  13. Robustness of Equations Under Operational Extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mosses, Peter D; Reniers, Michel A; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.8


    Sound behavioral equations on open terms may become unsound after conservative extensions of the underlying operational semantics. Providing criteria under which such equations are preserved is extremely useful; in particular, it can avoid the need to repeat proofs when extending the specified language. This paper investigates preservation of sound equations for several notions of bisimilarity on open terms: closed-instance (ci-)bisimilarity and formal-hypothesis (fh-)bisimilarity, both due to Robert de Simone, and hypothesis-preserving (hp-)bisimilarity, due to Arend Rensink. For both fh-bisimilarity and hp-bisimilarity, we prove that arbitrary sound equations on open terms are preserved by all disjoint extensions which do not add labels. We also define slight variations of fh- and hp-bisimilarity such that all sound equations are preserved by arbitrary disjoint extensions. Finally, we give two sets of syntactic criteria (on equations, resp. operational extensions) and prove each of them to be sufficient for...

  14. Extension's Role in a Global World. (United States)

    Phelan, J.


    Trends in farming and farm household incomes in Ireland are presented in the context of global competitiveness. Addresses the issue of extension's dilemma in providing fee-based service while relying on public monies. (SK)

  15. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  16. Communication for extension: developing country experience. (United States)

    Meyer, A J


    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  17. Extensive lichenoid sarcoidosis intermingled with white papules.


    Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Utani, Atsushi


    Cutaneous sarcoidosis is classified into nodular, plaque, diffuse infiltrative, and lichenoid types and others . Herein, we report an extensive case of rare lichenoid sarcoidosis with unusual small white macules representing early lesions of its typical red papules.

  18. Selfadjoint extensions of multipoint singular differential operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameddin I. Ismailov


    Full Text Available This article describes all selfadjoint extensions of the minimal operator generated by a linear singular multipoint symmetric differential-operator expression for first order in the direct sum of Hilbert spaces of vector-functions. This description is done in terms of the boundary values, and it uses the Everitt-Zettl and the Calkin-Gorbachuk methods. Also the structure of the spectrum of these extensions is studied.

  19. Strategies for Teaching English Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Extensive reading can make a major difference in student reading development over time.To endure that the students benefit most from extensive reading class,a few strategies must be adopted for teaching. The teacher is advised to attach importance to the significance of reading to language learning.Choosing understandable materials, protecting the students’enthusiasm, engaging the students in after-class reading,and playing a good role model are four important strategies discussed in the article.

  20. A CRTCal link between energy and life span. (United States)

    Brunet, Anne


    Cutting down calories prolongs life, but how this works remains largely unknown. A recent study in Nature (Mair et al., 2011) shows that life span extension triggered by the energy-sensing protein kinase AMPK is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional circuit involving CRTC-1 and CREB.

  1. Venus: Water and Life (United States)

    Ditkof, J. F.


    Amphiboles that contain the hydroxide ion form only in the presence of water and this fact has become the way for scientists to prove that Venus was once a water world. Though, tremolite is considered the main mineral to look for, it requires life that is analogous to the ancient life here on Earth for it to form. Dolomite is the main ingredient for the formation of this low grade metamorphic mineral and without it would be very difficult for tremolite to form, unless there is another process that is unknown to science. Venus is known to have extensive volcanic features (over 1600 confirmed shield volcanoes dot its surface) and with little erosion taking place; a mineral that is associated with volcanism and forms only in the presence of water should be regarded as the main goal. Hornblende can form via volcanism or a metamorphic process but requires water for initial formation. The European Space Agency is currently trying to determine whether or not the continents on Venus' surface are made of granite, as they argue granite requires water for formation. Either way, computer models suggest that any oceans that formed on the surface would have lasted at best 2 billion years, as the surface is estimated to be only 800 million years old, any hornblende that would have formed is more than likely going to be deep underground. To find this mineral, as well as others, it would require a mission that has the ability to drill into the surface, as the easiest place to do this would be on the mountain peaks in the Northern Hemisphere on the Ishtar Terra continent. Through the process of uplift, any remaining hornblende may have been exposed or very near exposed to the surface. Do to the amount of fluorine in the atmosphere and the interaction between this and the lithosphere, the hydroxyl ions may have been replaced with fluorine turning the hornblende into the more stable fluoro-hornblende. To further add to the mystery of Venus is the unusual atmospheric composition. The

  2. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.


    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  3. An Educational Extension Service in India (United States)

    Krichevsky, M. I.


    A strength of US education is interaction with the public under the Land Grant University program. The public benefits from outreach through extension services which evolved for communication with end users, e.g., farmers, homemakers, public health providers, schoolchildren and entrepreneurs i.e., the public with problems and the extension agents who advise on solutions. Further, the agents can seek specialized advice from university faculty. No such system exists in India. The University of Pune (UP), Bionomics International (BI), and WorldSpace Foundation (WSF) will use digital radio broadcasts to facilitate educational extension services. The UP (350,000 students, 250 campuses, among dispersed communities) is a useful institutional setting to demonstrate the value of an outreach system in India. The UP will coordinate development of the broadcast content and the teaching faculty. The campuses will be focal points for outreach. BI will consult on development of the extension structure. WSF will provide the facilities and technical expertise for use of the digital system under the terms of an agreement with Bionomics International. Digital radios (&$slash75-150 each) and PCs will be at each campus and community. The major components of the Extension Service are broadcast of 1) University lecture and examination material in many disciplines; 2) outreach to the general population with of "canned" presentations and talks, skits, songs, games. The steps are: 1) Enhance communication among the campuses by use of satellite digital audio and multimedia broadcasts with feedback by telephone, mail, fax, etc. 2) Develop course material for training of extension personnel. 3) Train extension personnel to interface between the faculty of the University and the local population. 4) Extend digital radio services to population centers for communication of locally useful information. 5) Utilize extension personnel for system maintenance, motivating use of the broadcast

  4. Life is pretty meaningful. (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A


    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  5. Early aggressive therapy for severe extensive ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Jun Cui


    The current ulcerative colitis (UC) treatment algorithm involves a step-up therapeutic strategy, mainly aiming at inducing and maintaining its clinical remission.Although this therapeutic strategy may seem to be cost-efficient and reduce the risk of side effects,recent trials and case reports have shown that topdown therapy using infliximab induces a rapid clinical response, enhances patient quality of life, promotes mucosal healing, reduces surgeries and indirect cost of treatment for patients with severe UC. Moreover,since long-term treatment with infliximab is safe and well tolerated, early aggressive top-down therapeutic strategy may be a more effective approach, at least in a subgroup of severe extensive UC patients.

  6. On Central Extensions of Associative Dialgebras (United States)

    Rakhimov, Isamiddin S.


    The concept of central extensions plays an important in constructing extensions of algebras. This technique has been successfully used in the classification problem of certain classes of algebras. In 1978 Skjelbred and Sund reduced the classification of nilpotent Lie algebras in a given dimension to the study of orbits under the action of automorphism group on the space of second degree cohomology of a smaller Lie algebra with coefficients in a trivial module. Then W. de Graaf applied the Skjelbred and Sund method to the classification problem of low-dimensional nilpotent Lie and associative algebras over some fields. The main purpose of this note is to establish elementary properties of central extensions of associative dialgebras and apply the above mentioned method to the classification of low dimensional nilpotent associative dialgebras.

  7. Symmetric Functional Model for Extensions of Hermitian

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, V


    This paper offers the functional model of a class of non-selfadjoint extensions of a Hermitian operator with equal deficiency indices. The explicit form of dilation of a dissipative extension is offered and the symmetric form of Sz.Nagy-Foia\\c{s} model as developed by B.~Pavlov is constructed. A variant of functional model for a general non-selfadjoint non-dissipative extension is formulated. We illustrate the theory by two examples: singular perturbations of the Laplace operator in~$L_2(\\Real^3)$ by a finite number of point interactions, and the Schr\\"odinger operator on the half axis~$(0, \\infty)$ in the Weyl limit circle case at infinity.

  8. Improved Approximations for Some Polymer Extension Models

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, Rafayel


    We propose approximations for force-extension dependencies for the freely jointed chain (FJC) and worm-like chain (WLC) models as well as for extension-force dependence for the WLC model. Proposed expressions show less than 1% relative error in the useful range of the corresponding variables. These results can be applied for fitting force-extension curves obtained in molecular force spectroscopy experiments. Particularly they can be useful for cases where one has geometries of springs in series and/or in parallel where particular combination of expressions should be used for fitting the data. All approximations have been obtained following the same procedure of determining the asymptotes and then reducing the relative error of that expression by adding an appropriate term obtained from fitting its absolute error.

  9. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus* (United States)

    Vukicevic, Jelica


    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by atrophic and sclerotic plaques in both genital and extragenital regions. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (BLSA) is a severe variant of the disease with no widely accepted treatment. We present a 63-year-old woman with extensive extragenital, ivory-colored, atrophic plaques on her trunk and extremities and disseminated hemorrhagic bullae. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with standard topical corticosteroid therapy, doxycycline and chloroquine. According to the literature, there is little evidence of the efficacy of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of BLSA. We report a rare case of extensive BLSA that is unresponsive to these drugs.

  10. Introduction to Special Section: Magmatism and Extension (United States)

    Metcalf, Rodney V.; Smith, Eugene I.


    The relationship between magmatism and the formation of continental rift zones is the subject of much controversy. In particular, the cause and effect relationships between magmatism and extension and the mode of generation of magma during the process of extension are still hotly debated. This controversy served as the theme of a symposium on "Cenozoic Magmatism in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Adjacent Areas" and a field trip held as part of the Geological Society of America Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section meeting in Reno, Nevada [Metcalf et al., 1993]. It was clear from data presented at the symposium that a considerable amount of new information has become available regarding magmatism and extension since the last special section on this topic published by the Journal of Geophysical Research (June 1989).

  11. Supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouba, L., E-mail: [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Stern, A., E-mail: [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Al 35487 (United States)


    We obtain a minimal supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra and study its representations. The construction differs from the general approach given in Hatsuda and Siegel ( (arXiv:hep-th/0311002)) and does not utilize super-de Sitter groups. The spectra of the position operators are discrete, implying a lattice description of space, and the lattice is compatible with supersymmetry transformations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new supersymmetric extension of the Snyder algebra is constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extension is minimal and the construction does not involve supersymmetric de Sitter algebras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An involution is defined for the system and discrete representations are constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The representations imply a spatial lattice and the lattice spacing is half that of the bosonic case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A differential operator representation is given for fields on super-momentum space.

  12. Scientific contributions of extensive biodiversity monitoring. (United States)

    Couvet, Denis; Devictor, Vincent; Jiguet, Frédéric; Julliard, Romain


    To develop a complete and informative biodiversity observation system, it is necessary to compare the strengths and limits of various monitoring schemes. In this article, we examine the various advantages of extensively monitoring fine-grained spatial variations of biodiversity, where the prominent traits of many species within a community (abundance, phenology, etc.) are regularly recorded at numerous sites over a large territory, usually via human observation networks. Linking these variations with environmental factors sheds lights on the major mechanisms leading to changes in biodiversity, thus increasing our knowledge of macroecology and community ecology. This extensive monitoring allows us to assess diffuse effects, contributing to the sound use of the precautionary principle. Combined with site-focused monitoring, information gathered from extensive monitoring provides the raw material necessary to build biodiversity scenarios.

  13. Timeability in Extensive-Form Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre; Conitzer, Vincent


    Extensive-form games constitute the standard representation scheme for games with a temporal component. But do all extensive-form games correspond to protocols that we can implement in the real world? We often rule out games with imperfect recall, which prescribe that an agent forget something...... to time the game, some information will leak to the agents that they are not supposed to have. We say such a game is not exactly timeable. We provide easy-to-check necessary and sufficient conditions for a game to be exactly timeable. Most of the technical depth of the paper concerns how to approximately...

  14. Rough Sets, Their Extensions and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Shen; Richard Jensen


    Rough set theory provides a useful mathematical foundation for developing automated computational systems that can help understand and make use of imperfect knowledge. Despite its recency, the theory and its extensions have been widely applied to many problems, including decision analysis, data mining, intelligent control and pattern recognition. This paper presents an outline of the basic concepts of rough sets and their major extensions, covering variable precision, tolerance and fuzzy rough sets. It also shows the diversity of successful applications these theories have entailed, ranging from financial and business, through biological and medicine, to physical, art, and meteorological.

  15. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena


    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  16. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie;


    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  17. Extensibility enables locomotion under isotropic drag

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, On Shun


    Anisotropic viscous drag is usually believed to be a requirement for the low Reynolds number locomotion of slender bodies such as flagella and cilia. Here we show that locomotion under isotropic drag is possible for extensible slender bodies. After general considerations, a two-ring swimmer and a model dinoflagellate flagellum are studied analytically to illustrate how extensibility can be exploited for self-propulsion without drag anisotropy. This new degree of freedom could be useful for some complex swimmer geometries and locomotion in complex fluid environments where drag anisotropy is weak or even absent.

  18. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena


    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  19. The Origin of Life (United States)

    Hodson, D.


    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  20. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: reinventing extension as a resource--what does the future hold? (United States)

    Mirando, M A; Bewley, J M; Blue, J; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Corriher, V A; Whittet, K M; Arthur, N; Patterson, D J


    The mission of the Cooperative Extension Service, as a component of the land-grant university system, is to disseminate new knowledge and to foster its application and use. Opportunities and challenges facing animal agriculture in the United States have changed dramatically over the past few decades and require the use of new approaches and emerging technologies that are available to extension professionals. Increased federal competitive grant funding for extension, the creation of eXtension, the development of smartphone and related electronic technologies, and the rapidly increasing popularity of social media created new opportunities for extension educators to disseminate knowledge to a variety of audiences and engage these audiences in electronic discussions. Competitive grant funding opportunities for extension efforts to advance animal agriculture became available from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and have increased dramatically in recent years. The majority of NIFA funding opportunities require extension efforts to be integrated with research, and NIFA encourages the use of eXtension and other cutting-edge approaches to extend research to traditional clientele and nontraditional audiences. A case study is presented to illustrate how research and extension were integrated to improve the adoption of AI by beef producers. Those in agriculture are increasingly resorting to the use of social media venues such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, and Twitter to access information required to support their enterprises. Use of these various approaches by extension educators requires appreciation of the technology and an understanding of how the target audiences access information available on social media. Technology to deliver information is changing rapidly, and Cooperative Extension Service professionals will need to continuously evaluate digital technology and social media tools to appropriately integrate them into learning and

  1. Increments to life and mortality tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith Feeney


    Full Text Available This paper introduces and develops the idea of "increments to life." Increments to life are roughly analogous to forces of mortality: they are quantities specified for each age and time by a mathematical function of two variables that may be used to describe, analyze and model changing length of life in populations. The rationale is three-fold. First, I wanted a general mathematical representation of Bongaart's "life extension" pill (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 allowing for continuous variation in age and time. This is accomplished in sections 3-5, to which sections 1-2 are preliminaries. It turned out to be a good deal more difficult than I expected, partly on account of the mathematics, but mostly because it requires thinking in very unaccustomed ways. Second, I wanted a means of assessing the robustness of the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment formula (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 against variations in increments to life by age. Section 6 shows how the increments to life mathematics accomplishes this with an application to the Swedish data used in Bongaarts and Feeney (2003. In this application, at least, the Bongaarts-Feeney adjustment is robust. Third, I hoped by formulating age-variable increments to life to avoid the slight awkwardness of working with conditional rather than unconditional survival functions. This third aim has not been accomplished, but this appears to be because it was unreasonable to begin with. While it is possible to conceptualize length of life as completely described by an age-varying increments to life function, this is not consistent with the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment. What seems to be needed, rather, is a model that incorporates two fundamentally different kinds of changes in mortality and length of life, one based on the familiar force of mortality function, the other based on the increments to life function. Section 7 considers heuristically what such models might look like.

  2. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa


    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  3. Introducing Extension/Outreach Education in Tajikistan (United States)

    Albrecht, Julie A.; Prochaska-Cue, Kathleen; Rockwell, S. Kay; Pulatov, Pulat A.


    University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) and Khujand branch of the Technological University of Tajikistan (KbTUT) collaborated on the development of an Extension/outreach program in Tajikistan. Fifteen KbTUT administrators, faculty, and students from textiles, food science, and management engaged in training sessions at UNL on entrepreneurship, adult…

  4. Extensible Markup Language Data Mining System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 宋瀚涛


    The existing data mining methods are mostly focused on relational databases and structured data, but not on complex structured data (like in extensible markup language(XML)). By converting XML document type description to the relational semantic recording XML data relations, and using an XML data mining language, the XML data mining system presents a strategy to mine information on XML.

  5. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon


    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  6. Longest Common Extensions in Sublinear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;


    The longest common extension problem (LCE problem) is to construct a data structure for an input string T of length n that supports LCE(i,j) queries. Such a query returns the length of the longest common prefix of the suffixes starting at positions i and j in T. This classic problem has a well-kn...

  7. Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Vesterstrøm, Jakob Svaneborg; Riget, Jacques


    In this paper, we introduce spatial extension to particles in the PSO model in order to overcome premature convergence in iterative optimisation. The standard PSO and the new model (SEPSO) are compared w.r.t. performance on well-studied benchmark problems. We show that the SEPSO indeed managed...

  8. Coherent radiation from extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus


    The generic properties of the emission of coherent radiation from a moving charge distribution are discussed. The general structure of the charge and current distributions in an extensive air shower are derived. These are subsequently used to develop a very intuitive picture for the properties of th

  9. Emergency Food Programs: Untapped Opportunities for Extension? (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.


    This article reports results from a questionnaire that assessed the frequency and type of nutrition questions asked at emergency food programs to determine if Extension professionals need to increase direct outreach efforts. Emergency food program workers (n = 460) were recruited via mail to complete a self-administered survey. More than one-third…


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    In accordance with the provisions agreed by the Finance Committee and Council in March and June 2000, respectively, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2001, for one year. Human Resources Division Tel. 72808/74128

  11. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension (United States)


    ... Request Title: Natural Gas Imports and Exports; (3) Type of Request: Three-year extension; (4) Purpose... reporting sections for the collection and identification of new types of natural gas transactions related to...-746R, ``Natural Gas Imports and Exports.'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed...

  12. On free ring extensions of degree n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto


    Full Text Available Nagahara and Kishimoto [1] studied free ring extensions B(x of degree n for some integer n over a ring B with 1, where xn=b, cx=xρ(c for all c and some b in B(ρ=automophism of  B, and {1,x…,xn−1} is a basis. Parimala and Sridharan [2], and the author investigated a class of free ring extensions called generalized quaternion algebras in which b=−1 and ρ is of order 2. The purpose of the present paper is to generalize a characterization of a generalized quaternion algebra to a free ring extension of degree n in terms of the Azumaya algebra. Also, it is shown that a one-to-one correspondence between the set of invariant ideals of B under ρ and the set of ideals of B(x leads to a relation of the Galois extension B over an invariant subring under ρ to the center of B.

  13. 75 FR 38091 - Agency Information Collection Extension (United States)


    ... Program, OMB Control Number 1910-5127. The proposed collection will collect information on the status of... collect information on the status of grantee activities, expenditures, and results, to ensure that program... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions. (United States)


    ... generation On-board Diagnostics (OBD-II) equipped motor vehicles as part of its inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. As a result of this deadline extension, Maryland must now incorporate mandatory OBD-II checks (for 1996-and-newer OBD-II equipped vehicles) as an element of the Commonwealth's I/M program...

  15. Computer Anxiety Levels of Virginia Extension Personnel. (United States)

    Martin, Brenda L.; Stewart, Daisy L.; Hillison, John


    Survey responses from 402 Virginia extension personnel showed that secretaries and younger staff had the lowest computer anxiety, technicians and older staff the highest. Time spent using computers, age, and years of employment were somewhat associated with anxiety. Training recommendations were made. (SK)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoquan; Zhong Yifang; Zhang Weiguo


    Based on extenics, an extensive functional information model (function-behavioral action-structure-environmental constraint) of the mechanical product intelligent conceptual design is developed, and the mechanism of theoretic structure solutions is produced, the mapping relations between function-behavior and behavior-structure are analyzed.The model is applied to the filling material system's conceptual design to verify validity.

  17. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Chris G


    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  18. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed? (United States)

    He, Mu


    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  19. Playing extensive form games in parallel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ghosh; R. Ramanujam; S. Simon


    Consider a player playing against different opponents in two extensive form games simultaneously. Can she then have a strategy in one game using information from the other? The famous example of playing chess against two grandmasters simultaneously illustrates such reasoning. We consider a simple dy

  20. Agent Turnovers in Ohio State University Extension. (United States)

    Rousan, Laith M.; Henderson, Janet L.


    Responses from 61 of 67 Ohio State University extension agents who left between 1990-94 showed they were primarily female (66%), white (90%), and untenured (98%). They were most likely to leave due to other priorities, insufficient pay, family obligations, too many work responsibilities, or the opportunity to make more money elsewhere. (SK)

  1. Extension Leads Model City Litter Fight (United States)

    Magnuson, Doris


    A three-year war on litter is in effect in the Portland, Maine, area, as a result of the University of Maine's enlisting the county extension service to help the local Model Cities program clean up the inner city. Article details problems and progress in meeting the objectives. (PD)

  2. A Graph Library Extension of SVG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt


    be aggregated as a single node, and an entire graph can be embedded in a single node. In addition, a number of different graph animations are described. The starting point of the SVG extension is a library that provides an exact of mirror of SVG 1.1 in the functional programming language Scheme. Each element...

  3. Extensive Air Showers in the Classroom (United States)

    Badala, A.; Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.


    The basic properties of extensive air showers of particles produced in the interaction of a high-energy primary cosmic ray in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in the context of educational cosmic ray projects involving undergraduate students and high-school teams. Simulation results produced by an air shower development code were made…

  4. Tools for Creating Mobile Applications for Extension (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.


    Considerations and tools for developing mobile applications for Extension include evaluating the topic, purpose, and audience. Different computing platforms may be used, and apps designed as modified Web pages or implicitly programmed for a particular platform. User privacy is another important consideration, especially for data collection apps.…

  5. Modeling the Forced Extension of Nicked DNA (United States)

    Balaeff, Alexander; Craig, Stephen; Beratan, David


    The design and study of DNA-based nanodevices has been a topic of considerable interest in the last decade. While the applications of classical continuous DNA structures have been thoroughly studied, nicked DNA structures, i.e., ones that contains breaks (``nicks'') in one or both DNA backbone chains, have received much less attention. Recently, Kersey et al. (JACS, 2004) reported the force spectroscopy of long DNA chains with periodic nicks, self-assembled from short DNA oligomers. We attempt to model the experimental force-extension profiles in a series of steered molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated all-atom model of a basic unit of the long self-assembled chain, a 16bp-long DNA segment with a nick in the middle of one strand, is extended by applying either a constant force or a moving harmonic potential to the DNA ends. The computed force-extension profiles are compared to those for a non-nicked DNA; the dynamics of structural changes in the nicked DNA during the forced extension is discussed. A theoretical framework is established to link the extension and rupture in the simulated basic unit to the corresponding events in the long self-assembled chain.

  6. Entrepreneurial Extension Conducted via Social Media (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sarah; Hyde, Jeffrey; Raines, Christopher; Kelley, Kathleen; Ollendyke, Dana; Remcheck, James


    The widespread availability of and access to the Internet have led to the development of new forms of communication. Collectively termed "social media," these new communication tools have created vast opportunities for Extension professionals in how they perform their work and how businesses interact with consumers. This article outlines currently…

  7. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading (United States)

    Nation, Paul


    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  8. Characteristics of Noncredit University Extension Students. (United States)

    Dow, June Barth

    Characteristics of noncredit University Extension enrollees of 1964 were studied further to explore Houle's typology of the continuous learner. A structured questionnaire composed of 47 items was presented to 24 participants in interview sessions. It was found that most participants did not fit Houle's classification of being activity-oriented; a…

  9. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension (United States)


    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  10. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension (United States)


    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  11. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service (United States)

    Black, Lynette


    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  12. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed? (United States)

    He, Mu


    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  13. Catastrophic failure of polymer melts during extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Numerical flow modeling has been applied to study the break of monodisperse polymer melts during extension. These continuum mechanical based computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ’interchain pressure’ theory. Calculated breaks, a result of small initial sample imperfections, ag...

  14. Stories and Storytelling in Extension Work (United States)

    Peters, Scott; Franz, Nancy K.


    Deep budget cuts, increased accountability, and the growth of anti-government and anti-intellectual sentiments place Extension systems in a defensive position. In response, we're engaging in organizational change exercises, restructuring, regionalizing, rewriting mission statements, and developing strategic plans. We're spending…

  15. Differential Krull dimension in differential polynomial extensions


    Smirnov, Ilya


    We investigate the differential Krull dimension of differential polynomials over a differential ring. We prove a differential analogue of Jaffard's Special Chain Theorem and show that differential polynomial extensions of certain classes of differential rings have no anomaly of differential Krull dimension.

  16. Trials and Triumphs of Expanded Extension Programs. (United States)

    Leavengood, Scott; Love, Bob


    Oregon extension faced challenges in presenting programs in the wood products industry. Several traditional tactics, revised to suit a new audience, have proved successful: personal coaching, building partnerships, and providing a high level of service. Newer methods, such as database marketing and distance learning, are also proving to be…

  17. [Gestalt therapy, extension of psychoanalysis (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Moreau, A


    Gestalt therapy extends considerably psychoanalysis. 1. Transfer in psychoanalysis allows to work on the disturbed relations which the patient transfers onto his analyst, relations created by the parents and repeated now. The extended transfer in a therapeutic group of life allows to work on the fact that the patient recreates here and now the difficulties he encounters in life. 2. The game of the analyst and the encounter show that beyond transfer and projection, a real encounter may take place, a precious means to create life here and now. 3. The difference between individual therapy and group-therapy is about this: the former is centered on illness, the latter on life; the former helps to understand, the latter to live; the individual talks about facts from the past and from elsewhere and the group lives "here and now", which allows to test feelings, a powerful source of life. 4. A session of group-therapy, as developed here, allows to see how one can find a response to a need or avoid to find a response to it. 5. A comparison-table between psycho-analysis and gestalt shows the difference of method, diagnosis, therapeutic process, therapeutist's attitude and of the position of the patient. 6. Psycho-analysis is perhaps a relay after religion? Several elements make us believe this: tension in contacts, ritual, authority, protection, neutrality, guilty making. 7. To contest or contest one-self has helped me to compare the contester with the psycho-analyst: both contest society, but they don't change their behavior. The gestalt-therapeutist is in a way like a hippie: though contesting society, he brings a change to his way of life, while being closer to life.

  18. Workplace Issues in Extension--A Delphi Study of Extension Educators (United States)

    Kroth, Michael; Peutz, Joey


    Using the Delphi technique, expert Extension educators identified and prioritized those workplace issues they believe will be the most important to attract, motivate, and retain Extension educators/agents over the next 5 to 7 years. Obtaining and then utilizing a talented, highly motivated workforce during a period when many will be retiring will…

  19. La optica de imagenes en la extension universitaria de Unicamp

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, Jose Joaquin; Amon, Maria Clara Igrejas; Toledo, Rolando Serra


    The physics teaching particularly the optics teaching always have faced motivational problems, mostly due to the loss of the link between the social practice and the daily life of the student. Moreover, the laboratory practices have lost space in high school attributable to a lack of resources or caused by the fact that the main purpose of the high school is being no more than the access to the University. This work shows how an extension activity called "Holographic Exhibit" tries to motivate high school students by means of experimentation, observation and the application of physics concepts in daily life, awakening their interests to the general physics. La ensenanza de la fisica y en particular de la optica siempre ha enfrentado problemas de aspecto motivacional principalmente por la perdida del vinculo con la practica social y con la vida cotidiana del estudiante. Ademas, las practicas de laboratorio han perdido mucho espacio en la ensenanza media por carencias de las escuelas o debido a que tiene apenas...

  20. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions. (United States)

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D


    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology.

  1. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase and cell wall extensibility. (United States)

    Miedes, E; Zarra, I; Hoson, T; Herbers, K; Sonnewald, U; Lorences, E P


    Transgenic tomato hypocotyls with altered levels of an XTH gene were used to study how XET activity could affect the hypocotyl growth and cell wall extensibility. Transgenic hypocotyls showed significant over-expression (line 13) or co-suppression (line 33) of the SlXTH1 in comparison with the wild type, with these results being correlated with the results on specific soluble XET activity, suggesting that SlXTH1 translates mainly for a soluble XET isoenzyme. A relationship between XET activity and cell wall extensibility was found, and the highest total extensibility was located in the apical hypocotyl segment of the over-expressing SlXTH1 line, where the XET-specific activity and hypocotyl growth were also highest compared with the wild line. Also, in the co-suppression SlXTH1 line, total extensibility values were lower than in the wild type line. The study of linkages between cell wall polysaccharides by FTIR showed that hypocotyls over-expressing SlXTH1 and having a higher XET-specific activity, were grouped away from the wild line, indicating that the linkages between pectins and between cellulose and xyloglucans might differ. These results suggested that the action of the increased XET activity in the transgenic line could be responsible for the cell wall structural changes, and therefore, alter the cell wall extensibility. On the other hand, results on xyloglucan oligosaccharides composition of the xyloglucan by MALDI TOF-MS showed no differences between lines, indicating that the xyloglucan structure was not affected by the XET action. These results provide evidences that XTHs from group I are involved mainly in the restructuring of the cell wall during growth and development, but they are not the limiting factor for plant growth.

  2. Hypoallergenicity of an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula. (United States)

    Giampietro, P G; Kjellman, N I; Oldaeus, G; Wouters-Wesseling, W; Businco, L


    Several different protein hydrolysate-based infant formulas have been promoted as hypoallergenic and considered suitable for the dietary management of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Accepting that none of the hydrolysate-based products is completely safe, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that these formulas should be tested in a double-blind placebo-controlled setting and tolerated by at least 90% of children with proven CMA. In principle, this recommendation is also endorsed by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI). In this two-center study, 32 children with proven CMA were tested with the extensive hydrolysate whey formula Nutrilon Pepti, for comparison with Profylac (extensive) and Nan HA (partial) whey hydrolysate products. Skin-prick tests (SPTs) were, respectively, positive to the three hydrolysate formulas in 19%, 15%, and 32% of children. After oral challenge it was concluded that 97% (95% CI: 85-100%) of the children tolerated Nutrilon Pepti, 94% (95% CI: 75-100%) tolerated Profylac, and 64% (95% CI: 37-81%) tolerated Nan HA. This study demonstrates that the extensive hydrolysates Nutrilon Pepti and Profylac are well tolerated in a population of children with proven CMA and that both products can be considered safe for their intended use. This study confirms that a very small number of children react even to extensively hydrolyzed formulas. SPT prior to oral exposure to the hydrolysate-based formulas can indicate whether a child is at risk of showing reactions to the product. Introduction of new products to these children should be carried out under a doctor's supervision. However, the majority of the SPT-positive children did tolerate the two extensively hydrolyzed whey-based formulas tested.

  3. Solid cystic trigeminal schwannoma with intraorbital extension causing proptosis and vision loss (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sharma, Arvind; Singh, Jitendra


    Schwannomas are slowly growing, well capsulated, benign tumors. Involvement of vestibular nerve is most commonly followed by trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal schwannoma is rare entity, and cystic degeneration with intraorbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma is even rarer. These tumors occur in fourth and fifth decades of life and patients have variable presentation depending on which cranial compartment is involved. Orbital schwannoma usually presents with proptosis with or without vision loss. We are reporting such a rare case of solid cystic trigeminal schwannoma with intraorbital extension through superior orbital fissure that was removed surgically. PMID:27695572

  4. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)


    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  5. 76 FR 22674 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... than May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  6. 75 FR 50749 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards...

  7. 76 FR 53666 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension...: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology,...

  8. 78 FR 52505 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute...

  9. 77 FR 50469 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100...

  10. 75 FR 19941 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership,...

  11. 77 FR 20790 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION section below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  12. Multiple origins of life (United States)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.


    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  13. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. J.; Park, S. W.; Cho, S. H.; Hong, S. S


    The object of this study is to improve the stability and the economic profit by reducing the radiation-induced degradation rate of polymer material used under the radiation environment. So far, the resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of a polymer has been improved by the stabilizers. They can play an important role in the anti-oxidants that interrupt the radical-mediated oxidation chain reaction. The stabilization effect could be larger than that achieved in an inert-atmosphere irradiation. Stabilization is a function of stabilizer concentration up to a certain threshold, but it is not further improved above this concentration. Beyond the threshold, the rate of radiation-induced oxidation goes up to the rate that is characteristic for the unstabilized polymer. To make up for this weakness, a technique depositing a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the polymer surface was developed for protecting the radiation-induced oxidation in the air.

  14. Transitions in waste treatment as a driver for product life extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    destabilised due to increased EU demands for waste recycling, and new opportunities for pursuing strategies of increased product lifetime appear. Swapping and local repair initiatives can be seen as examples of such opportunities. These initiatives link nicely to e.g. policy visions of circular economy...

  15. B61 Mod 12 Life Extension Program Tailkit Assembly (B61 Mod 12 LEP TKA) (United States)


    Delivery of the first production unit (First TKA Production Delivery) is used as a surrogate for IOC; DOE is responsible for production integration...single WS3 vault. HEMP Survivability (KSA) B61 TKA achieves the accuracy KPP after exposure to the HEMP environment. B61 TKA achieves the accuracy...KPP after exposure to the HEMP environment. B61 TKA achieves the accuracy KPP after exposure to the HEMP environment. TBD B61 TKA achieves the

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat. (United States)

    Radha krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sasikala, M; Sabina, K; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M


    The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of different spice extracts in raw chicken meat during storage for 15 days at 4 °C were studied. Raw chicken meat was treated with BHT (positive control), Syzygium aromaticum (SA), Cinnmomum cassia (CC), Origanum vulgare (OV), and Brassica nigra (BN) extracts and the different combinations as well as the results were compared to raw chicken meat without any additive (negative control). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of spice extracts were determined. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were ranged from 14.09 ± 0.78 to 24.65 ± 0.83 mg of GAE/g and 7.07 ± 0.15 to 12.13 ± 0.24 mg of quercetin/g, respectively. The pH, instrumental color (CIE L*, a*, b*), total viable counts (TVC), Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, Pseudomonas spp. counts and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at a gap of 3 days interval for a period of 15 days. The bacterial counts of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lower than control samples during storage. T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher L*, a* and b* values while storing. The TBARS values of T-W-SA+T-W-CC+T-W-OV samples were lowest among the samples. These results show that spice extracts are very effective against microbial growth, lipid oxidation and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw chicken meats.

  17. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,


    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  18. Telerobotic Satellite Servicing for Space System Life Extension and Performance Enhancement Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By examining the occurrence rates and types of actual on-orbit failures, a failure servicing industry can be projected. Similarly, by examining the lifetimes of...

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Minuteman III Propulsion System Rocket Engine Life Extension Program (United States)


    layers) depleted in calcium carbonate but enriched in aluminum-and iron -bearing minerals. ä Aridisol – Aridisols are dry, desert like soils that...characteristic vegetation. However, in much of this area, mesquite ( Prosopis ) grows in open stands among the grasses. M313 – Arizona – New Mexico Mountains...flux Inhalation, contact, and ingestion. Safety glasses, apron, and only low temperature solder irons are used. BUILD UP • 2-butoxyethanol (1st

  20. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf‐Life (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele


    Abstract In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC‐MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291T, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009T, Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456T, and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171T by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract. PMID:26556435

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf-Life. (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Succi, Mariantonietta; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele


    In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291(T), Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009(T), Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456(T), and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171(T) by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract.

  2. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation. (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil


    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  3. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhua Chen


    At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents. The proposal of conducting open science is to reduce the limited repeatability of researches in life science. I outlined the essential steps for conducting open life science and the necessary standards for creating, reusing and reproducing open materials. Different Creative Commons licenses were presented and compared of their usage scope and restriction. As a conclusion, I argued that open materials should be widely adopted in doing life and medical researches.

  4. States On Orthocomplemented Difference Posets (Extensions) (United States)

    Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel


    We continue the investigation of orthocomplemented posets that are endowed with a symmetric difference (ODPs). The ODPs are orthomodular and, therefore, can be viewed as "enriched" quantum logics. In this note, we introduced states on ODPs. We derive their basic properties and study the possibility of extending them over larger ODPs. We show that there are extensions of states from Boolean algebras over unital ODPs. Since unital ODPs do not, in general, have to be set-representable, this result can be applied to a rather large class of ODPs. We then ask the same question after replacing Boolean algebras with "nearly Boolean" ODPs (the pseudocomplemented ODPs). Making use of a few results on ODPs, some known and some new, we construct a pseudocomplemented ODP, P, and a state on P that does not allow for extensions over larger ODPs.

  5. Extensible Technology-Agnostic Runtime Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo


    Full Text Available With numerous specialised technologies available to industry, it has become increasingly frequent for computer systems to be composed of heterogeneous components built over, and using, different technologies and languages. While this enables developers to use the appropriate technologies for specific contexts, it becomes more challenging to ensure the correctness of the overall system. In this paper we propose a framework to enable extensible technology agnostic runtime verification and we present an extension of polyLarva, a runtime-verification tool able to handle the monitoring of heterogeneous-component systems. The approach is then applied to a case study of a component-based artefact using different technologies, namely C and Java.

  6. Study on Extension Strategy-Tactics-Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChunyan; ZhangYongjun; ZhuDongmei


    Extension strategy-tactics-planning (ESTP), based upon the science of Extenics, is established for the purpose of solving contradictory problems. In this paper, the fundamental thoughts, theories and methods of ESTP are introduced concisely. The highlights of ESTP are that the techniques, used in the case of tackling such problems as how to generate the ideas of strategy-tactics-planning, how to completely analyze the resources, how to exploit extension resources, how to transfer the incompatible into the compati-ble, and how to transfer the opposite into the co-existent, are developed in a formalized way. And regarding the practices of ESTP, the applications of ESTP in resource integration, project, market development, and the prevention and handling crises are presented.

  7. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek Sadhu


    Let ⊆ be a commutative ring extension. Let $\\mathcal{I}$(, ) be the multiplicative group of invertible -submodules of . In this article, we extend a result of Sadhu and Singh by finding a necessary and sufficient condition on an integral birational extension ⊆ of integral domains with dim ≤ 1, so that the natural map $\\mathcal{I}$(, ) $→$ $\\mathcal{I}(A[X,X^{-1}],B[X,X^{-1}])$ is an isomorphism. In the same situation, we show that if dim ≥ 2, then the condition is necessary but not sufficient. We also discuss some properties of the cokernel of the natural map $\\mathcal{I}(A,B)→ \\mathcal{I}[X,X^{-1}], B[X,X^{-1}])$ in the general case.

  8. Extensive cortical involvement in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. (United States)

    Ayzenberg, I; Börnke, C; Tönnes, C; Ziebarth, W; Lavrov, A; Lukas, C


    We present a 77-year-old previously well patient with facial asymmetry and progressive weakness of the lower extremities. An initial MRI revealed slight contrast enhancement of the meninges. Three consecutive cerebrospinal fluid examinations demonstrated low glucose concentration, marked elevation of total protein and moderate pleocytosis. No tumor cells, fungi, acid-fast bacilli or mycobacterial DNA were found. The patient's level of consciousness deteriorated dramatically, and follow-up MRI showed widespread extensive cortical hyperintensities. The lesions showed restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted images as well as low values on the corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient maps, the changes consistent with diffuse cytotoxic edema. Neuropathological examination findings were of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) with diffuse continuous infiltration of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord. The autopsy revealed a subcentimetre adenocarcinoma of the lung. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating extensive cortical involvement in adenocarcinomatous LMC.

  9. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R


    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery......, the following results were calculated for the overall appearance of a lesion able to cause locking: Positive predictive value = 0.85, negative predictive value = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.95, specificity = 0.53. Two knees were erroneously evaluated with no mechanical locking at MRI (one bucket-handle lesion and one...

  10. Stable Extensions with(out) Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Krog, Jens; Mojaza, Matin


    We investigate the vacuum stability as well as the gravitational corrections in extensions of the Standard Model featuring a new complex scalar, and two Dirac fermions for different choices of the hypercharge of the scalar and one of the two fermions. The neutral fermion acquires loop-induced mag...... and discover that the models can be compatible with the asymptotically safe gravity scenario at the price of a heavier Higgs and lighter top mass...

  11. Learning PrimeFaces extensions development

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer


    This book provides a step by step approach that explains the most important extension components and their features. All the major features are explained by using the JobHub application with supporting screenshots.If you are an intermediate to advanced level user (or developer) who already has a basic working knowledge of PrimeFaces, then this book is for you.The only thing you need to know is Java Server Faces(JSF).

  12. Muonic footprint of simulated extensive air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfani, Mona; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen (Germany)


    The number of muons at ground is one of the major parameters in extensive air showers to discriminate hadronic showers from photon ones. There are already numerous studies focusing on this matter and on using the muon content in combination with other parameters. In our study, we use CORSIKA showers for photon and proton primaries at E=10{sup 18} eV without thinning of shower muons to analyze the structure of the muonic footprint at different core distances.

  13. British Men Opt for Penis Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    选注者言:cosmetic surgery,即“整容手术;整容外科”,英国男士和女士的所谓 “整容”已经大大超出了我们所理解的“面部”范畴。男士:penis extension(阴茎 伸长扩大);女士:liposuction(吸脂)or breast enlargement(隆胸)

  14. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players. (United States)

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S


    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management.

  15. Emergence of Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) outbreaks have been reported in South Africa, and strains have been identified on 6 continents. Dr. Peter Cegielski, team leader for drug-resistant TB with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at CDC, comments on a multinational team's report on this emerging global public health threat.  Created: 3/1/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/26/2007.

  16. Esthesioneuroblastoma With Poor Outcome Despite Extensive Treatment. (United States)

    Niyaz, Leyla; Gunduz, Kaan; Meco, Cem; Kankaya, Duygu


    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It usually presents with nonspecific symptoms, such as nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and pain, but has an aggressive course if the treatment is delayed. The authors report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma in a 47-year-old woman, treated with extensive surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Despite intensive treatment, the patient developed a local recurrence with systemic metastasis and succumbed 4 months later.

  17. Invariant holomorphic extension in several complex variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Xiangyu


    Two fundamental problems on the invariant holomorphic extensions have been posed, which are naturally arose from our solution of the extended future tube conjecture and closely and deeply related to the general theory of Stein manifolds due to Cartan-Serre. In this paper, the relationship is presented between the two problems, the motivation of considering the problems, and the methods to approach the problems. We have also posed some questions and conjectures related to this two problems.

  18. The simplest extension of Starobinsky inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten


    We consider the simplest extension to the Starobinsky model, by allowing an extra scalar field to help drive inflation. We perform our analysis in the Einstein frame and calculate the power spectra at the end of inflation to second order in the slow--roll parameters. We find that the model gives predictions in great agreement with the current Planck data without the need for fine-tuning. Our results encourage current efforts to embed the model in a supergravity setting.

  19. New Mechanism for Multiagent Extensible Negotiations


    Aknine, Samir


    Multiagent negotiation mechanisms advise original solutions to several problems for which usual problem solving methods are inappropriate. Mainly negotiation models are based on agents' interactions through messages. Agents interact in order to reach an agreement for solving a specific problem. In this work, we study a new variant of negotiations, which has not yet been addressed in existing works. This negotiation form is denoted extensible negotiation. In contrast with current negotiation m...

  20. Extensive Green Roof Ecological Benefits in Latvia


    Rušenieks, Rihards; Kamenders, Agris


    Extensive green roof ecological benefits are studiedin this paper. The research contains a brief explanation aboutgreen roof technology and green roof ecological benefits. Greenroof capability to retain rainwater runoff by accumulating it instorage layers and conducting it back into the atmospherethrough evapotranspiration is studied and modeled. Modeling isdone in Stormwater Management Model 5.0 software. The modelis based on an existing warehouse-type building located in Rigaand hourly Riga...

  1. Chordal Loewner chains with quasiconformal extensions



    In 1972, Becker [J. Reine Angew. Math. 255 (1972), 23-43] discovered a construction of quasiconformal extensions making use of the classical radial Loewner chains. In this paper we develop a chordal analogue of Becker's construction. As an application, we establish new sufficient conditions for quasiconformal extendibility of holomorphic functions and give a simplified proof of one well-known result by Becker and Pommerenke for functions in the half-plane [J. Reine Angew. Math. 354 (1984), 74...

  2. Constraints on Extensions of a Default Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Kaile


    In this paper, the representability of a family of theories as the set of extensions of a default theory is studied. First, a new necessary condition is given for the representability by means of general default theories; then a sufficient one is presented. The families of theories represented by default theories are also fully characterized. Finally, the paper gives an example of denumerable families of mutually inconsistent theories that are represented by a default theory but not by normal ones.

  3. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))


    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  4. Applications and extensions of degradation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.; Subudhi, M.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Component degradation modeling being developed to understand the aging process can have many applications with potential advantages. Previous work has focused on developing the basic concepts and mathematical development of a simple degradation model. Using this simple model, times of degradations and failures occurrences were analyzed for standby components to detect indications of aging and to infer the effectiveness of maintenance in preventing age-related degradations from transforming to failures. Degradation modeling approaches can have broader applications in aging studies and in this paper, we discuss some of the extensions and applications of degradation modeling. The application and extension of degradation modeling approaches, presented in this paper, cover two aspects: (1) application to a continuously operating component, and (2) extension of the approach to analyze degradation-failure rate relationship. The application of the modeling approach to a continuously operating component (namely, air compressors) shows the usefulness of this approach in studying aging effects and the role of maintenance in this type component. In this case, aging effects in air compressors are demonstrated by the increase in both the degradation and failure rate and the faster increase in the failure rate compared to the degradation rate shows the ineffectiveness of the existing maintenance practices. Degradation-failure rate relationship was analyzed using data from residual heat removal system pumps. A simple linear model with a time-lag between these two parameters was studied. The application in this case showed a time-lag of 2 years for degradations to affect failure occurrences. 2 refs.

  5. Translation Invariant Extensions of Finite Volume Measures (United States)

    Goldstein, S.; Kuna, T.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.


    We investigate the following questions: Given a measure μ _Λ on configurations on a subset Λ of a lattice L, where a configuration is an element of Ω ^Λ for some fixed set Ω , does there exist a measure μ on configurations on all of L, invariant under some specified symmetry group of L, such that μ _Λ is its marginal on configurations on Λ ? When the answer is yes, what are the properties, e.g., the entropies, of such measures? Our primary focus is the case in which L=Z^d and the symmetries are the translations. For the case in which Λ is an interval in Z we give a simple necessary and sufficient condition, local translation invariance ( LTI), for extendibility. For LTI measures we construct extensions having maximal entropy, which we show are Gibbs measures; this construction extends to the case in which L is the Bethe lattice. On Z we also consider extensions supported on periodic configurations, which are analyzed using de Bruijn graphs and which include the extensions with minimal entropy. When Λ subset Z is not an interval, or when Λ subset Z^d with d>1, the LTI condition is necessary but not sufficient for extendibility. For Z^d with d>1, extendibility is in some sense undecidable.

  6. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.


    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  7. Translation Invariant Extensions of Finite Volume Measures (United States)

    Goldstein, S.; Kuna, T.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.


    We investigate the following questions: Given a measure μ _Λ on configurations on a subset Λ of a lattice L, where a configuration is an element of Ω ^Λ for some fixed set Ω , does there exist a measure μ on configurations on all of L, invariant under some specified symmetry group of L, such that μ _Λ is its marginal on configurations on Λ ? When the answer is yes, what are the properties, e.g., the entropies, of such measures? Our primary focus is the case in which L=Z^d and the symmetries are the translations. For the case in which Λ is an interval in Z we give a simple necessary and sufficient condition, local translation invariance (LTI), for extendibility. For LTI measures we construct extensions having maximal entropy, which we show are Gibbs measures; this construction extends to the case in which L is the Bethe lattice. On Z we also consider extensions supported on periodic configurations, which are analyzed using de Bruijn graphs and which include the extensions with minimal entropy. When Λ subset Z is not an interval, or when Λ subset Z^d with d>1 , the LTI condition is necessary but not sufficient for extendibility. For Z^d with d>1 , extendibility is in some sense undecidable.

  8. An $OSp$ extension of Canonical Tensor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav


    Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM for short) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure as the constraints of the ADM formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from $O(N)$ to $OSp(N,\\tilde N)$, and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated to the order of the fermionic indices and dynamical variables. However, this extension of CTM leads to the existence of negative norm state...

  9. Tevatron targets three-year extension

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Margaret


    "Fermilab's Tevatron collider could get a new lease on life following a campaign to keep the facility running beyond the end of 2011, when the rival Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at Cern is scheduled to shut down for 15 months of repairs" (0.75 page)

  10. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen


    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  11. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Building Strength Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises to improve your strength! Stronger muscles can make it easier to do ...


    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve


    Balancing work and home life, getting support for your family and thriving in an inclusive and respectful workplace: find out more about the support structures in place to enhance your working life@CERN!

  13. Analysis of Characteristics Extension Workers to Utilization of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronice Veronice


    Full Text Available The science and technology is developing rapidly with the demands of changing times. The development of information and communication technology, especially since the advent of internet technology has led to major changes in society. Information technology products are relatively cheap and affordable facilitate access to information beyond the national borders and cultural boundaries. This condition has penetrated to all levels of human life, including farmers in the villages. Therefore, the extension becomes important role as a facilitator in developing the potential of farmers. Consequently extension is required to adjust to the changes and demands of the growing community. The objectives of the research is the analysis of characteristics extension workers to utilization of information and communication technology in Limapuluh Kota regency West Sumatera. This study is a descriptive-correlational survey-based study with the sample consisting of government employee as well as freelance extension workers in 8 Extension Agency of Agriculture  Fisheries and Forestry Extension (BP3K in Limapuluh Kota regency, West Sumatera province. Based on the results obtained, the results of different test (t-test is known that there are significant differences between the characteristics of the civil servants and THL-TBPP especially in the aspect of age and length of employment.

  14. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.


    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  15. Life Among the Stars (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1977


    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  16. HIV Life Cycle (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  17. Go4Life (United States)

    ... more This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Stretching Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises ... how to do lower body exercises in her office with Go4Life's Toe Stand. CC 1:28 Play ...

  18. Go4Life

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more This item has been hidden Go4Life Exercises — Stretching Play all Try some of these Go4Life exercises ... how to do lower body exercises in her office with Go4Life's Toe Stand. CC 1:28 Play ...

  19. End of Life Issues (United States)

    Planning for the end of life can be difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, you can ... right choices when the time comes. End-of-life planning usually includes making choices about the following: ...

  20. Recreating Daily life in Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann


    Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

  1. Deciding about treatments that prolong life (United States)

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; ...

  2. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia


    in 2010 this might be as high as 10 years more. The stage of midlife has always been considered an important step in the life of human beings. However, there is no agreement on which is the age or age-range that represents the middle phase. Here we have further added the notion that halfway......“Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. [In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost.]” (Dante 1308-1320) We have reached halfway in life when our age equals our remaining...... life expectancy at that age. This relationship in stable population models between life lived and life left has captured the attention of mathematical demographers since Lotka. Our paper aims to contribute to the halfway-age debate by showing its time trends under mortality models and with current data...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM


    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  4. An Assessment of Extension Education Curriculum at Land Grant Universities (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Mashburn, Diane; Benge, Matt


    A critical assessment of extension education is needed to ensure there are adequate opportunities for students to study extension education and that the curriculum is relevant to today's Cooperative Extension Service. This descriptive study was conducted to assess extension education curriculum by identifying and comparing the courses being taught…

  5. 11 CFR 100.55 - Extension of credit. (United States)


    ... substantially similar to extensions of credit to nonpolitical debtors that are of similar risk and size of... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of credit. 100.55 Section 100.55... Contribution (2 U.S.C. 431(8)) § 100.55 Extension of credit. The extension of credit by any person is...

  6. A Model for Evaluating eXtension Communities of Practice (United States)

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Stafne, Eric T.


    As Americans shift their work and leisure activities online, Extension seeks to remain viable by delivering programs through a website known as eXtension. eXtension is predicated on the voluntary labor of Extension specialists and educators who form Communities of Practice to create and deliver content through the website. Evaluation of eXtension…

  7. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)


    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  8. Multistate analysis of life histories with R

    CERN Document Server

    Willekens, Frans


    This book provides an introduction to multistate event history analysis. It is an extension of survival analysis, in which a single terminal event (endpoint) is considered and the time-to-event is studied. Multistate models focus on life histories or trajectories, conceptualized as sequences of states and sequences of transitions between states. Life histories are modeled as realizations of continuous-time Markov processes. The model parameters, transition rates, are estimated from data on event counts and populations at risk, using the statistical theory of counting processes. The Comprehensive R Network Archive (CRAN) includes several packages for multistate modeling. This book is about Biograph. The package is designed to (a) enhance exploratory analysis of life histories and (b) make multistate modeling accessible. The package incorporates utilities that connect to several packages for multistate modeling, including survival, eha, Epi, mvna, etm, mstate, msm, and TraMineR for sequence analysis. The book ...

  9. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs. (United States)

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A


    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  10. Investigating Mechanisms of Marginal Settlement Life Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid M. Mohammadi


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms to improve marginal settlement life in Koohdasht County in Lorestan province. This research was a sort of the survey studies and a questionnaire was compiled for collection of data. Statistical population of this study was included 1560 households; also sampling method was a sort of random sampling. Number of sample size was estimated 85 households. Questionnaire's reliability was confirmed through computing Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.85. Face validity of questionnaire was confirmed by some Tehran university agricultural extension and education department scientific board members. Also data analyzed by WINspss 11.5. The results of research revealed that marginal area residents had not good financial situation but they undertook great supporting burden and in point of view access to services and life conditions had not good situation. Therefore improvement of life conditions of marginal settlement life such as fundamental infrastructure include communication systems and sanitation offloading system recognized as the most important mechanisms of marginal settlement improvement according to results of priority setting of marginal settlement situation mechanisms. Also the results of factor analysis showed that 7 main mechanisms were be effective in term of marginal settlement life improvement that in order to importance were included servicing and life condition improvement, credit-economic, civil and legal, control and prevention, population and migration control, infrastructures improvement and hygiene situation.

  11. Extensive spinal epidural abscess complicated with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Corneliu


    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess is a rare but severe infection requiring prompt recognition in order to have a favorable outcome and appropriate treatment, mainly surgical. We present one of the largest extensions of such abscess in literature, involving the whole spine. No surgical treatment was tempted due to the involvement of 19 levels but antibiotics. The evolution of the lesion was complicated with hydrocephalus, by mechanism of cervical block of CSF flow, and needed first external derivation and later ventriculo-peritoneal drainage.

  12. Analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenthaeler, R. (Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Laboratorio do Pelletron, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 20516, 01452-990 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Gomes, L.C. (Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares Instituto de Fisica Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 20516, 01498-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil))


    An analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential in the complex energy and angular momentum planes is discussed and an approximation for the algebraic potential in agreement with the known analytic properties of the [ital S]-matrix is proposed. The invariance of the energy spectrum of the Coulomb part of the interaction is established. The results are applied to the Regge pole analysis of the [sup 12]C+[sup 24]Mg elastic collision at [ital E][sub [ital l][ital a][ital b

  13. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report


    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab


    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and his...

  14. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report. (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab


    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.


    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  16. Generic modules for trivial extension algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Let A be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field. An indecomposable (right) ,4-module M is called generic provided M is infinite k-dimensional but finite length as (left) EndA(M)-module. Let R = A DA be the trivial extension algebra of A- Generic R-modules are constructed from generic A-modules using some functors between Mod A and Mod R. it is also proved that if A is a tame hereditary algebra, then R has only two generic modules.

  17. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    KAUST Repository

    Kasowski, M.


    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  18. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares


    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  19. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  20. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, M.; Sheinman, O. K.


    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this paper local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions of Lax operator algebras are classified. It is shown that in the case when the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebra of meromorphic vector fields on the Lax operator algebra via suitable covariant derivatives.

  1. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras


    Schlichenmaier, Martin; Sheinman, Oleg K.


    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of I.Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this article local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions are classified. It is shown that in the case that the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebr...

  2. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  3. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.


    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  4. A timed extension for AltaRica


    Cassez, Franck; Pagetti, Claire; Roux, Olivier


    International audience; In this paper we present a timed extension of the AltaRica formalism. Following previous works, we first extend the semantics of AltaRica with time and define timed components and timed nodes. Moreover we lift the priority features of AltaRica to the timed case. We obtain a timed version of AltaRica, called Timed AltaRica. Finally we give a translation of a Timed AltaRica specification into a usual timed automaton. These are the semantic foundations of a high-level hie...

  5. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus


    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can......The abilities to extend a software module and to integrate a software module into an existing software system without changing existing source code are fundamental challenges in software engineering and programming-language design. We reconsider these challenges at the level of language...

  6. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty (United States)

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo


    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana


    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  8. The extensive nature of group quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kenna, Ralph


    We consider groups of interacting nodes engaged in an activity as many-body, complex systems and analyse their cooperative behaviour from a mean-field point of view. We show that inter-nodal interactions rather than accumulated individual node strengths dominate the quality of group activity, and give rise to phenomena akin to phase transitions, where the extensive relationship between group quality and quantity reduces. The theory is tested using empirical data on quantity and quality of scientific research groups, for which critical masses are determined.

  9. Central extension of graded Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Welte, Angelika


    In this thesis we describe the universal central extension of two important classes of so-called root-graded Lie algebras defined over a commutative associative unital ring $k.$ Root-graded Lie algebras are Lie algebras which are graded by the root lattice of a locally finite root system and contain enough $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$-triples to separate the homogeneous spaces of the grading. Examples include the infinite rank analogs of the simple finite-dimensional complex Lie algebras. \\\\ In the thesis we show that in general the universal central extension of a root-graded Lie algebra $L$ is not root-graded anymore, but that we can measure quite easily how far it is away from being so, using the notion of degenerate sums, introduced by van der Kallen. We then concentrate on root-graded Lie algebras which are graded by the root systems of type $A$ with rank at least 2 and of type $C$. For them one can use the theory of Jordan algebras.

  10. Pleasant extensions retaining algebraic structure, II

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Tim


    This paper is the second of three in which we develop and use some general machinery for constructing extensions of probability-preserving systems in which certain nonconventional ergodic averages enjoy simplified asymptotic behaviour. Here we will combine the general tools developed in the first part (arXiv:0905.0518) with several ideas taken from earlier work on one-dimensional nonconventional ergodic averages by Furstenberg and Weiss, Host and Kra and Ziegler to study the linear nonconventional ergodic averages associated to a triple of directions \\bf{p}_1, \\bf{p}_2, \\bf{p}_3 in \\bbZ^2 that lie in general position along with the origin. We will show how to construct an extension of an initially-given \\bbZ^2-system for which these averages admit characteristic factors with a very concrete description, involving one-dimensional isotropy factors together with a new ingredient: a special class of two-step Abelian isometric \\bbZ^2-systems, which we go on to study in some detail. In the third part of this sequen...

  11. A New DAO Pattern with Dynamic Extensibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Currently existing data access object (DAO) patterns have several limitations. First, the interface of the patterns and business objects is tightly-coupled, which affects seriously the dynamic extensibility of software systems. Second, the patterns have duplicated implementation codes, which add to difficulties of system maintenance. To solve these problems, a new DAO pattern with stronger independency and dynamic extensibility is proposed in this paper. An example is given to illustrate the using process of the new DAO pattern. The greatest advantages of the new DAO pattern are as follows. If any business object is needed to add to the system, we do not have to modify any codes of the class DAO Factory. All we need to do is to modify the mapping file. Furthermore, because we have only one DAO implementation class to accomplish all the data access to business objects, if some SQL statements are needed to be modified, all we need to do is to modify the DAO implementation class but not need to modify any business objects.

  12. A Case of Extensive polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign disorder of bone consisting of intramedullary proliferation of fibrous tissue and irregularly distributed, poorly developed bone. The disease manifests itself in the monostotic form in which only one bone is involved and the polyostotic form in which multiple bones at different sites are affected. We reported a extensive case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with involvement of craniofacial bones, mandible, ribs, extremities. A 18-year-old man showed remarkable right facial swelling who had been treated on right femur 3 years ago with a bone graft for pathologic fracture and he recognized facial swelling 5 years ago. Extraoral radiograms and computed tomogram showed diffuse sclerosis with a ground glass appearance of the most calvarial bones, facial bones. The right mandibular lesion showed very expansible lesion with mottled appearance. Bone scans showed multifocal increased uptakes in craniofacial bones, right mandible, bilaterally in ribs, humerus, femur, tibia and characteristic various deformity of right femur (shepherd's crook deformity). This case showed exceptionally bilateral, extensive nature of bone lesion and didn't show any features of skin pigmentation and endocrine disturbances.

  13. Extensive Growth of an Anaplastic Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrullah Ahmeti


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with an almost complete destruction of the calvarial bone through an anaplastic meningioma diagnosed in line with dizziness. Neuroimaging revealed an extensive growing, contrast enhancing lesion expanding at the supra- and infratentorial convexity, infiltrating and destroying large parts of the skull, and infiltrating the skin. Due to progressive ataxia and dysarthria with proven tumor growth in the posterior fossa in the continuing course, parts of the tumor were resected. A surgical procedure with the aim of complete tumor resection in a curative manner was not possible. Six months after the first operation, due to a new tumor progression, most extensive tumor resection was performed. Due to the aggressive and destructive growth with a high rate of recurrence and tendency of metastases, anaplastic meningiomas can be termed as malignant tumors. The extrinsic growth masks the tumor until they reach a size, which makes these tumors almost unresectable. In the best case scenarios, the five-year survival is about 50%. With the presented case, we would like to show the aggressive behavior of anaplastic meningiomas in a very illustrative way. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery reach their limits in this tumor entity.

  14. On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang


    We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.

  15. VARUN: discovering extensible motifs under saturation constraints. (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi


    The discovery of motifs in biosequences is frequently torn between the rigidity of the model on one hand and the abundance of candidates on the other hand. In particular, motifs that include wild cards or "don't cares" escalate exponentially with their number, and this gets only worse if a don't care is allowed to stretch up to some prescribed maximum length. In this paper, a notion of extensible motif in a sequence is introduced and studied, which tightly combines the structure of the motif pattern, as described by its syntactic specification, with the statistical measure of its occurrence count. It is shown that a combination of appropriate saturation conditions and the monotonicity of probabilistic scores over regions of constant frequency afford us significant parsimony in the generation and testing of candidate overrepresented motifs. A suite of software programs called Varun is described, implementing the discovery of extensible motifs of the type considered. The merits of the method are then documented by results obtained in a variety of experiments primarily targeting protein sequence families. Of equal importance seems the fact that the sets of all surprising motifs returned in each experiment are extracted faster and come in much more manageable sizes than would be obtained in the absence of saturation constraints.

  16. Highly extensible skeletal muscle in snakes. (United States)

    Close, Matthew; Perni, Stefano; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Cundall, David


    Many snakes swallow large prey whole, and this process requires large displacements of the unfused tips of the mandibles and passive stretching of the soft tissues connecting them. Under these conditions, the intermandibular muscles are highly stretched but subsequently recover normal function. In the highly stretched condition we observed in snakes, sarcomere length (SL) increased 210% its resting value (SL0), and actin and myosin filaments no longer overlapped. Myofibrils fell out of register and triad alignment was disrupted. Following passive recovery, SLs returned to 82% SL0, creating a region of double-overlapping actin filaments. Recovery required recoil of intracellular titin filaments, elastic cytoskeletal components for realigning myofibrils, and muscle activation. Stretch of whole muscles exceeded that of sarcomeres as a result of extension of folded terminal tendon fibrils, stretching of extracellular elastin and independent slippage of muscle fibers. Snake intermandibular muscles thus provide a unique model of how basic components of vertebrate skeletal muscle can be modified to permit extreme extensibility.

  17. Extension of yeast chronological lifespan by methylamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha is strongly enhanced when cells are grown on methanol or ethanol, metabolized by peroxisome enzymes, relative to growth on glucose that does not require peroxisomes. The short lifespan of H. polymorpha on glucose is mainly due to medium acidification, whereas most likely ROS do not play an important role. Growth of cells on methanol/methylamine instead of methanol/ammonium sulphate resulted in further lifespan enhancement. This was unrelated to medium acidification. We show that oxidation of methylamine by peroxisomal amine oxidase at carbon starvation conditions is responsible for lifespan extension. The methylamine oxidation product formaldehyde is further oxidized resulting in NADH generation, which contributes to increased ATP generation and reduction of ROS levels in the stationary phase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that primary peroxisome metabolism enhanced chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha. Moreover, the possibility to generate NADH at carbon starvation conditions by an organic nitrogen source supports further extension of the lifespan of the cell. Consequently, the interpretation of CLS analyses in yeast should include possible effects on the energy status of the cell.

  18. Entanglement as minimal discord over state extensions (United States)

    Luo, Shunlong


    The characterization and quantification of quantum correlations, which play an instrumental role in exploring and exploiting the quantum world, have been extensively and intensively studied in the past few decades. Of special prominence and significance are the concepts of entanglement and discord, which are usually regarded as very distinctive quantum correlations, with the latter going beyond the former. In this work we establish a direct and natural link between entanglement and discord via state extensions and reveal that entanglement is actually the intrinsic discord, by which we mean that entanglement is the irreducible residue of discord viewed from ambient spaces. Our approach, taking into account the contextuality of a quantum state and being of a global nature, stands in sharp contrast to the local operations and classical communication paradigm of entanglement, which focuses on the state itself via a local approach. Furthermore, we introduce a figure of merit which, on the one hand, captures the essence of entanglement, i.e., nonlocality and quantumness of correlations, and, on the other hand, leads to a quantitative decomposition of total correlations into classical correlations, dissonance, and entanglement. This demystifies the meaning of entanglement from the perspective of quantum measurements and provides a unified framework for the interplay of various correlations in terms of quantum measurements and mutual information.

  19. Improved Extension Neural Network and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou


    Full Text Available Extension neural network (ENN is a new neural network that is a combination of extension theory and artificial neural network (ANN. The learning algorithm of ENN is based on supervised learning algorithm. One of important issues in the field of classification and recognition of ENN is how to achieve the best possible classifier with a small number of labeled training data. Training data selection is an effective approach to solve this issue. In this work, in order to improve the supervised learning performance and expand the engineering application range of ENN, we use a novel data selection method based on shadowed sets to refine the training data set of ENN. Firstly, we use clustering algorithm to label the data and induce shadowed sets. Then, in the framework of shadowed sets, the samples located around each cluster centers (core data and the borders between clusters (boundary data are selected as training data. Lastly, we use selected data to train ENN. Compared with traditional ENN, the proposed improved ENN (IENN has a better performance. Moreover, IENN is independent of the supervised learning algorithms and initial labeled data. Experimental results verify the effectiveness and applicability of our proposed work.

  20. Use of Computer and Internet in Agricultural Extension as Perceived by Extension Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pezeshki Rad


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine computer and Internet use in agricultural extension by Extension Workers (EWs. This study used a descriptive-correlational design. Population for the study consisted of all extension workers (N = 320 in Isfahan Province, Iran. A stratified sampling technique and census was used to select EWs (n = 200. Overall, findings indicate that EWs have access to computers both at work and home. On average, they use computers approximately 6 – 8 hours per week and majority of them use the Internet on average of 1 – 4 hours per week. A majority of them reported “fair to high level” of skills in computer usage. For example, writing CDs, word processing, using computers for file management, and basic computer skills. However, extension agent’s report “no to a low level” of skills relative to using excel, installing software, power point and micro soft access, Photoshop, statistical software, were the skills that EWs did not have. It was proved necessary to conduct a systematic assessment of training needs relative to computer and Internet use. Systematic training should be conducted in the areas that Extension Workers perceived to be less skill.

  1. The Effects of Leader-Member Exchanges on the Relationships Between Extension Agents and County Extension Directors in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Benge


    Full Text Available The relationship between a supervisor and employee has a direct effect on the employee’s job satisfaction, work productivity, and efficiency. Understanding the interactions between Extension agents and County Extension Directors is critical to maintaining positive relationships and providing adequate support to Extension supervisors through professional development and training opportunities. This article examined the dyadic relationships between Extension agents and County Extension Directors in Florida. The majority of Florida Extension agents have high-quality relationship with their County Extension Directors. In addition, over half of relationships of five years or less are in the partner phase, suggesting new employees of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service progress through the leadership making process in a relatively short amount of time. UF/IFAS Extension Administration should provide increased leadership training for County Extension Directors to ensure all dyads progress through the leadership-making process to the partner phase, such as relationship building, and management and supervisory training.

  2. Solutions to Burnout and Retention as Perceived by County Extension Agents of the Colorado State University Extension System


    Matt Benge; Amy Harder; Jeff Goodwin


    This study explored solutions to the issue of burnout and retention of Extension agents. Extension agents experience burnout for reasons such as long hours, stress, and organizational factors. As Extension administration addresses job satisfaction and performance of Extension employees, burnout and retention issues identified in this study can facilitate efforts to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide Extension program. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory was the theoretical framework fo...

  3. Life Before Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, Alexei A


    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

  4. Early Life Exposures and Cancer (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  5. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U


    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  6. Artificial life and Piaget. (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.


    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  7. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul [Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Luis, Martino [Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)


    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  8. An extensive endoplasmic reticulum-localised glycoprotein family in trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Allison


    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are evolutionarily highly divergent parasitic protozoa, and as a consequence the vast majority of trypanosome membrane proteins remain uncharacterised in terms of location, trafficking or function. Here we describe a novel family of type I membrane proteins which we designate ‘invariant glycoproteins’ (IGPs. IGPs are trypanosome-restricted, with extensive, lineage-specific paralogous expansions in related taxa. In T. brucei three IGP subfamilies, IGP34, IGP40 and IGP48 are recognised; all possess a putative C-type lectin ectodomain and are ER-localised, despite lacking a classical ER-retention motif. IGPs exhibit highest expression in stumpy stage cells, suggesting roles in developmental progression, but gene silencing in mammalian infective forms suggests that each IGP subfamily is also required for normal proliferation. Detailed analysis of the IGP48 subfamily indicates a role in maintaining ER morphology, while the ER lumenal domain is necessary and sufficient for formation of both oligomeric complexes and ER retention. IGP48 is detected by antibodies from T. b. rhodesiense infected humans. We propose that the IGPs represent a trypanosomatid-specific family of ER-localised glycoproteins, with potential contributions to life cycle progression and immunity, and utilise oligomerisation as an ER retention mechanism.

  9. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection (United States)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino


    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  10. Extensive IT outsourcing: advice from providers. (United States)

    Smith, Mike; Whiting, Stacilee


    In summary, providers are reporting some benefits related to resources and knowledge, improved service levels/performance and stronger IT staff/leadership. Also, on average, providers are reporting satisfactory experiences with application support and CIO outsourcing. However, not all of their expectations are being met, and some providers have discontinued outsourcing due to unmet expectations. Clearly, outsourcing is an option one must research in depth--it is not for everyone. When one evaluates the results of extensive IT outsourcing, it becomes easier to see what outsourcing mix and firm may be a good match for your organization's needs and expected outcomes. As you decide upon the outsourcing mix and firm that is right for you, providers advise you to pay special attention to contractual arrangements. With adequate research and contractual provisions, organizations can find the outsourcing mix that is right for them.

  11. Approximately isometric lifting in quasidiagonal extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG XiaoChun; ZHAO YiLe


    Let O→I→A→A/I→O be a short exact sequence of C*-algebras with A unital.Suppose that the extension O→I→A→A/I→O is quasidiagonal,then it is shown that any positive element (projection,partial isometry,unitary element,respectively) in A/I has a lifting with the same form which commutes with some quasicentral approximate unit of I consisting of projections.Furthermore,it is shown that for any given positive number e,two positive elements (projections,As an application,it is shown that for any positive numbers e and (u) in U(A/I)0,there exists u in U(A)0which is a lifting of (u) such that cel(u) < cel(u) +e.

  12. Energy Extension Service Program planning manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, Judith M.


    The manual is the first revision of the EES Program Planning Manual. At the states' request, there have been a number of changes to the state EES contacts list, and an updated list is included in this package as the revised Appendix D. Part I, Introduction, presents: How to Use the State Program Planning Manual and The Energy Extension Service Program. Part II, Applying for an EES Grant, presents: The Annual State Application for Financial Assistance; State Financial Assistance and Associated Requirements; Preparing the State Plan. Part III, Operating a State EES, presents: Start-Up Considerations; State Program Reporting; Recordkeeping and Financial Management. Part IV, DOE's Role, presents DOE Functions and Responsibilities and Special Cases: Development and Implementation of a State Plan by the EES Director and Administrative Review.

  13. Holomorphic extension of generalizations of Hp functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael


    Full Text Available In recent analysis we have defined and studied holomorphic functions in tubes in ℂn which generalize the Hardy Hp functions in tubes. In this paper we consider functions f(z, z=x+iy, which are holomorphic in the tube TC=ℝn+iC, where C is the finite union of open convex cones Cj, j=1,…,m, and which satisfy the norm growth of our new functions. We prove a holomorphic extension theorem in which f(z, z ϵ TC, is shown to be extendable to a function which is holomorphic in T0(C=ℝn+i0(C, where 0(C is the convex hull of C, if the distributional boundary values in 𝒮′ of f(z from each connected component TCj of TC are equal.

  14. Non-Specialized File Format Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake W. Ford & Khosrow Kaikhah


    Full Text Available The study expands upon previous work in format extension. The initial research purposed extraspace provided by an unrefined format to store metadata about the file in question. This processdoes not negatively impact the original intent of the format and allows for the creation of newderivative file types with both backwards compatibility and new features. The file format extensionalgorithm has been rewritten entirely in C++ and is now being distributed as an open sourceC/C++ static library, roughdraftlib. The files from our previous research are essentially binarycompatible though a few extra fields have been added for developer convenience. The new datarepresents the current and oldest compatible versions of the binary and values representing thescaling ratio of the image. These new fields are statically included in every file and take only afew bytes to encode, so they have a trivial effect on the overall encoding density.

  15. Radiative Effects in the Standard Model Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskii, V C; Murchikova, E M


    The possibility of radiative effects induced by the Lorentz and CPT non-invariant interaction term for fermions in the Standard Model Extension is investigated. In particular, electron-positron photo-production and photon emission by electrons and positrons were studied. The rates of these processes were calculated in the Furry picture. It was demonstrated that the rates obtained in the framework of the model adopted strongly depend on the polarization states of the particles involved. Indeed, ultra-relativistic particles should occupy states with a preferred spin orientation, i.e., photons have the sign of polarization opposite to the sign of the effective potential, while charged particle are preferably in the state with the helicity coinciding with the sign of the effective potential. This leads to evident spatial asymmetries which may have certain consequences observable in astrophysical and cosmological studies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ⅰ. Introduction. Today, in most English teaching classes, owing to the popularity of the student-centered teaching approach, the traditional teacher-centered teaching approach has gradually lost its dominating place. As far as extensive reading classes are concerned, this is no exception. The more communicative student-centered approach has been popularly adopted. As a result, the teachers’ roles in the reading classes are changing accordingly. A qualified teacher should be prepared to take different roles at different stages of teaching. Jeremy Harmer has pointed out that a teacher can be expected to act, for example, as a controller, an assessor, an organizer, a prompter, a participant and as a resource (Harmer, 1983). In this

  17. Extensive Enactivism: Why Keep it All in?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Douglas Hutto


    Full Text Available Radical enactive and embodied approaches to cognitive science oppose the received view in the sciences of the mind in denying that cognition fundamentally involves contentful mental representation. This paper argues that the fate of representationalism in cognitive science matters significantly to how best to understand the extent of cognition. It seeks to establish that any move away from representationalism towards pure, empirical functionalism fails to provide a substantive ‘mark of the cognitive’ and is bereft of other adequate means for individuating cognitive activity. It also argues that giving proper attention to the way the folk use their psychological concepts requires questioning the legitimacy of commonsense functionalism. In place of extended functionalism – empirical or commonsensical – we promote the fortunes of extensive enactivism, clarifying in which ways it is distinct from notions of extended mind and distributed cognition.

  18. Extensive enactivism: why keep it all in? (United States)

    Hutto, Daniel D; Kirchhoff, Michael D; Myin, Erik


    Radical enactive and embodied approaches to cognitive science oppose the received view in the sciences of the mind in denying that cognition fundamentally involves contentful mental representation. This paper argues that the fate of representationalism in cognitive science matters significantly to how best to understand the extent of cognition. It seeks to establish that any move away from representationalism toward pure, empirical functionalism fails to provide a substantive "mark of the cognitive" and is bereft of other adequate means for individuating cognitive activity. It also argues that giving proper attention to the way the folk use their psychological concepts requires questioning the legitimacy of commonsense functionalism. In place of extended functionalism-empirical or commonsensical-we promote the fortunes of extensive enactivism, clarifying in which ways it is distinct from notions of extended mind and distributed cognition.

  19. CH in stellar atmospheres: an extensive linelist

    CERN Document Server

    Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Colin, R; Daoutidis, I; Godefroid, M; Coheur, P F; Bernath, P; Jorissen, A; Christlieb, N


    The advent of high-resolution spectrographs and detailed stellar atmosphere modelling has strengthened the need for accurate molecular data. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars spectra are interesting objects with which to study transitions from the CH molecule. We combine programs for spectral analysis of molecules and stellar-radiative transfer codes to build an extensive CH linelist, including predissociation broadening as well as newly identified levels. We show examples of strong predissociation CH lines in CEMP stars, and we stress the important role played by the CH features in the Bond-Neff feature depressing the spectra of barium stars by as much as 0.2 magnitudes in the $\\lambda=$3000 -- 5500 \\AA\\ range. Because of the extreme thermodynamic conditions prevailing in stellar atmospheres (compared to the laboratory), molecular transitions with high energy levels can be observed. Stellar spectra can thus be used to constrain and improve molecular data.

  20. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi


    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  1. Extension of association models to complex chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard

    Summary of “Extension of association models to complex chemicals”. Ph.D. thesis by Ane Søgaard Avlund The subject of this thesis is application of SAFT type equations of state (EoS). Accurate and predictive thermodynamic models are important in many industries including the petroleum industry....... The SAFT EoS was developed 20 years ago, and a large number of papers on the subject has been published since, but many issues still remain unsolved. These issues are both theoretical and practical. The SAFT theory does not account for intramolecular association, it can only treat flexible chains, and does...... not account for steric self-hindrance for tree-like structures. An important practical problem is how to obtain optimal and consistent parameters. Moreover, multifunctional associating molecules represent a special challenge. In this work two equations of state using the SAFT theory for association are used...

  2. Extension of Radiative Viscosity to Superfluid Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Chun-Mei; YANG Shu-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ping


    The radiative viscosity of superfluid npe matter is studied and it is found that to the lowest order of δμ/T,the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of its normal matter.As one of the most important transport coefficients,the bulk viscosities of simple npe matter,of hyperon matter and even of quark matter,both in normal and superfluid states,have been extensively studied,[1-18] for more detail see Ref.[19].%The radiative viscosity of superfluid npe matter is studied and it is found that to the lowest order of δμ/T, the ratio of radiative viscosity to bulk viscosity is the same as that of its normal matter.

  3. Unusual ganglioglioma with extensive calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Shashikant Kavishwar


    Full Text Available Ganglioglioma is a slow-growing relatively low-grade mixed glioneuronal tumor with most cases corresponding to the WHO Grade I category. It frequently presents with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location followed by frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. These generally behave in a benign fashion and have a favorable prognosis. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with convulsions and a calcified parieto-occipital mass. This mass removed from the parietal lobe showed neoplastic glial and dysplastic neuronal tissue amidst extensive areas of calcification and foci of ossification. On immunohistochemistry, the glial component expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein whereas the dysplastic neuronal component expressed synaptophysin and CD34. Epithelial membrane antigen was negative and Ki-67 showed a low proliferative index. After the surgery, the patient is free of neurological symptoms. Widespread calcification and ossification are very unusual in ganglioglioma, which prompted us to report this case.

  4. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots (United States)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.


    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  5. A Moodle extension to book online labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Cardoso


    Full Text Available The social constructivist philosophy of Moodle makes it an excellent choice to deliver e-learning contents that require collaborative activities, such as those that are associated with online labs. In the case of online labs that enable web access to real devices (remote workbenches, access time should be reserved beforehand. A booking tool will avoid access conflicts and at the same time will help the students to organise their time and activities. This paper presents a Moodle extension that was developed within the Leonardo da Vinci MARVEL project, with the objective of meeting this requirement. The booking tool presented enables resource sharing in general and may be used to organise access to any type of scarce resources, such as to online labs and to the videoconferencing rooms that are needed to support collaborative activities.

  6. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  7. The Molecular Universe and the Physico-Chemical Origin of Life (United States)

    Duchesne, Jules


    Presents an evolutionary scheme for the physical, chemical, and biological origins of life. The molecular factor is the field of analysis. The need for a reconciliation of science and philosophy is indicated. Extensive references are given. (MA)

  8. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia


    .3 and 41.4 for women and men respectively). Nevertheless, declines in mortality at young ages radically changed life expectancy and it is found today at the same level as double of halfway-age. While the period perspective puts halfway-age for females and males at 41 and 38.1 in 2010, for cohorts born...

  9. The Greenlandic Life Script and Life Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of personal life events from their 15 - 30 years of age. This phenomenon is known as the reminiscence bump (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998). The reminiscence bump is highly populated by emotionally positive events (Rubin & Berntsen, 2...

  10. Life Is Hard But Life Is Good

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cancer, paralysis, the death of her loved ones...Lei Juli has experienced more unexpected suffering than most other people. She was once in despair, but she managed to overcome all of these catastrophes. She tells the world what her experience has taught her: Love the life you’re given.

  11. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry


    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  12. Mapping Extension's Networks: Using Social Network Analysis to Explore Extension's Outreach (United States)

    Bartholomay, Tom; Chazdon, Scott; Marczak, Mary S.; Walker, Kathrin C.


    The University of Minnesota Extension conducted a social network analysis (SNA) to examine its outreach to organizations external to the University of Minnesota. The study found that its outreach network was both broad in its reach and strong in its connections. The study found that SNA offers a unique method for describing and measuring Extension…

  13. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 2: PEP (United States)


    User power, duration, and orbit requirements, which were the prime factors influencing power extension package (PEP) design, are discussed. A representative configuration of the PEP concept is presented and the major elements of the system are described as well as the PEP-to-Orbiter and remote manipulator interface provisions.

  14. Time is Life

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L


    The affirmative statement of the existence of extraterrestrial life is tentatively raised to the status of a principle. Accordingly, Fermi's question is answered and the anthropic principle is shown to be falsifiable. The time-scale for the development of life on Earth and the age of the universe are the fundamental quantities upon which the arguments are framed.

  15. Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term life expectancy is used for statistical estimates of how long a particular kind of people will live. Such estimates are based on the observed length of life of similar people who have died in the past and on probable future changes in mortality. Used in this se

  16. Empowering Students for Life (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy


    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  17. It's a Frog's Life (United States)

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.


    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  18. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als


    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  19. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  20. The Feast of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The enjoyment of life covers many things: the enjoyment of ourselves, of home life, of trees, flowers, clouds, winding rivers and falling cataracts and the myriad things in Nature, and then the enjoyment of poetry, art, contemplation, friendship, conversation, and reading, which are all some form or other of the communion of soirits.