WorldWideScience

Sample records for boiler systems technical

  1. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  2. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  3. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report number 14, January--March, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Task 7--Component Development and Optimization and Task 11--Subsystem Test Operation and evaluation are shown to be slightly behind schedule. Also, addition of Kalina technology may delay completion of Task 8. However, Phase 2 will be completed on schedule. The Project and plans for the POCTF were presented to the Richmond Power and Light Board of Directors. Technology transfer activities included delivering papers at two conferences, submitting paper abstracts for two other conferences and organizing a Technical Session for a conference. Under Task 7 the 200 acfm CeraMem filter test rig was installed at Richmond Power and Light and testing commenced. Low-NO{sub x} firing system work was essentially completed. In Task 8 integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle is proceeding but it has required much more time than anticipated. Preliminary designs of this equipment are nearly complete. Plant design and licensing activities will restart in April. The test designs and plan created in Task 9 were previously submitted and approved, although the plan for the 5,000 acfm CeraMem filter test will be updated following completion of the 200 acfm test. Task 10 work is nearly complete. The test rig for the 5,000 acfm CeraMem test has been shipped to the fabricator`s shop, inspected, cleaned and is being modified based on input from the 200 acfm testing. Task 11 work on the CeraMem filter was delayed and is expected to be started during the next reporting period. The second series of combustion testing of the low-NO{sub x} firing system was completed and the data is being analyzed. Early review indicates that 0.1 lb of NO{sub x}/million Btu may be achievable with reasonable stoichiometry and carbon loss.

  4. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO 2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO 2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO 2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  5. Technical feasibility study of a low-cost hybrid PAC-UF system for wastewater reclamation and reuse: a focus on feedwater production for low-pressure boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani

    2016-11-01

    This study has applied the concept of the hybrid PAC-UF process in the treatment of the final effluent of the palm oil industry for reuse as feedwater for low-pressure boilers. In a bench-scale set-up, a low-cost empty fruit bunch-based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for upstream adsorption of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) with the process conditions: 60 g/L dose of PAC, 68 min of mixing time and 200 rpm of mixing speed, to reduce the feedwater strength, alleviate probable fouling of the membranes and thus improve the process flux (productivity). Three polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 1, 5 and 10 kDa were investigated in a cross-flow filtration mode, and under constant transmembrane pressures of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The permeate qualities of the hybrid processes were evaluated, and it was found that the integrated process with the 1 kDa MWCO UF membrane yielded the best water quality that falls within the US EPA reuse standard for boiler-feed and cooling water. It was also observed that the permeate quality is fit for extended reuse as process water in the cement, petroleum and coal industries. In addition, the hybrid system's operation consumed 37.13 Wh m -3 of energy at the highest applied pressure of 120 kPa, which is far lesser than the typical energy requirement range (0.8-1.0 kWh m -3 ) for such wastewater reclamation.

  6. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  7. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  8. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  9. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  10. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  11. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  12. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  13. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  14. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  15. The role of installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research of role installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers in the Serbian market. Considering the fact that installers are significantly different, they are grouped by specific, relevant characteristics. The research is focused on the evaluation of marketing mix instruments by nine identified segments of installers. Moreover, research has been explored deeper through conclusion installers about the most important and most credible sources of information on gas boilers. During the research were used secondary and primary data sources. Besides the research at the table, field research has been also done by unstructured personal communication. All collected data were analyzed in details and both hypothesis were tested, where one of them is partially confirmed, and another one fully confirm. Given results can be useful for marketers and their anticipation of demand. Also these results can be used for creating optimal marketing strategy in the Serbian market of gas boilers.

  16. Evaluation of the technical condition of medium-sized boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošák Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend in the steam and electricity production has been both to increase the efficiency of the facility and to keep tightening legislation concerning emission limits. The lifetime of energy equipment is greatly influenced by the operating temperature, pressure and operating characteristics. The new conditions lead the operator to more often changes of these parameters, which has negative influence to the facility in terms of service life. Precise knowledge of the facility being operated and the ability to predict the residual life of its key parts in time is therefore necessary. A new methodology for determining the residual life and evaluating problematic situations of medium size boilers was developed at Brno University of Technology. Its approaches and advantages will be presented in this paper. The methodology provides the user with approaches for the lifetime evaluation of an equipment as a whole, based on detailed knowledge of the equipment being investigated and the ongoing damage. Additionally, if the equipment is continuously evaluated, it is possible to extend the inspection interval or to achieve a significantly higher lifetime of the entire equipment, thereby reducing the economic cost. If defined criteria are met, the methodology also allows inclusion of FEM and CFD simulations for achieving higher relevance of the results.

  17. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  18. Boiler systems for nuclear powered reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; George, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    A power generating plant which comprises a heat source, at least one main steam turbine and at least one main boiler heated by heat from the heat source and providing the steam to drive the turbine, comprises additionally at least one further steam turbine, smaller than the main turbine, and at least one further boiler, of lower capacity than the main boiler, and heated from the same heat source and providing steam for the further turbine. Particularly advantageous in nuclear power stations, where the heat source is a nuclear reactor, the invention enables peak loads, above the normal continuous rating of the main generators driven by the main turbines, to be met by the further turbine(s) and one or more further generators driven thereby. This enables the main turbines to be freed from the thermal stresses of rapid load changes, which stresses are more easily accommodated by the smaller and thus more tolerant further turbine(s). Thus auxiliary diesel-driven or other independent power plant may be made partly or wholly unnecessary. Further, low-load running which would be inefficient if achieved by means of the main turbine(s), can be more efficiently effected by shutting them down and using the smaller further turbine(s) instead. These latter may also be used to provide independent power for servicing the generating plant during normal operation or during emergency or other shutdown, and in this latter case may also serve as a heat sink for the shutdown reactor

  19. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  20. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  1. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the

  2. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  3. Adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W.

    1983-03-01

    The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO/sub 2/ control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  4. Study on Acoustic Catheter of Boiler Tube Leakage Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongxing; Feng, Qiang

    Boiler tube leakage is the major reason of affecting the safe operation of the unit now, there are 3 methods of the "four tube" leakage detection: Traditional method, filtering method and acoustic spectrum analysis, acoustic spectrum analysis is the common method, but this method have low sensitivity and the sensor damage easily. Therewith, designed the special acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type, proved by experiments, the acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type can enhance leakage sound, can accurately extract leakage signals, has high sensitivity, and can avoid the effect of sensor by fire and hot-gas when the furnace is in positive pressure situation, reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the boiler tube leakage monitor system.

  5. Technical and economic evaluation of retrofitting and repowering oil-fired boilers with gas from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canela, F.; Huang, J.; Ibe, A.P.; Padgett, S.C.; Rao, A.D.; Smelser, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    Fluor studied the feasibility of substituting fuel gas produced from coal for oil fuel at a modern oil-fired boiler plant and of repowering the same boiler plant using fuel gas from coal as the combustion turbine fuel as well as boiler fuel in some cases. Several cases were investigated, including cases with the fuel gas plant connected to the boiler plant with a 50-mile gas delivery pipeline. The Texaco, Inc., coal gasifier was used for the fuel gas production. This gasifier is still under development, and the study results are highly dependent on development of the gasifier to the commercial configuration and cost used in the study. It appears that some savings might be universally available since fuel price differentials of the magnitudes tabulated can be expected in most areas of the United States. When a boiler plant is repowered, a considerable additional quantity of electricity can be produced at relatively low cost through the conversion of the boiler plant to a more efficient combined-cycle type of operation. If the boiler plant is repowered with fuel gas, plant capacity can be increased by up to 73%, and levelized cost of total electricity can be reduced by up to 7.2 mills per kWh (1980 $) below the cost when gas is simply substituted for oil. The boiler plant could be replaced with a new conventional coal-fired plant of the same capacity or a new conventional coal-fired plant of the same capacity as a repowered boiler plant could be installed. In either case, no clear advantage was found with respect to either new capital requirements or cost of electricity if a gas-from-coal system were to be employed. However, a fuel gas system does present an opportunity to reduce capital requirements considerably because fuel gas could be purchased over-the-fence from a second party. Capital requirements for fuel gas substitution would amount to only about $5/kW.

  6. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  7. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  8. Applied studies in advanced boiler technology for Rankine cycle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, F.W.; Negreanu, M.J.

    1978-02-01

    A study is presented on a new rotational boiler design which has improved passive dynamic response and two-phase flow stability characteristics. A survey of small boiler manufacturers in the United States indicated that currently available designs are based on steady-state operating requirements rather than for dynamic performance. Recent work by EPA and ERDA which addressed boiler designs for mobile automotive Rankine cycle power systems showed that boilers of a monotube or multipass tube configuration design could be developed which were physically compact, but still were subject to the two-phase flow instability problem when coupled within an operating power system. The objectives of this work were to evaluate alternative boiler configurations which would improve boiler dynamic response and also have good two-phase liquid-vapor interface flow stability. The major physical design limitation of any boiler is the small external hot gas heat transfer coefficient. Such a low coefficient requires considerable design enhancements to increase the rate of energy transfer to the circulation system fluid. The rotational boiler is a physical design configuration which addresses this problem. The results of an analytic study using several mathematical model formulations showed that a rotational boiler could have a passive response time constant which was approximately one-half the magnitude for an equivalent single pass monotube boiler. An experimental prototype rotational boiler was designed, manufactured and tested, with the experimental results confirming that the experimental passive response time constants were comparable to the estimates from the analytic models. The experimental boiler operating in two-phase flow was found to be stable and responsive to external inputs. A rotational boiler configuration is a good alternative design configuration for small compact vapor generator designs based on fast transient passive response and two-phase flow stability.

  9. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berković-Šubić, Mihaela; Rauch, Martina; Dović, Damir; Andrassy, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher Q H,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  10. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  11. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC. Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20% and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  12. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junga, Robert; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Kaszubska, Mirosława

    2017-10-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC). Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20%) and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  13. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  14. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a

  15. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits

  16. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation

  17. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hermansson, Roger (eds.) [Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    One of the problems in small district heating systems is the large load variation that must be handled by the system. If the boiler is designed to cover the needs during the coldest day in winter time in northern Europe it would have to run at loads as low as 10% of full load during summer time, when heat is needed only for tap water production. Load variations in small networks are quite fast and earlier investigations have shown that existing biomass boilers give rise to large amounts of harmful emissions at fast load variations and at low loads. The problem has been addressed in different ways: Three new boiler concepts have been realized and tested: A prototype of a 500 kW boiler with partitioned primary combustion chamber and supplied with a water heat store. A 10 kW bench scale combustor and a 500 kW prototype boiler based on pulsating combustion. Bench scale boilers to test the influence from applied sound on emissions and a 150 kW prototype boiler with a two-stage secondary vortex combustion chamber. Development of control and regulating equipment: Glow Guard, a control system using infra-red sensors to detect glowing char on the grate, has been constructed and tested. A fast prediction model that can be used in control systems has been developed. Simulation of the combustion process: Code to simulate pyrolysis/gasification of fuel on the grate has been developed. Combustion of the gas phase inside the combustion chamber has been simulated. The two models have been combined to describe the combustion process inside the primary chamber of a prototype boiler. A fast simulation code based on statistical methods that can predict the environmental performance of boilers has been developed. One of the boiler concepts matches the desired load span from 10 to 100% of full load with emissions far below the set limits for CO and THC and close to the set limits for NO{sub x}. The other boilers had a bit more narrow load range, one with very low emissions except for NO

  18. Application of programmable controllers to oil fired boiler light-off system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, H.C.; Gallaway, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable controller has been used to improve the reliability of an oil-fired boiler burner control system. An outdated and failing Germanium discrete transistor logic control system was replaced with a modern solid state large scale integrated circuit programmable controller. The ease of making this conversion at a modest expenditure during a limited boiler outage is explained, as well as pitfalls and problems encountered. Light-off reliability with fuel savings were prime objectives. The boiler, rated at 575,000 lb/hr at 450 psig, is used as a backup steam supply for the dual purpose N Reactor at Hanford, Washington, which supplies 860 MWe to the Bonneville Power Administration and weapons grade Plutonium for the Department of Energy. High reliability in light-off and load ascension from standby is required of the boiler which serves as the backup power supply for the reactor

  19. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  20. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  1. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George [Maple Valley, WA; Afromowitz, Martin A [Mercer Island, WA; Hogle, Richard E [Olympia, WA

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  2. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pedersen, Thomas Engberg; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers in Denmark. • The daily operation of a heat and power system is modeled by stochastic programming. • Deterministic models overestimate the value of heat pumps and electric boilers. • Heat pumps and electric boilers can reduce the cost of operating the Danish system. • Falling power prices may boost the future value of heat pumps and electric boilers. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units in the system. Uncertainty in the heat demand and power price is modeled via scenarios representing different plausible paths for their future evolution. A series of case-studies are performed using real-world data for the heat and power systems in the Copenhagen area during four representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed by potential

  3. On-line supervision system of utility boilers efficiency and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, L.I.; Cortes, C.; Lacarta, M.; Sanabrias, I.; Carrasco, A.; Gimenez, A. [Fundacion CIRCE, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    An on-line supervision system called SIBOCO has been developed (by Teruel power station, Tecnatom and IRCE) to assist in optimising thermal efficiency of fossil-fuel fired utility boilers, reducing operational cost in terms of fuel savings and lifetime extension and controlling NOx emissions. The system integrates signal validation, monitoring, optimisation and information management models. Its main objective is to obtain inertia for diagnosis of plant performance and select alternatives to optimise costs and emissions. The paper describes the SIBOCO system installation in Teruel power station, Spain. It also explains the modular system which monitors the boiler performance and the optimization and diagnosis system. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  5. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  6. Technical-and-Economic Efficiency of Draft Enriched with Oxygen in Small-Capacity Heating Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on complex experimental and theoretical investigations pertaining to efficiency of oxygen-enriched draft in the small-capacity heating boilers as exemplified by the plant HEIZA (HW-S-10/K have been presented in the paper. The paper provides a calculation model of heating processes in heat generator burner (as exemplified by HEIZA plant. Simulation of heating processes in the operational zone has been executed in paper. The experimental data have proved model adequacy. The calculation scheme of the plant will be used in future for determination of power and ecological efficiency of draft enrichment with oxygen.

  7. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1991--August 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jiangyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  8. U.S. Experiences in Tackling Energy and Environmental Challenges of Boiler System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    In the U.S., energy consumption by steam and process heat combined accounts for over 50% of the total energy use from industrial systems (see Figure 1). The use of boilers, process heaters, and furnaces for generating steam and heat in industrial facilities, commercial settings, and institutions consumes significant amounts of energy and is one of major sources of hazardous air pollutants, which contribute significantly to local pollution and global climate change. To address the energy and environmental challenges caused by boiler systems in the U.S., the country has taken a series of actions to reduce emissions from industrial, commercial and institutional boilers, improve the efficiency of steam systems, replace coal with cleaner energy resources, and promote the wider use of combined heat and power (CHP).

  9. Analysis of Boiler Operational Variables Prior to Tube Leakage Fault by Artificial Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kayiem Hussain H.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam boilers are considered as a core of any steam power plant. Boilers are subjected to various types of trips leading to shut down of the entire plant. The tube leakage is the worse among the common boiler faults, where the shutdown period lasts for around four to five days. This paper describes the rules of the Artificial Intelligent Systems to diagnosis the boiler variables prior to tube leakage occurrence. An Intelligent system based on Artificial Neural Network was designed and coded in MATLAB environment. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from coal fired power plant in Malaysia. Ninety three boiler operational variables were identified for the present investigation based on the plant operator experience. Various neural networks topology combinations were investigated. The results showed that the NN with two hidden layers performed better than one hidden layer using Levenberg-Maquardt training algorithm. Moreover, it was noticed that hyperbolic tangent function for input and output nodes performed better than other activation function types.

  10. Correction of Pressure Drop in Steam and Water System in Performance Test of Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglong; Zhao, Xianqiao; Hou, Fanjun; Wu, Xiaowu; Wang, Feng; Hu, Zhihong; Yang, Xinsen

    2018-01-01

    Steam and water pressure drop is one of the most important characteristics in the boiler performance test. As the measuring points are not in the guaranteed position and the test condition fluctuation exsits, the pressure drop test of steam and water system has the deviation of measuring point position and the deviation of test running parameter. In order to get accurate pressure drop of steam and water system, the corresponding correction should be carried out. This paper introduces the correction method of steam and water pressure drop in boiler performance test.

  11. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  12. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  13. Airflow mixing augmentation device for hot-air heating systems in modular boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilenko Nikolay I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the results of the theoretical research devoted to the study of air flow interaction in hot-air heating systems of automatic modular boilers involving the use of fan heaters. The work quotes the results of mathematic simulation of various density air flows that are vertical to each other.

  14. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  15. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  16. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  17. Comparative technical-economic analysis of the low temperature heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharevski, Vasko; Sharevski, Milan

    1994-01-01

    A method for comparative technical-economic analysis between low temperature heating systems and heating systems with fossil fuel boiler plant, heat pump heating system and electrical heating systems is presented. The single and combined heating systems are analyzed. The technical-economic priority application of the heating system is determined according to the prices of the low temperature heat energy, fossil fuel heat energy, electrical energy, as well as to the coefficient of the annual use of the installed heating capacity, investment expenses, structure of the combined heating system and coefficient of performances of the heat pump. The combined heating system, composed with a low temperature heating subsystem, which is used to cover the base heat demands, and a oil boiler plant heating subsystem, for the top heat demands, have technical-economic justification and wide range of priority application, in comparison with single heating systems. (author)

  18. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  19. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooze, David

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  20. Early tube leak detection system for steam boiler at KEV power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Firas B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube leakage in boilers has been a major contribution to trips which eventually leads to power plant shut downs. Training of network and developing artificial neural network (ANN models are essential in fault detection in critically large systems. This research focusses on the ANN modelling through training and validation of real data acquired from a sub-critical boiler unit. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to develop a compatible model and to evaluate the working properties and behaviour of boiler. The training and validation of real data has been applied using the feed-forward with back-propagation (BP. The right combination of number of neurons, number of hidden layers, training algorithms and training functions was run to achieve the best ANN model with lowest error. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from a coal fired power plant in Malaysia. The results showed that the Neural Network (NN with one hidden layers performed better than two hidden layer using feed-forward back-propagation network. The outcome from this study give us the best ANN model which eventually allows for early detection of boiler tube leakages, and forecast of a trip before the real shutdown. This will eventually reduce shutdowns in power plants.

  1. The investigation of the locomotive boiler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucholski, Z.; Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the history of narrow-gauge railway system is described. The other information about the steam locomotive construction, as well as the technical regulations of its construction and exploitation are also done. The results of the studies of the locomotive boiler material are presented. (authors)

  2. Research on the Application of Risk-based Inspection for the Boiler System in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-12-01

    Power plant boiler is one of the three main equipment of coal-fired power plants, is very tall to the requirement of the safe and stable operation, in a significant role in the whole system of thermal power generation, a risk-based inspection is a kind of pursuit of security and economy of unified system management idea and method, can effectively evaluate equipment risk and reduce the operational cost.

  3. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  4. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  5. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  7. Hot and steamy (but untrue) stories of the boiler emergency cooling system (BECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, C.; Bramble, A.

    2004-01-01

    The PNGS 'B' Boiler Emergency Cooling System (BECS) has been designed to provide interim makeup inventory to the boilers following a Loss of Feedwater, Steam Balance Header or Main Steam Line break event. Its objective is to operate as an interim heat sink to remove the excess energy in the Heat Transport System until a long term heat sink can be placed in service. The effectiveness of BECS has been assessed for a range of BECS tank water levels and pressure at the ambient Boiler Room (BR) temperature. Currently, BECS operates at a pressure of 160 kPa(g) and a water level of 2.2 m, and it is assumed that the water temperature is similar to that of the BR because there is no temperature instrumentation in tanks. However, it has been suggested that the coolant temperature in the BECS tanks may be much higher than the BR temperature in several PNGS 'B' units; this is attributed to in-leakage of high pressure and temperature water (at 4.7 Mpa(g) and 250 o C) from the Reheater Drains system into the BECS tanks, as observed by an increasing water tank levels in several units. Thus, to predict and assess the effect of the current in-leakage on the BECS water temperature, a numerical model of the BECS tanks was developed. (author)

  8. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm-combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1980 through December 31, 1980. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. The final detail design effort was completed and the final design report submitted. Progress on procurement activity authorized by full Phase II release on March 20, 1980, is discussed. Following approval by DOE, a purchase order was placed with the Norflor Construction Corporation for the prototype plant construction which began in November. Construction of the access roadway installation of the electric power, sewer and water lines was completed during this reporting period. Boiler construction continued.

  9. The design development and commissioning of two distributed computer based boiler control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, D.; Johnstone, L.R.; Pringle, S.T.; Walker, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The CEBG N.E. Region has recently commissioned two major boiler control schemes using distributed computer control system. Both systems have considerable development potential to allow modifications to meet changing operational requirements. The distributed approach to control was chosen in both instances so as to achieve high control system availability and as a method of easing the commissioning programs. The experience gained with these two projects has reinforced the view that distributed computer systems show advantages over centralised single computers especially if software is designed for the distributed system. (auth)

  10. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently

  11. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating that...

  12. Process-optimizing Multivariable Control of a Boiler System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Hansen, T.; Hangstrup, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method to apply multivariable controllers as optional process optimizing extensions to existing conventional control systems.......This paper presents a method to apply multivariable controllers as optional process optimizing extensions to existing conventional control systems....

  13. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  14. The adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Final report Feb 81-Feb 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr

    1982-11-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic acid enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO2 control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with those of the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic acid enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  15. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 1. Sustained boiler efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available situations. This paper presents a process integration technique for network synthesis using conceptual and mathematical analysis without compromising boiler efficiency. It was found that the steam flow rate to the HEN could be reduced while maintaining boiler...

  16. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zethraeus, Bjoern; Olsson, Pernilla; Gummesson, Martin [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Dep. of Bioenergy Technology

    2002-04-01

    The ultimate aim of the development work performed at ITN was to provide a tool for the boiler designer, a tool to make good estimates as to the environmental performance of different boiler designs. In the longer perspective, such a predictive model may also be developed into a process control system predictor and thus improve boiler control with respect to dynamic mixing imperfections. To fulfil this aim there also has to be available a sufficiently fast measurement technique and part of ITN's work aimed at demonstrating that by digital methods may the time resolution of measured data be improved. The main deliverables from ITN were planned to be: A description of an algorithm to improve the time resolution of measured data by aid of digital back-calculation to provide measurement data with a time resolution comparable to the computational model with the lowest possible demands on measurement frequency. A transportable computer code to describe the dynamic behaviour of biomass-fired boilers with respect to hydrocarbon-, CO- and NO{sub x}-emissions. The program should be able to predict the distribution of concentrations of these gas components in a reasonably short computing time. An algorithm based on the use of Fourier transforms has been derived and tested of-line. Provided the gas analysis sampling system has a time constant r for its low-pass characteristic, even noisy signals may be reconstructed into time constant {tau}/2 if a clever filter is used to improve the signal/noise ratio. Further improvement is theoretically possible - but seems not realistic in practical cases. A computer code has been produced in MATLAB, a code that reproduces the dynamic mixing behaviour of realistic boilers. The most fundamental assumptions for the code have not been thoroughly verified but a number of comparisons have been made to different boilers and seem to indicate that the predictions are qualitatively correct. The code is based on a constant flow of fuel

  17. Boiler feedwater quality improvement by replacing conventional pre-treatment with advanced membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Bernhard [Process Systems Pall GmbH, Dreieich (Germany). Marketing; Venkatadri, Ramraj [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States). Global Marketing Energy

    2013-09-01

    Two case studies in different application fields highlight significant economical and operational improvements that were achieved by replacing conventional water treatment technologies by highly-sophisticated membrane systems. The first case study deals with boiler feedwater in a power plant, focusing on the challenges faced as well as the direct and indirect benefits gained by the new system within a utility station. The second case study deals with the conventional water treatment scheme for groundwater from 13 wells at a major oil sands facility. Operational performance as well as the cost improvements gained in both cases will be presented. (orig.)

  18. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Junga Robert; Wzorek Małgorzata; Kaszubska Mirosława

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested...

  19. WIRELESS CONTROL SYSTEM: DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION ON INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez-Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as objective to describe the design and development of a control unit with capacity to communicate with similar others units in a wireless and wired way, this with the finality of achieve to develop a powerful control unit, useful, flexible and cheap, through it be possible the implementation of distributed control systems in a wireless and wired way based in advance network topologies, like star, cluster tree and mesh, in function of the diverse communication technologies that in these times are manage in the industry process automation field and having as reference the most novelties and promising advantages of the last technologies available in the international market. The system includes a software communication driver; develop to operate in the control unit and the PC level. This driver was implemented in two layers structure, the first one, was develop under the platform of the microcontroller based the electronic board implemented, an ATmega 328 microcontroller with an Arduino bootloader. The second layer of the driver is based in LabVIEW platform under Windows operating system, and this work in a personal computer. All this, with the main objective of to prove to the user a technology tool to develop task communication between the control units network and the control room and do easier the implementation of the network communications and graphical users interfaces GUI ́s, and transparent for the developer of the system or the programmer of the network.

  20. Power system technical limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarrubias, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with transient conditions in steady state operation of power systems and investigates the influence of load shedding and spinning reserve on the estimation of largest unit size. (RW) [de

  1. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

  2. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  3. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  4. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible. Due...

  5. An advanced maintenance advisory and surveillance system for boiler tubes - AMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    In a recently completed European collaborative project, the aim was to address the issue of boiler tube failures and thereby plant availability. The reduction of forced outages due to component failures and the reduction of planned outages for preventative maintenance can both contribute in this respect. It has been possible to assess tube degradation due to erosion, corrosion and overheating through the use of on-line techniques (thin layer activation, corrosion probes and novel temperature sensors) and off-line techniques (cold air velocity measurements, laser shearography and measurements of steam side oxide) which have been developed in the project. These techniques have been demonstrated on an oil fired boiler in Portugal and a coal fired unit in Spain. The output from the monitoring techniques has been integrated in the AMASS maintenance advisory and surveillance system. This is a computerised system comprising a spatial database with add-on tools designed to assess data from individual monitors and to provide the user with information on tube life utilisation rates and the probability of tube failure occurring. A description of the monitoring techniques will be described along with some of the results of demonstrating them in the field. Also an overview of the computerized system and the way in which it works will be given along with examples of how it can be used to assist with preventative maintenance and to help avoid unplanned outages. (orig.) 10 refs.

  6. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  8. System for technical innovation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This book lists field of support system, which includes tax, development work, basic research project, industrial technology, information and communications field, energy field, part and materials field, local industry, the small and medium business such as technical development field, and industry-university collaboration like summary of investment and financing support and guarantee, support of manpower such as brain pool and contact Korea, support of technique like development technology and strategy for patent, support on certification such as company and technical goods, purchase support.

  9. Specifying and verifying the steam boiler control system with time extended LOTOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willig, A. [Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Schieferdecker, I. [GMD Fokus, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a specification of the steam boiler system in Time Extended LOTOS as an example to describe real-time, hybrid systems containing parts with discrete and continuous behavior in a time extended process-algebraic formalism. The specification has been developed in three design steps - the specification of functional behavior in LOTOS, the specification of timed behavior in TE-LOTOS (a time extension of LOTOS), and the specification of data dependencies in TE-LOTOS with Gofer (a functional language). The resulting specification is modular, succinct, and easy to read. Most importantly, it is an implementation-near specification. It offers means for logical reasoning on the system properties, for stepwise refinement, simulation and prototyping of the system. (orig.)

  10. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    note is divided into four main topics: First, a short review of the precipitation in Denmark as well as how historical (actual) rainfall data can be used advantageously to those simple design methods, then how pipelines and reservoirs can be dimensioned and finally how safety in the design can......This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system...

  11. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The intermittence of some renewable energy sources, mainly wind and solar, leads to rapid power variations, which have to be controlled in order to maintain the system stable. Controllable loads, like MW range electric boilers, are a good solution for this problem, as the warmed water can be reused......, minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...

  12. System for Users Technical Support

    OpenAIRE

    Andriušaitienė, Ramunė

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis presents a study of computer equipment support services providing company’s business processes, specifics of the ongoing communication between end-users and supporting engineers-consultants and presents review of some information systems designed to automate certain technical support activities. Core aim of this study is to alleviate the daily work of above mentioned consultants when supporting end-users to locate and resolve issues in owned computer equipment. This paper o...

  13. A novel modelling approach for condensing boilers based on hybrid dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to

  14. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  15. UPEI (University of Prince Edward Island) wood chip boiler to feed second Charlottetown area district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    A new $4.3 million district heating system will deliver heat to 31 subscribers from UPEI's wood-fired heating plant. The plan is to convert UPEI's own campus-wide heat distribution system from steam to more efficient hot water. The total plant output is 13.7 MW, enough to heat the campus and the 31 subcribers' buildings. During the 1987-88 fiscal year, the more northern part of the system will be completed. A year later the system will be extended south. When finished, the project will displace nearly 2 million l of fuel oil annually with just over 7000 green tonnes of wood chips. Hot water from the UPEI boiler plant travels along each route though buried insulated pipes. At the end of a run, the water reverses direction and returns to the boiler in another insulated pipe. It passes through small cylindrical heat exchangers in each building. Boiler and burner maintenance costs are eliminated. Once the user is familiar with the system, the old boiler and hot water tanks can be removed - making space available for other purposes. District heating is virtually noiseless. Insurance costs go down in many cases when boilers and combustion systems are no longer used. The Island's currently underutilized wood resource will be put to better use. These woodchips are made from wood that has been damaged by budworm and other diseases, or wood that is overmature. The project has sound environmental benefits ranging from reduced sulpher emissions to the possible long-term benefit of eliminating a number of underground fuel storage tanks and their potential for leaks.

  16. The pressure cold wind system on the impact of industrial boiler economy and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Qian, Hongli; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Dekai; Li, Guannan; Yuan, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipment in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption.Industrial boiler in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment, the average industrial boiler operation efficiency is only 65%. If the efficiency increased by 15% ∼ 20%, which meet the international advanced level, each year 70 million tons of coal saving and reduce environmental pollution[1]. As energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the basic national policy of our country, improving the efficiency of industrial boiler energy is facing opportunities and challenges, optimizing the operation mode of the existing units, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the boiler control.

  17. Burning of high-ash Ekibastuz coal in the boiler furnace of 300-500 MW power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvrivishvili, A.R.; Tsepenok, A.I.; Serant, F.A.; Mezhov, E.A.; Lavrinienko, A.A. [JSC ZiO-COTES, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gordeev, V.V. [JSC Machine-Builidng Factory of Podolsk (ZIO), Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses combustion of Ekibastuz black coal in pulverized-coal fired boilers operating in 300-500 MW power units. Main technical solutions related to modernization of combustion system of PK-39 and P-57 boilers manufactured by JSC Machine-Building Factory of Podolsk to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions down to {<=}600 mg/nm{sup 3} (at normal conditions and O{sub 2} = 6%). Correctness of these technical solutions is justified by 3D simulation of combustion process.

  18. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, 15 August 1995--15 February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to determine the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The first three phases (i.e., the first 1,000-hour demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted with a proven CWSF-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrid circuit was recently installed and will be evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and will be used to generate baseline data firing No. 6

  20. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  1. Technical/economical analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: (1) To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels; (2) To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on technoeconomic basis to establish future development needs, and (3) To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned. (orig.)

  2. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc....... Traditionally boiler control systems have been designed in a rather simple manner consisting of a feed water controller and a pressure controller; two controllers which, in principle, operated without any interaction - for more details on boiler control see [4]. During the last year Aalborg Industries A/S has...... into account. The present study covers re-tube boilers. To be able to minimize the size (i.e. volume) of the boiler and, at the same time, obtain the best possible dynamic performance, it is important to minimize the water level uctuations in the boiler as much as possible. In the present study a detailed...

  3. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  4. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part I: Description of the dynamic system and transient behavior of sub-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic performance simulation of a CFB boiler in a commercial-scale power plant is reported. The boiler system was modeled by a finite number of heat exchanger units, which are sub-grouped into the gas-solid circulation loop, the water-steam circulation loop, and the inter-connected heat exchangers blocks of the boiler. This dynamic model is an extension from the previously reported performance simulation model, which was designed to simulate static performance of the same power plant, where heat and mass for each of the heat exchanger units were balanced for the inter-connected heat exchanger network among the fuel combustion system and the water-steam system. Dynamic performance simulation was achieved by calculating the incremental difference from the previous time step, and progressing for the next time step. Additional discretization of the heat exchanger blocks was necessary to accommodate the dynamic response of the water evaporation and natural circulation as well as the transient response of the metal temperature of the heat exchanger elements. Presentation of the simulation modeling is organized into two parts; system configuration of the model plant and the general approach of the simulation are presented along with the transient behavior of the sub-models in Part I. Dynamic sub-models were integrated in terms of the mass flow and the heat transfer for simulating the CFB boiler system. Dynamic simulation for the open loop response was performed to check the integrated system of the water-steam loop and the solid-gas loop of the total boiler system. Simulation of the total boiler system which includes the closed-loop control system blocks is presented in the following Part II

  5. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... been developed as open, i.e. more dimensions and their corresponding quanti- cation can be added. In the present study the dynamic capability has been quantied and the feasible set for the optimization has been limited by means of a number of constraints. The constraints are: (i) simple constraints...

  6. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  7. Chaotic Phenomena in Technical Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of examples of technical control systems that can exhibit deterministic chaos and other forms of complex nonlinear behavior. These examples include thermostatically regulated radiators, closely placed refrigirators, and industrial cooling compressors. The paper...... continues to describe the possible perspective in driving our technical systems to operate in a chaotic regime. An example of a technical system capable of operating under unstable conditions is the F/A-18 fighter....

  8. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... to the internal pressure the consequence of the increased volume (i.e. water-/steam space) is an increased wall thickness in the pressure part of the boiler. The stresses introduced in the boiler pressure part as a result of the temperature gradients are proportional to the square of the wall thickness...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...

  9. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  10. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    , minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...... transformer, different generator groundings and different grounding resistances. Monte Carlo method is used in order to simulate the randomness of the electric arcs, while the maximum zero-sequence current and voltage is registered. The simulations show a good agreement with the measurements and can be used......The intermittence of some renewable energy sources, mainly wind and solar, leads to rapid power variations, which have to be controlled in order to maintain the system stable. Controllable loads, like MW range electric boilers, are a good solution for this problem, as the warmed water can be reused...

  11. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98 weight...

  12. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  14. Technology of oxygen production in the membranecryogenic air separation system for a 600 MW oxy-type pulverized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdowska, Sylwia; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna

    2012-09-01

    In this paper the results of the thermodynamic analysis of the oxy-combustion type pulverized bed boiler integrated with a hybrid, membrane- cryogenic oxygen separation installation are presented. For the calculations a 600 MW boiler with live steam parameters at 31.1 MPa /654.9 oC and reheated steam at 6.15 MPa/672.4 oC was chosen. In this paper the hybrid membrane-cryogenic technology as oxygen production unit for pulverized bed boiler was proposed. Such an installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. Models of these installations were built in the Aspen software. The energy intensity of the oxygen production process in the hybrid system was compared with the cryogenic technology. The analysis of the influence of membrane surface area on the energy intensity of the process of air separation as well as the influence of oxygen concentration at the inlet to the cryogenic installation on the energy intensity of a hybrid unit was performed.

  15. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  16. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  17. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    , the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat...

  18. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  19. Quality and nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cante, C.

    1977-08-01

    The design and manufacture of the components, assembly, erection and tests, these different stages in the making of a nuclear boiler are carried out according to very accurately defined techniques and organization. From the technical viewpoint, it is shown how standard practice, experience, tests, the respect of codes and standard specifications contribute to the quality of achievement. The organizing of the assurance of quality is exposed by more particularly bringing to mind an American text which sets forth a certain number of principles widely applied beyond the frontiers of the United States. (author)

  20. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  1. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  2. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Bum; Roh, Seon Man

    2016-01-01

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB

  3. Robust control of an industrial boiler system; a comparison between two approaches: Sliding mode control and H∞ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Hamed; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz; Saffar-Avval, Majid

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a good performance of the utility boiler, dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature and water level of drum must be controlled. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of a boiler system is considered in which the input variables are feed-water and fuel mass rates. However this dynamic model may associate with uncertainties. With considering the uncertainties of the dynamic model, a sliding mode controller is designed. After representation of the uncertain dynamic system in general control configuration and modelling the parametric uncertainties, nominal performance, robust stability and robust performance are analyzed by the concept of structured singular value μ. Using an algorithm for μ-analysis and applying an inversed-base controller, robust stability and nominal performance are guaranteed but robust performance is not satisfied. Finally, an optimal robust controller is designed based on μ-synthesis with DK-iteration algorithm. Both optimal robust and sliding mode controllers guarantee robust performance of the system against the uncertainties and result in desired time responses of the output variables. By applying H ∞ robust control, system tracks the desire reference inputs in a less time and with smoother time responses. However, less control efforts, feedwater and fuel mass rates, are needed when the sliding mode controller is applied.

  4. Development of a low NO{sub x} combustion system for a roof-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bionda, J.P.; Glickert, R.W. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hallo, A.; Gretz, G.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Duquesne Light Company operates three roof-fired utility boilers at its Elrama Power Station in Elrama, Pennsylvania. These units are required to comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Specifically, they need to reduce the emission rate of nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) to less than 0.50 lb/MBtu by May 31, 1995. Energy Systems Associates (ESA) was contracted to design a low NO{sub x} retrofit system for these units. Preliminary testing was performed to establish a baseline for NO{sub x}, CO and flyash carbon. A computational furnace model was utilized to evaluate various low NO{sub x} burner and separated overfire air (SOFA) designs. ``Proof of Concept`` field testing validated the low NO{sub x} burner design effectiveness. The SOFA system design was finalized and installed. This paper describes the development, design, and results of the Elrama low NO{sub x} retrofit system. The results of this project should be of interest to utilities evaluating low NO{sub x} retrofit technologies for roof-fired boilers.

  5. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  6. Technical guide to criticality alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    An instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the technical aspects of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Dept. of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. The manual was structured such that it can be used by engineers designing completely new systems and by those who are working with existing facilities. Major design tasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. Regulatory and technical performance requirements were both addressed. (authors)

  7. Modelling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations are complex, socio-technical systems consisting of a mixture of physical infrastructure, human actors, policies and processes. An in-creasing number of attacks on these organisations exploits vulnerabilities on all different levels, for example combining a malware attack...... with social engineering. Due to this combination of attack steps on technical and social levels, risk assessment in socio-technical systems is complex. Therefore, established risk assessment methods often abstract away the internal structure of an organisation and ignore human factors when modelling...... and assessing attacks. In our work we model all relevant levels of socio-technical systems, and propose evaluation techniques for analysing the security properties of the model. Our approach simplifies the identification of possible attacks and provides qualified assessment and ranking of attacks based...

  8. 75 FR 20817 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... Administration on technical questions that affect the level of export controls applicable to information systems...

  9. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  10. Towards ideal NOx control technology for bio-oils and a gas multi-fuel boiler system using a plasma-chemical hybrid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Hidekatsu; Takekoshi, Kenichi; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Otsuka, Keiichi; Okubo, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-fuel boiler system combined with NO x aftertreatment is developed. • NO x is removed from flue gas by a plasma-chemical hybrid process. • Waste bio-oils are utilized as renewable energy source and for CO 2 reduction. • Ultra low NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved. • The boiler system is applicable for industrial use. - Abstract: A super-clean boiler system comprising a multi-fuel boiler and a reactor for plasma-chemical hybrid NO x aftertreatment is developed, and its industrial applications are examined. The purpose of this research is to optimally reduce NO x emission and utilize waste bio-oil as a renewable energy source. First, NO oxidation using indirect plasma at elevated flue gas temperatures is investigated. It is clarified that more than 98% of NO is oxidized when the temperature of the flue gas is less than 130 °C. Three types of waste bio-oils (waste vegetable oil, rice bran oil, and fish oil) are burned in the boiler as fuels with a rotary-type burner for CO 2 reduction considering carbon neutrality. NO x in the flue gases of these bio-oils is effectively reduced by the indirect plasma-chemical hybrid treatment. Ultralow NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved for 450 min in the firing of city natural gas fuel. The boiler system can be successfully operated automatically according to unsteady steam demand and using an empirical equation for Na 2 SO 3 supply rate, and can be used in industries as an ideal NO x control technology

  11. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  12. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  13. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  14. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the

  15. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  16. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  17. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  18. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994; January 1995--March 1995; April 1995--June 1995; July 1995--September 1995; October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers five quarters of work on the engineering development of a coal-fired low -emissions boiler systems. Contents include summaries of activities and key accomplishments for the following: project management; NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystems; controls and sensors subsystems; boiler subsystem; and balance of plant subsystem.

  20. Modeling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta G.; Nielson, Flemming; Probst, Christian W.

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations are complex, socio-technical systems consisting of a mixture of physical infrastructure, human actors, policies and processes. An in- creasing number of attacks on these organisations exploits vulnerabilities on all different levels, for example combining a malware attack with

  1. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  2. Engineering the System and Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the problems encountered in aerospace systems have been due to a breakdown in technical integration and/or systems engineering. One of the major challenges we face in designing, building, and operating space systems is: how is adequate integration achieved for the systems various functions, parts, and infrastructure? This Contractor Report (CR) deals with part of the problem of how we engineer the total system in order to achieve the best balanced design. We will discuss a key aspect of this question - the principle of Technical Integration and its components, along with management and decision making. The CR will first provide an introduction with a discussion of the Challenges in Space System Design and meeting the challenges. Next is an overview of Engineering the System including Technical Integration. Engineering the System is expanded to include key aspects of the Design Process, Lifecycle Considerations, etc. The basic information and figures used in this CR were presented in a NASA training program for Program and Project Managers Development (PPMD) in classes at Georgia Tech and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Many of the principles and illustrations are extracted from the courses we teach for MSFC.

  3. Boiler feedwater treatment using reverse osmosis at Suncor OSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment system for boiler feedwater at a Suncor plant was discussed. The selection process began in 1993 when Suncor identified a need to increase its boiler feedwater capacity. The company reviewed many options available to increase the treated water capacity. These included: contracting the supply of treated water, adding additional capacity, replacing the entire plant, reverse osmosis, and demineralization. The eventual decision was to build a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment plant with the following key components: a Degremont Infilco Ultra Pulsator Clarifier and a Glegg Water Conditioning multimedia filter, Amberpack softeners and reverse osmosis arrays. The reverse osmosis plant was environmentally favourable over an equivalent demineralization plant. A technical comparison was provided between demineralization and reverse osmosis. The system has proven to be successful and economical in meeting the plants needs. 5 figs

  4. TCR as supervisor of technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laeger, H

    1998-01-01

    Our Technical Control Room (TCR) provides continuous supervision of CERN's technical infrastructure. It also serves the inhabitants of CERN's premises as a contact point in case of problems. Every year we initiate eleven thousand recorded corrective interventions; about half subsequent to user phone calls, the other half to automatic alarms. TCR tasks are essentially fourfold: collect and distribute information on abnormal operation states; supervise those technical systems for which we have a mandate; initiate corrective interventions; and perform corrective on-site interventions outside normal working hours. A TCR operator normally has an education corresponding to a French BTS and initially little professional experience. He holds short-term contracts, up to a maximum of six years. This paper outlines TCR tasks and presents some statistical data. It also indicates relations between users, equipment groups, contract firms and the TCR as go-between. Finally, it gives an account of our seven years experience ...

  5. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  6. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  7. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  8. Intelligent monitoring system of unburned carbon of fly ash for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusingam Pogganeswaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal fired power plant becoming preferable power plant type to support electricity demand mainly in Asia due to stable coal price and low maintenance. However, most coal fired plant operator struggle with condition where coal undergo incomplete combustion and produced unburned carbon where can be found in ashes especially in fly ash. Higher percentage of unburned carbon in fly ash reflects the lower efficiency of furnace and contributes to financial loses for plant operators. This problem also leads to technical issues such as slagging and clinkering and further reduces the efficiency of furnace. The plant operator determines the amount of unburned carbon by using conventional method and this proves be a challenge to identify and rectify the problem on day basis due time constraint to obtain results of unburned carbon. Thus in this paper, best Artificial Neural Network model was derived to develop intelligent monitoring system to predict unburned carbon level on more daily basis. By this model, the power producer can predict the unburned carbon level by using data in power plant to predict the unburned carbon level in short period of time.

  9. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  10. 77 FR 64464 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 7...

  11. Development of technical information processing system (VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Whan; Choi, Kwang; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this project is to establish integrated environment focused on enhanced information services to researchers through the providing of acquisition information, key phrase retrieval function, journal content information linked with various subsystems already developed. The results of the project are as follows. 1. It is possible to serve information on unreceivable materials among required materials throughout the system. 2. Retrieval efficiency is increased by the adding of key phrase retrieval function. 3. Rapidity of information service is enhanced by the providing of journal contents of each issue received and work performance of contents service is become higher. 4. It is possible to acquire, store, serve technical information needed in R and D synthetically and systematically throughout the development of total system linked with various subsystems required to technical information management and service. 21 refs. (Author)

  12. The Commissioning of the LHC Technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saban, R; Baggiolini, V; Ballarino, A; Barbero-Soto, E; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Bozzini, D; Casas-Lino, M-P; Chareyre, V; Claudet, S; Coelingh, G-J; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Kirby, G; Koratzinos, M; Lauckner, R; Le Naour, S; Mess, K-H; Millet, F; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Perea-Solano, B; Pojer, M; Principe, R; Rabehl, R; Rijllart, A; Redaelli, S; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Schmidt, R; Serio, L; Siemko, A; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Thiesen, H; Venturini, W; Vergara-Fernandez, A; Verweij, A; Zerlauth, M

    2007-01-01

    The LHC is an accelerator with unprecedented complexity where the energy stored in magnets and the beams exceeds other accelerators by one-to-two orders of magnitude. To ensure a safe and efficient machine start-up without being plagued by technical problems, a phase of "hardware commissioning" was introduced: a thorough commissioning of technical systems without beam. This activity started in June 2005 with the commissioning of individual systems, followed by operating a full sector, one eighth of the machine; the commissioning is expected to last until spring 2008 when commissioning with beam will start. The LHC architecture allows the commissioning of each of the eight sectors independently from the others, before the installation of other sectors is complete. An important effort went into the definition of the programme and the organization of the coordination in the field, as well as in the preparation of the tools to record and analyze test results. This paper discusses the experience with this approach...

  13. FRAM Modelling Complex Socio-technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2012-01-01

    There has not yet been a comprehensive method that goes behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, and various complicated accidents have accentuated the need for it. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, and understand both why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed.

  14. Thermalhydraulic assessment of the Pickering NGS 'B' feed and bleed system for the hot boiler chemical clean (Siemens Process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, Carlos M.

    2000-01-01

    The Hot Boiler Chemical Clean (HBCC) process from Siemens, to be used in PNGS, requires that the Heat Transport System (HTS) temperature be maintained in the range 160 to 170 o C for several days. To achieve these thermalhydraulic condition, the core decay power and the pump power of the main circulating pumps in a 3-3 configuration are employed to warm up the HTS from approximately 38 o C to 170 o C. At this point, high Bleed bias is applied to the signal of the HTS pressure controller to provide high Feed and Bleed flows, which are used to control the HTS temperature by means of the Bleed Cooler. To address any concern posed by these infrequently used HTS thermalhydraulic conditions, a detailed thermalhydraulic model of the Feed and Bleed System, that also includes the Gland Supply, Gland Return and Purification systems, was developed for the TUF code to determine the suitability of the Feed and Bleed System to conduct the HBCC. The model was then used to estimate the parameters such as Feed and Bleed flows, valve openings, pressure and temperature distributions throughout the Feed and Bleed System required for the application of HBCC. (author)

  15. Life Cycle Analysis of a Geothermal Heatpump Installation and Comparison with a Conventional Fuel Boiler System in a Nursery School in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the work lines in sustainable energy field of the EnergyLab Technology Centre (Vigo, Spain, associated with the technologies that are under investigation by this centre, it is developed a study about the Life Cycle Analysis (hereinafter, LCA over a geothermal heatpump (hereafter, GSHP installation in a nursery school in the province of Pontevedra (Galicia, Spain, and its comparison with the fuel boiler system prior to GHP. Thus, with the use of computer tools and following specific rules about the calculation of LCA, assessing the environmental impact of each system, and perform the appropriate comparison in order to quantify the savings emissions and the improvement in sustainability related to the replacement of diesel boiler system by the GSHP system.

  16. IAPCS: A COMPUTER MODEL THAT EVALUATES POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IAPCS model, developed by U.S. EPA`s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and made available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, can be used by utility companies, architectural and engineering companies, and regulatory agencies at all l...

  17. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  18. Exploration Medical System Technical Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J.; Rubin, D.; Mindock, J.; Middour, C.; McGuire, K.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Burba, T.; Urbina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element Systems Engineering (SE) goals include defining the technical system needed to support medical capabilities for a Mars exploration mission. A draft medical system architecture was developed based on stakeholder needs, system goals, and system behaviors, as captured in an ExMC concept of operations document and a system model. This talk will discuss a high-level view of the medical system, as part of a larger crew health and performance system, both of which will support crew during Deep Space Transport missions. Other mission components, such as the flight system, ground system, caregiver, and patient, will be discussed as aspects of the context because the medical system will have important interactions with each. Additionally, important interactions with other aspects of the crew health and performance system are anticipated, such as health & wellness, mission task performance support, and environmental protection. This talk will highlight areas in which we are working with other disciplines to understand these interactions.

  19. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  20. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  1. MSWI Boiler Ashes: Production and Quality Through the Horizontal Section of a Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    of the first phase of a wider study about the solid residues produced at the heat recovery system (boiler) of a waste incineration plant. The characterization was carried out not on the total output of the boiler but on the different solid residues produced at ten different horizontal sections. The aim...

  2. Combustion system optimization of a P-62 lignite boiler in ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 with NOx-reduction and efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, Ch.; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Totev, T.

    2013-01-01

    Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach, Germany, successfully concluded in consortium with Siemens EOOD, Sofia, the combustion system modification of a P62 lignite fired boiler in TPP ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3, which was targeting mainly the reduction of the NOx emissions below 180 mg/Nm 3 at 6 % O 2 . The modification is part of an EPC contract covering the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning works needed to upgrade the boilers at the power station. The Modification concept involves optimization of PF- and Vapor distribution, replacement of the coal burners, installation of new Over-fire air (OFA) system and Side-wall air (SWA) system and minor modification of the existing control system to allow control of the OFAflow. The main results of the modification are: Reduction of the NOx emissions (at ESP exit) from approximately 390 g/Nm³ to below 180 mg/Nm³ at 6% O 2 , Efficiency increase of the furnace by reduction of the excess air ratio from 1.2 to 1.15 (at furnace outlet) and overall increase of the boiler efficiency. (authors)

  3. Chat as a technically mediated social system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of chat as a technical media for communication. This is realized using the strategy for analyzing that I have called Media Sociography (Tække 2006). The Media Sociography is a synthesis of Medium Theory and the Systems Theoretical Sociology of Niklas Luhmann. The aim...... of the paper is to describe social reproduction under the constraints of chat, but also to show that Media Sociography can provide a unified theoretical framework for CMC-studies. The paper is also indented to provide an introduction to the Media Sociography for an English speaking public....

  4. Applications of the Theory of Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the development and applications of Hubka’s Theory of Technical Systems (TTS) at DTU as an example of the power of the theory, the necessity of detailing and fitting the theory, and the role of a theory as a basis for research.At the same time the paper is a balance of the influence......-product development. Across all these areas we have created a version of TTS with substantial applicability and coherence. This article does not show details on all of the research projects (which may be found in the literature), but it shows directions taken from Hubka’s TTS and the contributions made in academia...

  5. Treatment of technical objects as complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, T. K.

    1986-02-01

    Formalization and automation of new design in modern technology requires the system approach to an object. The simplest treatment of a technical object as a single entity is not adequate for new developments in aircraft technology, neither is the next step of treating it as one made of indivisible interacting components with more than one possible realization. The approach must be extrapolated to treating a technical object as a complex system. In this way, the history of design analysis and synthesis becomes analogous to a trajectory in the phase space up to any point representing the present status. Problems of optimal design can be formulated on this basis, considering a problem may be a multitarget one and that a global extremum may be sought as a solution implied to be unique. As problems become more multivariant or multicriterial, or both, for objects operating in more than one mode, it becomes necessary to combine design and control of complex systems with appropriate simulation. The six basic methods of simulation for aircraft objects are: (1) as stochastic processes; (2) as sets or tubes defined mathematically by inequalities; (3) as sets of processes within the region of given motion describable by Liapunov functions; (4) with the mathematical apparatus of diffuse spaces; (5) with the aid of a characteristic function and mathematical logic calculus including predicates; and (6) by programming on a computer in the language best suited for a given algorithm of solution.

  6. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  7. Data monitoring system of technical diagnosis system for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jing; Weng Peide; Chen Zhuomin; Wu Yu; Xi Weibin; Luo Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    Technical diagnosis system (TDS) is an important subsystem to monitor status parameters of EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak). The upgraded TDS data monitoring system is comprised of management floor, monitoring floor and field floor.. Security protection, malfunction record and analysis are designed to make the system stable, robust and friendly. During the past EAST campaigns, the data monitoring system has been operated reliably and stably. The signal conditioning system and software architecture are described. (authors)

  8. Feasibility of biomass heating system in Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in using biomass feedstock to produce heat and power is increasing. In this study, RETScreen modelling software was used to investigate the feasibility of biomass heating system in Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus. Weiss Kessel Multicratboiler system with 2 MW capacity using rice straw biomass as fuel and 10 units of RBI® CB0500 boilers with 144 kW capacity using natural gas as fuel were selected for the proposed biomass heating system. The total cost of the biomass heating project is US$ 786,390. The project has a pre-tax and after tax internal rate of return (IRR of 122.70%, simple payback period of 2.54 years, equity payback period of 0.83 year, a net present value of US$ 3,357,138.29, an annual lifecycle savings of US$ 262,617.91, a benefit-cost ratio of 21.83, an electricity cost of $0/kWh and a GHG reduction cost of −204.66 $/tCO₂. The annual GHG emission reduction is 1,283.2 tCO₂, which is equivalent to 118 hectares of forest absorbing carbon. The development and adoption of this renewable energy technology will save costs on buying conventional type of heating system and result in a large technical and economic potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions which will satisfy the sustainable development goals.

  9. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems. An energy study on ten low-income apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O&M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O&M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O&M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O&M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O&M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O&M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O&M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O&M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  10. Technical specifications report. Auditing and financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmiller, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Conservation Division is responsible for regulating the development of mineral resources on Federal leased lands and Indian reservations and for collecting the rents and royalties due from these lands. The objective of the Division is to reduce the regulatory burden on industry while effectively and efficiently discharging its responsibility. The development of the Improved Royalty Management Program (IRMP) is a major step in accomplishing these goals. The completion of the technical design of the first phase in the development of the IRMP is reported. How the Auditing and Financial System (AFS) will operate from a data-processing viewpoint is described, as well as how the system will perform the functions identified in the AFS Functional Specifications Report. Information is provided on the following: Systems Components (hardware, software, organizations, and security; Data Base Design; Overall System Flow; Batch Processes; On-line Processes; System Testing; Conversion; and Resource Requirements (performance, computer storage; timings, terminals, transmission, datapoint configuration; personnel).

  11. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be

  12. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    straight gas boiler, the running costs would be cheaper. This would result in significantly lower costs over a 10-year period. Biomass also has a superior environmental profile. The new Binder 650kW boiler, supplied by Living Energy, runs on dry woodchip, with the ideal moisture content being 20-30%. The long-term source of wood chip is pine sourced from local forestry activities. Council has considered using untreated urban timber waste collected at its transfer station and may conduct a trial in the future. Even if the trial is successful this would only supplement the main source of feedstock. The Binder boiler has automatic ash removal, which significantly reduces the maintenance cost on the previous system, which had to have ash manually removed three times a week on average. The ash is taken to a composter just north of Mount Gambier; mixed with other feedstock and turned into compost. The biomass boiler saves approximately 58 tonnes of greenhouse emissions per year. Due to the efficiency of the boiler, and the low moisture content of the wood chip, no smoke is produced, and only negligible particulates. “The trees that the biomass is sourced from are regrown and so the fuel source is essentially carbon neutral, as opposed to gas, which is a fossil fuel source,” said Izzard. “The biomass boiler is very efficient, up to 90%. It is more cost effective to run and has less environmental impact than coal-fired electricity.” The main disadvantage with this kind of biomass system is that it requires more human input than a straight gas system. With the latter, the fuel is piped in and the system runs mostly automatically, needing little human input. With a biomass system, the trees need to be harvested and chipped (which, in most situations will be occurring regardless, wood chips are simply purchased that were going to be made anyway), the chip needs to be stored (unless they can be made on demand, but for smaller systems this is unlikely to be cost effective), and

  13. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, F.; Matev, M.; Sykora, J.; Chladek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  14. RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF WALL-MOUNTED BOILERS WITH SEALED CHAMBERS USED AS FLAT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    the heating system analysis and to define the area of application of various systems of heat supply. The principal decision based on the basis of the above analysis is the decision to install an independent or a centralized system of heat supply.

  15. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  16. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  17. Technical equipment in soilless production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Gieling, T.H.; Lieth, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Technical innovations in fertilization and irrigation have resulted in adoption of fertigation technologies wherein completely soluble fertilizers are dissolved in irrigation water so as to deliver to plants the nutrients they need for optimal growth. This chapter focuses on the technical equipment

  18. Designing socio-technical systems : Structures and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, P.W.G.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and Management (SEPAM) MSc curriculum taught at Delft University of Technology focuses on the design of socio-technical systems (STS). We teach our students to structure design activities by considering what we call the TIP aspects: Technical systems,

  19. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed. This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems.This thesis presents contributions for mo...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  1. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  3. Design methodology for intelligent technical systems develop intelligent technical systems of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Rammig, Franz; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent technical systems, which combine mechanical, electrical and software engineering with control engineering and advanced mathematics, go far beyond the state of the art in mechatronics and open up fascinating perspectives. Among these systems are so-called self-optimizing systems, which are able to adapt their behavior autonomously and flexibly to changing operating conditions. Self-optimizing systems create high value for example in terms of energy and resource efficiency as well as reliability.   The Collaborative Research Center 614 "Self-optimizing Concepts and Structures in Mechanical Engineering" pursued the long-term aim to open up the active paradigm of self-optimization for mechanical engineering and to enable others to develop self-optimizing systems.   This book is directed to researchers and practitioners alike. It provides a design methodology for the development of self-optimizing systems consisting of a reference process, methods, and tools. The reference process is divided into two...

  4. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  5. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  6. Chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers – Fe-O-Cl system thermodynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Robert

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chloride-induced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl system. The ranges of the metallic, oxide and chloride phase stability are determined within the temperature range T = 750-1000 K. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of gaseous phase determined by Deacon reaction are presented. The effect of H2O concentration in the gaseous phase on high-temperature corrosion process and gaseous NaCl influence on NaFeO2 formation in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 are discussed as well. The results are correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis is compared with assumptions of “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research prediction and a corrosion prevention in the industry.

  7. Study of environmental performance of the boiler ТПП-210A at different dust feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Юрасова, Оксана Георгіївна

    2014-01-01

    The environmental problems of reduce the harmful effects of thermal environment are actual for Ukraine. Replacing of old equipment requires substantial new funds. Therefore, an important task in the energy of Ukraine is extending the life of existing thermal power plants. The effectiveness of the fuel regime of energy boilers equipped with a high concentrated dust feeding with pressure on burners at combustion of low-reactive worsen quality coal is investigated in the article. The results of ...

  8. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  9. in biomass-fired boilers for Fe-O-Cl-S system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chlorideinduced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl-S system. The influence of steam concentration in the gas phase on chloride-induced corrosion process was presented. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of the gas phase was determined. The effect of alkali metals chlorides in gas phase (Na,KCl on formation of (Na,KFeO2 in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 was analysed. Condensation of (Na,KCl vapors, formation of low-melting eutectic mixtures in deposits and consequences of this process on corrosion process were examined. Additionally, the role of SO2 in chlorination and oxidation process of steel in melted ash deposits was discussed as well. The results were correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis was compared with assumptions of an “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research planning and a corrosion process prevention in the industry.

  10. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  11. Intelligent systems in technical and medical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    For many years technical and medical diagnostics has been the area of intensive scientific research. It covers well-established topics as well as emerging developments in control engineering, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, pattern recognition and statistics. At the same time, a growing number of applications of different fault diagnosis methods, especially in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical engineering, is being observed. This monograph contains a collection of 44 carefully selected papers contributed by experts in technical and medical diagnostics, and constitutes

  12. El mantenimiento en la confiabilidad y disponibilidad de un sistema de generación de vapor // Maintenance on the reliability and availability of steam boiler systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Troncoso-Fleitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revelar y agrupar los principales hallazgos de seguridaddetectados en Sistemas de Generación de Vapor, SGV, que influyen en su confiabilidad ydisponibilidad y son causados por debilidades en la función mantenimiento. Los hallazgos han sidoidentificados mediante la aplicación de Técnicas de Identificación de Peligros, TIP, como Revisionesde Seguridad, Análisis HAZOP y Análisis Qué pasa si..?, entre otras metodologías y técnicasdisponibles, a más de una treintena de instalaciones donde los SGV han cumplido funciones tanto deapoyo a la producción como a los servicios. Agrupar y analizar estos hallazgos, problemas odesviaciones de seguridad han revelado que, independientemente del grado de cultura de seguridadque presente la instalación objeto de estudio, tienen un mismo origen y requieren de accionessimilares para su gestión.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, confiabilidad, disponibilidad, seguridad, caldera, generación de vapor.__________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper has as objective to develop and to group the main findings of safety detected in SteamBoiler Systems that influence in its reliability and availability and they are caused by weaknesses inthe function maintenance. Findings have been identified by means of the application of HazardIdentification Techniques, HIT, like Safety Revision, HAZOP Analysis, What if..? Analysis and othersmethodologies and techniques available, applied to more than a thirty of where the Steam BoilerSystems have fulfilled functions in support to the production or services. Grouping and analyzingthese findings, problems or deviations of safety have revealed that, independently of the grade ofsafety culture presents in the facility, they have common causes and they require of similar actions fortheir management.Key words: maintenance, reliability, safety, availability, steam boilers.

  13. Investigation of Turbulators for Fire Tube Boilers Using Exergy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AYHAN, Betül

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of five different types of ``turbulator" inserts for fire tube boilers is presented. The experimental setup was constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University. It was tested to evaluate the boiler efficiency according to TS 4040 standard, and to evaluate the second law efficiency of thermodynamics for the cases with and without inserts under the same operating conditions. Four new typ...

  14. Energy, exergy and economic analysis of industrial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Ahamed, J.U.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is analyzed, and applied to the boiler system. Energy and exergy flows in a boiler have been shown in this paper. The energy and exergy efficiencies have been determined as well. In a boiler, the energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 72.46% and 24.89%, respectively. A boiler energy and exergy efficiencies are compared with others work as well. It has been found that the combustion chamber is the major contributor for exergy destruction followed by heat exchanger of a boiler system. Furthermore, several energy saving measures such as use of variable speed drive in boiler's fan energy savings and heat recovery from flue gas are applied in reducing a boiler energy use. It has been found that the payback period is about 1 yr for heat recovery from a boiler flue gas. The payback period for using VSD with 19 kW motor found to be economically viable for energy savings in a boiler fan.

  15. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  16. German boiler and pressure vessel codes and standards: materials, manufacture, testing, equipment, erection and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods by which the safety objectives on the operation of steam boilers and pressure vessels in Germany can be reached are set out in Technical Rules which are compiled and established in technical committees. Typical applications are described in the Technical Rules. A chart shows how the laws, provisions and Technical Rules for the sections 'steam boiler plant' and 'pressure vessels' are interlinked. This chapter concentrates on legal aspects, materials, manufacture, testing, erection and operation of boilers and pressure vessels in Germany. (U.K.)

  17. Technical and economic viability of automated highway systems : preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technical and economic investigations of automated highway systems (AHS) are addressed. It has generally been accepted that such systems show potential to alleviate urban traffic congestion, so most of the AHS research has been focused instead on tec...

  18. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  19. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  20. Social risk assessment of large technical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to engineering advances. Since risk adhering to a technical structure can be determined quantitatively easier and more accurately than before, criteria for decision making are becoming more important. If the structure is in the public domain, and benefits are not felt, the

  1. Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Timothy R.

    1987-01-01

    The TMIS goals developed to support the Space Station Program (SSP) mission requirements are outlined. The TMIS will provide common capabilities to all SSP centers and facilitate the flow of technical and management information throughout the program as well as SSP decision-making processes. A summary is presented of the various TMIS phases.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  3. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  4. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  5. Assessment of Some Performance Characteristics of Refuse Boiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pioneer palm oil boiler unit, in an immense power self-contained oil mill, impaired by many years of accumulated depreciation, was rebuilt in the pattern of a design-out scheme aimed primarily at rehabilitating the entire boiler system to a state of functionality. The research work studied the pre-maintenance and post ...

  6. Formal Modelling and Analysis of Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probst, Christian W.; Kammüller, Florian; Rydhof Hansen, René; Probst, Christian W.; Hankin, Chris; Rydhof Hansen, René

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering. This non-technical aspect of attacks complicates their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical

  7. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This document is an addendum to Perkin-Elmer Report No. 12486, Final Technical Report, Laser Fusion System Analysis. Contained herein are the budgetary cost estimates prepared for the baseline design described in the Final Technical Report. Cost tradeoffs performed during the study are covered. (U.S.)

  8. Certification of boiler safety equipment with ALSPA P320 system, to IEC 61508 standard; Certification des equipements de securite chaudiere avec le systeme ALSPA P320 selon la norme IEC 61508

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzon, J.P. [Alstom Power (France)

    2002-02-01

    Safety and environmental protection are major priorities governing Alstom work on control systems (Alspa P320) for power plant applications, especially when potentially dangerous processes like high-power flame boilers (typically rated at 100 to 600 MW) are involved. Here, automatic protection chains are implemented to guard against the risk of serious incident such as explosion and equipment destruction. In this kind of situation, the IEC 61508 standard provides baseline specifications for certification of safety systems. (authors)

  9. Exploitation problems and diagnostic of heat recovery steam boiler OU-192

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olewicz Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT use exhaust gases from gas turbine (GT, which in basic systems are ejected to environment as discharge loss, for steam generation in Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG. Higher unit efficiency achieved inter alia by using in boiler low and high pressure circuit allow to greater use of turbine exhaust gases enthalpy. Modular design solutions with tight structure, preferred on construction site, may be a problematic for maintenance services during operation and overhauls. This paper presents general operational problems of HRSG as well as detailed solutions for boiler OU-192. We discuss scope and results of diagnostic tests required to assess technical condition of the pressure elements, after 100 000 hours operation, with the support of the software LM System PRO+

  10. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed....... This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  11. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Connolly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how an existing energy system can be transformed into a 100% renewable energy system. The transition is divided into a number of key stages which reflect key radical technological changes on the supply side of the energy system. Ireland is used as a case study,but in reality this reflects many typical energy systems today which use power plants for electricity, individual boilers for heat, and oil for transport. The seven stages analysed are 1 reference, 2 introduction of district heating, 3 installation of small and large-scale heat pumps,4 reducing grid regulation requirements, 5 adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6 producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7 using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results indicate that a 100% renewable energy system can provide the same end-user energy demands as today’s energy system and at the same price. Electricity will be the backbone of the energy system, but the flexibility in today’s electricity sector will be transferred from the supply side of the demand side in the future. Similarly, due to changes in the type of spending required in a 100% renewable energy system, this scenario will result in the creation of 100,000 additional jobs in Ireland compared to an energy system like today’s. These results are significant since they indicate that the transition to a 100% renewable energy system can begin today, without increasing the cost of energy in the short- or long-term, if the costs currently forecasted for 2050 become a reality.

  12. Technical Assessment of Maglev System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the French energy consumption along typical U.S. routes. These TGV high-speed train and the German TR07 maglev advantages result generally from the...The GMSA team assessed the technical viability of the four SCD concepts, the German TR07 maglev design, and the French TGV high-speed train . This report...Institute of Japan cal route report for the National Maglev Initiative. (1984) Japanese studies of Shinkansen trains . Quar- Prepared for National Maglev

  13. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with the...

  14. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  15. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  16. Formal modelling and analysis of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Kammüller, Florian; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    -technical systems are still mostly identified through brainstorming of experts. In this work we discuss several approaches to formalising socio-technical systems and their analysis. Starting from a flow logic-based analysis of the insider threat, we discuss how to include the socio aspects explicitly, and show......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering. This non-technical aspect of attacks complicates their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio...... a formalisation that proves properties of this formalisation. On the formal side, our work closes the gap between formal and informal approaches to socio-technical systems. On the informal side, we show how to steal a birthday cake from a bakery by social engineering....

  17. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form, along with abstracts, are included for topics in three catagories: computer science, data systems, and space station applications.

  18. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form are included for topics in three categories: computer science, data systems and space station applications.

  19. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  20. Estimation of regulated term of technical systems further operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The technique of estimating the regulated term of technical systems further operation on the basis of data on failures during operation and use of probabilistic-physical model of failures (DN-distribution) is proposed

  1. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  2. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Large boiler modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the modularization strategy in boiler manufacture of Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd, designed specifically to provide steam capacities up to 1,000,000 lb/hr. Designed as a solution for the oil sands market, the boiler responds to the needs of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and other in situ processes. Manufacture of three modules: furnace, superheater, and saturated module, is detailed assembly phases are shown as well as the construction sequence. The boiler is bottom-supported and features a unique modularized design that maximizes shop assembly and provides certainty to delivery and overall project schedule. Moreover, it is adaptable for all liquid and gaseous fuel types, including natural gas, produced gas and emulsified liquid fuels. This highly modular solution makes it a comprehensive solution for projects where construction risks and costs would otherwise be prohibitive. Maximum modularization of the boiler and minimal site labour are key design features, ensuring compliance with the weight and dimensional constraints of Alberta's high load corridor.

  4. Socio-Technical Systems in ICT: A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Socio-technical systems research aims to optimize two of the most important parts of the organization, the social network, and the technological network. The field is highly multi-disciplinary, and covers a host of issues, ranging from the management of complex systems, teams and work groups, interactions, and cognitive factors. Many approaches in the literature have adopted aspects of the socio-technical ideas, leading to four general perspectives. Depending on the view of the organization, ...

  5. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  6. CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the

  7. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  8. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  9. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 76 - Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers B Appendix B to Part 76 Protection of... of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers 1. Purpose and Applicability This technical... section 407 of the Act).” In developing the allowable NOX emissions limitations for Group 2 boilers...

  11. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  12. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon; Peter Tymms

    2002-01-01

    Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems w...

  13. Technical description of the Swedish natural gas distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ronny [KM Miljoeteknik AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    This description of the Swedish distribution network has been produced to provide information for distribution companies, trade organisations, etc., who have an interest in getting a clear understanding of the technical design and standards, technical directives, etc., which have served as guidance in the development. The technical description covers the piping system from a measuring and regulating station (MR station) up to the consumer`s substation, however, only sections with a maximum operating pressure of 4 bar. By way of introduction, the description contains introductory information on supply channels, consumption patterns and the principal design of the high pressure network in Sweden 10 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  14. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    : a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat...

  15. Development of a Technical Library to Support Computer Systems Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Munson Malley

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the development and growth of the United States Army Computer Systems Support and Evaluation Command (USACSSEC Technical Reference Library from a collection of miscellaneous documents related to only fifty computer systems to the present collection of approximately 10,000 hardware/software technical documents related to over 200 systems from 70 manufacturers. Special emphasis is given to the evolution of the filing system and retrieval techniques unique to the USACSSEC Technical Reference Library, i.e., computer listings of available documents in various sequences, and development uf the cataloging system adaptable to computer technology. It is hoped that this paper will be a contribution toward a standard approach in cataloging ADP collections.

  16. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kwack, E. H.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. Y.; Na, W.W

    2000-06-01

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person.

  17. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kwack, E. H.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. Y.; Na, W.W.

    2000-06-01

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person

  18. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning...... and policy. Deliberate planning for sustainability becomes a question of addressing governance structures of socio-technical systems, calling attention to how such governance structures emerge, stabilize and become dominant, which functions governance structures have to serve to become efficient, and how...

  19. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Intelligent Mobility Systems: Some Socio-technical Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, Monika; Coulton, Paul; Efstratiou, Christos; Gellersen, Hans; Hemment, Drew; Mehmood, Rashid; Sangiorgi, Daniela

    Analysis of socio-technical challenges and opportunities around contemporary mobilities suggests new interpretations and visions for intelligent transport systems. Multiple forms of intelligence are required (but not easily compatible), transport is too narrow a term, and innovation results in new socio-technical systems. An exploration of cumulative, collective and collaborative aspects of mobility systems, allows us to sketch challenges and opportunities in relation to practices of collaboration, communication and coordination, literacies for creativity, comfort and control, citizenship and (lack of) a sense of crisis, concluding with a discussion of methodological implications.

  1. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  2. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  3. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-06-01

    The systems analysis capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are summarized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. (U.S.)

  4. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  5. A Glimpse into a State Technical College System's POS Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stephanie D.; Swygert, N. Maria

    2012-01-01

    The South Carolina Technical College System (SCTCS) has embraced POS, providing students across the state with pathways into careers ranging from nuclear systems technology to health care to industrial technology. The SCTCS has strived, over the last 50 years, to foster a bridge between business and education. The colleges coordinate and…

  6. Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    , material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity dimension. The developed theoretical framework is used for analyzing the modularity of three different production systems the pre-modern......, modern and post-modern construction practices....

  7. Theory of Technical Systems--Educational Tool for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Hubka's theory of technical systems (TTS) is briefly outlined. It describes commonalities in all engineering devices, whatever their physical principles of action. This theory is based on a general transformation system (TrfS), which can be used to show engineering in the contexts of society, economics and historic developments. The life cycle of…

  8. Technical report for effective estimation and improvement of quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to improve the Quality System, in R and D part. This report applies on the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in nuclear projects. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of improvement of QA systems

  9. Wall boilers connected to the controlled mechanical gas ventilation system cannot be shifted easily...; Les ''murales'' raccordees a la VMC gaz ne voyagent pas facilement...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujin, M. [CEP-Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-10-01

    Mainly for aesthetical reasons, in renovated and new buildings, gas boilers are more and more often shifted from the kitchen (their traditional place) to other rooms (bathroom, storeroom, toilets..) and connected to the controlled mechanical ventilation system. In this case, several questions can arise concerning the respect of the gas safety regulations: compatibility of the ventilation system, conformability of the extraction system, sufficient amount of air supply, sufficient heating power etc.. This paper takes stock of this safety problem. (J.S.)

  10. Development of technical information processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Ho; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sun Ja; Kim, Young Min; Choi, Kwang; Oh, Joung Hun; Choung, Hyun Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Yoo, An Na; Harn, Deuck Haing; Choun, Young Chun

    1993-12-01

    The major goal of this project is to develop a more efficient information management system by connecting the KAREI serials database which enable the users to access from their own laboratory facilities through KAREI-NET. The importance of this project is to make the serials information of KAERI easily accessible to users as valuable resources for R and D activities. The results of the project are as follows. 1) Development of the serials database and retrieval system enabled us to access to the serials holding information through KAERI-NET. 2) The database construction establishes a foundation for the management of 1,600 serials held in KAERI. 3) The system can be applied not only to KAERI but also to similar medium-level libraries. (Author)

  11. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  12. Dynamics and control of technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balthazar, José M; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The main topics of this Special Issue are linear and, mainly, nonlinear dynamics, chaos and control of systems and structures and their applications in different field of science and engineering. According to the goal of the Special Issue, the selected contributions are divided into three major parts: ""Vibration Problems in Vertical Transportation Systems"", ""Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaos and Control of Elastic Structures"" and ""New Strategies and Challenges for Aerospace and Ocean Structures Dynamics and Control"". The discussion of real problems in aerospace and how these problems can be unde

  13. A CONCEPT OF ORGANISATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM OF TECHNICAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kruglyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the organization of the technical support in the establishments of higher education with the help of a special information system is regarded in the article. The problems, which will be solved with the support system, are revealed. The most famous open-source systems that use the service-oriented architecture are examined. Advantages and disadvantages of the system are shown.

  14. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  15. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  16. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  17. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  18. A Resilient Program technical baseline framework for future space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Matsunaga, Sumner S.

    2015-05-01

    Recent Better Buying Power (BBP) initiative for improving DoD's effectiveness in developing complex systems includes "Owning the Technical Baseline" (OTB). This paper presents an innovative approach for the development of a "Resilient Program" Technical Baseline Framework (PTBF). The framework provides a recipe for generating the "Resilient Program2" Technical Baseline (PTB) components using the Integrated Program Management (IPM) approach to integrate Key Program Elements (KPEs)3 with System Engineering (SE) process/tools, acquisition policy/process/tools, Cost and Schedule estimating tools, DOD Architecture Framework (DODAF) process/tools, Open System Architecture (OSA) process/tools, Risk Management process/tools, Critical Chain Program Management (CCPM) process, and Earned Value Management System (EVMS) process/tools. The proposed resilient framework includes a matrix that maps the required tools/processes to technical features of a comprehensive reference U.S. DOD "owned" technical baseline. Resilient PTBF employs a new Open System Approach (OSAP) combining existing OSA4 and NOA (Naval Open Architecture) frameworks, supplemented by additional proposed OA (Open Architecture) principles. The new OSAP being recommended to SMC (Space and Missiles Systems Center) presented in this paper is referred to as SMC-OSAP5. Resilient PTBF and SMC-OSAP conform to U.S. DOD Acquisition System (DAS), Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), and DODAF processes. The paper also extends Ref. 21 on "Program Resiliency" concept by describing how the new OSAP can be used to align SMC acquisition management with DOD BBP 3.0 and SMC's vison for resilient acquisition and sustainment efforts.

  19. Systems Engineering Technical Authority: A Path to Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andary, James F.; So, Maria M.; Breindel, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The systems engineering of space missions to study planet Earth has been an important focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since its inception. But all space missions are becoming increasingly complex and this fact, reinforced by some major mishaps, has caused NASA to reevaluate their approach to achieving safety and mission success. A new approach ensures that there are adequate checks and balances in place to maximize the probability of safety and mission success. To this end the agency created the concept of Technical Authority which identifies a key individual accountable and responsible for the technical integrity of a flight mission as well as a project-independent reporting path. At the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) this responsibility ultimately begins with the Mission Systems Engineer (MSE) for each satellite mission. This paper discusses the Technical Authority process and then describes some unique steps that are being taken at the GSFC to support these MSEs in meeting their responsibilities.

  20. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Data for modern boilers used in co-combustion; Moderna panndata inom samfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Ola [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    This project is a survey and a description of today's technical status and future development trends in the field of co-combustion. The survey is done from an energy production company's point of view and two technical questions have been studied; the possibilities for high steam data and the possibilities for a wide load range. These parameters are limited by the corrosive properties of the fuel and the environmental requirements in the EU directive for combustion of waste. In the report following issues are discussed: Examples of and experiences from co-combustion plants and plants that combust problematic fuels and have high steam data. A future prospect of high steam data in co-combustion plants by the usage of modern technical solutions and a description of these solutions. Important research and development results from combustion of problematic fuels in combination with high steam data. Choice of firing technology, boiler design and auxiliary systems and its affection on the load range in a boiler for co-combustion. A literature survey has been done to get the latest results from combustion of problematic fuels. Then a number of interesting plants have been identified and facts about them have been collected by contacts with plant owners, suppliers and professional researchers and also through publications. The report shows that Sweden, Finland and Denmark are in the front line of using high steam data for co-combustion of biomass and waste fuels. There are/have been problems with superheater corrosion in many of these plants but a number of ways how to handle high steam data have been identified: Adjust the fuel mix or add additives; Use high alloy materials; Consider the final super heater as a part that is worn out by time; Place the final super heater in the particle loop seal/sand locker; Use an external separate fired super heater; Gasification and then co-combustion of the pyrolysis gas in a conventional existing boiler; Place the

  2. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  3. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  5. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  6. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  7. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  8. Using communication norms in socio-technical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigand, H.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Often socio-technical systems are designed simply on the basis of what the user asks, and without considering explicitly whether the required process structure is right and wrong. However, poor communication may cause many problems. Therefore, a design cycle should always include diagnosis, and in

  9. The training system for technical personnel of producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, E.

    1980-01-01

    The training system of BBC Mannheim for technical personnel is divided in different activities, according to the different target groups and tenors. Different departments take care of this activities, which supply one another. Problem, training activities and methods are described. (orig.) [de

  10. Agent-based modelling of socio-technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    van Dam, Koen H; Lukszo, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Here is a practical introduction to agent-based modelling of socio-technical systems, based on methodology developed at TU Delft, which has been deployed in a number of case studies. Offers theory, methods and practical steps for creating real-world models.

  11. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  12. Tele-maintenance 'intelligent' system for technical plants result management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concetti, Massimo; Cuccioletta, Roberto; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mercuri, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    The management of technical plant for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants distributed in the territory are considered (i.e. the more and more frequent case of outsourced plants maintenance by specialized companies), granted quality and cost results are required (i.e. the case of some rather innovative contract solutions) and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative (i.e. electro-mechanical plants). In order to efficiently achieve the above aims an 'intelligent' maintenance-management system for the distant monitoring and controlling by a remote control center has been developed. The so-called GrAMS (granted availability management system) system is conceived to give to organizations involved in technical-industrial plants management the possibility to tend to a 'well-known availability' and 'zero-failures' management. In particular, this study deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety level of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.), and with the involvement of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Part of the research dealing with the tele-maintenance intelligent system has been financed by the Italian High Institute for Safety (ISPESL) and led to the development of a pre-industrial prototype whose realization and testing is here described

  13. The 1978 National Fire-Danger Rating System: technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry S. Bradshaw; John E. Deeming; Robert E. Burgan; Jack D. Cohen

    1984-01-01

    The National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS), implemented in 1972, has been revised and reissued as the 1978 NFDRS. This report describes the full developmental history of the NFDRS, including purpose, technical foundation, and structure. Includes an extensive bibliography and appendixes.

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  15. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...-0167] Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating its existing Safety Standard...

  16. Multi-circulation boiler design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) requires steam, which was historically supplied by once-through steam generators (OTSG). OTSGs are now often replaced by drum boilers for steam generation. Drum boilers have a higher capacity than OTSGs and produce reduced blowdown. However, the volume of contaminants in feedwater is generally significant and ASME criteria require high-quality feedwater. The current study investigates a new design for a multi-circulation boiler that would allow cleaner steam to be generated from lower quality feedwater. In drum boilers, water circulates in one zone. By analyzing circulation fundamentals (notably heat flux and void fraction), the design of multiple circulation zones was envisaged to separate the clean water from the contaminated water. Working with distinct circulation zones would allow the quality of the steam from low quality feedwater to be improved, all the while maintaining the blowdown. The new design would result in a boiler which is easier to clean and would meet ASME criteria.

  17. Condensing gas boilers for energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewardson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: 1) to demonstrate the effectiveness of condensing gas boiler hot water system in reducing energy costs and pollution; 2) to illustrate the importance of marketing this technology to uninformed end users. The development of condensing boilers in the European Community, the materials used, product designs, key performance measures, and the types of applications suited to these products are outlined. Using calculations from a body of work produced by the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers in Britain, it is demonstrated how seasonal efficiency differs from combustion efficiency, and how the added capital cost for these boilers may be recovered within an acceptable commercial pay back period from fuel cost savings. Applying current NO x and CO 2 information from a body of the CE Technical Committees, the author show how these products can reduce pollution levels both from CO 2 and NO x . An example of marketing these products to a largely uninformed end user customer market is cited. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs. (orig.)

  18. A novel optimized hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent PID controller for an interconnected multi-area power system with physical constraints and boiler dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa Haroun, A H; Li, Yin-Ya

    2017-11-01

    In the fast developing world nowadays, load frequency control (LFC) is considered to be a most significant role for providing the power supply with good quality in the power system. To deliver a reliable power, LFC system requires highly competent and intelligent control technique. Hence, in this article, a novel hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (FLiPID) controller has been proposed for LFC of interconnected multi-area power systems. A four-area interconnected thermal power system incorporated with physical constraints and boiler dynamics is considered and the adjustable parameters of the FLiPID controller are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) scheme employing an integral square error (ISE) criterion. The proposed method has been established to enhance the power system performances as well as to reduce the oscillations of uncertainties due to variations in the system parameters and load perturbations. The supremacy of the suggested method is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with some recently reported heuristic methods such as fuzzy logic proportional-integral (FLPI) and intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for the same electrical power system. the investigations showed that the FLiPID controller provides a better dynamic performance and outperform compared to the other approaches in terms of the settling time, and minimum undershoots of the frequency as well as tie-line power flow deviations following a perturbation, in addition to perform appropriate settlement of integral absolute error (IAE). Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the plant is inspected by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the suggested controller based optimization algorithm is robust and perform satisfactorily with the variations in operating load condition, system parameters and load pattern. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by

  19. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Problems in Communication between Businesses and Technical Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafrański Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how some communication problems between business and Technical Education System (TES can be reduced. This comes to a misunderstanding of the needs of entrepreneurs for the knowledge and skills, in this paper treated as a resource on the market. The authors explain why debated issue falls in the area of corporate management. It identifies one of the reasons hindering the solution of problems. In order to clarify the issues it references the achievements of analytic philosophy of language and the theory of communication code. It proposed a method of facilitating the solution of the problem, which is being implemented since 2016 by the research team, co-created by the authors of this publication. The aim of the development of this publication is to supplement the theoretical and practical knowledge of management in manufacturing companies and others with high technical potential, where there is a large, growing and rapidly changing demand for knowledge and technical skills.

  1. Catastrophic failure in complex socio-technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, D. [Intercultural Management, Rue Dostoievski, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: dweir@tinyworld.co.uk

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews the sequences leading to catastrophic failures in complex socio-technical systems. It traces some of the elements of an analytic framework to that proposed by Beer in Decision and Control, first published in 1966, and argues that these ideas are centrally relevant to a topic on which research interest has developed subsequently, the study of crises, catastrophes and disasters in complex socio-technical systems in high technology sectors. But while the system perspective is central, it is not by itself entirely adequate. The problems discussed cannot be discussed simply in terms of system parameters like variety, redundancy and complexity. Much empirical research supports the view that these systems typically operate in degraded mode. The degradations may be primarily initiated within the social components of the socio-technical system. Such variables as hierarchical position, actors' motivations and intentions are relevant to explain the ways in which communication systems typically operate to filter out messages from lower participants and to ignore the 'soft signals' issuing from small-scale and intermittent malfunctions. (author)

  2. Technical analysis of prospective photovoltaic systems in Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2012-02-01

    This report explores the technical feasibility of prospective utility-scale photovoltaic system (PV) deployments in Utah. Sandia National Laboratories worked with Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), a division of PacifiCorp operating in Utah, to evaluate prospective 2-megawatt (MW) PV plants in different locations with respect to energy production and possible impact on the RMP system and customers. The study focused on 2-MW{sub AC} nameplate PV systems of different PV technologies and different tracking configurations. Technical feasibility was evaluated at three different potential locations in the RMP distribution system. An advanced distribution simulation tool was used to conduct detailed time-series analysis on each feeder and provide results on the impacts on voltage, demand, voltage regulation equipment operations, and flicker. Annual energy performance was estimated.

  3. A perspective on computer documentation: System developer vs. technical editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    Between the computer-knowledgeable {open_quotes}techie{close_quotes} and the technical writer is a chasm created by differences in knowledge bases and skills. Although this gap is widened by misunderstandings and misconceptions of system development roles, it is bridged by mutual need and dual appreciation. Often the editor/writer is {open_quotes}behind{close_quotes} from beginning to end. The writer normally joins the team after the programmers are well into system development and do not want to {open_quotes}waste time{close_quotes} discussing fundamentals. The writer is usually excluded from technical discussions because it is assumed that he/she would not understand anyway. Later in the system development cycle, the writer has no time to polish the documentation before a new version of the software is issued which implies that the documentation must be revised. Nevertheless, the editor/writer`s product is critical for the end-user`s appreciation of the software, a fact which promotes unity to complete the comprehensive package of software and documentation. This paper explores the planks in the bridge that spans the chasm between developers and their fundamental PR agents, the technical editors/writers. This paper defines approaches (e.g., The Circling Theory) and techniques (Bold Thrust!) employed for effective communication -- between software developer and technical writer as well as between the software and the end-user.

  4. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haichao; Jiao Wenling; Lahdelma, Risto; Zou Pinghua

    2011-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (β). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at β=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently. - Highlights: ► Combined heating systems comply with the energy structure reformation in China. ► We consider the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. ► Combined heating systems can be economically more feasible and sustainable. ► The net heating cost of a combined heating system is more sensitive to coal price. ► The optimal basic heat load ratio is more easily influenced by gas price.

  6. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  7. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  8. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  9. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  10. Internet application: production-technical information system MoNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiga, J.

    2004-01-01

    MoNET is the production-technical information system supporting engineering, operational and maintenance processes of distribution network administrator. It utilizes the model of distribution network that is situated in the geo-space relational database. The geo-space database represents an information base of operational-technical processes. It contains elements and equipment s of the distribution network, failures, operational events, maintenance records, but also, parcels, reference planimetry, e.g. and other subjects for which is relevant the positional datum - geo-space information. MoNET is typically exploited in the fields: - evidence of the subjects and equipment of network, technical documentation; - property administration; - planning of network development, support of designing and construction; - technical calculation; - breakdown controller centre; - maintenance management. MoNET can be implemented as the desktop application, however its first benefit is derived from its usage as the intranet application MoNET WEB for the whole enterprise or organisation. This version enables an unrestricted number of end-users to enter this system. The end-users don't need any special software to enter the data of MoNet WEB application, the pre-installed Internet Explorer will do. (author)

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  12. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  13. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  14. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  15. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  16. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  17. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 1666 - Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 25 Open Session 1. Welcome and Introductions...

  19. 75 FR 39919 - Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 28 Public...

  20. 76 FR 323 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 26 Open...

  1. 78 FR 1198 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 23 Open Session 1. Welcome and...

  2. 78 FR 42753 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 31...

  3. 78 FR 63162 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 6...

  4. 76 FR 64895 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 2 Public...

  5. 76 FR 39845 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 27 Public...

  6. 75 FR 64258 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 3 Public...

  7. 75 FR 1339 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 27 Open...

  8. 78 FR 24160 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Tuesday, May 7 Open Session 1. Welcome...

  9. 77 FR 37652 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... that affect the level of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology...

  10. 77 FR 24178 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Tuesday, May 8 Open Session 1. Welcome...

  11. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  12. Efficiency assessment of bi-radiated screens and improved convective set of tubes during the modernization of PTVM-100 tower hot-water boiler based on controlled all-mode mathematic models of boilers on Boiler Designer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orumbayev, R. K.; Kibarin, A. A.; Khodanova, T. V.; Korobkov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work contains analysis of technical values of tower hot-water boiler PTVM-100 when operating on gas and oil residual. After the test it became clear that due to the construction deficiency during the combustion of oil residual, it is not possible to provide long-term production of heat. There is also given a short review on modernization of PTVM-100 hot-water boilers. With the help of calculations based on controlled all-mode mathematic modules of hot-water boilers in BOILER DESIGNER software, it was shown that boiler modernization by use of bi-radiated screens and new convective set of tubes allows decreasing sufficiently the temperature of combustor output gases and increase reliability of boiler operation. Constructive changes of boiler unit suggested by authors of this work, along with increase of boiler’s operation reliability also allow to improve it’s heat production rates and efficiency rate up to 90,5% when operating on fuel oil and outdoor installation option.

  13. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  15. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  16. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  18. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 4.0. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carry out a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  19. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  20. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 3.8. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  1. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  2. DBSSP - A computer program for simulation of controlled circulation boiler and natural circulation boiler start up behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Chen Tingkuan; Yang Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program, Drum Boiler Start-up Simulation Program (DBSSP), is developed for simulating the start up behavior of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers. The mathematical model developed here is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the boiler model, heat transfer in the waterwall, the superheater, the reheater and the economizer is simulated by the distributing parameter method, while heat transfer in the drum and the downcomer is simulated by lumped parameter analysis. The program can provide detailed flow and thermodynamic characteristics of the boiler components. The development of this program is based only on design data, so it can be used for any subcritical, controlled or natural circulation boiler. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements, and good agreements between them were found. This program is expected to be useful for predicting the characteristics and the performance of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers during the start up process. It also can be used to optimize a start up system for minimum start up time

  3. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  4. A study on the leak monitoring of boiler tube in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk

    2002-01-01

    Main equipment of thermal power plant, such as boiler and turbine, are designed and manufactured by domestic techniques. But the special equipments monitoring the operation status of these main facilities are still dependent upon foreign technology. Therefore, so as to develop boiler tube leak detection system, we performed studying on manufacturing, installation in site, Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis and discrimination etc. As result of studying on boiler tube leak detection using AE, we conformed that diagnosis for boiler tube and computerized their trend management is possible, and also it is expected to contribute to safe operation of power plant facilities

  5. Study of flue-gas temperature difference in supercritical once-through boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanchang; Li, Bing; Song, Ang

    2018-02-01

    The 600 MW coal-fired once-through Boilers with opposed firing at a power plant are found to experience marked temperature variation and even overtemperature on the wall of the heating surface as a result of flue-gas temperature (FGT) variation in the boiler. In this study, operational adjustments were made to the pulverizing, combustion, and secondary air box systems in these boilers, in order to solve problems in internal combustion. The adjustments were found to reduce FGT difference and optimize the boiler’ combustion conditions. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimization of coal-fired boiler of the same type in similar conditions.

  6. Optimizing the flame aerodynamics and the design of tangentially arranged burners in a TGMP-314 boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroichikov, N. A.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Arkhipov, A. M.; Kirichkov, V. S.

    2011-08-01

    Technical solutions for optimizing the flame aerodynamics and the design of tangentially arranged burners in a TGMP-314 boiler are proposed. The implementation of these solutions will make it possible to achieve more reliable operation of the boiler during fuel oil combustion, smaller amount of NO x emissions during the combustion of gas and fuel oil, and a somewhat lower air excess factor in the furnace.

  7. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  8. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  9. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  10. Technical description of the burn-up software system MOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, C.K.

    1991-05-01

    The burn-up software system MOP is a research tool primary intended to study the behaviour of fission products in any reactor composition. Input data are multi-group cross-sections and data concerning the nuclide chains. An option is available to calculate a fundamental mode neutron spectrum for the specified reactor composition. A separate program can test the consistency of the specified nuclide chains. Options are available to calculate time-dependent cross-sections of lumped fission products and to take account of the leakage of gaseous fission products from the reactor core. The system is written in FORTRAN77 for a CYBER computer, using the operating system NOS/BE. The report gives a detailed technical description of the applied algorithms and the flow and storage of data. Information is provided for adapting the system to other computer configurations. (author). 5 refs.; 11 figs

  11. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  12. TECHNICAL VISION SYSTEM FOR THE ROBOTIC MODEL OF SURFACE VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gromov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of work on creation of technical vision systems within the training complex for the verification of control systems by the model of surface vessel. The developed system allows determination of the coordinates and orientation angle of the object of control by means of an external video camera on one bench mark and without the need to install additional equipment on the object of control itself. Testing of the method was carried out on the robotic complex with the model of a surface vessel with a length of 430 mm; coordinates of the control object were determined with the accuracy of 2 mm. This method can be applied as a subsystem of receiving coordinates for systems of automatic control of surface vessels when testing on the scale models.

  13. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AS A BASIS OF HIGH AVAILABILITY LEVEL AND IT SYSTEM SERVICE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vidojevic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and implementation methodology of technical support in IT1system operation. Methodology is developed and applied in realistic system (Information system of the Tax administration - DIS 2003, which is technically very complex and highly distributed. The results of IT system availability assessment and identification of the critical components are input parameters in the process of establishing of the technical support. The importance of technical support for achieving optimal IT system availability and IT service quality is assessed according to its operation during one year. The history of technical support system operation is a basis for further continuous improvement.

  14. Evaluation of the influence of a milling system on the coal consumption in a PF utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, E.; Gil, A.; Arauzo, I.; Iranzo, I. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Center for Power Plant Efficiency Research (CIRCE)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for milling system performance analysis in coal fired power plants. A mill model has been designed. As inputs of the model, the following parameters are chosen: air mass flow rates, coal flow rates, grinding pieces age and classifier position. The outputs are: mill drive current, pressure drop through the mill and percentage of pulverized coal passing through 150, 75 and 45 {mu}m sieves. The developed models have been applied to the Teruel Power Station, a pulverized coal fired plant in Spain with a milling system of six planetary rod mills, each feeding a row of four burners. 7 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Dong; Chen Gongming; Zhou Xu; Bi Qincheng

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  16. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  17. Numerical simulation of a 374 tons/h water-tube steam boiler following a feedwater line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deghal Cheridi, Amina Lyria; Chaker, Abla; Loubar, Ahcène

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate the behavior of a steam boiler during feed-water line break accident. • To perform accident analysis of the steam boiler, Relap5/Mod3.2 system code is used. • A Relap5 model of the boiler is developed and qualified at the steady state level. • A good agreement between Relap5 results and available experimental data. • The Relap5 model predicts well the main transient features of the boiler. - Abstract: To ensure the operational safety of an industrial water-tube steam boiler it is very important to assess various accident scenarios in real plant working conditions. One of the most challenging scenarios is the loss of feedwater to the steam boiler. In this paper, a simulation of the behavior of an industrial water-tube radiant steam boiler during feedwater line break accident is discussed. The simulation is carried out using the RELAP5 system code. The steam boiler is installed in an Algerian natural gas liquefaction complex. The simulation shows the capabilities of RELAP5 system code in predicting the behavior of the steam boiler at both steady state and transient working conditions. From another side, the behavior of the steam boiler following the accident shows how the control system can successfully mitigate the effects and consequences of such accident and how the evaporator tubes can undergo a severe damage due to an uncontrolled increase of the wall temperature in case of failure of this system.

  18. Satellite Navigation Systems: Policy, Commercial and Technical Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, M.

    2003-12-01

    This book adopts a broad perspective on positioning and navigation systems which rely on Earth orbiting satellites for their successful operation. The first of such global systems was the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and the next the Russian GLONASS system. Now studies relating to Europe's future Galileo system are gaining momentum and other nations are planning regional augmentation systems. All such systems are discussed here, particularly relating to political, commercial, legal and technical issues. The opportunities - and also the problems - of having three similar systems in operation simultaneously are examined, and several novel applications are proposed. These range from improved vehicular transport by land, sea and air, to more accurate surveying, more efficient agricultural practices and safer operations in mountainous regions. Everyone who is challenged by these topics will find this volume invaluable. ISU WWW Server; http://www.isunet.edu. Further information on ISU Symposia may also be obtained by e-mail from symposium@isu.isunet.edu Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1678-6

  19. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  20. IFMIF-CDA technical workshop on lithium target system. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    An intense neutron source, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is planned under the collaborative program by International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) started in February 1995. US, Japan and EU are responsible to take a lead in coordinating accelerator, target and test cell design, respectively. In order to exchange the current results of the study and to coordinate the activities for the design integration, the first technical workshop on the lithium target system was held in the period of July 18-21 at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI. This publication summarizes the materials presented in this meeting. The presentations and discussions were organized with the identified CDA tasks. It was confirmed that the reference design of the IFMIF target based on the previous studies under FMIT and ESNIT, elaborated to meet IFMIF parameters, is reasonable and feasible. It was pointed out that the interface between accelerator and test cell subsystems should be carefully investigated to avoid technical conflicts. Some design options such as nozzle, backwall and lithium jet geometry, lithium purity control, and lithium vapor control, based on the current technology were proposed to improve the integral target system function, and further R and D studies were suggested for design integration. (author)

  1. Experimental and computational investigation of a MEMS-based boiler for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, Suvhashis; Borquist, Eric; Baniya, Ashok; Weiss, Leland

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microboiler with capillary channels for low temperature energy harvesting. • Complete thermodynamic analysis is completed. • The boiler is designed for minimum thermal losses. • Capability of capillary channels to pump at various pressure is investigated. - Abstract: Thermodynamically limited processes make waste heat abundant in availability. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) steam powered micro system designed to scavenge waste heat from various sources (transportation, industries or solar) is presented. The key boiler component is fabricated and characterized in this work. The system design has been inspired by the various efforts implemented in development of micro heat recovery devices and engines. The complete system consists of three individual micro components (1) boiler, (2) free piston expander and (3) superheater. Specifically, design, fabrication techniques, test setup and results of the miniaturized boiler are presented in this paper. A key design feature of the boiler is the inclusion of capillary channels for fluid flow from the surrounding reservoirs to the heated area. The pressurized steam is created by the boiler as a result of phase transformation of the working fluid. This pressurized steam can be utilized to drive another MEMS device (PZT membranes, turbines, thermoelectric, etc.) to generate power. In this upgraded boiler design, radial capillary channels and a thin film glass steamdome were considered to improve the operating efficiency. These inclusions enhanced capillary flow, energy absorption via phase change, mass flow rate and operating pressure. The power inputs of 1.8 W and 2.7 W were selected to simulate and characterize the boiler performance based on real-world waste heat source temperatures. For these power inputs, the maximum power absorption efficiency demonstrated by the boiler via phase change of the working fluid was approximately 88%. The peak operating pressure demonstrated by the boiler was 8.5 k

  2. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  3. The Baltic interconnected power system; technical basement and development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreslinsh, V.; Pervushin, Yu.; Zeltinsh, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are located on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and to North-West of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. The Baltic States were part of the SU for many years and consequently a part of a highly structured and centralised system. Prior to gaining independence in 1991, Baltic's power system had been planned and operated as a part of the North -West Interconnected Power Systems (Ips) of the former SU for 30 years. That is why the power systems of individual countries of the Baltic were not planned or operated as a independent systems but regionally, with the planning based on the optimisation of the whole Nord-West interconnected system. The Nord-West IPS included the power systems of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, as well as six North-West regions of Russia: Leningrad, Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Pskov, Novgorod, and Kaliningrad. Analysis of the structure, conditions, loads, specifics technical features, basics operation data of the main power stations in the Baltic IPS is given

  4. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  5. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, J.; Porteiro, J.; Míguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Gómez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  6. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-7.9 Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains nine modules covering boilers. The modules provide information on the following topics: fire and water tube types of boilers, construction, fittings, operation, cleaning, heat recovery systems, instruments and controls, and…

  7. MISSE in the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt; Finckenor, Miria; Henrie, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) data is now being collected and distributed through the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. MISSE data has been instrumental in many programs and continues to be an important source of data for the space community. To facilitate great access to the MISSE data the International Space Station (ISS) program office and MAPTIS are working to gather this data into a central location. The MISSE database contains information about materials, samples, and flights along with pictures, pdfs, excel files, word documents, and other files types. Major capabilities of the system are: access control, browsing, searching, reports, and record comparison. The search capabilities will search within any searchable files so even if the desired meta-data has not been associated data can still be retrieved. Other functionality will continue to be added to the MISSE database as the Athena Platform is expanded

  8. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  9. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  10. Extending systems ergonomics thinking to accommodate the socio-technical issues of Systems of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2014-01-01

    Socio-technical issues for Systems of Systems (SoS) differ in several ways from those for systems, mainly because the individual systems that are components of the SoS are usually owned by different organisations, each responsible for the optimisation and operation of its own system. Consequently, management of the SoS is about negotiation and management of the interfaces. Because of issues of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), commercial confidence, and the like, there is seldom sufficient, timely information in circulation about the SoS. Surprises are endemic to SoS, and resilience is a fundamental requirement. This paper outlines the different characteristics of SoS compared to ordinary systems, discusses many of the socio-technical issues involved, and then outlines a generic approach to these issues, treating the SoS as a 'wicked problem'. Endemic to this is the need for governance, which is discussed briefly. This is followed by a description of the evident gaps in knowledge about the functioning of SoS, and a listing of tool classes, the development of which would enable progress to be made more effectively. Finally, the paper discusses how the SoS approach might be the best way to entrain ICT to address global drivers, thus pointing to the importance of the SoS approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Site radiography in boiler industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemachandran, P.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography enjoys a unique position in radiography of weldments made at erection sites of industrial boilers. It also faces problems due to unfavourable conditions existing in these sites. The over-all approach to radiography at boiler erection sites has been dealt with. The advantages of modern X-ray and gamma ray equipment for these particular applications are discussed. A few useful accessories which reduce the complexity of source positioning and allied problems due to elevated position are suggested. Safety problems at sites are also dealt with. (author)

  12. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  13. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.H.

    1998-10-01

    The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

  15. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-07-01

    65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

  16. Economic Analysis for Rebuilding of an Aged Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler with a New Boiler in an Aged Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil-fired thermal power plants (TPP produce a significant part of electricity in the world. Because of the aging TPPs and so their equipment (especially boiler, thermal power plants also produce less power than their installed capacities, and there has been power loss in time. This situation affects the supply and demand balance of countries. For this reason, aging equipments such as pulverized coal-fired boiler (PCB must be renewed and power loss must be recovered, instead of building new TPPs. In this study, economic analysis of rebuilding an aged pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new pulverized coal-fired boiler including flue gas desulfurization (FGD unit and a circulating fluidized bed boiler (FBB are investigated in an existing old TPP. Emission costs are also added to model, and the developed model is applied to a 200 MWe pulverized coal-fired thermal power plant in Turkey. As a result, the payback period and the net present value are calculated for different technical and economic parameters such as power loss, load factor, electricity price, discount rate, and escalation rate by using the annual value method. The outcomes of this study show that rebuilding of a pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new one is amortized itself in a very short time.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  18. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  19. Development of a behavioural marker system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills (SPLINTS system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2013-04-01

    Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  1. Technical Assistance to Promote Service and System Change. Roadmap to Effective Intervention Practices #4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Technical assistance (TA) has long been a standard, overarching strategy for assisting, states, agencies, family members, and practitioners with building capacity for service and system change initiatives. But, what is meant by the term "technical assistance"? What is known about the technical assistance strategies that are likely to…

  2. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness... report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report its existing Safety..., 2010. ADDRESSES: Report: The technical report is available on the Internet for viewing in PDF format at...

  3. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  4. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural

  5. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  6. DCS (Defense Communications System) Technical Control Engineering Criteria. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    ai EP 3-78RI uj DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING CENTER ENGINEERING PUBLICATION NO. 3-78 RI DCS TECHNICAL CONTROL ENGINEERING CRITERIA :V4 DTIC...EP3-78R1 Ř. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED DCS Technical Control Engineering Criteria Engineering Publication(Rev) Ś... CONTROL ENGINEERING CRITERIA MAY 1981 Prepared by: e Members Engineering & Technical Pnl, Tech Control Improvement Program Phasing Grp & Staff

  7. Development of an Optimizing Control Concept for Fossil-Fired Boilers using a Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Commisso, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    An optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms...... of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes into account the multivariable and nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process as a gain-scheduled LQG-controller is utilized. For the purpose of facilitating the control concept development a dynamic simulation model of the boiler process...

  8. Study of thermal-flow processes in ash cooler cooperating with CFB boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Regucki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an example of thermal-flow analysis of the bottom ash cooler cooperating with the circulating fluidized bed boiler. There is presented a mathematical model of series-parallel hydraulic system supplying the ash cooler in cooling water. The numerical calculations indicate an influence of changes of the pipeline geometrical parameters on the cooling water flow rate in the system. Paper discusses the methodology of the studies and presents examples of the results of thermal balance calculations based on the results of measurements. The numerical results of the thermal-flow analysis in comparison with the measurements on the object indicate that the presented approach could be used as a diagnostic tool investigating the technical state of the bottom ash cooler.

  9. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  10. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  11. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  12. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  13. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations

  14. Systematic analysis of maintenance strategies of technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Stroemberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies of technical systems in operating power plants. In the Experience Based Reliability Centred Maintenance (EBRCM) approach, the analyses of the history of occurred faults and the preventive maintenance program are combined. Changes in the maintenance programs are proposed for reduction of faults or increasing the cost-efficiency of maintenance. The justification of changes is based on simple maintenance indicators and study of the underlying failure and maintenance data. To make the analysis resource-efficient and generate easily the maintenance indicators, suitable data analysis and warehouse tools are used. They facilitate the online access and treatment of the work orders and other planning information in plant information systems. In order to direct the analysis to the important items from maintenance point of view, the equipment of the plant are classified based on their importance for reaching the maintenance objectives such as plant safety, plant availability and worker protection. Maintenance optimisation is directed to those important equipment which exhibit a high number of failures. The other equipment of less maintenance importance, but which exhibit high preventive maintenance costs and low numbers of failures are also analysed to improve the cost-effectiveness of maintenance. After experiences from performing two case studies, both on a standby safety system and a continuously operating process system, Barsebdck Kraft AB adopted the experience based RCM approach as standard method for evaluation of the maintenance action programs and planning of modifications in them. The strength is the applicability and continuity of this method, i.e. each year again. (orig.)

  15. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  16. Cane Tops and Leaves as Boiler Fuel | Gukhool | University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper finds that it is possible to burn cane tops and leaves (CTL) as a fuel for boilers in sugar factories. Best results were however obtained when it is mixed with bagasse in the ratio 30% CTL and 70% bagasse with respect to energy content, exhaust particles and necessity for not modifying existing systems for burning ...

  17. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  18. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  20. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  1. Technical assistance contractor occurrence reporting and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Members of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) are responsible to notify management of TAC occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS) classified occurrences .An ORPS occurrence is an unexpected or unplanned event on DOE property which causes bodily harm, death, damage to government property, exposure to toxic or hazardous substances above acceptable limits to workers, the environment, or general public. Examples of potential reportable occurrences include, but not limited to, site personnel exposures to airborne contaminants, incidents which could expose the general public to high levels of radiation or other contaminants, a vehicle accident resulting in property damage or personnel injuries. Listed TAC manager/staff contacts, with the assistance of TAC ORPS Program Coordinators, will determine if the occurrence is reportable under Department of Energy (DOE) Order M 232.1-2. The reportable occurrences will be classified as emergency, unusual, or off-normal. If determined to be reportable, listed TAC manager/staff will verbally report the details of the occurrence to the DOE Duty Officer within 2 hours of initial notification, and provide a written report of the event by noon the following work day

  2. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Course Sessions (October 2006-March 2007) The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, currently scheduled until March 2007: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20 October 2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 October -1 November 2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2 November 2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans: 18-20 December 2006 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists:...

  3. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  4. Man as a safety problem in technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.; Wolff, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Safety engineering derives its justification from the success achieved in maintaining and enlarging safety, more precisely, from activities aimed at avoiding or preventing damage caused by accidents. Man is not only affected by accidents but is also the cause of accidents, either directly or indirectly, and thus is to be regarded as the actual cause or preventer of accidents. The Second International Summer Symposium of the Society for Safety Engineering (GfS) which was held at Duesseldorf in 1980 brought into focus this aspect and the importance to be attached to the individual man and the whole mankind in the field of accident prevention. 'Man as a safety problem in technical systems' - a great and weighty field of problems, the large extent of which and the complex content of which was to be discussed by the programme with its many different contributions, on the one hand by presenting an outline as completely as possible, and on the other hand by finding further-reaching solutions for at least some problems. This was the purpose of the dialogues held between theory and practice on the one hand, and between safety engineering and, in this case, the human sciences on the other hand. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  6. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  7. Real-time monitoring energy efficiency and performance degradation of condensing boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Quang, Thuan Le; Holub, Ondrej; Endel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully-fledged set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for condensing boilers. • Detection of boiler performance degradation in condensing and noncondensing mode. • Virtual sensing for estimation of water mass flow rate. • Optimal Kalman detection of actuator and sensor faults. • Structural properties for detection and isolation of faults. - Abstract: Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiency than traditional boilers by using waste heat in flue gases to preheat cold return water entering the boiler. Water vapor produced during combustion is condensed into liquid form, thus recovering its latent heat of vaporization, leading to around 10–12% increased efficiency. Many countries have encouraged the use of condensing boilers with financial incentives. It is thus important to develop software tools to assess the correct functioning of the boiler and eventually detect problems. Current monitoring tools are based on boiler static maps and on large sets of historical data, and are unable to assess timely loss of performance due to degradation of the efficiency curve or water leakages. This work develops a set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for dynamic energy efficiency monitoring and assessment in condensing boilers, i.e. performance degradation and faults can be detected using real-time measurements: this real-time feature is particularly relevant because of the limited amount of data that can be stored by state-of-the-art building energy management systems. The monitoring tools are organized as follows: a bimodal parameter estimator to detect deviations of the efficiency of the boiler from nominal values in both condensing and noncondensing mode; a virtual sensor for the estimation of the water mass flow rate; filters to detect actuator and sensor faults, possibly due to control and sensing problems. Most importantly, structural properties for detection and isolation of actuators and sensing faults are given: these properties are

  8. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  9. Tool-based Risk Assessment of Cloud Infrastructures as Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nidd, Michael; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.

    2015-01-01

    therefore constitutes a socio-technical system. Attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identified through expert brainstorming. However, formal risk assessment for systems including human actors requires modeling human behavior, which is difficult at best. In this chapter, we present a modeling...... exercise for cloud infrastructures using the socio-technical model developed in the TRESPASS project; after showing how to model typical components of a cloud infrastructure, we show how attacks are identified on this model and discuss their connection to risk assessment. The technical part of the model...

  10. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  11. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  12. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  15. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Gasification Boiler and Its Energy Efficiency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine a method for multi-parametric output regulation of a gasification boiler especially designed for heating or for hot water heating in buildings. A new method of regulation is offered, namely more parametric regulation via proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers that are capable of controlling the calculated values of pressure, temperature and fan speed. These values of pressure, temperature and fan speed are calculated in a completely new way, and calculations of setpoints for determination of optimal parameters lead to an increase in boilers efficiency and power output. Results of measurements show that changes at the mouth of the stack draft due atmospheric influences occur in times with high intensity and high frequency, while power parameters, or boiler power output amplitudes and fan speed automatically “copy” those changes proportionally due to instantaneous fan speed changes. The proposed method of regulation of the gasification boiler power output according to the technical solution enables a simple, cheap, express and continuous maintenance of high power output at low concentrations of the exhaust gases of the gasification boilers from the viewpoint of the boiler user, as well as from the perspective of development and production it allows a continuous control monitoring of these parameters.

  16. Structuring Socio-technical Complexity: Modelling Agent Systems using Institutional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Socio-technical systems consist of many heterogeneous decision making entities and technological artefacts. These systems are governed through public policy that unravels in a multi-scale institutional context, which ranges from norms and values to technical standards. Simulation, agent-based

  17. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  18. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  19. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  20. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  1. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-04-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

  2. Suggestions to organizational structure of system of state administration of military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the organizational structure of the system of state administration of military-technical policy is offered. Management of military-technical policy, as by the single integral system, is fixed in basis of construction of the system of state administration is considered. Connection of organizational structure of state administration of military-technical policy and development of its theory assist successful activity in military-technical sphere. In the article the spheres of cooperation of military-technical policy are distinguished with other systems. An author notices that military-technical policy can be examined as a certain result cooperations of many systems, that, in turn, feel the limited influence of military-technical policy, that, accordingly, can promote efficiency of functioning each of the cooperating with her systems. An author gives suggestions to the organizational structure of the system of state administration of military-technical policy, basic from which are: possibility of the balanced account in military-technical policy: political, soldiery, economic, resource, moral, cultural, social, educational and other interests of the state, society, different groups of population and separate members; possibility quickly to set rational technology of activity of the state of military-technical sphere and its constituents, including technology of development, creation and production of new standards, complexes of armament, taking into account world their progress and development of world military industry trends; possibility of coordination of activity of organs of executive power, ministries, at departments in military-technical sphere by decrees, commissions and orders of higher public servant of Ukraine in the real mode of time; possibility of establishment of single policy of the state in relation to the basic products of military-oriented and resources.

  3. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical decoupling...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL OPERATION FOR ONBOARD COMPLEXES AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF AVIONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft are equipped with complicated systems and complexes of avionics. Aircraft and its avionics tech- nical operation process is observed as a process with changing of operation states. Mathematical models of avionics pro- cesses and systems of technical operation are represented as Markov chains, Markov and semi-Markov processes. The pur- pose is to develop the graph-models of avionics technical operation processes, describing their work in flight, as well as during maintenance on the ground in the various systems of technical operation. The graph-models of processes and sys- tems of on-board complexes and functional avionics systems in flight are proposed. They are based on the state tables. The models are specified for the various technical operation systems: the system with control of the reliability level, the system with parameters control and the system with resource control. The events, which cause the avionics complexes and func- tional systems change their technical state, are failures and faults of built-in test equipment. Avionics system of technical operation with reliability level control is applicable for objects with constant or slowly varying in time failure rate. Avion- ics system of technical operation with resource control is mainly used for objects with increasing over time failure rate. Avionics system of technical operation with parameters control is used for objects with increasing over time failure rate and with generalized parameters, which can provide forecasting and assign the borders of before-fail technical states. The pro- posed formal graphical approach avionics complexes and systems models designing is the basis for models and complex systems and facilities construction, both for a single aircraft and for an airline aircraft fleet, or even for the entire aircraft fleet of some specific type. The ultimate graph-models for avionics in various systems of technical operation permit the beginning of

  6. An architecture and methodology for the design and development of Technical Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianchi, R.; Mautref, M.; van Keulen, Maurice; Balsters, H.

    In order to meet demands in the context of Technical Information Systems (TIS) pertaining to reliability, extensibility, maintainability, etc., we have developed an architectural framework with accompanying methodological guidelines for designing such systems. With the framework, we aim at complex

  7. Analytical modeling of leak induced sound wave in a power plant boiler room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badsar, A.; Khosravi, F.

    2005-01-01

    An exact analysis for Sound propagation by a leak situated in a power plant boiler room is outlined. The Light hill model for description of free jet behavior along with the appropriate wave field expansions, the Neumann boundary conditions for boiler walls, and the classical theory of images are employed to develop a closed-form solution in form of infinite series. The analytical results are illustrated with numerical examples in which a leak in the boiler room produces spherical sound waves. The acoustic field pressure distribution is evaluated and discussed for representative values of the parameters characterizing the system. Limiting cases involving symmetric conditions of the problem are considered

  8. Computational Modelling of a Tangentially Fired Boiler With Deposit Formation Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modliński Norbert J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any complete CFD model of pulverised coal-fired boiler needs to consider ash deposition phenomena. Wall boundary conditions (temperature and emissivity should be temporally corrected to account for the effects of deposit growth on the combustion conditions. At present voluminous publications concerning ash related problems are available. The current paper presents development of an engineering tool integrating deposit formation models with the CFD code. It was then applied to two tangentially-fired boilers. The developed numerical tool was validated by comparing it with boiler evaporator power variation based on the on-line diagnostic system with the results from the full CFD simulation.

  9. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jiangyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  10. Technical development if integrated radwaste management information system in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.; Tsai, C.M.; Chang, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste poses very complex problems from its generation, processing, shipping, in-transit and interim storage, to its final destination and is carefully planned in Taiwan. Technical management skills and integrated computer technology are used to provide an Electronic Information Service Environment. A relational data structure was used to established a computerized management of the radioactive waste. It combine methodologies in technical management, data processing, data base, hierarchical tree structure, multi-media user interface, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence, etc., to accomplish the integration of radioactive waste information and to effectively utilize resources in order to rise overall management level and efficiency in Taiwan. 11 refs., 2 figs

  11. On sustainability assessment of technical systems. Experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and Ecoeffect tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role. This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology. The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of

  12. Technical specifications for the provision of heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 1999, the National Energy Strategy was approved by the Lithuanian Parliament. The National Energy Strategy included the decision to close Unit-1 of INPP before 2005. Later is has been decided to close Unit 2 before the end of 2009 as well. The closure and decommissioning will have heavy impact on the heat supply for the city of Visaginas. Unit 1 and Unit 2 of INPP supplies hot water and steam to INPP for process purposes and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings. When Unit 1 is permanently shut down, reliable heat and steam sources independent of the power plants own heat and steam generation facilities are required for safety reasons in the event of shutdown of the remaining unit for maintenance or in an emergency. These steam and heat sources must be operational before single unit operation is envisaged. Provision of a reliable independent heat and steam source is therefore urgent. After both reactors are shut down permanently, a steam source will be needed at the plant for radioactive waste storage and disposal. INPP and DEA has performed a feasibility study for the provision of a reliable heat source for Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and Visaginas, and the modernisation of Visaginas district heating system. The objective of this project is to prepare technical specifications for the provision of new heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas, and for rehabilitation of the heat transmission pipeline between INPP, the back-up boiler station and Visaginas City. The results of the study are presented in detail in the reports and technical specifications: 1. Transient analysis for Visaginas DH system, 2. Non-destructive testing of boiler stations, pump stations and transmission lines, 3. Conceptual design, 4. Technical specifications, Package 1 to 6. The study has suggested: 1. Construction of new steam boiler station, 2. Construction of new heat only boiler station, 3. Renovation of existing back-up heat only boiler station, 4

  13. Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT): The evolution of an intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey E.; Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Johnson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT) uses Intelligent Tutoring System (OTS) technology to deliver diagnostic training in a variety of complex technical domains. Over the past six years, MITT technology has been used to develop training systems for nuclear power plant diesel generator diagnosis, Space Shuttle fuel cell diagnosis, and message processing diagnosis for the Minuteman missile. Presented here is an overview of the MITT system, describing the evolution of the MITT software and the benefits of using the MITT system.

  14. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  15. Cold-side desulfurization by humidification of fly ash in CFB boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, R.A.; Tang, J.T. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Capan, S.F.; Fioriti, G.A.; Taylor, T.E. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    It is expected that sulfur emission regulations for fluidized bed boilers will continue to become more stringent. By capturing sulfur in-situ with furnace limestone injection, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been quite successful in achieving capture efficiencies of up to 93%. However, CFB operating experience has shown that extending sulfur capture beyond this level results in a diminishing return relationship and requires a substantial increase in limestone consumption, especially for fuels with a relatively low (< 1.0%) sulfur content. Such an increase in limestone consumption can have numerous effects upon boiler design and performance, including: increased ash handling system requirements; higher operating cost of increased limestone consumption; increased NO{sub x} emissions; a detrimental effect upon SNCR performance, higher pH of ash leachate; and lower boiler efficiency. For future power generation projects, which are predicted to require increasingly higher sulfur capture efficiencies, the combination of the above listed conditions could result in a CFB boiler being cost-prohibitive in comparison to a pulverized coal boiler for a given coal. Clearly, CFB boilers will require a refined operating strategy, together with a consideration of auxiliary desulfurization technology, in order to remain competitive in the future energy equipment market.

  16. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  17. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  18. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary ...

  19. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary ...

  20. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical imaging...

  1. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  3. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers; Uppfoeljning av SNCR-installationer paa barkpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [AaF-IPK (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO{sub x} reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ fuel input and the NO{sub x} reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  5. Technical support and management systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Tadashi; Abe, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Sophisticated automatic monitoring and control capabilities and computerized operation management are needed in nuclear power plants to boost plant safety and availability and to reduce operating costs. The article covers the areas of operation management and maintenance management within the larger category of operational administration. The concept of technical administration support-that is, the use of computerization to support the on-site technician's operations-is introduced. The article also suggests the direction of future development. (author)

  6. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  7. [Pricing system for costly equipment. Cost allocation adapted to technical operating costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alies-Patin, A

    1990-10-01

    1. Our study consists on analysing annual technical operating costs (excluding professional fees) of computed tomography and extracorporeal lithotripsy in order to define a pricing system able to provide proper reimbursements of technical costs for costly equipment. 2. Economic and utilization data have been collected from physicians responsible for facilities and from equipment current manufacturers. Annual charges are assessed in function of annual volume of procedures. 3. Definition of mean costs (total mean cost, mean cost of one more procedure) and mean cost distribution analysis according to annual volume of procedures lead to propose a method for financing costly technical medical activities based on a two-price rate: until a defined number of procedures is reached, a full-rate reimbursement is applied and then, it is replaced by a reduced-rate reimbursement. 4. Such a pricing system is easy to manage and allows to fit annual technical receipts to annual technical expenditure on a wide range of patient procedure volume.

  8. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  9. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  10. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  13. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams...

  14. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The...

  15. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  16. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  17. Benefit Analysis Report, United States Air Force Technical Order Management Systems (AFTOMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    This report prepared by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC) concludes an analysis of the Technical Order (TO) costs and benefits, which was originally undertaken as part of the US Air Force Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) ...

  18. Methods of monitoring the technical condition of the braking system of an autonomous vehicle during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, A.; Dygalo, V.; Boyko, G.; Lyaschenko, M.; Dygalo, L.

    2018-02-01

    Possibilities of diagnosing of a technical condition of braking system of the autonomous vehicles with automated modules while in service are considered. The concept of sharing of onboard means and stands for diagnosing is presented.

  19. An approach to knowledge structuring for advanced phases of the Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) must employ on enlightened approach to its object structure, but basic issues in conceptual structuring remain to be resolved. Sirius outlines the necessary agenda and reports on progress toward solutions.

  20. Transportable educational programs for scientific and technical professionals: More effective utilization of automated scientific and technical data base systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D.

    1987-01-01

    This grant final report executive summary documents a major, long-term program addressing innovative educational issues associated with the development, administration, evaluation, and widespread distribution of transportable educational programs for scientists and engineers to increase their knowledge of, and facilitate their utilization of automated scientific and technical information storage and retrieval systems. This educational program is of very broad scope, being targeted at Colleges of Engineering and Colleges of Physical sciences at a large number of colleges and universities throughout the United States. The educational program is designed to incorporate extensive hands-on, interactive usage of the NASA RECON system and is supported by a number of microcomputer-based software systems to facilitate the delivery and usage of the educational course materials developed as part of the program.

  1. 100-N technical manual. Volume 2A: Systems descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-12-31

    This report contains engineering drawings for the control room, reactor monitoring systems, and reactor control systems for the N reactor. Each console in the control room is detailed. Other systems discussed are: stack air monitoring system, charging machine control systems, and heating and ventilation control systems. A N reactor plant glossary is included.

  2. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagdy, M.; Harrison, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  3. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  4. Research into properties of dust from domestic central heating boiler fired with coal and solid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczyński Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.

  5. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  6. Technical Aspects of Electricity Tariff System's Development and Changes in the Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevescanin, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents technical aspects of electricity tariff system's development in Croatia through analysis of previously established tariffs in the period between 1947-1991 compared with the positive foreign experiences and results, new demands and needs. Redefinition and new decisions on the technical aspects of electricity tariffs have been suggested during the realization of present electricity tariff system's reform in the conditions of transitions. (author). 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). A limiting factor to achieving these higher temperatures and pressures for future A-USC plants are the materials of construction. The goal of this project is to assess/develop materials technology to build and operate an A-USC boiler capable of delivering steam with conditions up to 760°C (1400°F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). The project has successfully met this goal through a focused long-term public-private consortium partnership. The project was based on an R&D plan developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and an industry consortium that supplemented the recommendations of several DOE workshops on the subject of advanced materials. In view of the variety of skills and expertise required for the successful completion of the proposed work, a consortium led by the Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) with cost-sharing participation of all the major domestic boiler manufacturers, ALSTOM Power (Alstom), Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W), Foster Wheeler (FW), and Riley Power, Inc. (Riley), technical management by EPRI and research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed. The project has clearly identified and tested materials that can withstand 760°C (1400°F) steam conditions and can also make a 700°C (1300°F) plant more economically attractive. In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys have been assessed to provide a basis for

  8. Electronic Inventory Systems and Barcode Technology: Impact on Pharmacy Technical Accuracy and Error Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldland, Alan R.; May, Sondra K.; Barber, Gerard R.; Stolpman, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the effects associated with sequential implementation of electronic medication storage and inventory systems and product verification devices on pharmacy technical accuracy and rates of potential medication dispensing errors in an academic medical center. Methods: During four 28-day periods of observation, pharmacists recorded all technical errors identified at the final visual check of pharmaceuticals prior to dispensing. Technical filling errors involving deviations from order-specific selection of product, dosage form, strength, or quantity were documented when dispensing medications using (a) a conventional unit dose (UD) drug distribution system, (b) an electronic storage and inventory system utilizing automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) within the pharmacy, (c) ADCs combined with barcode (BC) verification, and (d) ADCs and BC verification utilized with changes in product labeling and individualized personnel training in systems application. Results: Using a conventional UD system, the overall incidence of technical error was 0.157% (24/15,271). Following implementation of ADCs, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.135% (10/7,379; P = .841). Following implementation of BC scanning, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.137% (27/19,708; P = .729). Subsequent changes in product labeling and intensified staff training in the use of BC systems was associated with a decrease in the rate of technical error to 0.050% (13/26,200; P = .002). Conclusions: Pharmacy ADCs and BC systems provide complementary effects that improve technical accuracy and reduce the incidence of potential medication dispensing errors if this technology is used with comprehensive personnel training. PMID:25684799

  9. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, S.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  10. Extensive Boiler Rehabilitation at TPP Bitola - Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Tanurkov, Dimitar; Papasterevski, Kosta

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant (TPP) Bitola is the largest lignite-based TPP in the Republic of Macedonia with three units put into operation in 1982, 1984 and 1988, respectively. All three units have already operated more than 200.000 hours each, therefore they are far beyond their normal life expectancy. Thus, a large-scale rehabilitation program including extensive boiler rehabilitation of all three units, lignite supply chain modernization, steam turbines, generators and control system modernizat...

  11. Stepwise commissioning of a steam boiler with stability guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Simon Vestergaard; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to make the commissioning of an industrial MIMO controller more straightforward by gradually commissioning it from a set of SISO controllers, after the system has been started. For this purpose a stepwise commissioning strategy based on the Youla-Kucera parametrization has been de...... been commissioned from a SISO controller using the developed method on a real steam boiler and measurements show a clear performance improvement after transition....

  12. Online monitoring of the two-dimensional temperature field in a boiler furnace based on acoustic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiping; Shen, Guoqing; An, Liansuo; Niu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Online monitoring of the temperature field is crucial to optimally adjust combustion within a boiler. In this paper, acoustic computed tomography (CT) technology was used to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. The physical principles behind acoustic CT, acoustic signals and time delay estimation were studied. Then, the technique was applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. Acoustic CT technology was used to monitor the temperature field of the cross-section in the boiler furnace, and the temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. The linear sweeping frequency signal was adopted as the sound source signal, whose sweeping frequency ranged from 500 to 3000 Hz with a sweeping cycle of 0.1 s. The generalized cross-correlation techniques with PHAT and ML were used as the time delay estimation method when the boiler was in different states. Its actual operation indicated that the monitored images accurately represented the combustion state of the boiler, and the acoustic CT system was determined to be accurate and reliable. - Highlights: • An online monitoring approach to monitor temperature field in a boiler furnace. • The paper provides acoustic CT technology to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. • The temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. • The technique is applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. • The monitored images accurately represent the combustion state of the boiler

  13. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, E.; Boldrin, A.; Jansson, S.; Lundtorp, K.; Fruergaard Astrup, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits

  14. Technical Meeting on Grading of the Application of Management System Requirements. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this Technical Meeting are threefold: - to share international experiences and lessons learned, as well as exchange views on best practices and strategies to overcome the difficulties encountered; - to review and discuss the draft technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements, to allow the participants to contribute to the improvement of the document and to enrich it with practical examples; and - to strengthen the international networking of specialists in the field. The topics covered during the meeting will include: - Examples and case studies presented by participants from countries with nuclear facilities (mainly focused on NPPs, and, where appropriate, from research reactors, fuel cycle and waste management facilities) on grading the application of management system requirements and lessons learned. - Reviewing and improving the final draft of a technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements', which will supersede the previous guidance: Grading of Quality Assurance Requirement: A Manual (Technical Reports Series No. 328)

  15. Boiler economy. Terms and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Economy calculations are nearly exclusively made by computers. Undisputed advantage is apart from the high speed in which even complex calculations are made the 'document character' of the printout. Disadvantageous is that apart from the soft manufacturer almost nobody knows the calculation formulations, basic assumptions and logical connections. One can only accept the result without being able to prove the 'correctness'. There is also hardly the possibility to gain knowledge as the reason for certain results is not explained. Based on known terms of boiler economy many questions arising in practice can be answered with sufficient accuracy. Excessive accuracy is with the many unknown or only estimated operating data anyhow not reasonable. (orig.) [de

  16. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  17. Treatment of Berkeley boilers in Studsvik. Project description and experiences - Berkeley Boilers Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Dave; Davidson, Gavin; Wirendal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. In November 2012 Studsvik was awarded a further contract for the remaining ten Berkeley Boilers with the requirement to remove all boilers from the Berkeley site by 31 March 2013. Again this was successfully achieved ahead of programme with all boilers in Sweden by 1 April 2013. A total of nine boilers have now been processed and all remaining boilers will be completed by end of September 2014. The projects have had many challenges including a very tight timescale and both have been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the boilers to date. (authors)

  18. Ionizing radiation detection meter systems usability evaluation. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.; Hughes, R.; Tack, D.; Bossi, L.L.M.

    2002-12-01

    In support of the Canadian Forces Nuclear Detection, Identification and Dosimetry project a usability trial of three Ionizing Radiation Detection Meter Systems (IRDMS) was conducted 18-22 June 2001 at Connaught Ranges. The systems evaluated: System 1: ANPDR 77 Operational System with PDR 77 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS (Global Positioning System) Training System; System 2: ADM 300C Operational System with ABP 100 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System, and System 3: RAM R200 Operational System with PA 100M and RG12 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System. Twelve military personnel (Private to Captain) determined compliance with the bid evaluation criteria. The counter-balanced study, based on a Latin square design, was divided into two assessment phases, an operational phase and a training system phase, which rotated three groups (of four participants each) concurrently through each IRDMS. Groups were trained in set-up, maintenance and operation of each bid IRDMS prior to evaluation. The operational evaluation consisted of a test/maintenance stand, an indoor/outdoor operational stand, and an indoor,/outdoor training system stand. Participants rated the utility and usability of each system, by measuring case of use/maintenance under a range of relevant operational and clothing conditions, compatibility with soldier tasks, compatibility with clothing, compatibility with equipment and operational environments, and case of learning (including an assessment of initial and refresher training implications). A 7-point Likert-like acceptability rating scale, which covered a range from completely unacceptable (1) to completely acceptable (7), was used to evaluate the measures. The combined weighted mean scores were 584.3 for System 1 (70 o /b), 682.0 for System 2 (81 %) and 756.9 for System 3 (90%) out of a total possible score of 840. Participants reported mean scores for System 1 between barely unacceptable and borderline for both indoor and outdoor operations. System 2

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder

  20. A Qualitative Study of the Job Challenges of Instructional Deans in the Technical College System of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Perrin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Technical College System of Georgia serves the people and the state by creating a system of technical education whose purpose is to use the latest technology and easy access for all adult Georgians and corporate citizens. Within each technical college is a hierarchy of faculty, staff, and administrators. The instructional deans serve a vital…

  1. INCREASING OF PRECISE ESTIMATION OF OPTIMAL CRITERIA BOILER FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Skakovsk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory and industrial research allowed offering a way to improve the accuracy of estimation the optimal criterion of boilers' operation depending on fuel quality. Criterion is calculated continuously during boiler operation as heat ratio transmitted in production with superheated steam to the thermal energy obtained by combustion in boiler’s furnace fuel (natural gas .The non-linearity dependence of steam enthalpy from its temperature and pressure are considered when calculating, as well as changes in calorific value of natural gas, depending on variety in nitrogen content therein. The control algorithm and program for Ukrainian PLC MIC-52 are offered. The user selection program implements two searching modes for criterion maximum: automated and automatic. The results are going to be used for upgrading the existing control system on sugar factory.

  2. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  3. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  4. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  5. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.

    1977-12-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  6. Model-Driven Information Security Risk Assessment of Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As more aspects of life transition to the digital domain, computer systems become increasingly complex but also more social. But assessing a socio-technical system is no trivial task: it often requires intimate knowledge of the system, awareness of the social dynamics and trust relationships of its

  7. Reliability of Dubbed Technical Systems with Built-In Control Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Аnischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates a selection of passive or active system for dubbing technical systems in accordance with characteristics pertaining to probability of no-failure operation and mean–time-between failures with due account of non-reliability of a built-in control device and systems complexity. 

  8. Modern technical diagnostic system for the main components of powerful turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezovit, G.P.; Uglyarenko, V.P.; Burlaka, S.I.; Goroz, N.I.; Orinin, S.E.; Komaritsa, V.N.; Zav'yalov, D.N.; Mazurenko, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modern diagnostic system to monitor the technical state of a powerful turbine generator is considered. This system permits the detection of defects in its main components and cooling system at the early stage of their development, prevention of damage and, as a consequence, emergency shutdown of nuclear power units

  9. ANALYSIS OF PERIODICAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION SYSTEMS IN AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT. THE EXPERIENCES OF POLAND AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road accidents nowadays seems to by a global problem. Apart from the obvious causes of accidents, such as violation of road traffic rules by drivers and pedestrians, the drunk driving, poor quality of road infrastructure, the technical faults of vehicles should also be take into account. Reasons of technical failures can be the failure of parts, components and assemblies caused by aging, poor quality or non-observance of technological norms when they are installed. It is possible to prevent the occurrence of faults by applying warning methods, one of which is obligatory periodic technical inspection. The purpose of this article is to analyze the characteristic features of the systems of technical inspections in automotive transport used in Poland and Russia. It makes it possible to identify common features and distinctive features of systems in both countries.

  10. Environmental management system for transportation maintenance operations : [technical brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report provides the framework for the environmental management system to analyze : greenhouse gas emissions from transportation maintenance operations. The system enables user : to compare different scenarios and make informed decisions to minim...

  11. Training and Technical Assistance for Small Systems Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides water and wastewater system staff and private well owners with training and tools to enhance system operations and management practices, and support EPA’s continuing efforts to protect public health and promote sustainability.

  12. Esperanto for technical systems; Esperanto fuer die Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-30

    There are more than enough internet-based monitoring systems, but they all have their limits when it comes to integrating them into control systems. A communication standard is urgently required. (orig.)

  13. Modelación energética y operacional del sistema de agua de alimentar caldera de una central termoeléctrica; Modeling energetic and operational of the boiler feed water system of a power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Miguel Solís Alemán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo combinado basado en la implementación paralela de dos aproximadores funcionales, utilizando una red neuronal del tipo (MLP y una regresión estadística, para la obtención de las características energéticas y de operación actual del Sistema de Agua de Alimentar Caldera (SAAC en una Central Termoeléctrica (CTE, en la cual se regula el flujo de agua a la caldera por variación de velocidad. La respuesta del modelo combinado se obtiene a partir de la suma ponderada de cada aproximador funcional. Dicho modelo es utilizado para relacionar el consumo de corriente y la posición del variador de velocidad, en función de la presión de descarga y el flujo entregado por cada bomba del SAAC. Para el ajuste de los modelos se utilizan mediciones almacenadas en el archivo histórico del sistema SCADA, donde se aplica un método de procesamiento de datos para eliminar ruidos que pueden afectar el ajuste de los modelos propuestos.Is proposed a combined model based on the parallel implementation of two functional approximators, using a neural network of the type (MLP and a statistical regression to obtain the actual energetic and operation characteristics of the Boiler Feed Water System (BFWS in a Power Plant, in which the water flow to the boiler is controlled by variation speed. The response of the combined model is obtained from the weighted sum of each functional approximator. This model is used to relate the current consumption and the position of the speed variator, in function of the discharge pressure and flow delivered by each pump of the BFWS. For the fit of the models is used save measurements of the historical file of the SCADA system, where is applied a data processing method to eliminating noise that can affect the fit of the models proposed.

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  15. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  16. Optimization of Boiler Control for Improvement of Load Following Capabilities of Existing Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    An An optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms.......optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms of implementation...... of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes into account the multivariable and nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process as a gain-scheduled LQG-controller is utilized. Simulation results indicate that a reduction of steam temperature deviations of about 75% can be obtained...

  17. Synthesis study of Texas signal control systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, several versions of traffic control systems have been established across the United States and within the state of Texas. There is a growing need to identify the various versions of these systems that exist, including the system hard...

  18. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstad, P.A.

    1980-05-01

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  19. Development of a Behavioural Marker System for Rating Cadet’s Non-Technical Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando PlÁcido da ConceiçÌo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the adoption of crew resource management training for bridge teams over the last decades, the training is still heavily focussed on technical achievements. In an educational context, the situation is more problematical, since with requirement of developing the technical skills, there is a need to build and evaluate the non-technical skills of cadets with little experience in bridge team management. In parallel with the application of team leadership models, the Portuguese Naval Academy conducted a research to improve the development and assessment of non-technical skills in bridge simulators. This paper describes the method used to identify the key non-technical skills required for naval cadets and to develop a behavioural marker system for their measurement. A literature review of behavioural marker systems was supplemented with an analysis of interviews conducted with students and simulator instructors. Additionally, further analysis of Portuguese Navy accidents reports was made, applying the HFACS framework to identify the relevant non-technical skills involved in the accidents. The resulting rating system covers five skill categories (leadership, situational awareness, communication, team work and decision making, each one with three rating elements. The framework is currently under evaluation tests in bridge simulators sessions, within an educational context.

  20. Pedagogical characteristics of the systems for assessing the technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мykhailo Oliinyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of the special literature and their own experimental studies, to determine the characteristics of the systems for assessing the technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players. Material & Methods: study was conducted on the basis of the material of the national team of Zaporozhye State Medical University on volleyball. Analysis and generalization of the data of scientific and methodical literature are used; registration, analysis and interpretation of indicators of technical and tactical actions of qualified volleyball players in training and competitive processes; pedagogical observations; algorithms for calculating the quantitative and qualitative indicators of technical and tactical skill in volleyball; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: data on the existence of a strong statistical relationship between the systems of assessment of technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players, taking into account the specificity of the game role. Conclusion: shows the specifics of the application of various systems for assessing the technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players, taking into account the factors of the game role, noted the methodological features of special analysis and interpretation of indicators of technical and tactical actions in the adversarial process.

  1. THE SYSTEM OF TECHNICAL VISION IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shavetov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of video broadcasting system in view of controlling mobile robots over the Internet. A brief overview of the issues and their solutions, encountered in the real-time broadcasting video stream, is given. Affordable and versatile solutions of technical vision are considered. An approach for frame-accurate video rebroadcasting to unlimited number of end-users is proposed. The optimal performance parameters of network equipment for the final number of cameras are defined. System approbation on five IP cameras of different manufacturers is done. The average time delay for broadcasting in MJPEG format over the local network was 200 ms and 500 ms over the Internet.

  2. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  3. QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR IN-MINE (IM) SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2001-01-01

    A circuit that had been earlier lab-tested to eliminate multi-antenna interference in the In-mine (IM) system was fabricated, implemented and tested successfully in a system setting. An adaptive, tracking comb-filter for the through-the-earth (TTE) communications system was designed and implemented. This resulted in noticeable noise reduction. Studies for multi-channel transmission have begun

  4. Remote controllable systems for nuclear technical facility dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovetskij, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    Features of stationary and mobile remote systems used for dismantling and decontamination of nuclear technological objects are described. Examples of the application of developed designs are considered

  5. Comparative analysis of heat pump and biomass boiler for small detached house heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, Tomasz; Lipiński, Seweryn; Olędzka, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to answer the question - which of the two selected heat sources is more economically beneficial for small detached house: heat pump or biomass boiler fuelled with wood-pellets? The comparative analysis of these sources was carried out to discuss the issue. First, cost of both, equipment and operation of selected heat systems were analysed. Additionally, CO2 emission levels associated with these heat systems were determined. The comparative analysis of the costs of both considered heat systems showed that equipment cost of heat pump system is considerably bigger than the cost of biomass boiler system. The comparison of annual operation costs showed that heat pump operation cost is slightly lower than operation cost of biomass boiler. The analysis of above results shows that lower operation cost of heat pump in comparison with biomass boiler cost lets qualify heat pump as more economically justified only after 38 years of work. For both analysed devices, CO2 emission levels were determined. The considerations take into account the fact that heat pump consumes electricity. It is mostly generated through combustion of coal in Poland. The results show that in Poland biomass boiler can be described as not only more economically justified system but also as considerably more ecological.

  6. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  7. A Socio-technical Analysis of Information Systems Security Assurance : A Case Study for Effective Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Chaula, Job Asheri

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the concepts of Information System (IS) security assurance using a socio-technical framework. IS security assurance deals with the problem of estimating how well a particular security system will function efficiently and effectively in a specific operational environment. In such environments, the IS interact with other systems such as ethical, legal, operational and administrative. Security failure in any of these systems may result in security failure of the whole system...

  8. Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 3.0: technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar; Ellen Eberhardt; Anne Andreu; Paige Eagle; Kjell. Swedin

    2013-01-01

    The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) is a software module that records wildland fuel characteristics and calculates potential fire behavior and hazard potentials based on input environmental variables. The FCCS 3.0 is housed within the Integrated Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (Joint Fire Science Program 2012). It can also be run from command...

  9. Preferences in Interactive Systems: Technical Challenges and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Peintner, Bart; Viappiani, Paolo; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Interactive artificial intelligence systems employ preferences in both their reasoning and their interaction with the user. This survey considers preference handling in applications such as recommender systems, personal assistant agents, and personalized user interfaces. We survey the major questions and approaches, present illustrative examples, and give an outlook on potential benefits and challenges.

  10. Technical quality control - constancy controls for digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Landmark, I.D.; Bredholt, K.; Hauge, I.H.R.

    2009-04-01

    To ensure the quality of mammographic images, so-called constancy control tests are performed frequently. The report contains a programme for constancy control of digital mammography systems, encompassing the mammography unit, computed radiography (CR) systems, viewing conditions and displays, printers, and procedures for data collection for patient dose calculations. (Author)

  11. Modular program systems for scientific-technical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Lembcke, R.

    1977-01-01

    In order to replace the numerous traditional stand alone codes, great modular data based systems were developed by KWU for the simulation of nuclear reactors. These latter systems exhibit a high degree of automatization and combine quality assurance with a high flexibility in special problems. On the other hand they show a greater mashine dependency. (orig.) [de

  12. Technical feasibility of reuse of effluent generated from reverse osmosis system in a pharmaceutical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de A. S. de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reuse reduces the consumption of freshwater supplies and the negative environmental impact caused by the discharge of industrial effluents. Some industries have already adopted this practice; however, no studies were found in the literature regarding this subject in the pharmaceutical industry. This work investigated the potential reuse of effluent (concentrate generated from the Reverse Osmosis/Electro-deionization System (RO/EDI that is used for the production of purified water in a Brazilian pharmaceutical plant. This industrial complex consumed about 200,000 m3 of water per year between 2012 and 2013 to produce one million of doses of vaccines, i.e., 2 L of water per dose of vaccine produced. During this period, the RO/EDI produced 27,000 m3 of purified water annually and generated 24,000 m3 of effluent (concentrate. This amount of effluent could be used to supply the production of industry steam (boilers and/or cold water (cooling towers that annually consumed an average of 12,000 m3 and 40,000 m3, respectively. The reuse of this effluent would result in a gross financial savings of 96,000 USD per year, excluding the costs of installation and control. From what has been researched in the literature, this work showed for the first time the possibility of reuse of effluent from RO/EDI System in the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Operating environment threats influence on the maritime ferry technical system safety – the numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuligowska Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The material given in this paper delivers the procedure for numerical approach that allows finding the main practically important safety characteristics of the complex technical systems at the variable operation conditions including operating environment threats. The obtained results are applied to the safety evaluation of the maritime ferry technical system. It is assumed that the conditional safety functions are different at various operation states and have the exponential forms. Using the procedure and the program written in Mathematica, the considered maritime ferry technical system main characteristics including: the conditional and the unconditional expected values and standard deviations of the system lifetimes, the unconditional safety function and the risk function are determined.

  14. Development of technical information processing system(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Hoh; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Kwang; Chung, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This project is to establish high-quality information circulation system by developing serials-control system to improve serials management from ordering to distributing and availability on R and D and to advance in quality of information service needed in R and D by fast retrieval and providing of research information with CD-Net. The results of the project are as follows. 1. Serials management process which covers from ordering to distributing have higher efficiency by development of subscription information system. 2. Systematic control on each issue of serials is achieved by development of serials checking system. 3. It is possible to provide vol. and no. information of issue received currently to researchers promptly by improvement of serials holding information system. 4. Retrieval of research information contained in various CD-ROM DB throughout KAERI-NET is possible by research on construction methods of CD-Net. 2 figs, 25 refs. (Author).

  15. Development of technical information processing system(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee Hoh; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Kwang; Chung, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong

    1994-12-01

    This project is to establish high-quality information circulation system by developing serials-control system to improve serials management from ordering to distributing and availability on R and D and to advance in quality of information service needed in R and D by fast retrieval and providing of research information with CD-Net. The results of the project are as follows. 1. Serials management process which covers from ordering to distributing have higher efficiency by development of subscription information system. 2. Systematic control on each issue of serials is achieved by development of serials checking system. 3. It is possible to provide vol. and no. information of issue received currently to researchers promptly by improvement of serials holding information system. 4. Retrieval of research information contained in various CD-ROM DB throughout KAERI-NET is possible by research on construction methods of CD-Net. 2 figs, 25 refs. (Author)

  16. Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Reactors. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A major focus of the design of modern fast reactor systems is on inherent and passive safety. Specific systems to improve reactor safety performance during accidental transients have been developed in nearly all fast reactor programs, and a large number of proposed systems have reached various stages of maturity. This Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Fast Reactors, which was recommended by the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), addressed Member States’ expressed need for information exchange on projects and programs in the field, as well as for the identification of priorities based on the analysis of technology gaps to be covered through R&D activities. This meeting was limited to shutdown systems only, and did not include other passive features such as natural circulation decay heat removal systems etc.; however the meeting catered to passive shutdown safety devices applicable to all types of fast neutron systems. It was agreed to initiate a new study and produce a Nuclear Energy Series (NES) Technical Report to collect information about the existing operational systems as well as innovative concepts under development. This will be a useful source for member states interested in gaining technical expertise to develop passive shutdown systems as well as to highlight the importance and development in this area

  17. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  18. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  19. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozh'ye nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zschau, J.; Nowak, K.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a programme of cooperation with Central and Eastern European states, a technical system has been established for the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant, which complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities with modern means of information technology. It makes it possible to continuously monitor the state of the units in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents. The parameters selected for monitoring are listed, and the system of automatic evaluation at the power plant site is described in detail. Test operation of the technical system started in late 1995 and the industrial testing phase in mid-1996. (A.K.)

  20. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)