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Sample records for boiler systems technical

  1. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  2. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  3. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  4. Hybrid system for fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacin de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Mareda de Luna, 3, Zaragoza 50018, (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Renewable energy sources are essential paths towards sustainable development and CO{sub 2} emission reduction. For example, the European Union has set the target of achieving 22% of electricity generation from renewable sources by 2010. However, the extensive use of this energy source is being avoided by some technical problems as fouling and slagging in the surfaces of boiler heat exchangers. Although these phenomena were extensively studied in the last decades in order to optimize the behaviour of large coal power boilers, a simple, general and effective method for fouling control has not been developed. For biomass boilers, the feedstock variability and the presence of new components in ash chemistry increase the fouling influence in boiler performance. In particular, heat transfer is widely affected and the boiler capacity becomes dramatically reduced. Unfortunately, the classical approach of regular sootblowing cycles becomes clearly insufficient for them. Artificial Intelligence (AI) provides new means to undertake this problem. This paper illustrates a methodology based on Neural Networks (NNs) and Fuzzy-Logic Expert Systems to select the moment for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The main aim is to minimize the boiler energy and efficiency losses with a proper sootblowing activation. Although the NN type used in this work is well-known and the Hybrid Systems had been extensively used in the last decade, the excellent results obtained in the use of AI in industrial biomass boilers control with regard to previous approaches makes this work a novelty. (Author)

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  6. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  7. Technical feasibility study of a low-cost hybrid PAC-UF system for wastewater reclamation and reuse: a focus on feedwater production for low-pressure boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani

    2016-11-01

    This study has applied the concept of the hybrid PAC-UF process in the treatment of the final effluent of the palm oil industry for reuse as feedwater for low-pressure boilers. In a bench-scale set-up, a low-cost empty fruit bunch-based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for upstream adsorption of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) with the process conditions: 60 g/L dose of PAC, 68 min of mixing time and 200 rpm of mixing speed, to reduce the feedwater strength, alleviate probable fouling of the membranes and thus improve the process flux (productivity). Three polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 1, 5 and 10 kDa were investigated in a cross-flow filtration mode, and under constant transmembrane pressures of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The permeate qualities of the hybrid processes were evaluated, and it was found that the integrated process with the 1 kDa MWCO UF membrane yielded the best water quality that falls within the US EPA reuse standard for boiler-feed and cooling water. It was also observed that the permeate quality is fit for extended reuse as process water in the cement, petroleum and coal industries. In addition, the hybrid system's operation consumed 37.13 Wh m -3 of energy at the highest applied pressure of 120 kPa, which is far lesser than the typical energy requirement range (0.8-1.0 kWh m -3 ) for such wastewater reclamation.

  8. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchao Wang; Yifeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the ...

  9. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  10. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  11. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  12. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  13. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  14. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  15. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  16. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  17. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  18. The role of installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research of role installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers in the Serbian market. Considering the fact that installers are significantly different, they are grouped by specific, relevant characteristics. The research is focused on the evaluation of marketing mix instruments by nine identified segments of installers. Moreover, research has been explored deeper through conclusion installers about the most important and most credible sources of information on gas boilers. During the research were used secondary and primary data sources. Besides the research at the table, field research has been also done by unstructured personal communication. All collected data were analyzed in details and both hypothesis were tested, where one of them is partially confirmed, and another one fully confirm. Given results can be useful for marketers and their anticipation of demand. Also these results can be used for creating optimal marketing strategy in the Serbian market of gas boilers.

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  20. Evaluation of the technical condition of medium-sized boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošák Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend in the steam and electricity production has been both to increase the efficiency of the facility and to keep tightening legislation concerning emission limits. The lifetime of energy equipment is greatly influenced by the operating temperature, pressure and operating characteristics. The new conditions lead the operator to more often changes of these parameters, which has negative influence to the facility in terms of service life. Precise knowledge of the facility being operated and the ability to predict the residual life of its key parts in time is therefore necessary. A new methodology for determining the residual life and evaluating problematic situations of medium size boilers was developed at Brno University of Technology. Its approaches and advantages will be presented in this paper. The methodology provides the user with approaches for the lifetime evaluation of an equipment as a whole, based on detailed knowledge of the equipment being investigated and the ongoing damage. Additionally, if the equipment is continuously evaluated, it is possible to extend the inspection interval or to achieve a significantly higher lifetime of the entire equipment, thereby reducing the economic cost. If defined criteria are met, the methodology also allows inclusion of FEM and CFD simulations for achieving higher relevance of the results.

  1. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  2. Boiler systems for nuclear powered reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; George, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    A power generating plant which comprises a heat source, at least one main steam turbine and at least one main boiler heated by heat from the heat source and providing the steam to drive the turbine, comprises additionally at least one further steam turbine, smaller than the main turbine, and at least one further boiler, of lower capacity than the main boiler, and heated from the same heat source and providing steam for the further turbine. Particularly advantageous in nuclear power stations, where the heat source is a nuclear reactor, the invention enables peak loads, above the normal continuous rating of the main generators driven by the main turbines, to be met by the further turbine(s) and one or more further generators driven thereby. This enables the main turbines to be freed from the thermal stresses of rapid load changes, which stresses are more easily accommodated by the smaller and thus more tolerant further turbine(s). Thus auxiliary diesel-driven or other independent power plant may be made partly or wholly unnecessary. Further, low-load running which would be inefficient if achieved by means of the main turbine(s), can be more efficiently effected by shutting them down and using the smaller further turbine(s) instead. These latter may also be used to provide independent power for servicing the generating plant during normal operation or during emergency or other shutdown, and in this latter case may also serve as a heat sink for the shutdown reactor

  3. Charges on emissions of nitrogen oxides from forest industry boilers. Technical and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebscher, P.

    1998-09-01

    The charges on nitrogen oxide emission have been introduced in order to create an incentive for the industry to reduce emissions. A high cost in unproductive investment for monitoring systems, SNCR and gas recirculation systems was paid. However, the economic burden for the industry was less than initially feared, since the NO x emissions were moderate for most of the boilers, and since the potential for reducing NO x by rather simple means could be exploited. Also, the NO x charges have created an objective for industry to optimize their boilers in a way that raises efficiency and availability, which is of greater value to the environment than the reduction of the already low NO x emissions from these boilers

  4. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM ОF REGIONAL BOILER HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an automatic control system is one of directions that promotes to increase an operational efficiency of a heat supply system. A heating boiler house in Surgut (Russia is taken as an example to demonstrate an actual realization of such system.

  5. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  6. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  7. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  8. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the

  9. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  10. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  11. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    enable energy saving necessary for obtaining Energy Star certification for the whole boiler system. Widespread boiler control updates could be possible...adaptability to different boiler and oil/gas burner configurations, and extensibility to operation with nonconventional fuels (e.g., biogas and syngas...typically operating below or slightly above 80%. Higher efficiency improvements can certainly be obtained via boiler replacement and adoption of

  12. Specification of a technically justified limiting value for sulphur concentrations in heating oil in order to enhance the use of high-efficiency boiler technology in oil heating systems; Ermittlung eines technisch begruendeten Grenzwertes fuer Schwefelgehalte im Heizoel zur Foerderung des Einsatzes von Brennwerttechnologie in Oelheizungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellingen, E.-M.; Kuechen, C. [Institut fuer Wirtschaftliche Oelheizung e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Haase, F.; Wilckens, H. [Deutsche Shell AG, Hamburg (Germany); Sinnen, H.D. [VEBA AG, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Different oil condensing boilers, which were available on the German market, have been investigated in order to determine the relevant limit for sulphur content in domestic heating oil. Up to now, the condensate from oil condensing boilers has to be neutralized in many cases due to local legislation. The composition of the condensates from oil boilers came out to be similar to the condensate from gas condensing boilers, as long as the sulphur content of heating oil is below 100 mg/kg. As the neutralization of condensate from gas condensing boilers is usually not required up to 200 kW-boilers, there should be no technical reason for neutralization, as long as the sulphur content is below 100 mg/kg. However, boiler manufactures are convinced, that only if the sulphur content is as low as 50 mg/kg, it will be possible to develop reliable oil condensing boilers for a reasonable price. Calculations of the total energy consumption came to the result, that primary energy can be saved. The increase of efficiency on the boiler side has more influence than the energy needed for desulphurization. (orig.) [German] Zur Bestimmung eines technisch begruendeten Schwefelgrenzwertes fuer ein neues 'schwefelarmes' Heizoel EL wurden Untersuchungen mit Heizoelen unterschiedlichen Schwefelgehaltes an verschiedenen auf dem Markt verfuegbaren Oelbrennwertgeraeten durchgefuehrt. Zur Zeit wird durch das ATV Arbeitsblatt A-251 eine Neutralisation von Kondensaten aus Oelbrennwertanlagen gefordert. Die Untersuchungen zeigen, dass bei Schwefelgehalten unter 100 mg/kg die Kondensate aehnliche Zusammensetzungen aufweisen wie Kondensate aus Gasbrennwertgeraeten. Die Voraussetzung fuer eine Befreiung von der Neutralisationsverpflichtung bei der Verwendung dieser Brennstoffe ist damit aus technischer Sicht gegeben. Fuer die Entwicklung von neuen, kompakten und preiswerten Oelbrennwertgeraeten wird von der Heizgeraeteindustrie ein Schwefelgehalt von max. 50 mg/kg fuer notwendig gehalten

  13. Process for start-up and slack period operation of fully charged boilers, e. g. of coal pressure gasification plants, and boiler system to carry out the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Kahrweg, H

    1978-10-19

    For the start-up and slack period of fully charged boilers hot water of e.g. 180/sup 0/C from a high pressure heater which is fed by a start-up boiler is used. In the first instance the boiler, its preheater and the vaporizer are filled with hot water from the start-up boiler until a medium water level is obtained. Subsequently water from the water separator is recycled through the preheater and the boiler by forced circulation and it is heated up to the hot water temperature by the start-up boiler. After the desired temperature has been reached the pressure combustion is ignited and the circulation through the preheater is interrupted by reversing to direct feed back. A considerable shortening of the start-up time is achieved because no heat is released to the condensation water in the boiler system as is done usually.

  14. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  15. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  16. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berković-Šubić, Mihaela; Rauch, Martina; Dović, Damir; Andrassy, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher Q H,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  17. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  18. Gas Boiler Powered by the Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Badea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new solution for supply of boilers with electrical energy in the order to achieve autonomy from electrical grid. The paper presents the experimental system implemented in the university lab, the components and implementation in Matlab-Simulink for simulation. As a result of numeric simulation performed, the experimental bench has been achieved. The problem of power quality, especially the THD factor, affects the sensitivity of equipment at perturbations. In achieving of these systems, the authors propose that the electrical part of the supply system for building appliances must satisfy the EN 50160 standard, having the main voltage parameters and their permissile deviation ranges at the customer’s point of common coupling in public low voltage (LV, under normal operating conditions.

  19. Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

  20. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC. Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20% and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  1. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junga, Robert; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Kaszubska, Mirosława

    2017-10-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC). Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20%) and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  2. A rule-based industrial boiler selection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B.T.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes,

  3. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  4. HR boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A number of manufacturers of central heating boilers in the Netherlands have produced high-efficiency boilers, all carrying the GIVEG-HR seal of approval (GIVEG is the manufacturers' association in the Netherlands, and HR stands for 'hoog rendement': high efficiency). Efficiences were considerably improved by reducing flue, idling and radiation losses. Control and safety, discharges of flue gases and condensate need special attention. Whether installation of a GIVEG-HR boiler is profitable in view of the cost/profit ratio, will have to be determined from case to case. N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie felt it was time to present the facts so far in a way specially aimed at the construction industry. This special edition of 'Gas and Architecture' answers a number of questions which the architect or consultant engineer might have in particular before advising on the installation of the new boiler in houses and other buildings in the interests of energy saving. A technical description of the HR boiler covers the backgrounds of its development and considers the role of the Netherlands government as regards to the introduction of the boiler.

  5. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits

  6. Wood-Fired Boiler System Evaluation at Fort Stewart, GA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Noel

    2002-01-01

    Part of the plan to modernize the central energy plant (CEP) at Fort Stewart, GA is focused on the installations wood-fired boiler, which provides steam for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water. The U.S...

  7. Analysis of limit cycling on a boiler feedwater control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Harrison, T.A.; Hollywell, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    During operation of the UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor, it was found that oscillations sometimes occurred in the boiler feedwater systems. These were normally of relatively low amplitude, but led to the adoption of low controller gains so that control was rather slack. While control performance proved generally adequate for steady running, the lack of tight control of steam drum levels sometimes led to difficulties during periods when plant conditions were undergoing major change. The paper discusses the methods used to gain a full understanding of the phenomena occurring, and describes how that knowledge is being used to improve the control system so as to eliminate the limit cycling modes and ensure good control of steam drum levels. A noteworthy feature of the study was the use of two independent representations of plant behaviour: (i) a frequency response model, FWRFREQ, and (ii) a time-domain simulation model, PFRTDM. The simplified analysis of FWRFREQ proved to be of enormous value in identifying modes of system behaviour; PFRTDM was used as a detailed check on the accuracy and validity of the results obtained. (author)

  8. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation

  9. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation.

  10. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  11. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hermansson, Roger (eds.) [Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    One of the problems in small district heating systems is the large load variation that must be handled by the system. If the boiler is designed to cover the needs during the coldest day in winter time in northern Europe it would have to run at loads as low as 10% of full load during summer time, when heat is needed only for tap water production. Load variations in small networks are quite fast and earlier investigations have shown that existing biomass boilers give rise to large amounts of harmful emissions at fast load variations and at low loads. The problem has been addressed in different ways: Three new boiler concepts have been realized and tested: A prototype of a 500 kW boiler with partitioned primary combustion chamber and supplied with a water heat store. A 10 kW bench scale combustor and a 500 kW prototype boiler based on pulsating combustion. Bench scale boilers to test the influence from applied sound on emissions and a 150 kW prototype boiler with a two-stage secondary vortex combustion chamber. Development of control and regulating equipment: Glow Guard, a control system using infra-red sensors to detect glowing char on the grate, has been constructed and tested. A fast prediction model that can be used in control systems has been developed. Simulation of the combustion process: Code to simulate pyrolysis/gasification of fuel on the grate has been developed. Combustion of the gas phase inside the combustion chamber has been simulated. The two models have been combined to describe the combustion process inside the primary chamber of a prototype boiler. A fast simulation code based on statistical methods that can predict the environmental performance of boilers has been developed. One of the boiler concepts matches the desired load span from 10 to 100% of full load with emissions far below the set limits for CO and THC and close to the set limits for NO{sub x}. The other boilers had a bit more narrow load range, one with very low emissions except for NO

  12. Analogue to digital upgrade project-boiler feedwater control system for Bruce Power nuclear units 1 & 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Power Nuclear Generating Station A, “Bruce A” is in the final stages of its Restart Project. This capital project will see a large scale rehabilitation of Units 1 and 2 resulting in addition of 1500MW of safe, reliable, clean electricity to the Ontario grid. Restart Project Scope 375, Boiler Feedwater Controls Upgrade was sanctioned to replace obsolete analog devices with a modern digital control system. This project replaced the existing Foxboro H Line analog controls which comprised of 81 individual control modules and support instrumentation. The replacement system was a Triconex Triple Modular Redundant PLC which interfaces with two redundant touch screen monitors. The upgraded digital system incorporates the following controls: 1. Boiler Level Control Loops 2. Dearator Level Control Loops 3. Dearator Pressure Control Loops 4. Boiler Feedwater Recirculation Flow Control Loops A number of technical challenges were addressed when installing a new digital system within the existing plant configuration. Interfaces to new, old and refurbished field devices must be understood as well as implications of connecting to the plant’s Digital Control Computers (DCC’s) and newly installed Steam Generators. The overall project involved many stakeholders to address various requirements from conceptual / design stage through procurement, construction, commissioning and return to service. In addition, the project highlighted the unique requirements found in Nuclear Industry with respect to Human Factors and Software Quality Assurance. (author)

  13. Howden-Microcoal system for the conversion of industrial oil or gas fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the conversion of an industrial boiler designed for oil firing at Courtaulds plc Greenfield site in North Wales to Howden-Microcoal firing are discussed. The production of Howden-Micro coal (an ultrafine or 'micronised' coal) is described and the Howden-Microcoal processor is compared with other fluid energy and mechanical mills. A typical boiler installation and modifications required for conversion to Howden-Microcoal firing are presented along with the main results of the Courtauld's tests. Cost, conversion time and the effect on average steam generation costs are considered.

  14. Application of programmable controllers to oil fired boiler light-off system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, H.C.; Gallaway, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable controller has been used to improve the reliability of an oil-fired boiler burner control system. An outdated and failing Germanium discrete transistor logic control system was replaced with a modern solid state large scale integrated circuit programmable controller. The ease of making this conversion at a modest expenditure during a limited boiler outage is explained, as well as pitfalls and problems encountered. Light-off reliability with fuel savings were prime objectives. The boiler, rated at 575,000 lb/hr at 450 psig, is used as a backup steam supply for the dual purpose N Reactor at Hanford, Washington, which supplies 860 MWe to the Bonneville Power Administration and weapons grade Plutonium for the Department of Energy. High reliability in light-off and load ascension from standby is required of the boiler which serves as the backup power supply for the reactor

  15. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  16. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  17. Feasibility Study of Correcting Circuit Scheme for Automatic Control System of Total Air in Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations on dynamic characteristics automatic control system (ACS for total air consumption (TAC in a boiler with corrections for О2 and СО. From transition process point of view the ACS TAC with correction for СО is considered as the most optimum one as with disturbance attack on fuel expenditure so discharging beyond boiler furnace.

  18. An acoustic pyrometer system for tomographic thermal imaging in power plant boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bramanti, Mauro; Gray, Antoinia; Pasini, Sauro; Salerno, Emanuele; Tonazzini, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents an acoustic pyrometry method for the reconstruction of temperature maps inside power plant boilers. It is based on measuring times-of-flight of acoustic waves along a number of straight paths in a cross-section of the boiler; via an integral relationship, these times depend on the temperature of the gaseous medium along the paths. On this basis, 2D temperature maps can be reconstructed using" suitable inversion techniques. The structure of a particular 'system for the measu...

  19. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  20. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George [Maple Valley, WA; Afromowitz, Martin A [Mercer Island, WA; Hogle, Richard E [Olympia, WA

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  1. Boiler water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanov, Pavel; Chulenyov, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    Active development of autonomous heating the past 25 years has led to the widespread use of hot-water boilers of small capacity up to 2.5 MW. Rational use of the design of autonomous sources of heating boilers design features significantly improve their technical, economic and operational performance. This publication reviewed and analyzed a number of features of the design, operation and exploitation of boilers of small capacity, significantly affecting the efficiency and reliability of their application.

  2. Biomass boiler energy conversion system analysis with the aid of exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Donaldson, Burl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis are performed. • The combustion process dominates the exergy destruction. • Increase excess air will decrease the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • Increase the SH temperatures will increase the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • The avoidable exergy destructions in the air heaters are very small. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis of a real biomass boiler. These analyses can be used for both the diagnosis and optimization of a biomass boiler as well as for the design of a new biomass boiler. Conventional exergy analysis is performed to recognize the source(s) of inefficiency and irreversibility and identify exergy destruction in different components of the biomass boiler. An advanced exergy analysis is performed to provide comprehensive information about the avoidable exergy destruction and real fuel-saving potential for each component, as well as the overall system. Sensitivity studies of several design parameters including the excess air, biomass moisture and steam parameters were evaluated. The results show that the maximum exergy destruction occurs in the combustion process, followed by the Water Walls (WW) & Radiant Superheater (RSH) and the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH). The fuel-saving and exergy efficiency improvement strategies for different components are discussed in this paper

  3. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pedersen, Thomas Engberg; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers in Denmark. • The daily operation of a heat and power system is modeled by stochastic programming. • Deterministic models overestimate the value of heat pumps and electric boilers. • Heat pumps and electric boilers can reduce the cost of operating the Danish system. • Falling power prices may boost the future value of heat pumps and electric boilers. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units in the system. Uncertainty in the heat demand and power price is modeled via scenarios representing different plausible paths for their future evolution. A series of case-studies are performed using real-world data for the heat and power systems in the Copenhagen area during four representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed by potential

  4. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  5. Technical-and-Economic Efficiency of Draft Enriched with Oxygen in Small-Capacity Heating Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on complex experimental and theoretical investigations pertaining to efficiency of oxygen-enriched draft in the small-capacity heating boilers as exemplified by the plant HEIZA (HW-S-10/K have been presented in the paper. The paper provides a calculation model of heating processes in heat generator burner (as exemplified by HEIZA plant. Simulation of heating processes in the operational zone has been executed in paper. The experimental data have proved model adequacy. The calculation scheme of the plant will be used in future for determination of power and ecological efficiency of draft enrichment with oxygen.

  6. U.S. Experiences in Tackling Energy and Environmental Challenges of Boiler System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    In the U.S., energy consumption by steam and process heat combined accounts for over 50% of the total energy use from industrial systems (see Figure 1). The use of boilers, process heaters, and furnaces for generating steam and heat in industrial facilities, commercial settings, and institutions consumes significant amounts of energy and is one of major sources of hazardous air pollutants, which contribute significantly to local pollution and global climate change. To address the energy and environmental challenges caused by boiler systems in the U.S., the country has taken a series of actions to reduce emissions from industrial, commercial and institutional boilers, improve the efficiency of steam systems, replace coal with cleaner energy resources, and promote the wider use of combined heat and power (CHP).

  7. Analysis of Boiler Operational Variables Prior to Tube Leakage Fault by Artificial Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kayiem Hussain H.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam boilers are considered as a core of any steam power plant. Boilers are subjected to various types of trips leading to shut down of the entire plant. The tube leakage is the worse among the common boiler faults, where the shutdown period lasts for around four to five days. This paper describes the rules of the Artificial Intelligent Systems to diagnosis the boiler variables prior to tube leakage occurrence. An Intelligent system based on Artificial Neural Network was designed and coded in MATLAB environment. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from coal fired power plant in Malaysia. Ninety three boiler operational variables were identified for the present investigation based on the plant operator experience. Various neural networks topology combinations were investigated. The results showed that the NN with two hidden layers performed better than one hidden layer using Levenberg-Maquardt training algorithm. Moreover, it was noticed that hyperbolic tangent function for input and output nodes performed better than other activation function types.

  8. Robust H(infinity) tracking control of boiler-turbine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Nguang, S K; Shen, J; Liu, G; Li, Y G

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a fuzzy H(infinity) state feedback tracking control of a boiler-turbine is solved. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is used to model a boiler-turbine system. Next, based on the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model, sufficient conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(infinity) nonlinear state feedback tracking control are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of the proposed tracking control design is that it does not involve feedback linearization technique and complicated adaptive scheme. An industrial boiler-turbine system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design as compared with a linearized approach. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correction of Pressure Drop in Steam and Water System in Performance Test of Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglong; Zhao, Xianqiao; Hou, Fanjun; Wu, Xiaowu; Wang, Feng; Hu, Zhihong; Yang, Xinsen

    2018-01-01

    Steam and water pressure drop is one of the most important characteristics in the boiler performance test. As the measuring points are not in the guaranteed position and the test condition fluctuation exsits, the pressure drop test of steam and water system has the deviation of measuring point position and the deviation of test running parameter. In order to get accurate pressure drop of steam and water system, the corresponding correction should be carried out. This paper introduces the correction method of steam and water pressure drop in boiler performance test.

  10. ON THE NECESSITY OF CHANGES IN THE STRATEGY OF UTILIZATION SHIP BOILER TECHNICAL CONDITION MAINTENANCE IN THE ASPECT OF LNG APPLIED AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy oils (HFO fuels used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utiliza-tion boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degrada-tion. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, there-fore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO, which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG, onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  11. Model-based adaptive sliding mode control of the subcritical boiler-turbine system with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Yuan, Jingqi; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Jingcheng

    2018-05-25

    As higher requirements are proposed for the load regulation and efficiency enhancement, the control performance of boiler-turbine systems has become much more important. In this paper, a novel robust control approach is proposed to improve the coordinated control performance for subcritical boiler-turbine units. To capture the key features of the boiler-turbine system, a nonlinear control-oriented model is established and validated with the history operation data of a 300 MW unit. To achieve system linearization and decoupling, an adaptive feedback linearization strategy is proposed, which could asymptotically eliminate the linearization error caused by the model uncertainties. Based on the linearized boiler-turbine system, a second-order sliding mode controller is designed with the super-twisting algorithm. Moreover, the closed-loop system is proved robustly stable with respect to uncertainties and disturbances. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, which achieves excellent tracking performance, strong robustness and chattering reduction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  13. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  14. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, th...... by potential investors....

  15. Airflow mixing augmentation device for hot-air heating systems in modular boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilenko Nikolay I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the results of the theoretical research devoted to the study of air flow interaction in hot-air heating systems of automatic modular boilers involving the use of fan heaters. The work quotes the results of mathematic simulation of various density air flows that are vertical to each other.

  16. Three-dimensional computer simulation for combustion and NO{sub x} emission in a grate fired boiler at Baeckhamars, Sweden. Technical report[(Baeckhammars Bruk)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the fundament of mathematical modeling for the grate fired boilers in Part A, and presents the results from the numerical simulations for the flow pattern, combustion and NO{sub x} emission in the Baeckhammars grate fired boiler in Part B. The simulated boiler is equipped with a new secondary air supply system called Ecotube. The objective of this project is to develop and experimentally verify tools for computer simulations of solid biomass fuel combustion processes in a grate fired boiler. The work focuses on the numerical simulation using CFD technique and development of a NO{sub x} post processor. The unstructured mesh technique also has been used to discretize the boiler. An unstructured grid with total 284399 tetrahedral cells describes the three dimensional geometry and is used for flow field and combustion simulations. In order to simulate the combustion process in the boiler, a simplified grate bed model -- black-box bed model is used, which is based on the balance analysis of mass and energy on the grate bed and needless to consider any detailed and very difficult dynamic processes which have not been valuable by mathematical modeling on the grate bed yet. Therefore, it is quite convenient for industrial applications. In this work, both the cyanide route and the ammonia route for modeling the fuel containing nitrogen NO{sub x} are developed, and the former has been used to predict the NO generation in Baeckhammars bark boiler. Two 3D cases corresponding to 15 MW and 11 MW output thermal power respectively are simulated in detail. Results show that a new air supply system called Ecotube gives a considerably more uniform velocity, temperature and concentration distribution from the secondary air tubes to the upper part of the furnace. The upper furnace works almost as a 'plug flow reactor' which gives sufficient residence time for CO conversion and low NO{sub x} emission. The calculations of flow and mixing patterns in the

  17. Comparative technical-economic analysis of the low temperature heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharevski, Vasko; Sharevski, Milan

    1994-01-01

    A method for comparative technical-economic analysis between low temperature heating systems and heating systems with fossil fuel boiler plant, heat pump heating system and electrical heating systems is presented. The single and combined heating systems are analyzed. The technical-economic priority application of the heating system is determined according to the prices of the low temperature heat energy, fossil fuel heat energy, electrical energy, as well as to the coefficient of the annual use of the installed heating capacity, investment expenses, structure of the combined heating system and coefficient of performances of the heat pump. The combined heating system, composed with a low temperature heating subsystem, which is used to cover the base heat demands, and a oil boiler plant heating subsystem, for the top heat demands, have technical-economic justification and wide range of priority application, in comparison with single heating systems. (author)

  18. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  19. Early tube leak detection system for steam boiler at KEV power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Firas B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube leakage in boilers has been a major contribution to trips which eventually leads to power plant shut downs. Training of network and developing artificial neural network (ANN models are essential in fault detection in critically large systems. This research focusses on the ANN modelling through training and validation of real data acquired from a sub-critical boiler unit. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to develop a compatible model and to evaluate the working properties and behaviour of boiler. The training and validation of real data has been applied using the feed-forward with back-propagation (BP. The right combination of number of neurons, number of hidden layers, training algorithms and training functions was run to achieve the best ANN model with lowest error. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from a coal fired power plant in Malaysia. The results showed that the Neural Network (NN with one hidden layers performed better than two hidden layer using feed-forward back-propagation network. The outcome from this study give us the best ANN model which eventually allows for early detection of boiler tube leakages, and forecast of a trip before the real shutdown. This will eventually reduce shutdowns in power plants.

  20. Design and study of water supply system for supercritical unit boiler in thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    In order to design and optimize the boiler feed water system of supercritical unit, the establishment of a highly accurate controlled object model and its dynamic characteristics are prerequisites for developing a perfect thermal control system. In this paper, the method of mechanism modeling often leads to large systematic errors. Aiming at the information contained in the historical operation data of the boiler typical thermal system, the modern intelligent identification method to establish a high-precision quantitative model is used. This method avoids the difficulties caused by the disturbance experiment modeling for the actual system in the field, and provides a strong reference for the design and optimization of the thermal automation control system in the thermal power plant.

  1. Economical investigation of an integrated boiler-solar energy saving system in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Rawabdeh, I.; Emran, S.

    2010-01-01

    Jordan is relatively poor in conventional energy resources and is basically a non-oil producing country, i.e. its energy supply relies to a very large extent on imports. It is therefore unlikely that any future energy scenario for Jordan will not include a significant proportion of its energy to come from renewable sources such as solar energy. The lack of an integrated energy saving system which utilizes the solar energy for domestic hot water as well as for building space heating was the main motivation for the present study. In Jordan, there is no existing system can provide the integration mechanisms of solar energy and fuel combustion with electrical ones. Also adding new and related products increases sales of current boilers products and can be offered at competitive prices. During our investigations, it has been found that the market demand for boiler-solar integration system in terms of the system acceptability, system feasibility, and system values is very high especially after the increased in oil prices during the last 3 years, i.e. 2006-2008. The market trend shows that even though solar collector is not attractive as an energy source for domestic hot water, but the combined system for space heating and domestic hot water is fully accepted. However, the market demand for such a system is not completely identified yet but the awareness and the discussion of the idea shows a good potential. The economical study about the integration system of boiler and solar energy shows that using solar water heaters to heat space and for domestic water is cost-effective. Payback can be as low as 3 years, and utility bills are much lower than they would be using a conventional heating system. The initial draft and design of a prototype for the boiler-solar-electrical integration system has been carried out.

  2. The investigation of the locomotive boiler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucholski, Z.; Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the history of narrow-gauge railway system is described. The other information about the steam locomotive construction, as well as the technical regulations of its construction and exploitation are also done. The results of the studies of the locomotive boiler material are presented. (authors)

  3. Research on the Application of Risk-based Inspection for the Boiler System in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-12-01

    Power plant boiler is one of the three main equipment of coal-fired power plants, is very tall to the requirement of the safe and stable operation, in a significant role in the whole system of thermal power generation, a risk-based inspection is a kind of pursuit of security and economy of unified system management idea and method, can effectively evaluate equipment risk and reduce the operational cost.

  4. To Problem of Heat Load Distribution among Boilers with Various Systems for Regulation of Draught Machinery Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that while distributing loads among boilers an account of the power consumed by draught machinery with various regulation systems shifts an optimum point of load distribution by 2–5%.

  5. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  6. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  8. Hot and steamy (but untrue) stories of the boiler emergency cooling system (BECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, C.; Bramble, A.

    2004-01-01

    The PNGS 'B' Boiler Emergency Cooling System (BECS) has been designed to provide interim makeup inventory to the boilers following a Loss of Feedwater, Steam Balance Header or Main Steam Line break event. Its objective is to operate as an interim heat sink to remove the excess energy in the Heat Transport System until a long term heat sink can be placed in service. The effectiveness of BECS has been assessed for a range of BECS tank water levels and pressure at the ambient Boiler Room (BR) temperature. Currently, BECS operates at a pressure of 160 kPa(g) and a water level of 2.2 m, and it is assumed that the water temperature is similar to that of the BR because there is no temperature instrumentation in tanks. However, it has been suggested that the coolant temperature in the BECS tanks may be much higher than the BR temperature in several PNGS 'B' units; this is attributed to in-leakage of high pressure and temperature water (at 4.7 Mpa(g) and 250 o C) from the Reheater Drains system into the BECS tanks, as observed by an increasing water tank levels in several units. Thus, to predict and assess the effect of the current in-leakage on the BECS water temperature, a numerical model of the BECS tanks was developed. (author)

  9. Management of energy-save and environment on the boiler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Asano, Naoki; Kawasaki, Ichio

    2010-02-01

    Tokai Utility Center (TUC) is the facility that products and feeds steam for Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF), etc. The boiler system needs the management based on the law of 'Industrial safety and Health Act' and 'Act on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors'. In this situation, activity of preservation of environment and energy-save are carried out by means of the improvement of steam generation process and the change of additive to water. Quality assurance procedure has been applied in order to improve the boiler operation continuously. This report describes about various activities of the management, the environment, the energy-saving, and a future action. (author)

  10. The design development and commissioning of two distributed computer based boiler control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, D.; Johnstone, L.R.; Pringle, S.T.; Walker, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The CEBG N.E. Region has recently commissioned two major boiler control schemes using distributed computer control system. Both systems have considerable development potential to allow modifications to meet changing operational requirements. The distributed approach to control was chosen in both instances so as to achieve high control system availability and as a method of easing the commissioning programs. The experience gained with these two projects has reinforced the view that distributed computer systems show advantages over centralised single computers especially if software is designed for the distributed system. (auth)

  11. The Facilitation of a Sustainable Power System: A Practice from Data-Driven Enhanced Boiler Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing penetration of renewable energy may bring significant challenges to a power system due to its inherent intermittency. To achieve a sustainable future for renewable energy, a conventional power plant is required to be able to change its power output rapidly for a grid balance purpose. However, the rapid power change may result in the boiler operating in a dangerous manner. To this end, this paper aims to improve boiler control performance via a data-driven control strategy, namely Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC. For practical implementation, a tuning method is developed for ADRC controller parameters to maximize its potential in controlling a boiler operating in different conditions. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation, a Probabilistic Robustness (PR index is subsequently formulated to represent the controller’s sensitivity to the varying conditions. The stability region of the ADRC controller is depicted to provide the search space in which the optimal group of parameters is searched for based on the PR index. Illustrative simulations are performed to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. Finally, the proposed method is experimentally applied to a boiler’s secondary air control system successfully. The results of the field application show that the proposed ADRC based on PR can ensure the expected control performance even though it works in a wider range of operating conditions. The field application depicts a promising future for the ADRC controller as an alternative solution in the power industry to integrate more renewable energy into the power grid.

  12. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system: Comparing electric boilers and heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blarke, Morten B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an “intermittency-friendly” energy system design. ► We compare intermittency-friendly concepts in distributed cogeneration. ► We investigate a new concept involving a heat pump and intermediate cold storage. ► We find significant improvements in operational intermittency-friendliness. ► Well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers. -- Abstract: Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration. However, well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers, and in future markets where the gas/electricity price ratio is likely to increase, compression heat pumps in combination with intermediate thermal storages represent a superior potential for combining an intermittency-friendly pattern of operation with the efficient use of

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  14. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  15. Evaluation of a flue gas driven open absorption system for heat and water recovery from fossil fuel boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenying; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flue gas driven open absorption system that efficiently recovers total heat. • Efficient heat and water recovery for various kinds of fossil fuel boilers. • Heat and water recovery efficiencies increase with moisture content of flue gas. • Temperature requirements for district heat supply and domestic hot water were met. • Experimental system surpasses conventional condensing system in total heat recovery. - Abstract: This paper presents an open absorption system for total heat recovery from fossil fuel boilers using the high temperature flue gas as the regeneration heat source. In this system, liquid desiccant serves as the recycling medium, which absorbs waste heat and moisture contained in the low temperature flue gas in the packed tower and then regenerates in the regenerator by the high temperature flue gas. Water vapor generated in the regenerator gets condensed after releasing heat to the heating water system and the condensing water also gets recycled. The return water collects heat from the solution water heat exchanger, the flue gas water heat exchanger and the condenser respectively and is then used for district heating. Driven by the vapor pressure difference between high humidity flue gas and the liquid desiccant, the heat recovery efficiency of the system is not limited by the dew point of the flue gas, enabling a warmer water to be heated up than the conventional condensing boiler. The performance of this system was analyzed theoretically and experimentally and the results showed that the system operated well for both district heat supply and domestic hot water supply. The system efficiency increased with the moisture content of flue gas and the total heat recovery was about 8.5%, 17.2%, 21.2%, and 9.2% higher than the conventional condensing system in the case of coal fired boiler, fuel oil boiler, natural gas boiler, and coke oven gas boiler, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of trigeneration system using microturbine, ammonia-water absorption chiller, and a heat recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preter, Felipe C.; Rocha, Marcelo S.; Simoes-Moreira, Jose Roberto [SISEA - Alternative Energy Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. University of Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: felipe.preter@poli.usp.br, msrocha@poli.usp.br, jrsimoes@usp.br; Andreos, Ronaldo [COMGAS - Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: randreos@comgas.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a CCHP or tri generation system has been projected, mounted, and tested in laboratory, combining a microturbine for power generation, a heat recovery boiler for hot water production, and an ammonia water absorption chiller for chilled water production. The project was motivated by the large practical applications of this kind of energy recovery system in commerce, and industry, and, in general, more than 85% of the energy source is used as power, hot water, and cold water. In the first part, the trigeneration system theoretical model is detailed, and in the second part, experimental results are presented for different operation conditions. (author)

  17. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Junga Robert; Wzorek Małgorzata; Kaszubska Mirosława

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested...

  18. Application of system simulation to WCH boiler selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Kabele, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the first results of an ongoing project aimed at generating design information/knowledge for wet central heating (WCH) refurbishment in multi-family houses in Central Europe. In that practical context, integral modelling and simulation of a building and its heating system is

  19. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 1. Sustained boiler efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available situations. This paper presents a process integration technique for network synthesis using conceptual and mathematical analysis without compromising boiler efficiency. It was found that the steam flow rate to the HEN could be reduced while maintaining boiler...

  20. Boiler feedwater quality improvement by replacing conventional pre-treatment with advanced membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Bernhard [Process Systems Pall GmbH, Dreieich (Germany). Marketing; Venkatadri, Ramraj [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States). Global Marketing Energy

    2013-09-01

    Two case studies in different application fields highlight significant economical and operational improvements that were achieved by replacing conventional water treatment technologies by highly-sophisticated membrane systems. The first case study deals with boiler feedwater in a power plant, focusing on the challenges faced as well as the direct and indirect benefits gained by the new system within a utility station. The second case study deals with the conventional water treatment scheme for groundwater from 13 wells at a major oil sands facility. Operational performance as well as the cost improvements gained in both cases will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  2. DB Riley-low emission boiler system (LEBS): Superior power for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beittel, R. [DB Riley, Inc., Worcester, MA (United States); Ruth, L.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy, DB Riley, Inc., is developing a highly advanced coal-fired power-generation plant called the Low Emission Boiler Systems (LEBS). By the year 2000, LEBS will provide the US electric power industry with a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, environmentally superior alternative to current technologies. LEBS incorporates significant advances in coal combustion, supercritical steam boiler design, environmental control, and materials development. The system will include a state-of-the-art steam cycle operating at supercritical steam conditions; a slagging combustor that produces vitrified ash by-products; low nitrogen oxide (NOx) burners; a new, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup system (copper oxide process) for simultaneously capturing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx); a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate capture; and a low-temperature heat-recovery system. The copper oxide flue gas cleanup system, which has been under development at DOE`s Pittsburgh field center, removes over 98% of SO{sub 2} and 95% of NOx from flue gas. A new moving-bed design provides efficient sorbent utilization that lowers the cleanup process cost. The captured SO{sub 2} can be converted to valuable by-products such as sulfuric acid and/or element sulfur, and the process generates no waste.

  3. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  4. Practical Validation of Economic Efficiency Modelling Method for Multi-Boiler Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejs Jurenoks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In up-to-date conditions information technology is frequently associated with the modelling process, using computer technology as well as information networks. Statistical modelling is one of the most widespread methods of research of economic systems. The selection of methods of modelling of the economic systems depends on a great number of conditions of the researched system. Modelling is frequently associated with the factor of uncertainty (or risk, who’s description goes outside the confines of the traditional statistical modelling, which, in its turn, complicates the modelling which, in its turn, complicates the modelling process. This article describes the modelling process of assessing the economic efficiency of a multi-boiler adaptive heating system in real-time systems which allows for dynamic change in the operation scenarios of system service installations while enhancing the economic efficiency of the system in consideration.

  5. Optimising boiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  6. An advanced maintenance advisory and surveillance system for boiler tubes - AMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    In a recently completed European collaborative project, the aim was to address the issue of boiler tube failures and thereby plant availability. The reduction of forced outages due to component failures and the reduction of planned outages for preventative maintenance can both contribute in this respect. It has been possible to assess tube degradation due to erosion, corrosion and overheating through the use of on-line techniques (thin layer activation, corrosion probes and novel temperature sensors) and off-line techniques (cold air velocity measurements, laser shearography and measurements of steam side oxide) which have been developed in the project. These techniques have been demonstrated on an oil fired boiler in Portugal and a coal fired unit in Spain. The output from the monitoring techniques has been integrated in the AMASS maintenance advisory and surveillance system. This is a computerised system comprising a spatial database with add-on tools designed to assess data from individual monitors and to provide the user with information on tube life utilisation rates and the probability of tube failure occurring. A description of the monitoring techniques will be described along with some of the results of demonstrating them in the field. Also an overview of the computerized system and the way in which it works will be given along with examples of how it can be used to assist with preventative maintenance and to help avoid unplanned outages. (orig.) 10 refs.

  7. An advanced maintenance advisory and surveillance system for boiler tubes - AMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, A B [ERA Technology Ltd, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    In a recently completed European collaborative project, the aim was to address the issue of boiler tube failures and thereby plant availability. The reduction of forced outages due to component failures and the reduction of planned outages for preventative maintenance can both contribute in this respect. It has been possible to assess tube degradation due to erosion, corrosion and overheating through the use of on-line techniques (thin layer activation, corrosion probes and novel temperature sensors) and off-line techniques (cold air velocity measurements, laser shearography and measurements of steam side oxide) which have been developed in the project. These techniques have been demonstrated on an oil fired boiler in Portugal and a coal fired unit in Spain. The output from the monitoring techniques has been integrated in the AMASS maintenance advisory and surveillance system. This is a computerised system comprising a spatial database with add-on tools designed to assess data from individual monitors and to provide the user with information on tube life utilisation rates and the probability of tube failure occurring. A description of the monitoring techniques will be described along with some of the results of demonstrating them in the field. Also an overview of the computerized system and the way in which it works will be given along with examples of how it can be used to assist with preventative maintenance and to help avoid unplanned outages. (orig.) 10 refs.

  8. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  9. TADS: Technical Assistance Development System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Rosemary, Ed.

    Described is the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), a component of the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill which offers support services to preschool demonstration centers for handicapped children in the First Chance Network. Discussed are the four types of services offered:…

  10. CECIL lances Bruce's boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaugh, J.; Monaghan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years Ontario Hydro has become increasingly concerned about accumulations of sludge in its nuclear plant boilers, so a comprehensive sludge management programme has been instituted to combat build-up. This included developing the tele-operated robot CECIL (Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing) equipment, originally designed for work in PWRs, for CANDU boilers. This required a significantly reconfigured robotic system as well as modifications to the boilers themselves. Work on the Bruce A reactor is described. (4 figures). (author)

  11. System for technical innovation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This book lists field of support system, which includes tax, development work, basic research project, industrial technology, information and communications field, energy field, part and materials field, local industry, the small and medium business such as technical development field, and industry-university collaboration like summary of investment and financing support and guarantee, support of manpower such as brain pool and contact Korea, support of technique like development technology and strategy for patent, support on certification such as company and technical goods, purchase support.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  13. A genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a boiler-turbine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhong; Qian, Chunjiang; Du, Haibo

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a drum-type boiler-turbine system. Based on a second order nonlinear model, a finite-time convergent controller is first designed to drive the states to their setpoints in a finite time. In the case when the state variables are unmeasurable, the system will be regulated using a constant controller or an output feedback controller. An adaptive controller is also designed to stabilize the system since the model parameters may vary under different operating points. The novelty of the proposed controller design approach lies in fully utilizing the system nonlinearities instead of linearizing or canceling them. In addition, the newly developed techniques for finite-time convergent controller are used to guarantee fast convergence of the system. Simulations are conducted under different cases and the results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  15. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  16. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...

  17. The Technology Introduction of Chain Boiler Energy Conservation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Liu, Xiwen; Yuan, Hong; Lin, Jiadai; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Introduced the present status of chain boiler efficiency is low, the system analysis of the chain boiler optimization and upgrading of technology, for the whole progress of chain boiler to provide some ideas and reference.

  18. Distributed parameter modeling and simulation for the evaporation system of a controlled circulation boiler based on 3-D combustion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuntao; Lou Chun; Cheng Qiang; Zhou Huaichun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic, distributed parameter model for the evaporation system of a controlled circulation boiler was developed. As an essential basis, the 3-D temperature distribution and the average emissivity of the particle phase inside its furnace can be got by a flame image processing technique from multiple, visible flame image detectors in a real-time combustion monitoring system. Then the transient, 2-D radiation flux can be obtained by solving a set of energy balance equations for the water wall elements, which serves as a distributed boundary condition for the dynamic, distributed parameter model proposed for the evaporation system. For large change of the boiler load, two important parameters, the correction factor of equivalent flame emissivity and the coefficient of the steam mass flow rate at the outlet of the drum, were determined using the operation data from a 300 MW boiler. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results for some main steam parameters of the system with those from measurements. Besides that, the transient distributions of the parameters, such as the steam quality and the mass velocity, were predicted by the model. This model can be used for on-line calculation or off-line prediction of the local abnormal phenomena occurring on the water walls, forming an important basis to effectively evaluate the security and the reliability of a power plant boiler

  19. A novel modelling approach for condensing boilers based on hybrid dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Condensing boilers use waste heat from flue gases to pre-heat cold water entering the boiler. Flue gases are condensed into liquid form, thus recovering their latent heat of vaporization, which results in as much as 10%–12% increase in efficiency. Modeling these heat transfer phenomena is crucial to

  20. The impact of feedwater and condensate return excursions on boiler system component failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmacher, Mel J. [GE Water and Process Technologies, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Rossi, Anthony [GE Water and Process Technologies, Trevose, PA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    During boiler operation, the transport of contaminants in boiler feedwater or condensate return via hardness excursions or transport of metal oxides due to corrosion can cause fouling and subsequent tube failure due to under-deposit corrosion or overheating. Case histories are reviewed and suitable corrective actions discussed. (orig.)

  1. The pressure cold wind system on the impact of industrial boiler economy and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Qian, Hongli; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Dekai; Li, Guannan; Yuan, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipment in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption.Industrial boiler in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment, the average industrial boiler operation efficiency is only 65%. If the efficiency increased by 15% ∼ 20%, which meet the international advanced level, each year 70 million tons of coal saving and reduce environmental pollution[1]. As energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the basic national policy of our country, improving the efficiency of industrial boiler energy is facing opportunities and challenges, optimizing the operation mode of the existing units, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the boiler control.

  2. Fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    One of the important challenges for biomass combustion in industrial applications is the fouling tendency and how it affects to the boiler performance. The classical approach for this question is to activate sootblowing cycles with different strategies to clean the boiler (one per shift, one each six hours..). Nevertheless, it has been often reported no effect on boiler fouling or an excessive steam consumption for sootblowing. This paper illustrates the methodology and the application to select the adequate time for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The outcome is a control strategy developed with artificial intelligence (Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Expert System) for optimizing the biomass boiler cleaning and maximizing heat transfer along the time. Results from an optimize sootblowing schedule show savings up to 12 GWh/year in the case-study biomass boiler. Extra steam generation produces an average increase of turbine power output of 3.5%. (author)

  3. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  4. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  5. Enviro-exergy sustainability analysis of boiler evolution in district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, M.; Rezaie, B.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into energy resources are important from the point of energy sustainability. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of the operating boilers at the University of Idaho (UI) district energy plant through an exergy analysis. The biomass boiler uses western red cedar chips from nearby lumber mills and provides 95% of the steam requirements of the main campus of UI in Moscow, ID, USA. Thermodynamic analysis reveals a thermal efficiency of 76% and an exergy efficiency of 24% for the biomass boiler. A combustion model is developed to determine the primary emissions products of both the bone dry wood chips and natural gas fuels. CO 2 comprises 26% of the bone dry biomass emissions and 8% of the natural gas emissions products. Testing results of the biomass boiler exhaust stack show CO 2 emissions of 14% when an average moisture content of 33% is accounted for. An overview of the evolution of the energy plant is discussed, showing the generational differences in each boiler. By using a biomass fuel source, the cost per 1000 kg of steam produced is on average 63% lower than using natural gas, resulting in savings of over $1 million annually. - Highlights: • Exergy efficiency comparison of biomass and natural gas boilers. • Moisture content in biomass reduces average heating value and exergy efficiency. • Local sustainable energy sources can result in economic savings over fossil fuels. • Older boilers can have comparable efficiencies with newer ones after improvements.

  6. Technical/economical analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: (1) To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels; (2) To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on technoeconomic basis to establish future development needs, and (3) To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned. (orig.)

  7. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  8. Exergetic assessment of an integrated gasifier/boiler system for hydrogen production with different biomass types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinci, Y.; Hepbasli, A.; Dincer, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we utilize some experimental data taken from the literature, especially on the air blown gasification characteristics of six different biomass fuels, namely almond shell (ASF), walnut pruning (WPF), rice straw (RSF), whole tree wood chips (WWF), sludge (SLF) and non-recyclable waste paper (NPF) for hydrogen production from an integrated gasifier-boiler power system. Then, we undertake an exergy analysis of this integrated system and assess its performance through energy and exergy efficiencies. The exergy content values calculated for the biomass fuels range from 15.89 to 22.07 MJ/kg. The stack gas is examined at cyclone out, and the hydrogen concentrations determined change between 7 and 18 (%v/v) for NPF and ASF. Furthermore, the system considered is studied in terms of irreversibility and improvement potential rates. These rate values change from 6.82 to 43.11 kW for irreversibility and 6.01 to 41.24 kW for improvement potential, respectively. The exergy efficiencies of the system are calculated as 4.33 to 11.89%. Finally, we consider N and NH 3 contents of the six biomass fuels and their stack gas compositions. (author)

  9. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  10. Study of connected system of automatic control of load and operation efficiency of a steam boiler with extremal controller on a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanin, V. R.; Starostin, A. A.; Repin, A. I.; Popov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The problems of operation effectiveness increase of steam boilers are considered. To maintain the optimum fuel combustion modes, it is proposed to use an extremal controller (EC) determining the value of airflow rate, at which the boiler generating the desired amount of heat will consume a minimum amount of fuel. EC sets the determined value of airflow rate to airflow rate controller (ARC). The test results of numerical simulation dynamic nonlinear model of steam boiler with the connected system of automatic control of load and combustion efficiency using EC are presented. The model is created in the Simulink modeling package of MATLAB software and can be used to optimize the combustion modes. Based on the modeling results, the conclusion was drawn about the possibility in principle of simultaneously boiler load control and optimizing by EC the combustion modes when changing the fuel combustion heat and the boiler characteristics and its operating mode. It is shown that it is possible to automatically control the operation efficiency of steam boilers when using EC without applying the standard flue gas analyzers. The article considers the numerical simulation dynamic model of steam boiler with the schemes of control of fuel consumption and airflow rate, the steam pressure and EC; the purpose of using EC in the scheme with linear controllers and the requirements to the quality of its operation; the results of operation of boiler control schemes without EC with estimation of influence of roughness of thermal mode maps on the nature of static and dynamic connection of the control units of fuel consumption and airflow rate; the phase trajectories and the diagrams of transient processes occurring in the control scheme with EC with stepped changing the fuel quality and boiler characteristics; analysis of modeling results and prospects for using EC in the control schemes of boilers.

  11. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  12. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc.) it is import...

  13. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part I: Description of the dynamic system and transient behavior of sub-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamic performance simulation of a CFB boiler in a commercial-scale power plant is reported. The boiler system was modeled by a finite number of heat exchanger units, which are sub-grouped into the gas-solid circulation loop, the water-steam circulation loop, and the inter-connected heat exchangers blocks of the boiler. This dynamic model is an extension from the previously reported performance simulation model, which was designed to simulate static performance of the same power plant, where heat and mass for each of the heat exchanger units were balanced for the inter-connected heat exchanger network among the fuel combustion system and the water-steam system. Dynamic performance simulation was achieved by calculating the incremental difference from the previous time step, and progressing for the next time step. Additional discretization of the heat exchanger blocks was necessary to accommodate the dynamic response of the water evaporation and natural circulation as well as the transient response of the metal temperature of the heat exchanger elements. Presentation of the simulation modeling is organized into two parts; system configuration of the model plant and the general approach of the simulation are presented along with the transient behavior of the sub-models in Part I. Dynamic sub-models were integrated in terms of the mass flow and the heat transfer for simulating the CFB boiler system. Dynamic simulation for the open loop response was performed to check the integrated system of the water-steam loop and the solid-gas loop of the total boiler system. Simulation of the total boiler system which includes the closed-loop control system blocks is presented in the following Part II.

  14. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part I: Description of the dynamic system and transient behavior of sub-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic performance simulation of a CFB boiler in a commercial-scale power plant is reported. The boiler system was modeled by a finite number of heat exchanger units, which are sub-grouped into the gas-solid circulation loop, the water-steam circulation loop, and the inter-connected heat exchangers blocks of the boiler. This dynamic model is an extension from the previously reported performance simulation model, which was designed to simulate static performance of the same power plant, where heat and mass for each of the heat exchanger units were balanced for the inter-connected heat exchanger network among the fuel combustion system and the water-steam system. Dynamic performance simulation was achieved by calculating the incremental difference from the previous time step, and progressing for the next time step. Additional discretization of the heat exchanger blocks was necessary to accommodate the dynamic response of the water evaporation and natural circulation as well as the transient response of the metal temperature of the heat exchanger elements. Presentation of the simulation modeling is organized into two parts; system configuration of the model plant and the general approach of the simulation are presented along with the transient behavior of the sub-models in Part I. Dynamic sub-models were integrated in terms of the mass flow and the heat transfer for simulating the CFB boiler system. Dynamic simulation for the open loop response was performed to check the integrated system of the water-steam loop and the solid-gas loop of the total boiler system. Simulation of the total boiler system which includes the closed-loop control system blocks is presented in the following Part II

  15. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  16. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nur Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.

  17. Maximising safety in the boiler house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Carr

    2013-03-01

    Last month's HEJ featured an article, the second in our new series of guidance pieces aimed principally at Technician-level engineers, highlighting some of the key steps that boiler operators can take to maximise system performance and efficiency, and thus reduce running both costs and carbon footprint. In the third such article, Derry Carr, C.Env, I.Eng, BSc (Hons), M.I.Plant.E., M.S.O.E., technical manager & group gas manager at Dalkia, who is vice-chairman of the Combustion Engineering Association, examines the key regulatory and safety obligations for hospital energy managers and boiler technicians, a number of which have seen changes in recent years with revision to guidance and other documentation.

  18. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  19. Analisis Safety System dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Boiler PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Paiton, PT. YTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Kristianingsih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU merupakan pembangkit listrik yang banyak digunakan di Indonesia. Salah satu bagian dari sistem PLTU yang memiliki risiko bahaya tinggi adalah boiler, oleh karena itu diperlukan adanya analisis bahaya dan safety system sebagai langkah pencegahan bahaya pada boiler. Analisis bahaya dalam penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode HAZOP. Node yang dipakai adalah economizer, steam drum, superheater, dan reheater yang merupakan komponen utama penyusun boiler. Guide word dan deviasi ditentukan berdasarkan control chart yang dibentuk oleh data proses masing-masing komponen selama bulan Maret 2013. Estimasi likelihood dilakukan berdasarkan data maintenance dari work order PT YTL selama 5 tahun, sedangkan estimasi consequences dilakukan berdasarkan kriteria risiko yang ditimbulkan serta berdasarkan control chart. Hasil perkalian likelihood dan consequences dengan risk matrix menghasilkan kriteria risiko dari komponen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, diperoleh hasil bahwa komponen yang memiliki risiko bahaya paling besar adalah level transmitter steam drum dengan deviasi berupa less level, yaitu dengan kriteria likelihood adalah A dan consequences 4, sehingga risiko bernilai extreme. Selain itu, risiko extreme juga terdapat pada pressure transmitter outlet superheater, dengan likelihood B dan consequences 4. Untuk menurunkan risiko, maka dilakukan perawatan dan kalibrasi secara rutin, serta penambahan redundant transmitter. Bahaya paling besar pada seluruh node adalah adanya kebakaran. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan analisis emergency response plan untuk kebakaran yang mencakup peta evakuasi, tugas dan tanggungjawab tiap personel, langkah pencegahan, serta langkah penanganan.

  20. Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lara; Wopienka, Elisabeth; Pointner, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of a pellet boiler operated with different agricultural fuels. ► Agricultural fuels could be burn in the tested boiler for a certain period of time. ► All the fuels (except straw and Sorghum) satisfied the European legal requirements. ► Boilers for burning agricultural fuels should have a flexible control system. - Abstract: The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15 kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion

  1. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  2. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the spread of high efficiency coal boiler; 1999 nendo kankyo chowa gata sekitan system kanosei chosa. Kokoritsu sekitan boira fukyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the coal consumption amount and reducing the emission amount of environmental pollutants, study of small stoker boilers in China was made in terms of sampling of the data on changes in boiler efficiency caused by combustion conditions and how to improve efficiency. As objects of survey, one boiler use plant in Beijing city and two in Taiyuan city, Shanxi province, were selected to make site survey on the state of installation and operational management of coal boiler. As a result of the actual measurement of boiler efficiency at the plants, the boiler efficiency was the maximum, about 76%, in Beijing city and the minimum, about 51%, in Taiyuan city. In China, the number of boiler with the Beijing city level was extremely small, and most of the boilers were the same as the Taiyuan city level. As a result of studying how to improve efficiency based on the survey results, the following were cited as the main measures for improvement: selection of coal by boiler type and supply of the secondary air, strengthening of the combustion management by controlling furnace pressure and air amount, etc. For the selection of coal, it is necessary to set up a system to be supported by the whole country or the whole department. (NEDO)

  3. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  4. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Bum [RECTUSON, Co., LTD, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seon Man [Samcheonpo Division, Korea South-East Power Co., Samcheonpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB.

  5. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Bum; Roh, Seon Man

    2016-01-01

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB

  6. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  7. Mechanisms of corrosion, falling short of dew point and formation of corrosion in boilers and exhaust systems. Mechanismen der Korrosionsbildung, der Taupunktunterschreitung und Entstehung von Korrosionen in Kessel- und Abgassystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, E.

    1994-09-01

    In order to save energy boilers for heating systems are run on increasingly lower exhaust gas- and boiler temperatures. Combustion as such depends of type of fuel, boiler and burner design, design of exhaust systems and atmospheric disturbance variables. This article looks at the influence which these factors have on corrosion. Falling short of the dew point is an important parameter in this context. Possibilities of avoiding corrosion are explained. (BWI)

  8. Chaotic Phenomena in Technical Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of examples of technical control systems that can exhibit deterministic chaos and other forms of complex nonlinear behavior. These examples include thermostatically regulated radiators, closely placed refrigirators, and industrial cooling compressors. The paper contin...

  9. Technical guide to criticality alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    An instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the technical aspects of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Dept. of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. The manual was structured such that it can be used by engineers designing completely new systems and by those who are working with existing facilities. Major design tasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. Regulatory and technical performance requirements were both addressed. (authors)

  10. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  11. Robust control of an industrial boiler system; a comparison between two approaches: Sliding mode control and H∞ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Hamed; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz; Saffar-Avval, Majid

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a good performance of the utility boiler, dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature and water level of drum must be controlled. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of a boiler system is considered in which the input variables are feed-water and fuel mass rates. However this dynamic model may associate with uncertainties. With considering the uncertainties of the dynamic model, a sliding mode controller is designed. After representation of the uncertain dynamic system in general control configuration and modelling the parametric uncertainties, nominal performance, robust stability and robust performance are analyzed by the concept of structured singular value μ. Using an algorithm for μ-analysis and applying an inversed-base controller, robust stability and nominal performance are guaranteed but robust performance is not satisfied. Finally, an optimal robust controller is designed based on μ-synthesis with DK-iteration algorithm. Both optimal robust and sliding mode controllers guarantee robust performance of the system against the uncertainties and result in desired time responses of the output variables. By applying H ∞ robust control, system tracks the desire reference inputs in a less time and with smoother time responses. However, less control efforts, feedwater and fuel mass rates, are needed when the sliding mode controller is applied.

  12. Optimization of a lignite-fired open pulverizing system boiler process based on variations in the drying agent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Youfu; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yichao; Wang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates three lignite-fired OPSB (open pulverizing system boiler) processes, named OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C, corresponding to three options of drying agents used for the pulverizing systems. OPSB-B is similar to our previous work [18] on drying agent composition. Performances of the three OPSBs were calculated and compared with a 600 MW lignite-fired boiler as the reference. The results showed that the coal savings of OPSB-A and OPSB-C were 5.41% and 4.06% in comparison with the reference boiler, whereas for OPSB-B, the savings was 2.57%. Accordingly, emissions of each OPSB could be reduced in proportion to the coal savings. Among the three OPSBs, OPSB-C showed the best performance of water recovery from mill-exhausts because it had the highest mill-exhaust water dew point of 73.2 °C, whereas the exhaust dew points of OPSB-A and OPSB-B were 63.9 °C and 70.9 °C, respectively. Both OPSB-C and OPSB-B are beneficial for achieving a high mill-exhaust humidity ratio, which facilitates water recovery from the mill-exhaust, and a low oxygen content in mill-exhaust, which improves the operating safety of the pulverizing systems, whereas OPSB-A is relatively inferior in these respects. The OPSB-C process is recommended for engineering applications because of its favorable overall performances. - Highlights: • Three lignite-fired OPSB processes are analyzed based on a conventional 600 MW boiler. • OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C show coal savings of 5.41%, 2.57 and 4.06%, respectively. • All OPSBs have a great advantage of water recovery from the flue gas, especially OPSB-C. • OPSB-C process is recommended in view of its favorable overall performances

  13. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  14. Modeling and sliding mode predictive control of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system with uncertainties and input constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Yuan, Jingqi; Zhang, Xiang; Kong, Lei; Wang, Jingcheng

    2018-05-01

    The coordinated control system (CCS) serves as an important role in load regulation, efficiency optimization and pollutant reduction for coal-fired power plants. The CCS faces with tough challenges, such as the wide-range load variation, various uncertainties and constraints. This paper aims to improve the load tacking ability and robustness for boiler-turbine units under wide-range operation. To capture the key dynamics of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system, a nonlinear control-oriented model is developed based on mechanism analysis and model reduction techniques, which is validated with the history operation data of a real 1000 MW unit. To simultaneously address the issues of uncertainties and input constraints, a discrete-time sliding mode predictive controller (SMPC) is designed with the dual-mode control law. Moreover, the input-to-state stability and robustness of the closed-loop system are proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, which achieves good tracking performance, disturbance rejection ability and compatibility to input constraints. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Power Plant Boiler with FGR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Myung-whan; Jung, Kwong-ho; Park, Sung-bum [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on performance and exhaust emissions with FGR rate are investigated by using a natural circulation, pressurized draft and water tube boiler with FGR system operating at several boiler loads and over fire air damper openings. The purpose of this study is to apply the FGR system to a power plant boiler for reducing NOx emissions. To activate the combustion, the OFA with 0 to 20% is supplied into the flame. When the suction damper of two stage combustion system installed in the upper side of wind box is opened by handling the lever between 0° and 90°, also, the combustion air supplied to burner is changed. It is found that the fuel consumption rate per evaporation rate did not show an obvious tendency to increase or decrease with rising the FGR rate, and NOx emissions at the same OFA damper opening are decreased, as FGR rates are elevated and boiler loads are dropped. While a trace amount of soot is emitted without regard to the operation conditions of boiler load, OFA damper opening and FGR rate, because soot emissions are eliminated by the electrostatic precipitator with a collecting efficiency of 86.7%.

  16. A Study on Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Power Plant Boiler with FGR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Myung-whan; Jung, Kwong-ho; Park, Sung-bum

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on performance and exhaust emissions with FGR rate are investigated by using a natural circulation, pressurized draft and water tube boiler with FGR system operating at several boiler loads and over fire air damper openings. The purpose of this study is to apply the FGR system to a power plant boiler for reducing NOx emissions. To activate the combustion, the OFA with 0 to 20% is supplied into the flame. When the suction damper of two stage combustion system installed in the upper side of wind box is opened by handling the lever between 0° and 90°, also, the combustion air supplied to burner is changed. It is found that the fuel consumption rate per evaporation rate did not show an obvious tendency to increase or decrease with rising the FGR rate, and NOx emissions at the same OFA damper opening are decreased, as FGR rates are elevated and boiler loads are dropped. While a trace amount of soot is emitted without regard to the operation conditions of boiler load, OFA damper opening and FGR rate, because soot emissions are eliminated by the electrostatic precipitator with a collecting efficiency of 86.7%.

  17. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  18. Design and implementation of a control system to improve the quality of the combustion gases in the fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Pérez Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is the design and implementation of a system for controlling the quality of the combustion gases in a fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP. Based on the percentage of O2 present in the combustion gases, measured by a lambda sensor, the percentage of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is determined. PID proportional control is responsible for the automatic regulation of the entry of air to the boiler by an actuator, according to the percentage of the oxygen concentration in the combustion gases. The control system has an HMI display and a modular PLC. The results achieved ensure pollutant gases emissions within the parameters established by current environmental standards, achieving the required quality of combustion gases and reducing the fuel consumption of the boiler.

  19. Towards ideal NOx control technology for bio-oils and a gas multi-fuel boiler system using a plasma-chemical hybrid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Hidekatsu; Takekoshi, Kenichi; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Otsuka, Keiichi; Okubo, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-fuel boiler system combined with NO x aftertreatment is developed. • NO x is removed from flue gas by a plasma-chemical hybrid process. • Waste bio-oils are utilized as renewable energy source and for CO 2 reduction. • Ultra low NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved. • The boiler system is applicable for industrial use. - Abstract: A super-clean boiler system comprising a multi-fuel boiler and a reactor for plasma-chemical hybrid NO x aftertreatment is developed, and its industrial applications are examined. The purpose of this research is to optimally reduce NO x emission and utilize waste bio-oil as a renewable energy source. First, NO oxidation using indirect plasma at elevated flue gas temperatures is investigated. It is clarified that more than 98% of NO is oxidized when the temperature of the flue gas is less than 130 °C. Three types of waste bio-oils (waste vegetable oil, rice bran oil, and fish oil) are burned in the boiler as fuels with a rotary-type burner for CO 2 reduction considering carbon neutrality. NO x in the flue gases of these bio-oils is effectively reduced by the indirect plasma-chemical hybrid treatment. Ultralow NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved for 450 min in the firing of city natural gas fuel. The boiler system can be successfully operated automatically according to unsteady steam demand and using an empirical equation for Na 2 SO 3 supply rate, and can be used in industries as an ideal NO x control technology

  20. Technical Area 55 Entry Control System (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, A.; Brundige, E.; DesJardin, R.; Rivera, R.

    1984-01-01

    The exchange badge system which was used at the Plutonium Facility located in Technical Area 55 was replaced on a trial basis with an automated Entry Control System. As a result of the success of the trial system, a new system incorporating expanded features and increased reliability is being implemented. The new Entry Control System incorporates several features not previously available in relatively inexpensive entry systems. The reliability of the system is enhanced by redundant microprocessors incorporating bubble memory for nonvolatile storage of the system data base. The badge readers incorporate dual communication lines to two different controllers to further increase the total system reliability

  1. Vehicle Systems Analysis Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Vehicle Systems Analysis Technical Team (VSATT) is to evaluate the performance and interactions of proposed advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems, in a vehicle systems context, to inform ongoing research and development activities and maximize the potential for fuel efficiency improvements and emission reduction.

  2. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  3. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  4. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  5. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  6. Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Ghose, Aditya

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Need for Norm-Aware Systems * Norms in human societies * Why should software systems be norm-aware? * Case Studies of Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems * Human-computer interactions * Virtual environments and multi-player online games * Extracting norms from big data and software repositories * Norms and Sustainability * Sustainability and green ICT * Norm awareness through software systems * Where To, From Here? * Conclusions

  7. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  8. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  9. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  10. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.; Wilson, Dane F.; Pawel, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R and D decisions.

  11. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system introduction support project. Verification project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In relation to the circulating fluidized bed boiler which reduces the amount of sulfur oxides emitted in coal utilization, a verification project was carried out on installation of the equipment and spread activity in China and the Philippines contributing to the control of environmental pollutant associated with coal utilization and the effective use of energy. At the Fanshan area, installed was a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler. At the performance test, coal includes around 7% of impurities such as stone, and the impurities should be excluded continuously at the time of actual run. Therefore, the boiler efficiency had to be changed from 89.5% to 85.8%. Further, power generation facilities have not yet been finished, and the overall operation of boiler turbine has not been executed. At the Zibo area, a 30t/h external circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 86.1%, over the targeted value. At the Batangas area in the Philippines, a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 85.8%, over the designed value. About the coal produced in the Philippines, slagging was feared, but the combustion state was favorable. 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Chat as a technically mediated social system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of chat as a technical media for communication. This is realized using the strategy for analyzing that I have called Media Sociography (Tække 2006). The Media Sociography is a synthesis of Medium Theory and the Systems Theoretical Sociology of Niklas Luhmann. The aim...

  13. Modelling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations are complex, socio-technical systems consisting of a mixture of physical infrastructure, human actors, policies and processes. An in-creasing number of attacks on these organisations exploits vulnerabilities on all different levels, for example combining a malware attack...

  14. Modeling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta G.; Nielson, Flemming; Probst, Christian W.

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations are complex, socio-technical systems consisting of a mixture of physical infrastructure, human actors, policies and processes. An in- creasing number of attacks on these organisations exploits vulnerabilities on all different levels, for example combining a malware attack with

  15. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  16. TCR as supervisor of technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laeger, H

    1998-01-01

    Our Technical Control Room (TCR) provides continuous supervision of CERN's technical infrastructure. It also serves the inhabitants of CERN's premises as a contact point in case of problems. Every year we initiate eleven thousand recorded corrective interventions; about half subsequent to user phone calls, the other half to automatic alarms. TCR tasks are essentially fourfold: collect and distribute information on abnormal operation states; supervise those technical systems for which we have a mandate; initiate corrective interventions; and perform corrective on-site interventions outside normal working hours. A TCR operator normally has an education corresponding to a French BTS and initially little professional experience. He holds short-term contracts, up to a maximum of six years. This paper outlines TCR tasks and presents some statistical data. It also indicates relations between users, equipment groups, contract firms and the TCR as go-between. Finally, it gives an account of our seven years experience ...

  17. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  19. Boiler feedwater treatment using reverse osmosis at Suncor OSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment system for boiler feedwater at a Suncor plant was discussed. The selection process began in 1993 when Suncor identified a need to increase its boiler feedwater capacity. The company reviewed many options available to increase the treated water capacity. These included: contracting the supply of treated water, adding additional capacity, replacing the entire plant, reverse osmosis, and demineralization. The eventual decision was to build a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment plant with the following key components: a Degremont Infilco Ultra Pulsator Clarifier and a Glegg Water Conditioning multimedia filter, Amberpack softeners and reverse osmosis arrays. The reverse osmosis plant was environmentally favourable over an equivalent demineralization plant. A technical comparison was provided between demineralization and reverse osmosis. The system has proven to be successful and economical in meeting the plants needs. 5 figs

  20. Linear modeling of nonlinear systems using artificial neural networks based on I/O data and its application in power plant boiler modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffari, A.; Nikkhah Bahrami, M.; Mohammadzaheri, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a new method for linear modeling of nonlinear systems is presented. The method is based on the design of an artificial neural network with two layers. The network is trained only according to the input-output data of the system. The weights of connections in this network, represents the coefficients of the transfer function. For systems with linear behavior the method of least square error represents the best linear model of the system. However, for nonlinear systems, such as some subsystems in power plants boilers LSE does not represent the best linear approximation of the system, necessarily. In this paper a new linear modeling method is presented and applied to some subsystems in a power plant boiler. Comparison between the transfer function obtained in this way and by least square error method,shows that the neural network method gives better linear models for these nonlinear systems

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...

  2. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  3. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  4. 77 FR 64464 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 7...

  5. The Commissioning of the LHC Technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saban, R; Baggiolini, V; Ballarino, A; Barbero-Soto, E; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Bozzini, D; Casas-Lino, M-P; Chareyre, V; Claudet, S; Coelingh, G-J; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Kirby, G; Koratzinos, M; Lauckner, R; Le Naour, S; Mess, K-H; Millet, F; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Perea-Solano, B; Pojer, M; Principe, R; Rabehl, R; Rijllart, A; Redaelli, S; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Schmidt, R; Serio, L; Siemko, A; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Thiesen, H; Venturini, W; Vergara-Fernandez, A; Verweij, A; Zerlauth, M

    2007-01-01

    The LHC is an accelerator with unprecedented complexity where the energy stored in magnets and the beams exceeds other accelerators by one-to-two orders of magnitude. To ensure a safe and efficient machine start-up without being plagued by technical problems, a phase of "hardware commissioning" was introduced: a thorough commissioning of technical systems without beam. This activity started in June 2005 with the commissioning of individual systems, followed by operating a full sector, one eighth of the machine; the commissioning is expected to last until spring 2008 when commissioning with beam will start. The LHC architecture allows the commissioning of each of the eight sectors independently from the others, before the installation of other sectors is complete. An important effort went into the definition of the programme and the organization of the coordination in the field, as well as in the preparation of the tools to record and analyze test results. This paper discusses the experience with this approach...

  6. Development of technical information processing system (VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Whan; Choi, Kwang; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this project is to establish integrated environment focused on enhanced information services to researchers through the providing of acquisition information, key phrase retrieval function, journal content information linked with various subsystems already developed. The results of the project are as follows. 1. It is possible to serve information on unreceivable materials among required materials throughout the system. 2. Retrieval efficiency is increased by the adding of key phrase retrieval function. 3. Rapidity of information service is enhanced by the providing of journal contents of each issue received and work performance of contents service is become higher. 4. It is possible to acquire, store, serve technical information needed in R and D synthetically and systematically throughout the development of total system linked with various subsystems required to technical information management and service. 21 refs. (Author)

  7. FRAM Modelling Complex Socio-technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2012-01-01

    There has not yet been a comprehensive method that goes behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, and various complicated accidents have accentuated the need for it. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, and understand both why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed.

  8. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  9. Thermalhydraulic assessment of the Pickering NGS 'B' feed and bleed system for the hot boiler chemical clean (Siemens Process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, Carlos M.

    2000-01-01

    The Hot Boiler Chemical Clean (HBCC) process from Siemens, to be used in PNGS, requires that the Heat Transport System (HTS) temperature be maintained in the range 160 to 170 o C for several days. To achieve these thermalhydraulic condition, the core decay power and the pump power of the main circulating pumps in a 3-3 configuration are employed to warm up the HTS from approximately 38 o C to 170 o C. At this point, high Bleed bias is applied to the signal of the HTS pressure controller to provide high Feed and Bleed flows, which are used to control the HTS temperature by means of the Bleed Cooler. To address any concern posed by these infrequently used HTS thermalhydraulic conditions, a detailed thermalhydraulic model of the Feed and Bleed System, that also includes the Gland Supply, Gland Return and Purification systems, was developed for the TUF code to determine the suitability of the Feed and Bleed System to conduct the HBCC. The model was then used to estimate the parameters such as Feed and Bleed flows, valve openings, pressure and temperature distributions throughout the Feed and Bleed System required for the application of HBCC. (author)

  10. Technical study report on fuel fabrication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Tanaka, Kenya; Ono, Kiyoshi; Iwasa, Katsuyoshi; Hoshino, Yasushi; Shinkai, Yasuo

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility study of FBR and related fuel cycle is performed for developing the FBR recycle system which ensures safety, economic competitiveness, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation under consistency of FBR reactor and fuel cycle systems. In this study, a conceptual design study and system characteristics evaluation are conducted for fuel fabrication systems of pellet process, vibropack process for oxide and nitride fuel and casting process for metal fuel. Technical issues in each process are also extracted. In 1999 fiscal year, a conceptual design study were conducted for the fuel fabrication plants adopting (1) the short pellet process which simplifies the conventional MOX pellet fabrication processes, (2) vibropack processes of aqueous gelation process, improved RIAR process, improved ANL process and fluoride volatility process, (3) casting processes of injection process, centrifuging process. As a result, attainable perspective was obtained for each fuel fabrication system through the evaluation of apparatuses, layout and facility volume, etc. In each fuel fabrication system, technical issues for practical use were made clear. Hereafter, more detailed study will be performed for each system, and research programs for phase II study will be planned. (author)

  11. Life Cycle Analysis of a Geothermal Heatpump Installation and Comparison with a Conventional Fuel Boiler System in a Nursery School in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the work lines in sustainable energy field of the EnergyLab Technology Centre (Vigo, Spain, associated with the technologies that are under investigation by this centre, it is developed a study about the Life Cycle Analysis (hereinafter, LCA over a geothermal heatpump (hereafter, GSHP installation in a nursery school in the province of Pontevedra (Galicia, Spain, and its comparison with the fuel boiler system prior to GHP. Thus, with the use of computer tools and following specific rules about the calculation of LCA, assessing the environmental impact of each system, and perform the appropriate comparison in order to quantify the savings emissions and the improvement in sustainability related to the replacement of diesel boiler system by the GSHP system.

  12. Technical study report on reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kasai, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Fumio

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor (FBR) recycle system, in which reactor system and recycle technologies are related on consideration, are performed considering the attainable perspectives for the followings: ensuring safety, economic competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden, and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. In the studies of Reprocessing system of FBR, evaluation was made for the non-aqueous reprocessing of pyrochemical and fluoride volatility process and also for the aqueous reprocessing with a view to streamlining. As a result, it was estimated that each system has prospects of coming into practical use in terms of technique. In the economical efficiency assessment, it was estimated to have economic competitiveness to future LWRs. And the technical research items of each system are picked out. Hereafter, more detail design study will be performed for each system. (author)

  13. IAPCS: A COMPUTER MODEL THAT EVALUATES POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IAPCS model, developed by U.S. EPA`s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and made available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, can be used by utility companies, architectural and engineering companies, and regulatory agencies at all l...

  14. 75 FR 20817 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... equipment and technology. Wednesday, May 5 Public Session 1. Welcome and Introduction. 2. Working Group... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC...

  15. Exploration Medical System Technical Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J.; Rubin, D.; Mindock, J.; Middour, C.; McGuire, K.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Burba, T.; Urbina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element Systems Engineering (SE) goals include defining the technical system needed to support medical capabilities for a Mars exploration mission. A draft medical system architecture was developed based on stakeholder needs, system goals, and system behaviors, as captured in an ExMC concept of operations document and a system model. This talk will discuss a high-level view of the medical system, as part of a larger crew health and performance system, both of which will support crew during Deep Space Transport missions. Other mission components, such as the flight system, ground system, caregiver, and patient, will be discussed as aspects of the context because the medical system will have important interactions with each. Additionally, important interactions with other aspects of the crew health and performance system are anticipated, such as health & wellness, mission task performance support, and environmental protection. This talk will highlight areas in which we are working with other disciplines to understand these interactions.

  16. Technical self reliance of digital safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kook Hun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Gap [POSCON, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This paper summarizes the development results of the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project sponsored by the Korean government. In this project, Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) architecture, two digital platforms, and several control systems are developed. One platform is a programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for a safety system and another platform is a Distributed Control System (DCS) for a non safety system. With the POSAFE Q PLC, a Reactor Protection System (RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature Component Control System (ESF CCS) are developed. A Power Control System (PCS) is developed based on the DCS. The safety grade platform and the digital safety systems obtained approval for the Topical Report from the Korean regulatory body in February of 2009. Also a Korean utility and a vendor company determined KNICS results to apply them to the planned Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2009. This paper introduces the technical self reliance experiences of the safety grade platform and the digital safety systems developed in the KNICS R and D project.

  17. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  18. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  19. Applications of the Theory of Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2008-01-01

    of Vladimir Hubka and a short historical sketch of the incidental nature of our group’s introduction to Vladimir Hubka, which led to life long cooperation and academic development. Results have been obtained in the areas of DFX, workbench-based design, mechatronics, product development, and multi......This paper uses the development and applications of Hubka’s Theory of Technical Systems (TTS) at DTU as an example of the power of the theory, the necessity of detailing and fitting the theory, and the role of a theory as a basis for research.At the same time the paper is a balance of the influence...

  20. Combustion system optimization of a P-62 lignite boiler in ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 with NOx-reduction and efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, Ch.; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Totev, T.

    2013-01-01

    Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach, Germany, successfully concluded in consortium with Siemens EOOD, Sofia, the combustion system modification of a P62 lignite fired boiler in TPP ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3, which was targeting mainly the reduction of the NOx emissions below 180 mg/Nm 3 at 6 % O 2 . The modification is part of an EPC contract covering the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning works needed to upgrade the boilers at the power station. The Modification concept involves optimization of PF- and Vapor distribution, replacement of the coal burners, installation of new Over-fire air (OFA) system and Side-wall air (SWA) system and minor modification of the existing control system to allow control of the OFAflow. The main results of the modification are: Reduction of the NOx emissions (at ESP exit) from approximately 390 g/Nm³ to below 180 mg/Nm³ at 6% O 2 , Efficiency increase of the furnace by reduction of the excess air ratio from 1.2 to 1.15 (at furnace outlet) and overall increase of the boiler efficiency. (authors)

  1. Data monitoring system of technical diagnosis system for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jing; Weng Peide; Chen Zhuomin; Wu Yu; Xi Weibin; Luo Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    Technical diagnosis system (TDS) is an important subsystem to monitor status parameters of EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak). The upgraded TDS data monitoring system is comprised of management floor, monitoring floor and field floor.. Security protection, malfunction record and analysis are designed to make the system stable, robust and friendly. During the past EAST campaigns, the data monitoring system has been operated reliably and stably. The signal conditioning system and software architecture are described. (authors)

  2. NOx removal from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler using a multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Youl; Deshwal, Bal Raj; Moon, Seung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The study on removal of NO x from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler has been carried out using non-thermal plasma cum catalyst hybrid reactor at 150 C. Propylene (C 3 H 6 ) was used as a reducing agent. A multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor was newly designed and successfully operated to clean up the flue gas stream having a flow rate of 30 Nm 3 /h. TiO 2 and Pd/ZrO 2 wash-coated on cordierite honeycomb were used as catalysts in the present study. Though the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with TiO 2 showed good activity on the removal of NO yet it removed only 50-60% of NO x because a significant portion of NO oxidized to NO 2 . On the contrary, the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with Pd/ZrO 2 removed about 50% of inlet NO with a negligible amount of NO oxidation into NO 2 . The plasma/dual-catalysts hybrid system (front two units of plasma-Pd/ZrO 2 + rear two units of plasma/TiO 2 ) proved to be very promising in NO x removal in the presence of C 3 H 6 . DeNO x efficiency of about 74% has been achieved at a space velocity of 3300/h at 150 C. (author)

  3. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  4. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    , minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...... and trigger the ground fault protection. This paper uses field measurements made in a boiler installed in a power plant for the analysis of this issue. The measurements are used to design a simulation model of the electric arc, which is used to study different energisation scenarios: With/without isolating...

  5. Feasibility of biomass heating system in Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in using biomass feedstock to produce heat and power is increasing. In this study, RETScreen modelling software was used to investigate the feasibility of biomass heating system in Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus. Weiss Kessel Multicratboiler system with 2 MW capacity using rice straw biomass as fuel and 10 units of RBI® CB0500 boilers with 144 kW capacity using natural gas as fuel were selected for the proposed biomass heating system. The total cost of the biomass heating project is US$ 786,390. The project has a pre-tax and after tax internal rate of return (IRR of 122.70%, simple payback period of 2.54 years, equity payback period of 0.83 year, a net present value of US$ 3,357,138.29, an annual lifecycle savings of US$ 262,617.91, a benefit-cost ratio of 21.83, an electricity cost of $0/kWh and a GHG reduction cost of −204.66 $/tCO₂. The annual GHG emission reduction is 1,283.2 tCO₂, which is equivalent to 118 hectares of forest absorbing carbon. The development and adoption of this renewable energy technology will save costs on buying conventional type of heating system and result in a large technical and economic potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions which will satisfy the sustainable development goals.

  6. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be

  7. RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF WALL-MOUNTED BOILERS WITH SEALED CHAMBERS USED AS FLAT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    the heating system analysis and to define the area of application of various systems of heat supply. The principal decision based on the basis of the above analysis is the decision to install an independent or a centralized system of heat supply.

  8. Firewood boiler operators and heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Bernardo Stollmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of heat exposure work in boiler industry wood from a company in the industrial sector, focusing on the analysis of the environmental burden of the activity. Therefore, the methodological procedures consisted of document analysis, interviews, filming, evaluation problems of the effects of the hot environment and its prevention. The results show that the fuel to the boiler operators are exposed to heat and need guidance on their daily activities with prevention of diseases affected by excessive heat. Are also suggested training in technical and health to improve working conditions and the operator's health.

  9. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m 3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    boiler, the running costs would be cheaper. This would result in significantly lower costs over a 10-year period. Biomass also has a superior environmental profile. The new Binder 650kW boiler, supplied by Living Energy, runs on dry woodchip, with the ideal moisture content being 20-30%. The long-term source of wood chip is pine sourced from local forestry activities. Council has considered using untreated urban timber waste collected at its transfer station and may conduct a trial in the future. Even if the trial is successful this would only supplement the main source of feedstock. The Binder boiler has automatic ash removal, which significantly reduces the maintenance cost on the previous system, which had to have ash manually removed three times a week on average. The ash is taken to a composter just north of Mount Gambier; mixed with other feedstock and turned into compost. The biomass boiler saves approximately 58 tonnes of greenhouse emissions per year. Due to the efficiency of the boiler, and the low moisture content of the wood chip, no smoke is produced, and only negligible particulates. “The trees that the biomass is sourced from are regrown and so the fuel source is essentially carbon neutral, as opposed to gas, which is a fossil fuel source,” said Izzard. “The biomass boiler is very efficient, up to 90%. It is more cost effective to run and has less environmental impact than coal-fired electricity.” The main disadvantage with this kind of biomass system is that it requires more human input than a straight gas system. With the latter, the fuel is piped in and the system runs mostly automatically, needing little human input. With a biomass system, the trees need to be harvested and chipped (which, in most situations will be occurring regardless, wood chips are simply purchased that were going to be made anyway), the chip needs to be stored (unless they can be made on demand, but for smaller systems this is unlikely to be cost effective), and it needs

  11. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, F.; Matev, M.; Sykora, J.; Chladek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  12. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  13. Designing socio-technical systems : Structures and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, P.W.G.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and Management (SEPAM) MSc curriculum taught at Delft University of Technology focuses on the design of socio-technical systems (STS). We teach our students to structure design activities by considering what we call the TIP aspects: Technical systems,

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  15. Charting the boiler market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ''boiler market'' of electricity, sometimes called unsecured transmission, is electric power consumption that in public statistics is restricted by the obligation of the customers to cut their consumption at short notice and therefore are granted some discount on the network lease. The present document is part of a project that aims to provide a better understanding of the flexibility in the Norwegian power market, limited by the power-intensive industry and the boiler market. It discusses the boiler market. It begins with a discusses of the available statistics, where different sources show very dissimilar consumption figures. Then it examines how the consumption in the boiler market developed during the winter 2002/2003. Finally, there is a description of the regulations of unsecured transmission and how the various network owners adapt to the regulations.

  16. Chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers – Fe-O-Cl system thermodynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Robert

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chloride-induced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl system. The ranges of the metallic, oxide and chloride phase stability are determined within the temperature range T = 750-1000 K. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of gaseous phase determined by Deacon reaction are presented. The effect of H2O concentration in the gaseous phase on high-temperature corrosion process and gaseous NaCl influence on NaFeO2 formation in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 are discussed as well. The results are correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis is compared with assumptions of “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research prediction and a corrosion prevention in the industry.

  17. in biomass-fired boilers for Fe-O-Cl-S system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chlorideinduced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl-S system. The influence of steam concentration in the gas phase on chloride-induced corrosion process was presented. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of the gas phase was determined. The effect of alkali metals chlorides in gas phase (Na,KCl on formation of (Na,KFeO2 in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 was analysed. Condensation of (Na,KCl vapors, formation of low-melting eutectic mixtures in deposits and consequences of this process on corrosion process were examined. Additionally, the role of SO2 in chlorination and oxidation process of steel in melted ash deposits was discussed as well. The results were correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis was compared with assumptions of an “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research planning and a corrosion process prevention in the industry.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  19. Technical diagnosis system for EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jing; Weng, P.D.; Luo, J.R.; Chen, Z.M.; Wu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Technical diagnosis system (TDS) is one of the important subsystems of EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) device, main function of which is to monitor status parameters in EAST device. Those status parameters include temperature of different positions of main components, resistance of each superconducting (SC) coils, joint resistance of SC coils and high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads, strain of cold-quality components endured force, and displacement and current of toroidal field (TF) coils in EAST device, which are analog input signals. In addition there are still some analog and digital output signals. The TDS monitors all of those signals in the period of EAST experiments. TDS data monitoring is described in detail for it plays important role during EAST campaign. And how to protect the SC magnet system during each plasma discharging is presented with data of temperature of coolant inlet and outlet of SC coils and feeders and cases of the TF coils and temperature in the upper and middle and bottom of the TF coil case. During construction of the TDS primary difficulties come from installation of Lakeshore Cernox temperature sensors, strain measurement of central solenoid coils support legs and installation of co-wound voltage sensors for quench detection. While during operation since the first commissioning big challenges are from temperature measurement changes in current leads and quench detection of PF coils. Those difficulties in both stages are introduced which are key to make the TDS reliable. Meanwhile analysis of experimental data like temperature as a back up to testify quench occurrence and stress on vacuum vessel thermal shield and vacuum vessel have also been discussed.

  20. Intelligent systems in technical and medical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    For many years technical and medical diagnostics has been the area of intensive scientific research. It covers well-established topics as well as emerging developments in control engineering, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, pattern recognition and statistics. At the same time, a growing number of applications of different fault diagnosis methods, especially in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical engineering, is being observed. This monograph contains a collection of 44 carefully selected papers contributed by experts in technical and medical diagnostics, and constitutes

  1. Efficient heating of a swimming pool. High-efficiency boiler and solar system at Blaubeuren; Effiziente Freibad-Beheizung. Brennwert-Solartechnik in Blaubeuren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trobisch, Jens [Bosch Thermotechnik GmbH, Wernau (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Blautopf'' karst spring near Blaubeuren is a wonder of nature and widely known even across the borders of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Few visitors, however, are aware that just a few steps away, there is another tourist attraction, i.e. the town's new outdoor swimming pool. In May 2008, a modern gas-fuelled high-efficiency boiler combined with a solar system was installed to heat the shower water for about 60,000 visitors per year. Optimised control ensures energy savings of up to 75 percent. The first season was highly successful. (orig.)

  2. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  3. El mantenimiento en la confiabilidad y disponibilidad de un sistema de generación de vapor // Maintenance on the reliability and availability of steam boiler systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Troncoso-Fleitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revelar y agrupar los principales hallazgos de seguridaddetectados en Sistemas de Generación de Vapor, SGV, que influyen en su confiabilidad ydisponibilidad y son causados por debilidades en la función mantenimiento. Los hallazgos han sidoidentificados mediante la aplicación de Técnicas de Identificación de Peligros, TIP, como Revisionesde Seguridad, Análisis HAZOP y Análisis Qué pasa si..?, entre otras metodologías y técnicasdisponibles, a más de una treintena de instalaciones donde los SGV han cumplido funciones tanto deapoyo a la producción como a los servicios. Agrupar y analizar estos hallazgos, problemas odesviaciones de seguridad han revelado que, independientemente del grado de cultura de seguridadque presente la instalación objeto de estudio, tienen un mismo origen y requieren de accionessimilares para su gestión.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, confiabilidad, disponibilidad, seguridad, caldera, generación de vapor.__________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper has as objective to develop and to group the main findings of safety detected in SteamBoiler Systems that influence in its reliability and availability and they are caused by weaknesses inthe function maintenance. Findings have been identified by means of the application of HazardIdentification Techniques, HIT, like Safety Revision, HAZOP Analysis, What if..? Analysis and othersmethodologies and techniques available, applied to more than a thirty of where the Steam BoilerSystems have fulfilled functions in support to the production or services. Grouping and analyzingthese findings, problems or deviations of safety have revealed that, independently of the grade ofsafety culture presents in the facility, they have common causes and they require of similar actions fortheir management.Key words: maintenance, reliability, safety, availability, steam boilers.

  4. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  5. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  6. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G; Hulsizer, P [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  7. Exergy analysis of a combined vapor power cycle and boiler flue gas driven double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, K.; Gogoi, T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined vapor power and double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system is proposed. • The flue gas of the power cycle boiler is the heat source for the double effect refrigeration system. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed to evaluate performance of the combined system. • Effect of high pressure generator temperature on combined system performance is highlighted. • Comparison is provided with a single effect absorption system integrated combined system. - Abstract: A combined vapor power cycle (PC) and double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is proposed in this study. The boiler leaving flue gas of the PC is the heat source for the high pressure generator (HPG) of the double effect ARS. Exergy analysis of the proposed system is performed to show the performance variation of both the topping PC and the bottoming ARS with changing HPG temperature from 120 °C to 150 °C. Further the performance of double effect ARS integrated combined power and cooling system is compared with a similar system integrated with a single effect ARS. HPG temperature of the double effect ARS and generator temperature of the single effect ARS are considered as 120 °C and 80 °C respectively. Results show that the power and efficiency of the topping PC decreases with HPG temperature due to reduction in steam generation rate in the boiler. COP and exergy efficiency of the double effect ARS also reduces with increasing HPG temperature. The irreversible losses in the PC components decrease while the total irreversibility of the combined power and cooling system increases with HPG temperature due to increase in exergy loss with the HPG leaving flue gas and irreversibility of the ARS components. PC performance does not vary much due to replacement of the double effect ARS with the single effect ARS, however higher COP and exergy efficiency of the double effect system are achieved with much lower irreversible losses in the

  8. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  9. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  10. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  11. Acquisition and Development of System Command (SYSCOM) Technical Manuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (NAVSEA) and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). TMs are the primary information source for technical training, installation, operation, testing, maintenance, and repair associated with NAVSEA/SPAWAR systems or equipment...

  12. Technical and economic viability of automated highway systems : preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technical and economic investigations of automated highway systems (AHS) are addressed. It has generally been accepted that such systems show potential to alleviate urban traffic congestion, so most of the AHS research has been focused instead on tec...

  13. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  14. Planning of Maintenance and Repair of Complicated Technical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Liseychikov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expedient to use mathematical models for substantiation of operational material consumption at maintenance of complicated technical systems. The appropriate tasks have been considered: minimization of operational material consumption; determination of maximum scope of work to be executed while maintaining one system; optimization of operational material consumption while organizing maintenance of a system group; planning of technical maintenance and determination of a number of systems to be maintained. Formalization and solution of the above problems have been accomplished.

  15. Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Timothy R.

    1987-01-01

    The TMIS goals developed to support the Space Station Program (SSP) mission requirements are outlined. The TMIS will provide common capabilities to all SSP centers and facilitate the flow of technical and management information throughout the program as well as SSP decision-making processes. A summary is presented of the various TMIS phases.

  16. Social risk assessment of large technical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to engineering advances. Since risk adhering to a technical structure can be determined quantitatively easier and more accurately than before, criteria for decision making are becoming more important. If the structure is in the public domain, and benefits are not felt, the

  17. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  18. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  19. German boiler and pressure vessel codes and standards: materials, manufacture, testing, equipment, erection and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods by which the safety objectives on the operation of steam boilers and pressure vessels in Germany can be reached are set out in Technical Rules which are compiled and established in technical committees. Typical applications are described in the Technical Rules. A chart shows how the laws, provisions and Technical Rules for the sections 'steam boiler plant' and 'pressure vessels' are interlinked. This chapter concentrates on legal aspects, materials, manufacture, testing, erection and operation of boilers and pressure vessels in Germany. (U.K.)

  20. Researching the Performance of Dual-Chamber Fire-Tube Boiler Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous heating systems equipped with fire-tube or shell boilers show high effectiveness, consistent performance and great technical parameters. But there is a significant limitation of its thermal productivity due to the complexity of durable large diameter fire-tube bottoms implementation. Optimization of combustion aerodynamics can be the way to expand the fire-tube boilers performance limit. In this case lots of problems connected with reducing emissions of toxic substances, providing of burning stability, local heat stresses and aerodynamic resistances should be solved. To resolve the indicated problems, a modified model of dual-chamber fire-tube boiler furnace is proposed. The performance of suggested flame-tube was simulated using the proven computer-aided engineering software ANSYS Multiphysics. Results display proposed flame tube completely filled with moving medium without stagnant zones. Turbulent vortical combustion is observed even with the straight-through fuel supply. Active flue gas recirculation in suggested dual-chamber furnace reduces emissions of pollutants. Diminution of wall heat fluxes allows boiler operation at lower water treatment costs.

  1. Formal Modelling and Analysis of Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probst, Christian W.; Kammüller, Florian; Rydhof Hansen, René; Probst, Christian W.; Hankin, Chris; Rydhof Hansen, René

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering. This non-technical aspect of attacks complicates their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  3. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  4. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  5. Certification of boiler safety equipment with ALSPA P320 system, to IEC 61508 standard; Certification des equipements de securite chaudiere avec le systeme ALSPA P320 selon la norme IEC 61508

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzon, J.P. [Alstom Power (France)

    2002-02-01

    Safety and environmental protection are major priorities governing Alstom work on control systems (Alspa P320) for power plant applications, especially when potentially dangerous processes like high-power flame boilers (typically rated at 100 to 600 MW) are involved. Here, automatic protection chains are implemented to guard against the risk of serious incident such as explosion and equipment destruction. In this kind of situation, the IEC 61508 standard provides baseline specifications for certification of safety systems. (authors)

  6. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Connolly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how an existing energy system can be transformed into a 100% renewable energy system. The transition is divided into a number of key stages which reflect key radical technological changes on the supply side of the energy system. Ireland is used as a case study,but in reality this reflects many typical energy systems today which use power plants for electricity, individual boilers for heat, and oil for transport. The seven stages analysed are 1 reference, 2 introduction of district heating, 3 installation of small and large-scale heat pumps,4 reducing grid regulation requirements, 5 adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6 producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7 using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results indicate that a 100% renewable energy system can provide the same end-user energy demands as today’s energy system and at the same price. Electricity will be the backbone of the energy system, but the flexibility in today’s electricity sector will be transferred from the supply side of the demand side in the future. Similarly, due to changes in the type of spending required in a 100% renewable energy system, this scenario will result in the creation of 100,000 additional jobs in Ireland compared to an energy system like today’s. These results are significant since they indicate that the transition to a 100% renewable energy system can begin today, without increasing the cost of energy in the short- or long-term, if the costs currently forecasted for 2050 become a reality.

  7. Assessment of Some Performance Characteristics of Refuse Boiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pioneer palm oil boiler unit, in an immense power self-contained oil mill, impaired by many years of accumulated depreciation, was rebuilt in the pattern of a design-out scheme aimed primarily at rehabilitating the entire boiler system to a state of functionality. The research work studied the pre-maintenance and post ...

  8. The socio-technical system and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre; Mihailescu, Nicolae; Dragusin, Octavian

    1999-01-01

    In the field of nuclear safety there have been defined notions like 'technical factors' and 'human factors'. The technical factors depend on designing and manufacturing of components/equipment, actually depend on the people's work. The study of human factors consists in analyzing and recommending the terms that allow an individual to be a reliable and safety agent. Accordingly, he/she is placed in working conditions corresponding to human abilities, associating the means of three levels: - designing, i.e. the action upon the technical system and upon work organization; - correction, i.e. the action upon the evolution of the technical system and organizing; - formation/training, i.e. action upon operators. The paper presents a characterization of the socio-technical system and on this basis discusses the issue of individual adjustment to the socio-technical system and reciprocally, the issue of the socio-technical system adjustment to the individual. Concepts as: ergonomics, physical medium, man/machine interface and support of the operator, man/machine task sharing, the work organizing are put in relation with the central subject, the nuclear safety

  9. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed....... This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  10. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  11. Advanced Public Transportation Systems. Technical Assistance Brief 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program requires evaluation : of pilot projects. This technical assistance brief discusses the guidelines set : for developing evaluation framework and methodology for local projects. 4p.

  12. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  13. Conceptualizing the Organizational Role of Technical Communicators: A Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Teresa M.; Debs, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Uses a systems approach to organizational theory to argue that technical communicators function as "boundary spanners," who make sense of and disseminate information required for coordination between organizational groups, and for effective responses to the environment. (JAD)

  14. Formal modelling and analysis of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Kammüller, Florian; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    systems are still mostly identified through brainstorming of experts. In this work we discuss several approaches to formalising socio-technical systems and their analysis. Starting from a flow logic-based analysis of the insider threat, we discuss how to include the socio aspects explicitly, and show......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering. This non-technical aspect of attacks complicates their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical...... a formalisation that proves properties of this formalisation. On the formal side, our work closes the gap between formal and informal approaches to socio-technical systems. On the informal side, we show how to steal a birthday cake from a bakery by social engineering....

  15. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form are included for topics in three categories: computer science, data systems and space station applications.

  16. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form, along with abstracts, are included for topics in three catagories: computer science, data systems, and space station applications.

  17. Estimation of regulated term of technical systems further operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The technique of estimating the regulated term of technical systems further operation on the basis of data on failures during operation and use of probabilistic-physical model of failures (DN-distribution) is proposed

  18. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1998-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with the...

  1. An approach to optimization of the choice of boiler steel grades as to a mixed-integer programming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kler, Alexandr M.; Potanina, Yulia M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways to enhance the energy efficiency of thermal power plants is to increase thermodynamic parameters of steam. A sufficient level of reliability and longevity can be provided by the application of advanced construction materials (in particular, high-alloy steel can be used to manufacture the most loaded heating surfaces of a boiler unit). A rational choice of technical and economic parameters of energy plants as the most complex technical systems should be made using the methods of mathematical modeling and optimization. The paper considers an original approach to an economically sound optimal choice of steel grade to manufacture heating surfaces for boiler units. A case study of optimization of the discrete-continuous parameters of an energy unit operating at ultra-supercritical steam parameters, in combination with construction of a variant selection tree is presented. - Highlights: • A case study on optimization of an ultra-supercritical power plant is demonstrated. • Optimization is based on the minimization of electricity price. • An approach is proposed to optimize the selection of boiler steel grades. • The approach is based on the construction of a variant tree. • The selection of steel grades for a boiler unit is shown.

  2. Technical Literature Review Concerning Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    interrelationships of the many aspects of management information systems (MIS); that is, with how analysis, design, operation, evaluation, and user considerations affect management information systems . (Author)

  3. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  4. Developing trends with boiler operation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, J.M. [Occupational Safety and Health Service, Wellington (New Zealand). Dept. of Labour, Engineering Safety Branch

    1993-12-31

    Over recent years there have been many improvements in boiler control and safety management systems. Technology has made major advances and is now regarded as being well proven in Australia, Europe and the United Kingdom and these changes have been examined by a project committee, convened for the purpose, to establish whether they are equally applicable in New Zealand. The result of the committee`s findings and experience is contained in the `Draft Code of Practice`. This paper explains the development of the `Code of Practice`, the reasoning behind some of the decisions taken and the implications of these changes to boiler owners.

  5. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  6. NASA Docking System (NDS) Technical Integration Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Docking System (NDS) as NASA's implementation of the International Docking System Standard (IDSS). The goals of the NDS, is to build on proven technologies previously demonstrated in flight and to advance the state of the art of docking systems by incorporating Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) technology into the NDS. A Hardware Demonstration was included in the meeting, and there was discussion about software, NDS major system interfaces, integration information, schedule, and future upgrades.

  7. Technical description of the Swedish natural gas distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ronny [KM Miljoeteknik AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    This description of the Swedish distribution network has been produced to provide information for distribution companies, trade organisations, etc., who have an interest in getting a clear understanding of the technical design and standards, technical directives, etc., which have served as guidance in the development. The technical description covers the piping system from a measuring and regulating station (MR station) up to the consumer`s substation, however, only sections with a maximum operating pressure of 4 bar. By way of introduction, the description contains introductory information on supply channels, consumption patterns and the principal design of the high pressure network in Sweden 10 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  8. Capturing socio-technical systems with agent-based modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    What is a suitable modelling approach for socio-technical systems? The answer to this question is of great importance to decision makers in large scale interconnected network systems. The behaviour of these systems is determined by many actors, situated in a dynamic, multi-actor, multi-objective and

  9. CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the

  10. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  11. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  12. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  13. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analys...

  14. Selecting Actuator Configuration for a Benson Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2009-01-01

    with particular focus on a boiler in a power plant operated by DONG Energy - a Danish energy supplier. The problem has been reformulated using mathematic notions from economics. The selection of actuator configuration has been limited to the fuel system which in the considered plant consists of three different...

  15. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kwack, E. H.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. Y.; Na, W.W

    2000-06-01

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person.

  16. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kwack, E. H.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. Y.; Na, W.W.

    2000-06-01

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person

  17. PVUSA model technical specification for a turnkey photovoltaic power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the five objectives of PVUSA is to offer U.S. utilities hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems. The procurement process included the development of a detailed set of technical requirements for a PV system. PVUSA embodied its requirements in a technical specification used as an attachment to its contracts for four utility-scale PV systems in the 200 kW to 500 kW range. The technical specification has also been adapted and used by several utilities. The PVUSA Technical Specification has now been updated and is presented here as a Model Technical Specification (MTS) for utility use. The MTS text is also furnished on a computer disk in Microsoft Word 6.0 so that it may be conveniently adapted by each user. The text includes guidance in the form of comments and by the use of parentheses to indicate where technical information must be developed and inserted. Commercial terms and conditions will reflect the procurement practice of the buyer. The reader is referred to PG&E Report Number 95-3090000. 1, PVUSA Procurement, Acceptance and Rating Practices for Photovoltaic Power Plants (1995) for PVUSA experience and practice. The MTS is regarded by PVUSA as a use-proven document, but needs to be adapted with care and attention to detail.

  18. Composite Socio-Technical Systems: A Method for Social Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); He, Fulin [Huazhong University of Science & Technology; Hao, Jun [University of Denver; Dai, Xiaoxiao [University of Denver; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver; Wei, Jiaolong [Huazhong University of Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    In order to model and study the interactions between social on technical systems, a systemic method, namely the composite socio-technical systems (CSTS), is proposed to incorporate social systems, technical systems and the interaction mechanism between them. A case study on University of Denver (DU) campus grid is presented in paper to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. In the case study, the social system, technical system, and the interaction mechanism are defined and modelled within the framework of CSTS. Distributed and centralized control and management schemes are investigated, respectively, and numerical results verifies the feasibility and performance of the proposed composite system method.

  19. Residual life of technical systems; diagnosis, prediction and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research related to residual life of non-repairable and repairable technical systems. Diagnosis of systems and extension of residual life of technical systems are also presented and discussed. This paper concludes that research published describing determination and extension of residual life as well as methods for diagnosis of non-repairable and repairable technical systems, is somewhat limited. Many papers have a rather pragmatic approach. The authors only describe special cases from their own plant and do not provide any explanation of a more academical nature. The other papers are mainly describing very specific applications of statistical models, leaving the more general case out of consideration. One of the main results of this paper is to point out these facts, and thereby identify the need for future research in this area

  20. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of technical university information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, N. A.; Boyarkin, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper covers a set and interaction of the existing higher education institution automated control systems in φ state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education "Industrial University of Tyumen ". A structural interaction of the existing systems and their functions has been analyzed which has become a basis for identification of a number of system-related and local (related to separate modules) drawbacks of the university activities automation. The authors suggested a new structure of the automated control system, consisting of three major subsystems: management support; training and methodology support; distance and supplementary education support. Functionality for each subsystem has been defined in accordance with the educational institution automation requirements. The suggested structure of the ACS will solve the challenges facing the university during reorganization and optimization of the processes of management of the institution activities as a whole.

  3. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-06-01

    The systems analysis capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are summarized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. (U.S.)

  4. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  5. Security analysis of socio-technical physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives that evaluate the security of physical systems with objects as assets and people as agents – here called socio-technical physical systems – have limitations: their agent behavior is too simple, they just estimate feasibility and not the likelihood of attacks, or they do estimate

  6. A Glimpse into a State Technical College System's POS Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stephanie D.; Swygert, N. Maria

    2012-01-01

    The South Carolina Technical College System (SCTCS) has embraced POS, providing students across the state with pathways into careers ranging from nuclear systems technology to health care to industrial technology. The SCTCS has strived, over the last 50 years, to foster a bridge between business and education. The colleges coordinate and…

  7. Theory of Technical Systems--Educational Tool for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Hubka's theory of technical systems (TTS) is briefly outlined. It describes commonalities in all engineering devices, whatever their physical principles of action. This theory is based on a general transformation system (TrfS), which can be used to show engineering in the contexts of society, economics and historic developments. The life cycle of…

  8. Technical report for effective estimation and improvement of quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to improve the Quality System, in R and D part. This report applies on the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in nuclear projects. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of improvement of QA systems

  9. Development of technical information processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Ho; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sun Ja; Kim, Young Min; Choi, Kwang; Oh, Joung Hun; Choung, Hyun Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Yoo, An Na; Harn, Deuck Haing; Choun, Young Chun

    1993-12-01

    The major goal of this project is to develop a more efficient information management system by connecting the KAREI serials database which enable the users to access from their own laboratory facilities through KAREI-NET. The importance of this project is to make the serials information of KAERI easily accessible to users as valuable resources for R and D activities. The results of the project are as follows. 1) Development of the serials database and retrieval system enabled us to access to the serials holding information through KAERI-NET. 2) The database construction establishes a foundation for the management of 1,600 serials held in KAERI. 3) The system can be applied not only to KAERI but also to similar medium-level libraries. (Author)

  10. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  11. Dynamics and control of technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balthazar, José M; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The main topics of this Special Issue are linear and, mainly, nonlinear dynamics, chaos and control of systems and structures and their applications in different field of science and engineering. According to the goal of the Special Issue, the selected contributions are divided into three major parts: ""Vibration Problems in Vertical Transportation Systems"", ""Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaos and Control of Elastic Structures"" and ""New Strategies and Challenges for Aerospace and Ocean Structures Dynamics and Control"". The discussion of real problems in aerospace and how these problems can be unde

  12. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  13. Coordination of the commissioning of the LHC technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saban, R; Casas Lino, M P; Fernandez Robles, C; Pojer, M; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Vergara Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider operation relies on 1232 superconducting dipoles with a field of 8.33T and 400 superconducting quadrupoles with a strength of 220 T/m powered at 12kA, operating in superfluid He at 1.9K. For dipoles and quadrupoles as well as for many other magnets more than 1700 power converters are necessary to feed the superconducting circuits. A sophisticated magnet protection system is crucial to detect a quench and safely extract the energy stored in the circuits (about 1GJ only in one of the dipole circuits) after a resistive transition. Besides, in such complex architecture, many technical services (e.g. cooling and ventilation, technical network, electrical distribution, GSM network, controls system, etc.) have to be reliably available during commissioning. Consequently, the commissioning of the technical systems and the associated infrastructures has been carefully studied. Procedures, automatic control and analysis tools, repositories for test data, management structures for carrying out a...

  14. Wall boilers connected to the controlled mechanical gas ventilation system cannot be shifted easily...; Les ''murales'' raccordees a la VMC gaz ne voyagent pas facilement...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujin, M. [CEP-Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-10-01

    Mainly for aesthetical reasons, in renovated and new buildings, gas boilers are more and more often shifted from the kitchen (their traditional place) to other rooms (bathroom, storeroom, toilets..) and connected to the controlled mechanical ventilation system. In this case, several questions can arise concerning the respect of the gas safety regulations: compatibility of the ventilation system, conformability of the extraction system, sufficient amount of air supply, sufficient heating power etc.. This paper takes stock of this safety problem. (J.S.)

  15. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  16. Systems Engineering Technical Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 AUG...topics and elements were collected from a wide variety of sources, including NASA6, Nokia , BAE Systems, the DoD, and the Australian government to develop...WHS TOO009 RT0004 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-034-1 August 30, 2012 UNCLASSIFIED 17 solutions to pursue and why they should be built. 2. Help teams

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF TURNOUTS TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary to: 1 find out the causes of turnouts faults to determine diagnostic features failures; 2 consider the requirements structure, purpose components of turnouts, work and technology of their maintenance to determine the construction of the economic activities related to system to the turnout’s maintenance; 3 substantiate the possibility, necessity and prospects of automated diagnostics turnout’s implementation; 4 elaborate a prototype of an automated hardware and software system for the turnouts control parameters and perform diagnostics on them. Methodology. In the paper possible turnouts faults were presented and manifestations and influence on its work were shown. According to the current technology works the process analyze of turnouts’ maintenance was conducted, were defined the basic performed operations during the examination of appearance, parameters and check the repair or replacement of parts and assemblies. Based on the analysis of reasons of turnouts malfunctioning and their fixes were systematized types of damages and ways to deal with them, an information scheme of troubleshooting were created, opportunities and limits of automating the process of diagnostics were identified and compared with the existing method of turnouts maintenance. A diagnostics system block diagram was created, an algorithm of its work was developed and established main basic principles of operation. Software and hardware to determine the turnout’s state considering diagnostic performance of points in use were applied. Findings. During the experiment was created a method of automated turnout’s diagnostics with AC electric drives, managed centrally. The results of automated hardware and software system make it possible to control turnout’s parameters and perform diagnostics on them. Originality. Authors created the method of turnout’s state determination by current curve and its spectral composition in the

  18. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  19. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  20. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Mirror confinement systems: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This report contains: (1) A discussion of azimuthal asymmetrics and fluctuations in RFC-XX-M. Both lead to enhanced radial transport in RFC-XX-M, and presumably most other tandem mirror machines as well; A report on four operating modes of RFC-XX-M which were developed and studied as part of the collaboration. These operating modes were the simple tandem mode, the negative (floating) potential mode, the hot electron mode, and the ECH (electron cyclotron heating) mode; A pulsed rf heated discharge cleaning system which was developed for RFC-XX-M. This method of cleaning proved much more effective than normal glow discharge cleaning, and variations of it are currently in use on the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror and the JIPP TII-U tokamak at the Institute for Plasma Physics at Nagoya; Short descriptions of the diagnostics development and improvement done in conjunction with the work on RFC-XX-M; and a compilation of the work performed at the University of Tsukuba on GAMMA-10. Most of the effort on GAMMA-10 involved diagnostics development and improvement. 16 refs., 42 figs., 1 tab

  2. Technical features of ABWR safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Tominaga, Kenji; Horiuchi, Tetsuo

    1986-01-01

    The engineering safety facilities of ABWRs have been disigned so as to have many excellent characteristics such as safety, reliability and economy, reflecting the merit of adopting new technology such as internal pumps and new control rod driving mechanism, and coupled with the safety peculiar to BWRs. In this paper, about ECCS, containment vessels and others which compose the engineering safety facilities of ABWRs, the characteristics related to the safety owing to the adoption of internal pumps and others, and the evaluation of the performance at the time of various accidents are discussed. As the results of safety evaluation, it was clarified that due to the safety peculiar to ABWRs and the characteristics of the safety facilities, the large increases of safety, reliability and economy have been planned in the ABWRs, and for example, core flooding can be maintained even at the time of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident. BWRs have the simple system constitution, good self controllability, large natural circulation ability, simple operation control method and excellent ability of confining heat and radioactivity. BWRs have three safety functions to stop reactors, to remove heat from reactors, and to confine radioactive substances. These functions of ABWRs were evaluated, and very high safety was confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  4. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  5. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  6. An optimising controller for Hinkley Point B AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1986-01-01

    The improvements to the control system at Hinkley Point 'B' Power Station has as one of its objectives the provision of a half unit valve controller. This will enable the asymmetry between the boiler half units, which is a feature of current operation, to be reduced. The use of an on-line boiler model in conjunction with this facility will allow the risk to the boilers from corrosion, creep, and vibration to be assessed and held at the minimum attainable value, thereby prolonging plant life whilst maximising output and efficiency. (author)

  7. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  8. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning......, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental activities provides both a theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of such governance processes. The article discusses how this perspective can be used in relation to the process of developing bio-fuel systems...

  9. The training system for technical personnel of producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, E.

    1980-01-01

    The training system of BBC Mannheim for technical personnel is divided in different activities, according to the different target groups and tenors. Different departments take care of this activities, which supply one another. Problem, training activities and methods are described. (orig.) [de

  10. The 1978 National Fire-Danger Rating System: technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry S. Bradshaw; John E. Deeming; Robert E. Burgan; Jack D. Cohen

    1984-01-01

    The National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS), implemented in 1972, has been revised and reissued as the 1978 NFDRS. This report describes the full developmental history of the NFDRS, including purpose, technical foundation, and structure. Includes an extensive bibliography and appendixes.

  11. Tele-maintenance 'intelligent' system for technical plants result management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concetti, Massimo; Cuccioletta, Roberto; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mercuri, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    The management of technical plant for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants distributed in the territory are considered (i.e. the more and more frequent case of outsourced plants maintenance by specialized companies), granted quality and cost results are required (i.e. the case of some rather innovative contract solutions) and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative (i.e. electro-mechanical plants). In order to efficiently achieve the above aims an 'intelligent' maintenance-management system for the distant monitoring and controlling by a remote control center has been developed. The so-called GrAMS (granted availability management system) system is conceived to give to organizations involved in technical-industrial plants management the possibility to tend to a 'well-known availability' and 'zero-failures' management. In particular, this study deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety level of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.), and with the involvement of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Part of the research dealing with the tele-maintenance intelligent system has been financed by the Italian High Institute for Safety (ISPESL) and led to the development of a pre-industrial prototype whose realization and testing is here described

  12. Artificial intelligence system for technical diagnostics of photomasks

    OpenAIRE

    Kozin A. A.; Kozina Yu. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The developed artificial intelligence system has a high level of noise immunity, so its inclusion in the hardware and software for technical diagnostics of photomasks will reduce the hardware requirements for its execution, and thereby reduce the cost of the complex. As a result it will allow to make a small-scale production profitable.

  13. Artificial intelligence system for technical diagnostics of photomasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozin A. A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The developed artificial intelligence system has a high level of noise immunity, so its inclusion in the hardware and software for technical diagnostics of photomasks will reduce the hardware requirements for its execution, and thereby reduce the cost of the complex. As a result it will allow to make a small-scale production profitable.

  14. Using communication norms in socio-technical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigand, H.; Whitworth, B.; de Moor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Often socio-technical systems are designed simply on the basis of what the user asks, and without considering explicitly whether the required process structure is right and wrong. However, poor communication may cause many problems. Therefore, a design cycle should always include diagnosis, and in

  15. Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices accompanying the report, "Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System." Included are: (1) Revenue Limit Calculation and Decomposition; (2) Data and Methods; and (3) Base Funding Alternative Simulation Results. (Contains 5 tables and 26 footnotes.) [For the main report,…

  16. Prototype for an automated technical specification information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.; Mills, R.H.; Groves, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Automated Technical Specification Information System (ATSIS) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) has been developed as a prototype for an on-line information management system. This system provides an appropriate level of update, inquiry, and report generation capabilities to help support plant operators at SONGS in their efforts to anticipate, identify, document, and track certain actions and activities associated with plant technical specifications and associated limiting conditions of operation (LCOs). Substantially increased emphasis is being placed on adherence to nuclear regulatory requirements and commitments contained on the operating licenses of nuclear power plants. Additionally, as each year passes, such requirements are becoming increasingly detailed and complex, making it more and more difficult to track and ensure total compliance with the many and varied requirements. To assist the operations department at SONGs in meeting their regulatory commitments, in January 1985 SCE commenced gathering together the leading technical expertise available in the industry to develop a computerized system to track all technical specification-related equipment for operability and impact on LCOs

  17. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  18. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Data for modern boilers used in co-combustion; Moderna panndata inom samfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Ola [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    This project is a survey and a description of today's technical status and future development trends in the field of co-combustion. The survey is done from an energy production company's point of view and two technical questions have been studied; the possibilities for high steam data and the possibilities for a wide load range. These parameters are limited by the corrosive properties of the fuel and the environmental requirements in the EU directive for combustion of waste. In the report following issues are discussed: Examples of and experiences from co-combustion plants and plants that combust problematic fuels and have high steam data. A future prospect of high steam data in co-combustion plants by the usage of modern technical solutions and a description of these solutions. Important research and development results from combustion of problematic fuels in combination with high steam data. Choice of firing technology, boiler design and auxiliary systems and its affection on the load range in a boiler for co-combustion. A literature survey has been done to get the latest results from combustion of problematic fuels. Then a number of interesting plants have been identified and facts about them have been collected by contacts with plant owners, suppliers and professional researchers and also through publications. The report shows that Sweden, Finland and Denmark are in the front line of using high steam data for co-combustion of biomass and waste fuels. There are/have been problems with superheater corrosion in many of these plants but a number of ways how to handle high steam data have been identified: Adjust the fuel mix or add additives; Use high alloy materials; Consider the final super heater as a part that is worn out by time; Place the final super heater in the particle loop seal/sand locker; Use an external separate fired super heater; Gasification and then co-combustion of the pyrolysis gas in a conventional existing boiler; Place the

  20. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  2. Problems in Communication between Businesses and Technical Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafrański Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how some communication problems between business and Technical Education System (TES can be reduced. This comes to a misunderstanding of the needs of entrepreneurs for the knowledge and skills, in this paper treated as a resource on the market. The authors explain why debated issue falls in the area of corporate management. It identifies one of the reasons hindering the solution of problems. In order to clarify the issues it references the achievements of analytic philosophy of language and the theory of communication code. It proposed a method of facilitating the solution of the problem, which is being implemented since 2016 by the research team, co-created by the authors of this publication. The aim of the development of this publication is to supplement the theoretical and practical knowledge of management in manufacturing companies and others with high technical potential, where there is a large, growing and rapidly changing demand for knowledge and technical skills.

  3. A novel optimized hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent PID controller for an interconnected multi-area power system with physical constraints and boiler dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa Haroun, A H; Li, Yin-Ya

    2017-11-01

    In the fast developing world nowadays, load frequency control (LFC) is considered to be a most significant role for providing the power supply with good quality in the power system. To deliver a reliable power, LFC system requires highly competent and intelligent control technique. Hence, in this article, a novel hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (FLiPID) controller has been proposed for LFC of interconnected multi-area power systems. A four-area interconnected thermal power system incorporated with physical constraints and boiler dynamics is considered and the adjustable parameters of the FLiPID controller are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) scheme employing an integral square error (ISE) criterion. The proposed method has been established to enhance the power system performances as well as to reduce the oscillations of uncertainties due to variations in the system parameters and load perturbations. The supremacy of the suggested method is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with some recently reported heuristic methods such as fuzzy logic proportional-integral (FLPI) and intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for the same electrical power system. the investigations showed that the FLiPID controller provides a better dynamic performance and outperform compared to the other approaches in terms of the settling time, and minimum undershoots of the frequency as well as tie-line power flow deviations following a perturbation, in addition to perform appropriate settlement of integral absolute error (IAE). Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the plant is inspected by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the suggested controller based optimization algorithm is robust and perform satisfactorily with the variations in operating load condition, system parameters and load pattern. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by

  4. Catastrophic failure in complex socio-technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the sequences leading to catastrophic failures in complex socio-technical systems. It traces some of the elements of an analytic framework to that proposed by Beer in Decision and Control, first published in 1966, and argues that these ideas are centrally relevant to a topic on which research interest has developed subsequently, the study of crises, catastrophes and disasters in complex socio-technical systems in high technology sectors. But while the system perspective is central, it is not by itself entirely adequate. The problems discussed cannot be discussed simply in terms of system parameters like variety, redundancy and complexity. Much empirical research supports the view that these systems typically operate in degraded mode. The degradations may be primarily initiated within the social components of the socio-technical system. Such variables as hierarchical position, actors' motivations and intentions are relevant to explain the ways in which communication systems typically operate to filter out messages from lower participants and to ignore the 'soft signals' issuing from small-scale and intermittent malfunctions. (author)

  5. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  6. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  7. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  8. Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haichao; Jiao Wenling; Lahdelma, Risto; Zou Pinghua

    2011-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (β). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at β=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently. - Highlights: ► Combined heating systems comply with the energy structure reformation in China. ► We consider the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. ► Combined heating systems can be economically more feasible and sustainable. ► The net heating cost of a combined heating system is more sensitive to coal price. ► The optimal basic heat load ratio is more easily influenced by gas price.

  9. Criteria of choosing building structures for rooftop boiler rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Artyom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates parameters of noise and vibration distribution in the territory of residential area depending on the structural materials and power of independent heat supply systems. Rooftop boiler rooms are decentralized heat supply systems in buildings. Today, residential areas are strongly affected by noise and vibrations. Adverse effects are isolated by buildings materials, protective shields and floating floors. Rooftop boiler rooms located in Tyumen city were investigated within this research. Structures of rooftop boiler rooms were analyzed. Acoustic analysis results and the parameters of equivalent continuous sound level are presented. An option for improvement of rooftop boiler rooms structures is suggested. Comparison of capital investments in construction and installation activities is carried out. Conclusion on capital investments required for noise protection is made.

  10. High gradient magnetic filters for boiler water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland, J.R.; Nichols, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy metal oxide suspended solids in those steam condensates recycled to the boilers produce buildup within the boiler tubes which can lead to unequal and reduced heat transfer efficiency, and indirectly, to boiler tube failures. Recommended reductions in such suspended solids in feedwater to the economizers of modern high pressure boilers to levels of under 10 ppb have been published. The industrially-available SALA-HGMF magnetic filter has achieved these desired suspended solids levels in treating steam condensates. The high gradient magnetic filter has been shown in pilot tests to achieve and even exceed the recommended low level suspended solids in a practical and efficient industrial system. Such electromagnetic filters, when combined with good system chemistry, have achieved low single number parts per billion levels of several heavy metals with very high single-pass efficiencies

  11. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  13. Condensing gas boilers for energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewardson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: 1) to demonstrate the effectiveness of condensing gas boiler hot water system in reducing energy costs and pollution; 2) to illustrate the importance of marketing this technology to uninformed end users. The development of condensing boilers in the European Community, the materials used, product designs, key performance measures, and the types of applications suited to these products are outlined. Using calculations from a body of work produced by the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers in Britain, it is demonstrated how seasonal efficiency differs from combustion efficiency, and how the added capital cost for these boilers may be recovered within an acceptable commercial pay back period from fuel cost savings. Applying current NO x and CO 2 information from a body of the CE Technical Committees, the author show how these products can reduce pollution levels both from CO 2 and NO x . An example of marketing these products to a largely uninformed end user customer market is cited. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs. (orig.)

  14. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  15. Internet application: production-technical information system MoNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiga, J.

    2004-01-01

    MoNET is the production-technical information system supporting engineering, operational and maintenance processes of distribution network administrator. It utilizes the model of distribution network that is situated in the geo-space relational database. The geo-space database represents an information base of operational-technical processes. It contains elements and equipment s of the distribution network, failures, operational events, maintenance records, but also, parcels, reference planimetry, e.g. and other subjects for which is relevant the positional datum - geo-space information. MoNET is typically exploited in the fields: - evidence of the subjects and equipment of network, technical documentation; - property administration; - planning of network development, support of designing and construction; - technical calculation; - breakdown controller centre; - maintenance management. MoNET can be implemented as the desktop application, however its first benefit is derived from its usage as the intranet application MoNET WEB for the whole enterprise or organisation. This version enables an unrestricted number of end-users to enter this system. The end-users don't need any special software to enter the data of MoNet WEB application, the pre-installed Internet Explorer will do. (author)

  16. Dynamic Socio-technical System Design based on Stakeholder Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Fleischmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to directly involve stakeholders in socio-technical system design, we argue for streamlining executable process specifications with business process modeling. Due to current agility requirements of organizations, socio-technical system development is considered one of the key activities of members of the organizations. Dynamic process adaptation enable handling the volatility of business operation and IT infrastructure. Subject-oriented process representations are key enablers to dynamic adaptation due to their capability for stakeholders to create directly executable models. In this way stakeholder can be involved in change management pro-actively. Subject-oriented models (i represent all relevant features required for system control and decision making, and (ii are executable on demand. This effectiveness enables organizational change in a creative and efficient way, while establishing innovative design and change management tools. Subject-oriented Business Process Management capabilities are reflected in this realm revealing benefits and potential for further research.

  17. Basics about online boiler cleaning according to the Schwandorf principle; Grundlagen zur Online-Kesselreinigung nach dem Schwandorfer Prinzip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Joerg [VWT Ing.-Buero, Schwandorf (Germany); Krueger, Sascha [IBK-Verfahrenstechnik, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    In the Schwandorf waste-to-energy (WtE) plant more than ten years ago a wet online boiler cleaning system was developed which has the capability to clean the radiation passes of (WtE-, biomass- and refuse derived fuel (RDF)) boilers without damaging the boiler. During the development it was recognised that the method of atomising the washing agent (water) is highly influencing the effectiveness of cleaning by securing parts of the boiler (membrane walls). (orig.)

  18. Computer control for the Tampella double-grate boiler. Tampella-kaksoisarinan toiminnan ja arinapolton ohjaustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imelaeinen, K; Petaenen, P; Koskela, O; Sutinen, R

    1986-01-01

    Most of the new boilers recently installed in Finland are multifuel boilers using woodwastes and peat as the main fuel. Although burning of woodwastes and peat is economically most attractive, noticeable difficulties are encountered in the combustion control due to such fuel characteristics as varying physical properties, moisture value etc. In this project a control strategy was developed for the Tampella double-grate boiler. Special attention was paid to the grate burning properties and the function of the mechanical grate. The control system consists of the optimization of the Tampella multifuel boiler (K10) and the steam levelling control system of the power plant. Because of the rapid load fluctuations caused by boarding machine web breaks or fluctuations in digester house steam demand, a steam network levelling system was installed in the power plant. The main object of the project was to minimize oil burning in the K10-boiler and the whole power plant and the optimization of grate burning. The practical results of the mechanical grate function control and air distribution optimization are very encouraging. During normal operation boiler pressure and excess oxygen are very stable compared with other grate boilers. The response time of boiler load changes is also very fast compared to other boilers of this type. The main object of the whole boiler installation project was to decrease oil consumption by effective burning of domestic fuels. This object was attained better than was predicted.

  19. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  20. Systems for deep brain stimulation: review of technical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, A; Alesch, F

    2017-09-01

    The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important treatment option for movement disorders and other medical conditions. Today, three major manufacturers provide implantable systems for DBS. Although the underlying principle is basically the same for all available systems, the differences in the technical features vary considerably. This article outlines aspects regarding the technical features of DBS systems. The differences between voltage and current sources are addressed and their effect on stimulation is shown. To maintain clinical benefit and minimize side effects the stimulation field has to be adapted to the requirements of the patient. Shaping of the stimulation field can be achieved by the electrode design and polarity configuration. Furthermore, the electric signal consisting of stimulation rate, stimulation amplitude and pulse width affect the stimulation field. Interleaving stimulation is an additional concept, which permits improved treatment outcomes. Therefore, the electrode design, the polarity, the electric signal, and the concept of interleaving stimulation are presented. The investigated systems can be also categorized as rechargeable and non-rechargeable, which is briefly discussed. Options for interconnecting different system components from various manufacturers are presented. The present paper summarizes the technical features and their combination possibilities, which can have a major impact on the therapeutic effect.

  1. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  2. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  3. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  5. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...

  6. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  8. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  9. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  11. 75 FR 39919 - Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 28 Public...

  12. 78 FR 24160 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Tuesday, May 7 Open Session 1. Welcome...

  13. 75 FR 64258 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 3 Public...

  14. 78 FR 63162 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 6...

  15. 78 FR 42753 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 31...

  16. 76 FR 64895 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, November 2 Public...

  17. 76 FR 39845 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, July 27 Public...

  18. 78 FR 1198 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... to information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 23 Open Session 1. Welcome and...

  19. 77 FR 24178 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology. Tuesday, May 8 Open Session 1. Welcome...

  20. 77 FR 37652 - Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... that affect the level of export controls applicable to information systems equipment and technology...

  1. 77 FR 1666 - Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Information Systems, Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC... information systems equipment and technology. Wednesday, January 25 Open Session 1. Welcome and Introductions...

  2. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  3. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  4. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...

  5. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  6. Internal design of technical systems under conditions of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoshchekov, P S; Morozov, V V; Fedorov, V V

    1982-03-01

    An investigation is made of a model of internal design of a complex technical system in the presence of uncertain factors. The influence of an opponent on the design is examined. The concepts of hierarchical and balanced compatibility between the criteria of the designer, the opponent and the segregations functions are introduced and studied. The connection between the approach proposed and the methods of artificial intelligence is discussed. 5 references.

  7. Estimation of efficiency of the heat supply system based on a boiler house and a wind turbine in the northern environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhan, A. V.; Minin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a methodological approach to defining indoor air temperature in buildings heated by a power supply unit consisting of a boiler house and a wind-driven power plant (WDPP). We discuss a heating option for a residential building in the windy conditions of Murmansk city. We proved that, during the periods of strong wind, a WDPP can partially or fully satisfy the heat demand and sometimes even create a surplus of energy. During low wind weather, almost all loads are handled by the boiler house. We considered a possibility to accumulate the surplus energy obtained from a WDPP during strong wind by increasing the temperature in the whole building up to 25°C and further using the accumulated heat during the lowwind period when indoor air temperature may fall below 20°C. This allows saving organic fuel in the boiler house. We demonstrated how indoor air temperature in the building may change throughout the year when using the surplus energy from the WDPP due to thermal storage capacitance of the building. We also provided the results of study, showing favorable energy-related effects of using a WDPP along with the boiler house. It was determined that engaging a WDPP in fulfilling the diagram of heating loads promotes the decrease in the boiler house's contribution to heat supply by 30 to 50%, and using the surplus energy from the WDPP and thermal storage capacitance of the building allows reducing the contribution of the boiler house by 5-15% more in certain months.

  8. Possibilities of an efficient noise damping in the large gas-fueled boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a series of tests with the objective to develop a technique for active control, and suppression of unstable conditions of combustion in gas-fired boiler systems. The primary target group for this report are persons within the energy sector, including especially users of natural gas. Focus has been given more to the practical possibilities and limitations than to complicated acoustical theory. The technical background for this work is constituted by the latest innovations within active noise cancelling methods for low frequent noise in channel- and pipe shaped systems, such as heating-, air-and exhaust systems. The fundamental idea has been to implement already functioning and commercial available systems for active noise cancellation in an modified setup to a gasfired boiler system. A few examples of similar attempts are given. Latest a relatively successful example of actively controlling an unstable combustion in a channel shaped burner system (CNRS Paris 1993). The conclusion of the project is anyway, that unstable combustion in larger gasfired boilers can not be controlled by the active methods and systems known today. The reasons for this are: the flame and thus the noise source are distributed in space, the acoustical wave-propagation in the combustion chamber is complex and with low damping, several loops for unstable combustion are possible. Within this project special sensors for high temperatures are developed, e.g.: probe microphones, high temperature turbulence screens and a system for measuring of the variations in UV-light emission form the flame. These systems are applicable also for more 'traditional active noise cancellation' of low-frequent noise in exhaust pipes and chimneys. (au)

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  10. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  11. Efficiency assessment of bi-radiated screens and improved convective set of tubes during the modernization of PTVM-100 tower hot-water boiler based on controlled all-mode mathematic models of boilers on Boiler Designer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orumbayev, R. K.; Kibarin, A. A.; Khodanova, T. V.; Korobkov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work contains analysis of technical values of tower hot-water boiler PTVM-100 when operating on gas and oil residual. After the test it became clear that due to the construction deficiency during the combustion of oil residual, it is not possible to provide long-term production of heat. There is also given a short review on modernization of PTVM-100 hot-water boilers. With the help of calculations based on controlled all-mode mathematic modules of hot-water boilers in BOILER DESIGNER software, it was shown that boiler modernization by use of bi-radiated screens and new convective set of tubes allows decreasing sufficiently the temperature of combustor output gases and increase reliability of boiler operation. Constructive changes of boiler unit suggested by authors of this work, along with increase of boiler’s operation reliability also allow to improve it’s heat production rates and efficiency rate up to 90,5% when operating on fuel oil and outdoor installation option.

  12. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  13. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I.

    2007-06-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 4.0. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carry out a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system

  14. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 3.8. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  15. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 4.0. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carry out a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  16. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I.

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system

  17. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS version 3.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I.

    2005-04-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. The report describes RVS version 3.8. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples. Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system

  18. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  19. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  1. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  2. DBSSP - A computer program for simulation of controlled circulation boiler and natural circulation boiler start up behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Chen Tingkuan; Yang Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program, Drum Boiler Start-up Simulation Program (DBSSP), is developed for simulating the start up behavior of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers. The mathematical model developed here is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the boiler model, heat transfer in the waterwall, the superheater, the reheater and the economizer is simulated by the distributing parameter method, while heat transfer in the drum and the downcomer is simulated by lumped parameter analysis. The program can provide detailed flow and thermodynamic characteristics of the boiler components. The development of this program is based only on design data, so it can be used for any subcritical, controlled or natural circulation boiler. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements, and good agreements between them were found. This program is expected to be useful for predicting the characteristics and the performance of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers during the start up process. It also can be used to optimize a start up system for minimum start up time

  3. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  4. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  5. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  6. Technical description of the burn-up software system MOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, C.K.

    1991-05-01

    The burn-up software system MOP is a research tool primary intended to study the behaviour of fission products in any reactor composition. Input data are multi-group cross-sections and data concerning the nuclide chains. An option is available to calculate a fundamental mode neutron spectrum for the specified reactor composition. A separate program can test the consistency of the specified nuclide chains. Options are available to calculate time-dependent cross-sections of lumped fission products and to take account of the leakage of gaseous fission products from the reactor core. The system is written in FORTRAN77 for a CYBER computer, using the operating system NOS/BE. The report gives a detailed technical description of the applied algorithms and the flow and storage of data. Information is provided for adapting the system to other computer configurations. (author). 5 refs.; 11 figs

  7. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverno, M; Pothier, H; Xian, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Grosbois, J De; Bosnich, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  9. REQUIREMENT VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM by Theresa L. Thomas September... ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Theresa L. Thomas 7...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) systems engineering technical review (SETR) process does not

  10. System of technical vision for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the implementation of image recognition algorithm using the LabVIEW software. The created virtual instrument is designed to detect the objects on the frames from the camera mounted on the UAV. The trained classifier is invariant to changes in rotation, as well as to small changes in the camera's viewing angle. Finding objects in the image using particle analysis, allows you to classify regions of different sizes. This method allows the system of technical vision to more accurately determine the location of the objects of interest and their movement relative to the camera.

  11. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AS A BASIS OF HIGH AVAILABILITY LEVEL AND IT SYSTEM SERVICE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vidojevic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and implementation methodology of technical support in IT1system operation. Methodology is developed and applied in realistic system (Information system of the Tax administration - DIS 2003, which is technically very complex and highly distributed. The results of IT system availability assessment and identification of the critical components are input parameters in the process of establishing of the technical support. The importance of technical support for achieving optimal IT system availability and IT service quality is assessed according to its operation during one year. The history of technical support system operation is a basis for further continuous improvement.

  12. Study of flue-gas temperature difference in supercritical once-through boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanchang; Li, Bing; Song, Ang

    2018-02-01

    The 600 MW coal-fired once-through Boilers with opposed firing at a power plant are found to experience marked temperature variation and even overtemperature on the wall of the heating surface as a result of flue-gas temperature (FGT) variation in the boiler. In this study, operational adjustments were made to the pulverizing, combustion, and secondary air box systems in these boilers, in order to solve problems in internal combustion. The adjustments were found to reduce FGT difference and optimize the boiler’ combustion conditions. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimization of coal-fired boiler of the same type in similar conditions.

  13. A study on the leak monitoring of boiler tube in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk

    2002-01-01

    Main equipment of thermal power plant, such as boiler and turbine, are designed and manufactured by domestic techniques. But the special equipments monitoring the operation status of these main facilities are still dependent upon foreign technology. Therefore, so as to develop boiler tube leak detection system, we performed studying on manufacturing, installation in site, Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis and discrimination etc. As result of studying on boiler tube leak detection using AE, we conformed that diagnosis for boiler tube and computerized their trend management is possible, and also it is expected to contribute to safe operation of power plant facilities

  14. Technical features to enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that proliferation resistance is an essential issue for the continued development and sustainability of nuclear energy. Several comprehensive assessment activities on the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle have previously been completed, notably the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) carried out under the auspices of the IAEA, and the Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) review carried out by the USA. There have been, however, relatively few comprehensive treatments of the issue following these efforts in the 1970s. However, interest in and concern about this issue have increased recently, particularly because of greater interest in innovative nuclear fuel cycles and systems. In 2000, the IAEA initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and the US Department of Energy initiated the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). These projects are aimed at the selection and development of concepts of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is one of the fundamental considerations for both projects. In this context, the IAEA in 2001 initiated a study entitled 'Technical Aspects of Increasing Proliferation Resistance of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. This task is not intended as an effort to assess the merits of a particular fuel cycle system for the future, but to describe a qualitative framework for an examination of the proliferation resistance provided by the intrinsic features of an innovative nuclear energy system and fuel cycle. This task also seeks to provide a high level survey of a variety of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles with respect to that framework. The concept of proliferation resistance is considered in terms of intrinsic features and extrinsic measures. The intrinsic features, sometimes referred to as the physical/technical aspects, are those features that result from the

  15. Biomass boilers: towards a higher efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Dejeu, Mathieu; Tachet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the situation and perspectives of biomass fuelled boilers in France. As outlined in an interview, professionals are supported by ADEME and the Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur) for a continuous development of wood-energy in order to reach national objectives for renewable energies by 2020. The next article discusses issues related to wood supply, with some concerns regarding forest exploitation, and needs to find new management ways and to use other sources than forests. The technical status and perspectives of smoke condensation in wood-fuelled boilers are discussed. The example of a malt-house near Issoudun fuelled by biomass since 2013 is presented. Other examples concern a small town of Burgundy which developed and is still improving a heat network, a wood-fuelled heat network in Saint-Denis, and a biomass wood-fuelled heat production plant for the Toulouse University hospital. Graphs indicate evolutions of prices for different wood-based fuel products. The last article outlines the role of forests and the importance of their protection in the struggle against climate change, and discusses problems faced to support this preservation and its financing

  16. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  17. Communication of technical building systems. Fundamentals; Kommunikation technischer Gebaeudesysteme. Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 17 of the anthology about building control the communication between and with technical building systems is described. The following aspects are discussed: From the matrix cable to the standard bus, data transmission, communication terms, components of communication systems, type of data transmission, types of connection, networks, protocols, the ISO/OSI reference model, application of automation in the field of communication, services and profiles, communication objects. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 17 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem Thema der Kommunikation zwischen und mit technischen Gebaeudesystemen gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themen angesprochen: Vom Matrixkabel zum Standard-Bus; Daten-Transport; Kommunikations-Begriffe; Komponenten der Kommunikations-Systeme; Art der Datenuebertragung; Verbindungsarten, Netze, Protokolle; Das ISO/OSI Referenzmodell; Automation als Anwendung in der Kommunikation; Dienste und Profile; Kommunikationsobjekte. (BWI)

  18. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  19. Satellite Navigation Systems: Policy, Commercial and Technical Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, M.

    2003-12-01

    This book adopts a broad perspective on positioning and navigation systems which rely on Earth orbiting satellites for their successful operation. The first of such global systems was the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and the next the Russian GLONASS system. Now studies relating to Europe's future Galileo system are gaining momentum and other nations are planning regional augmentation systems. All such systems are discussed here, particularly relating to political, commercial, legal and technical issues. The opportunities - and also the problems - of having three similar systems in operation simultaneously are examined, and several novel applications are proposed. These range from improved vehicular transport by land, sea and air, to more accurate surveying, more efficient agricultural practices and safer operations in mountainous regions. Everyone who is challenged by these topics will find this volume invaluable. ISU WWW Server; http://www.isunet.edu. Further information on ISU Symposia may also be obtained by e-mail from symposium@isu.isunet.edu Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1678-6

  20. Impact of selective catalytic reduction systems on the operation of coal and oil fired boilers and downstream equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The history of the development of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has clearly demonstrated that whenever the technology arrives in a new region of the world new challenges are met. This paper discusses some of these historical challenges and their particular solutions in some detail. The paper shows that the design of successful SCR systems is extremely site-specific, but that the technology continues to evolve to meet these continuously changing demands. Most recently the increased power of CFD technology has enabled SCR to meet the more stringent North American emissions criteria through optimal fluid dynamic design. 4 figs.

  1. A thermodynamic analysis of chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers for Fe-O-Cl-S system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarczyk Robert; Mlonka-Mędrala Agata; Gurgul Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chlorideinduced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl-S system. The influence of steam concentration in the gas phase on chloride-induced corrosion process was presented. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of the gas phase was determined. The effect of alkali metals chlorides in gas phase (Na,K)Cl on formation of (Na,K)FeO2 in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3) was analysed. Condensation of (Na,K)Cl vapors, formation ...

  2. IFMIF-CDA technical workshop on lithium target system. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    An intense neutron source, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is planned under the collaborative program by International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) started in February 1995. US, Japan and EU are responsible to take a lead in coordinating accelerator, target and test cell design, respectively. In order to exchange the current results of the study and to coordinate the activities for the design integration, the first technical workshop on the lithium target system was held in the period of July 18-21 at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI. This publication summarizes the materials presented in this meeting. The presentations and discussions were organized with the identified CDA tasks. It was confirmed that the reference design of the IFMIF target based on the previous studies under FMIT and ESNIT, elaborated to meet IFMIF parameters, is reasonable and feasible. It was pointed out that the interface between accelerator and test cell subsystems should be carefully investigated to avoid technical conflicts. Some design options such as nozzle, backwall and lithium jet geometry, lithium purity control, and lithium vapor control, based on the current technology were proposed to improve the integral target system function, and further R and D studies were suggested for design integration. (author)

  3. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Dong; Chen Gongming; Zhou Xu; Bi Qincheng

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  5. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  6. MISSE in the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt; Finckenor, Miria; Henrie, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) data is now being collected and distributed through the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. MISSE data has been instrumental in many programs and continues to be an important source of data for the space community. To facilitate great access to the MISSE data the International Space Station (ISS) program office and MAPTIS are working to gather this data into a central location. The MISSE database contains information about materials, samples, and flights along with pictures, pdfs, excel files, word documents, and other files types. Major capabilities of the system are: access control, browsing, searching, reports, and record comparison. The search capabilities will search within any searchable files so even if the desired meta-data has not been associated data can still be retrieved. Other functionality will continue to be added to the MISSE database as the Athena Platform is expanded

  7. Analytical evaluation of energy efficiency potential enhancement of heat-generating units by flow variation in the boiler circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artamonov Pavel A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional models of the most common boiler schemes are developed and the hydraulic characteristic of each scheme is built. The calculation results of the main technical and economic indicators of the schemes are done. They are energy, metal consumption, capital costs and operating costs. According to the results of the analysis, there is a technical solution to reduce the energy consumption of the boiler circuit pumping equipment. The complex evaluation of the options in the context of the boiler manufacturer and operation is made, the investment attractiveness is calculated.

  8. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly

  9. Nuclear reactors with auxiliary boiler circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, B.V.; Cook, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor has a main circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating one or more main energy converting units, such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating at least one steam generating boiler arranged to be heated by the coolant after its passage through the reactor core to provide steam for driving an auxiliary steam turbine, such an arrangement providing a simplified start-up procedure also providing emergency duties associated with long term heat removal on reactor shut down

  10. Numerical simulation of a 374 tons/h water-tube steam boiler following a feedwater line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deghal Cheridi, Amina Lyria; Chaker, Abla; Loubar, Ahcène

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate the behavior of a steam boiler during feed-water line break accident. • To perform accident analysis of the steam boiler, Relap5/Mod3.2 system code is used. • A Relap5 model of the boiler is developed and qualified at the steady state level. • A good agreement between Relap5 results and available experimental data. • The Relap5 model predicts well the main transient features of the boiler. - Abstract: To ensure the operational safety of an industrial water-tube steam boiler it is very important to assess various accident scenarios in real plant working conditions. One of the most challenging scenarios is the loss of feedwater to the steam boiler. In this paper, a simulation of the behavior of an industrial water-tube radiant steam boiler during feedwater line break accident is discussed. The simulation is carried out using the RELAP5 system code. The steam boiler is installed in an Algerian natural gas liquefaction complex. The simulation shows the capabilities of RELAP5 system code in predicting the behavior of the steam boiler at both steady state and transient working conditions. From another side, the behavior of the steam boiler following the accident shows how the control system can successfully mitigate the effects and consequences of such accident and how the evaporator tubes can undergo a severe damage due to an uncontrolled increase of the wall temperature in case of failure of this system.

  11. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  12. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  13. Program system RALLY - for probabilistic safety analysis of large technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, W.; Polke, H.; Spindler, H.; Zipf, G.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes the program system RALLY to compute the reliability of large and intermeshed technical systems. In addition to a short explanation of the different programs, the possible applications of the program system RALLY are demonstrated. Finally, the most important studies carried out so far on RALLY are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Emergency response facility technical data system of Taiwan Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.; Liang, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) has developed its emergency response facility program since 1981. This program is integrated with the following activities to enhance the emergency response capability of nuclear power plants: (1) survey of the plant instrumentation based on the requirements of R.G. 1.97; (2) improvement of plant specific emergency operating procedures based on the emergency response guidelines developed by the Owners group; (3) implementation of the detailed control room design review with the consideration of human engineering and task analysis; and (4) organization, staff and communication of emergency planning of nuclear power plant. The emergency response facility programs of Taipower are implemented in Chinshan (GE BWR4/MARK I), Kuosheng (GE BWR6/MARK III) and Maanshan (W PWR). The major items included in each program are: (1) to establish new buildings for On-Site Technical Support Center, Near-Site Emergency Operation Facility; (2) to establish an Emergency Executive Center at Taipower headquarters; (3) to establish the communication network between control room and emergency response facilities; and (4) to install a dedicated Emergency Response Facility Technical Data System (ERFTDS) for each plant. The ERFTDS provides the functions of data acquisition, data processing, data storage and display in meeting with the requirements of NUREG 0696. The ERFTDS is designed with plant specific requirements. These specific requirements are expected to be useful not only for the emergency condition but also for normal operation conditions

  15. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, J.; Porteiro, J.; Míguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Gómez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  16. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  17. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  18. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-7.9 Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains nine modules covering boilers. The modules provide information on the following topics: fire and water tube types of boilers, construction, fittings, operation, cleaning, heat recovery systems, instruments and controls, and…

  19. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  20. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. FY 2000 report on the survey project on potentiality of the environmental harmony coal utilization system. Potential study of the circulating fluidized bed boiler model project in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo hokokusho. Vietnam ni okeru junkan ryudosho boiler model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In Vietnam, survey was conducted of the project in which the adoption of circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) makes energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction possible. CFB makes a marked decrease in SOx emission possible by using limestone as combustion bed material. As a result of the survey, the thermal power plant was not suitable for the model project due to its large size. However, it was found that two cement plants and one fiber plant having coal-fired boiler were suitable for survey. Nghi Son and Bim Son cement plants are typical cement plants in Vietnam. As a result of the hearing, they were eager to adopt CFB equipment. As to environmental improvement effects, in the thermal power plant with power source loads, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.0% and 72.5%, respectively. Further, in Nam Dinh Textile Company, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.8% and 84.6%, respectively, in case of converting boiler from the existing stoker boiler to CFB boiler. (NEDO)

  2. A study on the capture of carbon dioxide from a large refinery power station boiler by conversion to oxyfuel operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.B.; Boden, J.C.; Panesar, R.S.; Allam, R.J. [BP Amoco, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    A detailed feasibility study has been carried out on the conversion of an existing refinery power station boiler, fired with refinery off-gas, to oxyfuel operation with carbon dioxide capture. The conversion was shown to be technically feasible using proven technologies. Boiler output could be maintained without significant pressure-part modifications and there would be no loss of boiler efficiency. It would be possible to retain a capability to operate in conventional air firing mode for start-up and emergency situations. The concept has been developed to a stage where a demonstration plant could be designed. The major elements of the capital costs of conversion are associated with the air separation unit and the carbon dioxide treatment and compression train and the additional operating costs are associated principally with the power consumption of these units. Further optimisation of the oxyfuel combustion system is possible and it is anticipated that the ongoing developments in air separation technology will help to make significant reductions in these costs in the future. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  5. CAISSE (Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy) technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelon, P E; Beinhauer, F W

    1979-01-01

    The Computer Aided Information System on Solar Energy (CAISSE) was developed to provide the general public with information on solar energy and its potential uses and costs for domestic consumption. CAISSE is an interactive computing system which illustrates solar heating concepts through the use of 35 mm slides, text displays on a screen and a printed report. The user communicates with the computer by responding to questions about his home and heating requirements through a touch sensitive screen. The CAISSE system contains a solar heating simulation model which calculates the heating load capable of being supplied by a solar heating system and uses this information to illustrate installation costs, fuel savings and a 20 year life-cycle analysis of cost and benefits. The system contains several sets of radiation and weather data for Canada and USA. The selection of one of four collector models is based upon the requirements input during the computer session. Optimistic and pessimistic fuel cost forecasts are made for oil, natural gas, electricity, or propane; and the forecasted fuel cost is made the basis of the life cycle cost evaluation for the solar heating application chosen. This manual is organized so that each section describes one major aspect of the use of solar energy systems to provide energy for domestic consumption. The sources of data and technical information and the method of incorporating them into the CAISSE display system are described in the same order as the computer processing. Each section concludes with a list of future developments that could be included to make CAISSE outputs more regionally specific and more useful to designers. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of a behavioural marker system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills (SPLINTS system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2013-04-01

    Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  8. Computer-aided System of Semantic Text Analysis of a Technical Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Zaboleeva-Zotova, Alla; Orlova, Yulia

    2008-01-01

    The given work is devoted to development of the computer-aided system of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. The purpose of this work is to increase efficiency of software engineering based on automation of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. In work it is offered and investigated the model of the analysis of the text of the technical project is submitted, the attribute grammar of a technical specification, intended for formalization of limited Ru...

  9. Final stage of first supercritical 460MW{sub e} CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska (Poland); Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology has been growing in size and number over the past two decades and it has established its position as utility scale boiler technology. Plant sizes up to 300 MW{sub e} are in operation today and designs for larger boilers are being developed. The next natural step for CFB technology is to go for supercritical steam parameters and larger boiler sizes. A Polish utility company Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA (PKE) placed an order to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy for a 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler for their Lagisza power plant. Contract was signed at the end of year 2002 and the engineering work is now ongoing. This will be the first supercritical once-through CFB boiler in the world. A modern power plant is designed for high efficiency not only for economical reasons but also for enhanced environmental performance in terms of reduced emissions and quantity of ash generated due to lower fuel consumption. Cutting CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the main drivers. To achieve these goals, supercritical steam parameters have been applied. Now this technology is available also for CFB technology. This combines a high plant efficiency with the other well known benefits of CFB technology, such as: fuel flexibility, low emissions and high availability. The boiler design for 460 MW{sub e} Lagisza power plant utilizes low mass flux BENSON Vertical once-through technology developed and licensed by Siemens AG, Germany. CFB boiler with low and uniform furnace heat flux is extremely well suited for the Benson technology providing a stable operation of the boiler also during load changes and abnormal operation conditions. The paper describes the 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler concept and presents the technical solutions of the boiler design with auxiliary equipment, as well as first experiences from boiler erection period and commissioning. In spite of achieving this remarkable milestone the development of the CFB

  10. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  11. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  12. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  13. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  14. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural

  15. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  16. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations

  17. Development of an Optimizing Control Concept for Fossil-Fired Boilers using a Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Commisso, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes into account the multivariable and nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process as a gain-scheduled LQG-controller is utilized. For the purpose of facilitating the control concept development a dynamic simulation model of the boiler process......An optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms...... model when designing a new control concept are discussed....

  18. FY 2000 report on the potential survey of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system. Survey for digging up items for the model project on spread type circulating fluid bed boilers in China; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku ni okeru fukyugata junkan ryudo yukaboira setsubi model jigyo no anken hakkutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the purpose of spreading/promoting circulating fluidized bed boilers in China, survey was conducted on the confirmation of effectiveness of implementation of the model project on spread type circulating fluidized bed boilers and the appropriateness of the sites proposed for implementation. As to the model of spread type 35t/h-CFB boilers, local products are more integrated into it, taking cost reduction of equipment and secure performance/quality into consideration, and the wider-ranging technical guidance/transfer are conducted also in design/production. In China, where environmental regulations are not strict, and there are many restrictions on funds, the size of the initial investment is an important element for selection of type. Further, the market is very big, about 200 units/year. It is highly possible to realize the competitive cost level by the quantity production effect by increasing local production. Two companies, Southeast Electrochemical Co. and Fujian Prime Pharmaceutical Group Co., which were proposed as sites are financially good and are achieving substantial results. Both companies are located in the urban area, and therefore, environmental measures should urgently be taken, and PR activities for spread are highly effective. It was confirmed that the companies were fully appropriate as sites proposed for the spread type model project. (NEDO)

  19. CCD camera eases the control of a soda recovery boiler; CCD-kamera helpottaa soodakattilan valvontaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-07-01

    Fortum Technology has developed a CCD firebox camera, based on semiconductor technology, enduring hard conditions of soda recovery boiler longer than traditional cameras. The firebox camera air- cooled and the same air is pressed over the main lens so it remains clean despite of the alkaline liquor splashing around in the boiler. The image of the boiler is transferred through the main lens, image transfer lens and a special filter, mounted inside the camera tube, into the CCD camera. The first CCD camera system has been in use since 1999 in Sunila pulp mill in Kotka, owned by Myllykoski Oy and Enso Oyj. The mill has two medium-sized soda recovery boilers. The amount of black liquor, formed daily, is about 2000 tons DS, which is more than enough for the heat generation. Even electric power generation exceeds sometimes the demand, so the surplus power can be sold out. Black liquor is sprayed inside the soda recovery boiler with high pressure. The liquor form droplets in the boiler, the temperature of which is over 1000 deg C. A full-hot pile is formed at the bottom of the boiler after burning. The size and shape of the pile effect on the efficiency and the emissions of the boiler. The camera has operated well.

  20. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  1. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  2. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction (Calaca Batangas Thermal Power Station); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Calaca Batangas karyoku hatsudensho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results of the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of circulating fluidized bed boilers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. Some guidance and advice about operation processes, data processing, operation regulation, maintenance, and boiler maintenance works were provided to the Ministry of Energy and Electric Power Corporation of the Philippines. Semirara, Malangas, and Samar coals in the Philippines were used for the tests. The boiler facilities could be operated by Philippine operators themselves. Based on the guidance and advice about operation processes, combustion tests using various Philippine coals were also planned and conducted by themselves. The maintenance techniques were transferred to Philippine operators through the inspection, repair and advice. The Philippine side understood the technologies well, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler technology was independently educated in the Philippines. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  4. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  5. Complex socio-technical systems: Characterization and management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2015-09-01

    Although ergonomics has paid increasing attention to the perspective of complexity, methods for its operationalization are scarce. This study introduces a framework for the operationalization of the "attribute view" of complexity, which involves: (i) the delimitation of the socio-technical system (STS); (ii) the description of four complexity attributes, namely a large number of elements in dynamic interactions, a wide diversity of elements, unexpected variability, and resilience; (iii) the assessment of six management guidelines, namely design slack, give visibility to processes and outcomes, anticipate and monitor the impacts of small changes, monitor the gap between prescription and practice, encourage diversity of perspectives when making decisions, and create an environment that supports resilience; and (iv) the identification of leverage points for improving the STS design, based on both the analysis of relationships among the attributes and their classification as irreducible/manageable complexity, and liability/asset. The use of the framework is illustrated by the study of an emergency department of a University hospital. Data collection involved analysis of documents, observations of work at the front-line, interviews with employees, and the application of questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  7. Technical assistance contractor occurrence reporting and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Members of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) are responsible to notify management of TAC occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS) classified occurrences .An ORPS occurrence is an unexpected or unplanned event on DOE property which causes bodily harm, death, damage to government property, exposure to toxic or hazardous substances above acceptable limits to workers, the environment, or general public. Examples of potential reportable occurrences include, but not limited to, site personnel exposures to airborne contaminants, incidents which could expose the general public to high levels of radiation or other contaminants, a vehicle accident resulting in property damage or personnel injuries. Listed TAC manager/staff contacts, with the assistance of TAC ORPS Program Coordinators, will determine if the occurrence is reportable under Department of Energy (DOE) Order M 232.1-2. The reportable occurrences will be classified as emergency, unusual, or off-normal. If determined to be reportable, listed TAC manager/staff will verbally report the details of the occurrence to the DOE Duty Officer within 2 hours of initial notification, and provide a written report of the event by noon the following work day

  8. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Course Sessions (October 2006-March 2007) The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, currently scheduled until March 2007: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20 October 2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 October -1 November 2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2 November 2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans: 18-20 December 2006 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists:...

  9. Man as a safety problem in technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.; Wolff, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Safety engineering derives its justification from the success achieved in maintaining and enlarging safety, more precisely, from activities aimed at avoiding or preventing damage caused by accidents. Man is not only affected by accidents but is also the cause of accidents, either directly or indirectly, and thus is to be regarded as the actual cause or preventer of accidents. The Second International Summer Symposium of the Society for Safety Engineering (GfS) which was held at Duesseldorf in 1980 brought into focus this aspect and the importance to be attached to the individual man and the whole mankind in the field of accident prevention. 'Man as a safety problem in technical systems' - a great and weighty field of problems, the large extent of which and the complex content of which was to be discussed by the programme with its many different contributions, on the one hand by presenting an outline as completely as possible, and on the other hand by finding further-reaching solutions for at least some problems. This was the purpose of the dialogues held between theory and practice on the one hand, and between safety engineering and, in this case, the human sciences on the other hand. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  11. Technical database and management system (DBMS) for the UMTRA project processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, R.L.; Mohr, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The technical DBMS is a structured and organized method for collecting, storing, retrieving, and analyzing technical data based upon standard operating procedures and quality control measures. The automated environment created by this design exists both as a repository for processing site technical data and the analysis techniques used against this data for site characterization, evaluation, and design. The system is composed of diverse technical subjects that are collectively used to address remedial action problems associated with mill tailings disposal. These technical subjects include hydrology, geology, geochemistry, radiology, and engineering

  12. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  15. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  16. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  17. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  18. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 3rd Quarter FY 07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway. The technical issues are ranked according to priority and by assumed resolution dates. Due to funding limitations, not all high-priority technical issues are under study at the present time, and more resources will need to be dedicated to tackling such issues in the future. This technical issues map is useful for understanding the relative importance of various technical challenges and will be used as a planning tool by the NHI technical leadership for future work package planning. The technical map in its present form will be discontinued in FY08 and will be folded into a larger NHI System Interface and Support Systems project management plan and scope baseline statement in FY08

  19. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  20. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  1. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  2. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  3. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  4. Real-time monitoring energy efficiency and performance degradation of condensing boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Quang, Thuan Le; Holub, Ondrej; Endel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully-fledged set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for condensing boilers. • Detection of boiler performance degradation in condensing and noncondensing mode. • Virtual sensing for estimation of water mass flow rate. • Optimal Kalman detection of actuator and sensor faults. • Structural properties for detection and isolation of faults. - Abstract: Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiency than traditional boilers by using waste heat in flue gases to preheat cold return water entering the boiler. Water vapor produced during combustion is condensed into liquid form, thus recovering its latent heat of vaporization, leading to around 10–12% increased efficiency. Many countries have encouraged the use of condensing boilers with financial incentives. It is thus important to develop software tools to assess the correct functioning of the boiler and eventually detect problems. Current monitoring tools are based on boiler static maps and on large sets of historical data, and are unable to assess timely loss of performance due to degradation of the efficiency curve or water leakages. This work develops a set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for dynamic energy efficiency monitoring and assessment in condensing boilers, i.e. performance degradation and faults can be detected using real-time measurements: this real-time feature is particularly relevant because of the limited amount of data that can be stored by state-of-the-art building energy management systems. The monitoring tools are organized as follows: a bimodal parameter estimator to detect deviations of the efficiency of the boiler from nominal values in both condensing and noncondensing mode; a virtual sensor for the estimation of the water mass flow rate; filters to detect actuator and sensor faults, possibly due to control and sensing problems. Most importantly, structural properties for detection and isolation of actuators and sensing faults are given: these properties are

  5. Modelling and Reasoning about Security Requirements in Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paja, Elda; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Modern software systems operate within the context of larger socio-technical systems, wherein they interact—by exchanging data and outsourcing tasks—with other technical components, humans, and organisations. When interacting, these components (actors) operate autonomously; as such, they may

  6. Some aspects of technical models within bridge management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge Management System (BMS represents a rational and systematic approach to organizing and conducting of all activities related to bridge maintenance. Main goal of BMS is helping the bridge owner to make an optimal decision with respect to bridge maintenance budget, whether it is dedicated to one bridge or to group of bridges, by securing that the decision is made on the basis of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC estimates. The structure of BMS is based on condition rating and Bridge Database (BD, Deterioration model (DM, Cost Model for evaluation of costs and Optimization Model for choosing the most rational maintenance strategy. Relationship between bridge condition rating and DM with maintenance costs within BMS is very important. Predictions regarding future intensity and rate of bridge deterioration depends on multitude of factors and it is a consequence of several simultaneous actions and deterioration processes (DP which need to be included into DMs. DMs are mostly based on modeling of physical and chemical actions and processes or they are based on statistical analysis of large number of data regarding the condition of existing bridges, or on artificial intelligence models, etc. Stochastic models based on Markov processes are applied within more advanced contemporary BMS. Due to social and economic circumstances and lack of financial resources over the last two decades in Republic of Serbia bridge maintenance was neglected and creation of BD was discontinued. The paper deliberates some aspects of technical models within BMS, with DMs being pointed out, development of BD within bridge maintenance in Republic of Serbia and it gives an overview of sophisticated BMS and current advances in this field.

  7. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Gasification Boiler and Its Energy Efficiency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine a method for multi-parametric output regulation of a gasification boiler especially designed for heating or for hot water heating in buildings. A new method of regulation is offered, namely more parametric regulation via proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers that are capable of controlling the calculated values of pressure, temperature and fan speed. These values of pressure, temperature and fan speed are calculated in a completely new way, and calculations of setpoints for determination of optimal parameters lead to an increase in boilers efficiency and power output. Results of measurements show that changes at the mouth of the stack draft due atmospheric influences occur in times with high intensity and high frequency, while power parameters, or boiler power output amplitudes and fan speed automatically “copy” those changes proportionally due to instantaneous fan speed changes. The proposed method of regulation of the gasification boiler power output according to the technical solution enables a simple, cheap, express and continuous maintenance of high power output at low concentrations of the exhaust gases of the gasification boilers from the viewpoint of the boiler user, as well as from the perspective of development and production it allows a continuous control monitoring of these parameters.

  8. Elevated temperature failures in boiler tubes - case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowrisankar, I.; Bandyopadhyay, G.

    1989-01-01

    Metallurgical investigation of boiler tube failures enables identification of failure mechanisms and the underlying cause related to boiler conditions. Some case studies in short term overheating, prolonged overheating and low cycle fatigue failures in boiler tubes are discussed. (author)

  9. The influence of system interactivity and technical support on learning management system utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Baleghi-Zadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing increase in using Learning Management System (LMS by universities. However, its utilization by students is limited in Malaysia. The main purpose of the present study is to develop and test a model that predicts LMS utilization by Malaysian higher education students. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, the study investigated the relationships among six constructs (system interactivity, technical support, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, behavioral intention to use and LMS use through structural equation modelling. The participants were 216 undergraduate students from a local university in Malaysia. The result of the study revealed that system interactivity had a significant effect on perceived usefulness, but not on perceived ease of use; technical support had a significant effect on perceived ease of use, but not on perceived usefulness.

  10. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 1st Quarter FY 07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway. The technical issues are ranked according to priority and by assumed resolution dates. Due to funding limitations, not all high-priority technical issues are under study at the present time, and more resources will need to be dedicated to tackling such issues in the future. This technical issues map is useful for understanding the relative importance of various technical challenges and will be used as a planning tool for future work package planning

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL OPERATION FOR ONBOARD COMPLEXES AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF AVIONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft are equipped with complicated systems and complexes of avionics. Aircraft and its avionics tech- nical operation process is observed as a process with changing of operation states. Mathematical models of avionics pro- cesses and systems of technical operation are represented as Markov chains, Markov and semi-Markov processes. The pur- pose is to develop the graph-models of avionics technical operation processes, describing their work in flight, as well as during maintenance on the ground in the various systems of technical operation. The graph-models of processes and sys- tems of on-board complexes and functional avionics systems in flight are proposed. They are based on the state tables. The models are specified for the various technical operation systems: the system with control of the reliability level, the system with parameters control and the system with resource control. The events, which cause the avionics complexes and func- tional systems change their technical state, are failures and faults of built-in test equipment. Avionics system of technical operation with reliability level control is applicable for objects with constant or slowly varying in time failure rate. Avion- ics system of technical operation with resource control is mainly used for objects with increasing over time failure rate. Avionics system of technical operation with parameters control is used for objects with increasing over time failure rate and with generalized parameters, which can provide forecasting and assign the borders of before-fail technical states. The pro- posed formal graphical approach avionics complexes and systems models designing is the basis for models and complex systems and facilities construction, both for a single aircraft and for an airline aircraft fleet, or even for the entire aircraft fleet of some specific type. The ultimate graph-models for avionics in various systems of technical operation permit the beginning of

  12. An architecture and methodology for the design and development of Technical Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianchi, R.; Mautref, M.; van Keulen, Maurice; Balsters, H.

    In order to meet demands in the context of Technical Information Systems (TIS) pertaining to reliability, extensibility, maintainability, etc., we have developed an architectural framework with accompanying methodological guidelines for designing such systems. With the framework, we aim at complex

  13. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  14. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  15. On sustainability assessment of technical systems. Experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and Ecoeffect tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role. This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology. The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of

  16. FY 1999 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems. Green Helmet Project (Circulating fluidized bed boiler Zaozhuang, Shangdong Province, China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo seika hokokusho. Green helmet jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler Chugoku Shangdong sho Zaozhuang)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The demonstration project is carried out in at Chaili coal mine in Shangdong Province, China for installation of and dissemination activities for circulating fluidized bed boilers to abate sulfur oxide emissions associated with utilization of coal, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The operating conditions were reviewed, and some recommendations were made for improving the operation procedures. Limestone was not used for desulfurization, and furnace temperature tended to increase due to increased size of the fluidizing particles. Therefore, it was recommended to use limestone at the design rate. The boiler was operated at a load exceeding the design level, and it was recommended to limit the load viewed from extending serviceability. The boiler start-up procedure was concretely proposed to use a mixed fuel of wood and coal instead of distillate oil, in order to reduce the start-up cost. The recommendations and design support activities for improving facilities included early stage repair of the damaged refractories. For build up of the ashes in the horizontal heat transfer section, the investigated design charts for improvement by installation of ash-discharging hopper were drawn and proposed. Maintenance-related information was given, including Chinese agencies for obtaining auxiliary facilities. (NEDO)

  17. Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT): The evolution of an intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey E.; Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Johnson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT) uses Intelligent Tutoring System (OTS) technology to deliver diagnostic training in a variety of complex technical domains. Over the past six years, MITT technology has been used to develop training systems for nuclear power plant diesel generator diagnosis, Space Shuttle fuel cell diagnosis, and message processing diagnosis for the Minuteman missile. Presented here is an overview of the MITT system, describing the evolution of the MITT software and the benefits of using the MITT system.

  18. CHP as a Boiler Replacement Opportunity (Webinar) – April 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar provides information about the benefits of replacing a boiler with a CHP system, describes CHP project analysis and delivery processes, and highlights a case study at Penn State University.

  19. Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper seeks to contribute to the development of Configurational Theory by offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network Theory (ANT) in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social...

  20. A NOx control regulation for electric utility boilers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions is becoming an increasingly important part of ozone attainment plans. As a part of its ozone attainment plan, the Ventura County (California) Air Pollution Control Board adopted in June, 1991, a regulation (Rule 59) to limit oxides of nitrogen emissions from four electrical utility boilers in the county. Rule development took two years and involved considerable public input. The emission limit for each of two 750 megawatt units is set at 0.10 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour net after June, 1994. The emission limit for each of two 215 megawatt units is 0.20 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour after June, 1996. Additional limitations are included for fuel oil operation. The rule does not specify an emission control technology. Conventional selective catalytic reduction, urea injection and combustion modifications are considered the technologies most likely to be used to comply. At $17,613 per ton of NO x reduced for the two large boilers and $8.992 per ton of NO x reduced for the small boilers, the rule is considered cost effective. The capital cost for conventional selective catalytic reduction systems on all four boilers is expected to be in excess of $210,000,000

  1. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL BOILER BY FLUE GAS DUCT INSULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay H. Zala

    2017-01-01

    Now a days in industry major losses are find out so here we calculate these losses and find out efficiency of boiler. Boiler efficiency and energy losses from boiler are important parameter for any industry using boiler. In this work a detailed analysis was carried out for boiler at Anish Chemicals Bhavnagar. It is a combined water and fire tube boiler using biomass coal as fuel. Boiler efficiency calculated by direct method is in range of (78.5% to 81.6%). Major losses from boiler are heat ...

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  3. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , and the total stress level (i.e. stresses introduced due to internal pressure plus stresses introduced due to temperature gradients) must always be kept below the allowable stress level. In this way, the increased water-/steam space that should allow for better dynamic performance, in the end causes limited...... freedom with respect to dynamic operation of the plant. By means of an objective function including as well the price of the plant as a quantification of the value of dynamic operation of the plant an optimization is carried out. The dynamic model of the boiler plant is applied to define parts...

  4. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  5. Operational experience in chemical control of scale in boilers at the Ostrava-Karvina power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, E; Srovnal, O

    1988-03-01

    Discusses methods for buildup removal from coal-fired boilers in power plants. Buildup types are analyzed. Standardized methods for buildup removal tested on a commercial scale in the power plants are comparatively evaluated. Scaling in the boiler heat exchange system is investigated. Using hydrofluoric acid for scale removal is discussed. Concentration of hydrofluoric acid ranges from 1.5% to 2.0%. Ryphalgan and Kaptax are used as corrosion inhibitors. Syntron B is also used for scale removal during boiler operation (at a pressure to 6.4% and temperature below 270 C). Efficiency of scale removal using various reagents is discussed. 4 refs.

  6. Mathematical modelling of a steam boiler room to research thermal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a mathematical model of a boiler room to research its thermal efficiency. The model is regarded as an open thermodynamic system exchanging mass, energy, and heat with the atmosphere. On those grounds, the energy and energy balance were calculated. Here I show several possibilities concerning how this model may be applied. Test results of the coefficient of thermal efficiency were compared to a real object, i.e. a steam boiler room of the Provincial Hospital in Wloclawek (Poland). The tests were carried out for 18 months. The results obtained in the boiler room were used for verification of the mathematical model

  7. Hydrogen embrittlement corrosion failure of water wall tubes in large power station boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    In the present paper, causes and mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement failure of water wall tubes in high pressure boilers have been discussed. A low pH boiler water environment, produced as a result of condenser leakage or some other type of system contamination and presence of internal metal oxide deposits, which permit boiler water solids to concentrate during the process of steam generation, have been ascribed to accelerate the formation of local corrosion cells conducive for acid attack resulting in hydrogen damage failure of water wall tubes. (author)

  8. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  9. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  10. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  11. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  12. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  13. TADS and Technical Assistance: Readings on System Design, Needs Assessment, Consultation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal L., Ed.

    The document reviews the technical assistance process used by TADS (Technical Assistance Development System), a project to provide support to HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) demonstration projects serving young handicapped children and their families. Chapter 1, by P. Trohanis, focuses on a number of questions that people…

  14. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical imaging...

  15. 75 FR 59261 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. RM06-16-010; RM06-16-011] Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference September 17, 2010. On August 19, 2010 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission announced that a Technical...

  16. 75 FR 57764 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. RM06-16-010; RM06-16-011] Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference September 14, 2010. On August 19, 2010 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission announced that a Technical...

  17. Technical specifications for the provision of heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 1999, the National Energy Strategy was approved by the Lithuanian Parliament. The National Energy Strategy included the decision to close Unit-1 of INPP before 2005. Later is has been decided to close Unit 2 before the end of 2009 as well. The closure and decommissioning will have heavy impact on the heat supply for the city of Visaginas. Unit 1 and Unit 2 of INPP supplies hot water and steam to INPP for process purposes and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings. When Unit 1 is permanently shut down, reliable heat and steam sources independent of the power plants own heat and steam generation facilities are required for safety reasons in the event of shutdown of the remaining unit for maintenance or in an emergency. These steam and heat sources must be operational before single unit operation is envisaged. Provision of a reliable independent heat and steam source is therefore urgent. After both reactors are shut down permanently, a steam source will be needed at the plant for radioactive waste storage and disposal. INPP and DEA has performed a feasibility study for the provision of a reliable heat source for Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and Visaginas, and the modernisation of Visaginas district heating system. The objective of this project is to prepare technical specifications for the provision of new heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas, and for rehabilitation of the heat transmission pipeline between INPP, the back-up boiler station and Visaginas City. The results of the study are presented in detail in the reports and technical specifications: 1. Transient analysis for Visaginas DH system, 2. Non-destructive testing of boiler stations, pump stations and transmission lines, 3. Conceptual design, 4. Technical specifications, Package 1 to 6. The study has suggested: 1. Construction of new steam boiler station, 2. Construction of new heat only boiler station, 3. Renovation of existing back-up heat only boiler station, 4

  18. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, B.; Kronschnabel, H.; Mueller, W.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    There is an investigation whether accessibility can be produced to fuel elements stored in a salt mine. All solutions of the problem were followed up until the technically best one was found. Two conditions must be fulfilled for access to the final storage barrel: - There must be a climate which is suitable for people. The Mining Order is the basis for this. - The pit building must be fixed, in the convergence in the salt mine should not lead to it becoming impossible to reach part of the mine. Due to heat-producing waste, rock temperatures are caused in the salt mine, in which mining is no longer possible. Building on the idea of cooling the whole final storage area using concentric sections, the amount of heat to be removal was first estimated. Cooling of the whole final storage area proved to be technically unjustifiable and uninteresting at present. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Technical support and management systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Tadashi; Abe, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Sophisticated automatic monitoring and control capabilities and computerized operation management are needed in nuclear power plants to boost plant safety and availability and to reduce operating costs. The article covers the areas of operation management and maintenance management within the larger category of operational administration. The concept of technical administration support-that is, the use of computerization to support the on-site technician's operations-is introduced. The article also suggests the direction of future development. (author)

  20. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs