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Sample records for boiler pipe surfaced

  1. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  2. 46 CFR 167.25-5 - Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-5 Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. The inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances...

  3. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  4. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1) Marine...

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boiler. (c) Feed water regulators, heaters, and grease extractors. (1) Where feed water regulators, tubular feed water heaters, and grease extractors are installed, an alternate means of operation with... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...

  6. 46 CFR 56.01-3 - Power boilers, external piping and appurtenances (Replaces 100.1.1, 100.1.2, 122.1, 132 and 133).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power boilers, external piping and appurtenances... boilers, external piping and appurtenances (Replaces 100.1.1, 100.1.2, 122.1, 132 and 133). (a) Power boiler external piping and components must meet the requirements of this part and §§ 52.01-105, 52.01-110...

  7. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  8. Failure Analysis of PRDS Pipe in a Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Ray, Subrata; Mandal, Jiten; Mandal, Nilrudra; Shukla, Awdhesh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The pressure reducer desuperheater (PRDS) pipeline is used for reducing the pressure and desuperheating of the steam in different auxiliary pipeline. When the PRDS pipeline is failed, the reliability of the boiler is affected. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the PRDS tapping line. In that context, visual inspection, outside diameter and wall thickness measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it has been concluded that the PRDS pipeline has mainly failed due to graphitization due to prolonged exposure of the pipe at higher temperature. The improper material used is mainly responsible for premature failure of the pipe.

  9. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  10. A creep life assessment method for boiler pipes using small punch creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Toru; Kobayashi, Toshimi; Kusumoto, Junichi; Kanaya, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) test is considered as a highly useful method for creep life assessment for high temperature plant components. SPC uses miniature-sized specimens and does not cause any serious sampling damages, and its assessment accuracy is at a high level. However, in applying the SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the boiler in service, there are some issues to be studied. In order to apply SPC test to the residual creep life assessment of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel boiler pipe, the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load has been studied. The virgin material, pre-crept, weldment and service aged samples of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel were tested. It was confirmed that the relationship between uniaxial creep stress and the SPC test load at the same rupture time can be described as a single straight line independent of test conditions and materials. Therefore a life assessment is possible by using SPC test in place of uniaxial creep tests. The creep life assessment using SPC was applied to actual thermal power plant components which are in service.

  11. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  12. Internal surface roughness of plastic pipes for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assuming that a roughness meter can be successfully employed to measure the roughness on the internal surface of irrigation pipes, this research had the purpose of defining parameters and procedures required to represent the internal surface roughness of plastic pipes used in irrigation. In 2013, the roughness parameter Ra, traditional for the representation of surface irregularities in most situations, and the parameters Rc, Rq, and Ry were estimated based on 350 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE pipes. Pressure losses were determined from experiments carried out in laboratory. Estimations of pressure loss varied significantly according to the roughness parameters (Ra, Rc, Rq, and Ry and the corresponding pipe diameter. Therefore, specific values of roughness for each pipe diameter improves accuracy in pressure losses estimation. The average values of internal surface roughness were 3.334 and 8.116 μm for PVC and LDPE pipes, respectively.

  13. Limit load estimation method for pipe with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Onizawa, Kunio; Sugino, Hideharu

    2009-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in a stainless steel pipe during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in the present codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for the case of a flaw with the uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in a pipe. In this paper, a limit load estimation method is proposed considering a circumferential flaw with arbitrary shape, in order to make it possible to evaluate the integrity of the pipe for general case. The plastic collapse moment and stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. Using this method, good agreement is observed between the numerical solution and reported experimental results. Several numerical examples are also given to show the validity of this method. Finally, it can be seen that the number of the segmented sub-flaws for the semi-elliptical surface flaw is sufficient to be three from engineering judgment. (author)

  14. Development of 9CrW tube, pipe and forging for ultra supercritical power plant boilers; Boiler yo kokyodo 9CrW kokan oyobi tankohin (NF616) no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M.; Mimura, H.; Naoi, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kinbara, S. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Fujita, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Ikemoto, T.

    1997-02-07

    This paper describes development of 9CrW steel (NF616) for ultra-supercritical power plant boilers, and properties of the NF616 tube, pipe and forging. Chemical composition of NF616 is featured by including W which has not been added to previous heat resistant materials. W addition contributes to solid solubility and precipitation strengthening, and improves creep rupture strength. Metallic texture of NF616 is also based on tempered single-phase martensite texture to improve rupture strength and toughness. The high-temperature tensile test result showed that the NF616 tube, pipe and forging satisfy the minimum standard values of cold tensile characteristics enough, such as tensile strength of 620MPa, 0.2% proof stress of 440MPa and elongation of 20%. In the Charpy impact test after long time aging at 600{degree}C, the small and medium NF616 pipes showed the toughness more than 100J/cm{sup 2} at 20{degree}C which is sufficient for boiler materials. Even the large pipe and forging showed the toughness of nearly 200J/cm{sup 2} at 20{degree}C after heat treatment. 14 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Modelling of boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic models for simulating boiler performance have been developed. Models for the flue gas side and for the evaporator circuit have been developed for the purpose of determining material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate...... the circulation in the evaporator circuit. The models have been developed as Differential-Algebraic-Equations (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In general MATLAB has proved to be very stable for the relatively stiff equation systems. Experimental verification is planned...... at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat transfer and circulation in the evaporator circuit....

  16. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    developed as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE) and MATLAB has been applied for the integration of the models. In general MATLAB has proved to be very stable for these DAE systems. Experimental verification has been carried out at a full scale plant equipped with instrumentation to verify heat....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level fluctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  17. The Numerical Simulation Application for Fire-Tube Boiler Heating Surface Safety Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation is applied for fire-tube boiler heating surface safety estimation. Thermal processes in an inflatable fire-tube furnace during its emergency operation were simulated using the finite volume method with Euler approximation and the implicit pressure based algorithm. Study results reproduce failures connected with increasing of impasse aerodynamic resistance. The method of these failures prediction is suggested. Simulation has shown that entering the amount of coolant into combustion volume results in burner fan incapability to overcome the impasse resistance of the furnace. The simulation results are visually confirmed during the inspection of emergency boilers.

  18. Condition Assessment for Wastewater Pipes: Method for Assessing Cracking and Surface Damage of Concrete Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Master Thesis has been to provide an improved method for condition assessment, which will give a better correlation between Condition class and actual Condition of concrete pipes with cracking and/or surface damages. Additionally improvement of the characterization of cracking (SR) and surface (KO) damages was a sub goal.Based on the findings described in my Thesis and my Specialization Project (Hauge 2012), I recommend that the Norwegian condition assessment method based...

  19. Fracture behavior of short circumferentially surface-cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Mohan, R.

    1995-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the work performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Comniission's (NRC) research program entitled ''Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds'' that specifically focuses on pipes with short, circumferential surface cracks. The following details are provided in this report: (i) material property deteminations, (ii) pipe fracture experiments, (iii) development, modification and validation of fracture analysis methods, and (iv) impact of this work on the ASME Section XI Flaw Evaluation Procedures. The material properties developed and used in the analysis of the experiments are included in this report and have been implemented into the NRC's PIFRAC database. Six full-scale pipe experiments were conducted during this program. The analyses methods reported here fall into three categories (i) limit-load approaches, (ii) design criteria, and (iii) elastic-plastic fracture methods. These methods were evaluated by comparing the analytical predictions with experimental data. The results, using 44 pipe experiments from this and other programs, showed that the SC.TNP1 and DPZP analyses were the most accurate in predicting maximum load. New Z-factors were developed using these methods. These are being considered for updating the ASME Section XI criteria

  20. A study on the concentration of CO by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe for a household gas boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leem, Sa Hwan; Huh, Yong Jeong; Lee, Jong Rark

    2008-01-01

    Energy and environment become increasingly serious after the industrial revolution. The demand for gas as an ecofriendly energy source is also increasing. With the demand, the installation and the use of gas boilers have also increased, so the damage to human life by the waste gas (CO and CO 2 ) continues increasing every year. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of CO (Carbon Monoxide) by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe by installing a boiler with the same method as a household boiler and to discover the harm to humans. For the effect of the length, the allowable concentration of CO is 50ppm, and the 3m of the once bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 5 minutes, and the 4m and 5m starts exceeding after 3 minutes. In addition, the 1m of three times bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 3 minutes

  1. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  2. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up may occur...

  3. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25{sup o}C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both.

  4. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J.

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25 o C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both

  5. Drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Roberta; Mollicone, Jean-Paul; Battista, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated in a turbulent pipe flow. Wetted superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to trap gas bubbles in their asperities. This stops the liquid from coming in direct contact with the wall in that location, allowing the flow to slip over the air bubbles. We consider a well-defined texture with streamwise grooves at the walls in which the gas is expected to be entrapped. This configuration is modeled with alternating no-slip and shear-free boundary conditions at the wall. With respect to the classical turbulent pipe flow, a substantial drag reduction is observed which strongly depends on the grooves' dimension and on the solid fraction, i.e., the ratio between the solid wall surface and the total surface of the pipe's circumference. The drag reduction is due to the mean slip velocity at the wall which increases the flow rate at a fixed pressure drop. The enforced boundary conditions also produce peculiar turbulent structures which on the contrary decrease the flow rate. The two concurrent effects provide an overall flow rate increase as demonstrated by means of the mean axial momentum balance. This equation provides the balance between the mean pressure gradient, the Reynolds stress, the mean flow rate, and the mean slip velocity contributions.

  6. Activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Gazineu, Maria H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and 226 Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for 238 U and 226 Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between 226 Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations were 1001 keV for 238 U, and 352 ke

  7. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de, E-mail: claudiapoggi04@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Franca, Elvis J.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gazineu, Maria H.P., E-mail: helena@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between {sup 226}Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations

  8. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  9. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  10. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  11. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  12. Wear surface studies on coal water slurry nozzles in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Zeliang [Hunan Engineering Technology Key Laboratory of Inorganic and Nonmetal Materials, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412008, Hunan Province (China)]. E-mail: dingzl@263.net; Deng Jianxin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: jxdeng@sdu.edu.cn; Li Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: ljf@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-07-01

    In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic, WC/Co cemented carbide, and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were produced to be used as nozzle materials in coal water slurry (CWS) industry boilers. Coal water slurry burning tests with these nozzles were carried out. The wear surface features of the nozzles made from these materials were examined. The results showed that the wear mechanisms of nozzles varied from entry to exit. The material removal of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic nozzle in CWS atomizing and burning is attributed to a mixed mode damage by brittle fracture, polishing, thermal cracking and chipping. The nozzle entry section appears to be entirely brittle in nature with evidence of large scale-chipping. The centre bore area showed a polishing effect with a very smooth surface. While the exit section exhibits cracking owing to the large thermal shock. Examination of the eroded bore surface of the WC/Co cemented carbide nozzles demonstrated that the wear occurred through preferential removal of the metal binder (Co) followed by pluck-out of the exposed WC grains at the entry zone, while the center and the exit zone showed polishing action. The primary wear mechanisms of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel nozzle exhibited plastic deformation at the entry zone, and plowing and micro-cutting at the other zones by the eroded particles.

  13. Microsegregation and Precipitates in Inconel 625 Arc Weld Overlay Coatings on Boiler Pipes / Mikrosegregacja I Wydzielenia W Powłokach Ze Stopu Inconel 625 Napawanych Łukowo Na Rury Kotłowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microsegregation and precipitates formed due to segregation in Inconel 625 arc weld overlay coatings on boiler pipes. Examination of microsegregation and precipitates were carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an EDS detector as well as a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with a HAADF (STEM and an EDS detectors. The presence of precipitations in the weld overlay was also confirmed with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD of residue in the form of powder that remained after the electrolytic dissolution of weld overlay matrix.

  14. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  15. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  16. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S

    2003-01-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  17. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hirokuni [Ohyo Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, Mutsuo [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of {beta}-rays measures {gamma}-rays. The {beta}-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting {gamma}-ray counts measured by the inner detector from {gamma}- and {beta}-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of {sup 60}Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm{sup 2} with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm{sup 2} corresponding to clearance level of {sup 60}Co (0.4 Bq/g) can be evaluated with measurement time of 2 seconds, which is equal to measurement speed of 54 m/h. (author)

  18. ­­Clastic Pipes on Mars: Evidence for a Near Surface Groundwater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, D. F.; Chan, M. A.; Okubo, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Clastic pipes, a type of vertical, columnar injectite, occur throughout the terrestrial stratigraphic record and are identified across many Martian terrains. Terrestrial pipe analogs can aid in identifying clastic pipes on Mars to understand their formation processes and their implications for a past near-surface groundwater system. On Earth, clastic pipes form through fluidization of overpressurized sediment. Fluidization occurs when the upward frictional (i.e., drag) forces of escaping fluids overpower the downward acting gravitational force. To create the forces necessary for pipe formation requires overpressurization of a body of water-saturated porous media overlain by a low permeability confining layer. As the pressure builds, the confining layer eventually fractures and the escaping fluids fluidize the porous sediment causing the sediment to behave like a fluid. These specific formation conditions record evidence of a violent release of fluid-suspended sediment including brecciation of the host and sealing material, internal outward grading/sorting that results in a coarser-grained commonly better cemented outer rind, traction structures, and a cylindrical geometry. Pipes form self-organized, dispersed spatial relationships due to the efficient diffusion of overpressured zones in the subsurface and the expulsion of sediment under pressure. Martian pipes occur across the northern lowlands, dichotomy boundary, and southern highlands in various forms of erosional relief ranging from newer eruption structures to eroded cylindrical/conical mounds with raised rims to highly eroded mounds/hills. Similar to terrestrial examples, Martian pipes form in evenly-spaced, self-organized arrangements. The pipes are typically internally massive with a raised outer rim (interpreted as a sorted, coarser-grained, better-cemented rim). This evidence indicates that Martian pipes formed through fluidization, which requires a near-surface groundwater system. Pipes create a window

  19. Modification of the ASME code z-factor for circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan; Chung, Yon Ki; Koh, Wan Young; Lee, Joung Bae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to modify the ASME Code Z-Factor, which is used in the evaluation of circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings. The ASME Code Z-Factor is a load multiplier to compensate plastic load with elasto-plastic load. The current ASME Code Z-Factor underestimates pipe maximum load. In this study, the original SC. TNP method is modified first because the original SC. TNP method has a problem that the maximum allowable load predicted from the original SC. TNP method is slightly higher than that measured from the experiment. Then the new Z-Factor is developed using the modified SC. TNP method. The desirability of both the modified SC. TNP method and the new Z-Factor is examined using the experimental results for the circumferential surface crack in pipings. The results show that (1) the modified SC. TNP method is good for predicting the circumferential surface crack behavior in pipings, and (2) the Z-Factor obtained from the modified SC. TNP method well predicts the behavior of circumferential surface crack in ferritic pipings. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  20. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  1. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  2. Evaluation of underground pipe-structure interface for surface impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of underground pipelines for surface impact load considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. • The proposed simple method can be used to evaluate the magnitude of damage within a short period of time after accidental drop occurs. • The proposed method is applied in a practical example and compared by using finite element analysis. - Abstract: Nuclear safety related buried pipelines need to be assessed for the effects of postulated surface impact loads. In published solutions, the buried pipe is often considered within an elastic half space without interference with other underground structures. In the case that a surface impact occurs in short distance from an underground pipe-structure interface, this boundary condition will further complicate the buried pipe evaluation. Neglecting such boundary effect in the assessment may lead to underestimating potential damage of buried pipeline, and jeopardizing safety of the nuclear power plant. Comprehensive analysis of such structure-pipe-soil system is often subjected to availability of state-of-art finite element tools, as well as costly and time consuming. Simple, but practical conservative techniques have not been established. In this study, a mechanics based solution is proposed in order to assess the magnitude of damage to a buried pipeline beneath a heavy surface impact considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. The proposed approach provides an easy to use tool in the early stage of evaluation before the decision of applying more costly technique can be made by owner of the nuclear facility.

  3. Surface impedance formalism for a metallic beam pipe with small corrugations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stupakov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A metallic pipe with wall corrugations is of special interest in light of recent proposals to use such a pipe for the generation of terahertz radiation and for energy dechirping of electron bunches in free electron lasers. In this paper we calculate the surface impedance of a corrugated metal wall and show that it can be reduced to that of a thin layer with dielectric constant ϵ and magnetic permeability μ. We develop a technique for the calculation of these constants, given the geometrical parameters of the corrugations. We then calculate, for the specific case of a round metallic pipe with small corrugations, the frequency and strength of the resonant mode excited by a relativistic beam. Our analytical results are compared with numerical simulations, and are shown to agree well. They are also shown to be more accurate when compared to the earlier used analytical model.

  4. Coating of inner surface of cylindrical pipe for hydrogen entry prevention using plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Nishiguchi, Hiroshi; Furutani, Takumi; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Shinohara, Masanori; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum alloy A6061, which is highly resistant to hydrogen entry, was prepared on a carbide steel cylindrical pipe using a magnetron sputtering deposition method. In this method, plasma was generated between the cylindrical pipe substrate and the cylindrical rod targets, and it moved toward the axial direction with the generation of a modulated magnetic field by a low-frequency alternating coil current. Uniform A6061 thin films were deposited inside the cylindrical pipe using the magnetron sputtering deposition method. The surface morphologies of the films were smooth, and the uniformity of the films was increased by the modulated magnetic field. Moreover, hydrogen content measurements revealed that the A6061 plasma coating is highly resistant to hydrogen entry in corrosive environments, suggesting that the coating was applicable to the elastic deformation region of the base material.

  5. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  6. Study on the essential variables for pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP). Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Muroya, Itaru; Asada, Seiji; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the essential variables for L-SIP is studied by experimental and FEM analysis. The range of the essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined by thermo-elastic FEM analysis, are Tmax=550 - 650degC, L Q /√rh ≥ 3, W Q /√rh ≥ 1.7, and, 0.04 ≤ F 0 ≤ 0.10 where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, F 0 is k x τ 0 /h 2 , k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x v, υ is moving velocity, L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction, h is thickness of the pipe, and r is average radius of the pipe. It is showed by thermo-elastic-plastic FEM analysis that the residual stresses near the inner surface of pipes are improved in 4 different size pipes under the same essential variables. L-SIP is actually applied to welding joints of 4B x Sch160 and 2B x Sch80 SUS304 type stainless steel pipes within the defined range of the essential variables. The measured welding residual stresses on the inner surface near the welding joints are tensile. The residual stresses on the inner surface change to compression in all joints by L-SIP. (author)

  7. Development of new Z-factors for the evaluation of the circumferential surface crack in nuclear pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Chung, Y.K.; Park, Y.W.; Lee, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop new Z-factors to evaluate the behavior of a circumferential surface crack in nuclear pipe. Z-factor is a load multiplier used in the Z-factor method, which is one of the ASME Code Sec. XI's recommendations for the estimation of a surface crack in nuclear pipe. It has been reported that the load carrying capacities predicted from the current ASME Code Z-factors, are not well in agreement with the experimental results for nuclear pipes with a surface crack. In this study, new Z-factors for ferritic base metal, ferritic submerged arc welding (SAW) weld metal, austenitic base metal, and austenitic SAW weld metal are obtained by use of the surface crack for thin pipe (SC.TNP) method based on GE/EPRI method. The desirability of both the SC.TNP method and the new Z-factors is examined using the results from 48 pipe fracture experiments for nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack. The results show that the SC.TNP method is good for describing the circumferential surface crack behavior and the new Z-factors are well in agreement with the measured Z-factors for both ferritic and austenitic pipes. (orig.)

  8. Signal Processing for Determining Water Height in Steam Pipes with Dynamic Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced signal processing method based on the filtered Hilbert envelope of the auto-correlation function of the wave signal has been developed to monitor the height of condensed water through the steel wall of steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions. The developed signal processing algorithm can also be used to estimate the thickness of the pipe to determine the cut-off frequency for the low pass filter frequency of the Hilbert Envelope. Testing and analysis results by using the developed technique for dynamic surface conditions are presented. A multiple array of transducers setup and methodology are proposed for both the pulse-echo and pitch-catch signals to monitor the fluctuation of the water height due to disturbance, water flow, and other anomaly conditions.

  9. Effect of torsion moment on failure bending moment for circumferentially cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Ida, Wataru; Hoang, Phuong H.; Bezensek, Bostjan

    2010-01-01

    When a crack is detected in a stainless steel pipe during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in the current codes, the limit load criterion is only provided considering pressure and bending moment. The torsion moment is not considered, although torsion moment does exist in the nuclear power piping system. In this paper, finite element analyses are carried out for stainless steel pipe containing a circumferential surface crack under the combination of bending moment and torsion moment, considering different pipe dimensions and flaw sizes. Based upon the analysis results, a plastic collapse estimation method is proposed considering the existence of the torsion moment and its magnitude, and this method make it possible to evaluate the integrity of the pipe for general loading conditions. (author)

  10. Reconstruction actions in order to achieve and increase the designed nominal heat capacity of a hot-water block boiler with two flame pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Kirovski, Hristo

    2000-01-01

    All companies which are occupied with some kind of useful energy production, must realize two very important things: firstly, maximum utilization of projecting capacities of energetic plants, in condition when specific investment for projecting and erecting of new plants allude use of prominent financial capital, and secondly, the energy must be produced economically, i.e. with the highest possible coefficient of efficiency and the lowest impact of combustion process to the environment. This paper presents the chronology of reconstruction activities of a block hot water boiler with two flame tubes type BKG 200 with 16.28 MWth (made by TPK Zagreb) in order to acquire and increase its thermal capacity app. 11 % (Authors)

  11. Recommendations and Requirements for Welding and Inspection of Titanium Piping for U.S. Navy Surface Ship Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in this report is intended to assist both Navy and shipyard/contractor personnel engaged in the welding and inspection of commercially pure titanium seawater piping systems for U.S. Navy surface ships...

  12. A novel approach to generate random surface thermal loads in piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: oriol.costa@ijs.si; El Shawish, Samir; Cizelj, Leon

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Approach for generating continuous and time-dependent random thermal fields. • Temperature fields simulate fluid mixing thermal loads at fluid–wall interface. • Through plane-wave decomposition, experimental temperature statistics are reproduced. • Validation of the approach with a case study from literature. • Random surface thermal loads generation for future thermal fatigue analyses of piping. - Abstract: There is a need to perform three-dimensional mechanical analyses of pipes, subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings such as the ones evolving from turbulent fluid mixing in a T-junction. A novel approach is proposed in this paper for fast and reliable generation of random thermal loads at the pipe surface. The resultant continuous and time-dependent temperature fields simulate the fluid mixing thermal loads at the fluid–wall interface. The approach is based on reproducing discrete fluid temperature statistics, from experimental readings or computational fluid dynamic simulation's results, at interface locations through plane-wave decomposition of temperature fluctuations. The obtained random thermal fields contain large scale instabilities such as cold and hot spots traveling at flow velocities. These low frequency instabilities are believed to be among the major causes of the thermal fatigue in T-junction configurations. The case study found in the literature has been used to demonstrate the generation of random surface thermal loads. The thermal fields generated with the proposed approach are statistically equivalent (within the first two moments) to those from CFD simulations results of similar characteristics. The fields maintain the input data at field locations for a large set of parameters used to generate the thermal loads. This feature will be of great advantage in future sensitivity fatigue analyses of three-dimensional pipe structures.

  13. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-105 - Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG-59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other suitable means employed to reduce the effects of metal temperature differentials. (e) Blowoff...-59). (a) Boiler external piping within the jurisdiction of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code... and Pressure Vessel Code, boiler external piping must: (1) Meet the design conditions and criteria in...

  15. Wake fields effects due to surface roughness in a circular pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Angelici, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the wake field generated by a relativistic particle travelling in a long beam pipe with rough surface has been studied by means of a standard theory based on the hybrid modes excited in a periodically corrugated waveguide with circular cross-section. Slow waves synchronous with the particle can be excited in the structure, producing wake fields whose frequency and amplitude depend on the depth of the corrugation. An analytical expression of the wake field is given for very small corrugations.

  16. Free-surface non-Newtonian fluid flow in a round pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, E. I.; Schrager, G. R.; Yakutenok, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Free-surface pseudoplastic and viscoplastic fluid flows in a round pipe were studied for the case where the direction of motion coincides with the direction of gravity. Numerical modeling was performed using a technique based on a combination of the SIMPLE algorithm and the method of invariants. Three characteristic filling regimes were found to exist: a complete filling regime, a regime characterized by air-cavity formation on the solid wall, and a jet regime. Critical parameter values separating the regions of existence of these regimes were calculated. The evolution of quasisolid cores was studied for flow of a fluid with an yield point.

  17. SIPSON--simulation of interaction between pipe flow and surface overland flow in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, S; Prodanović, D; Maksimović, C; Ivetić, M; Savić, D

    2005-01-01

    The new simulation model, named SIPSON, based on the Preissmann finite difference method and the conjugate gradient method, is presented in the paper. This model simulates conditions when the hydraulic capacity of a sewer system is exceeded, pipe flow is pressurized, the water flows out from the piped system to the streets, and the inlets cannot capture all the runoff. In the mathematical model, buried structures and pipelines, together with surface channels, make a horizontally and vertically looped network involving a complex interaction of flows. In this paper, special internal boundary conditions related to equivalent inlets are discussed. Procedures are described for the simulation of manhole cover loss, basement flooding, the representation of street geometry, and the distribution of runoff hydrographs between surface and underground networks. All these procedures are built into the simulation model. Relevant issues are illustrated on a set of examples, focusing on specific parameters and comparison with field measurements of flooding of the Motilal ki Chal catchment (Indore, India). Satisfactory agreement of observed and simulated hydrographs and maximum surface flooding levels is obtained. It is concluded that the presented approach is an improvement compared to the standard "virtual reservoir" approach commonly applied in most of the models.

  18. Velocity and stage data collected in a laboratory flume for water-surface slope determination using a pipe manometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan K.; Visser, H.M.; Jenter, H.L.; Duff, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologists and ecologist are conducting studies to quantify vegetative flow resistance in order to improve numerical models of surface-water flow in the Florida Everglades. Water-surface slope is perhaps the most difficult of the flow resistance parameters to measure in the Everglades due to the very low gradients of the topography and flow. In an effort to measure these very small slopes, a unique pipe manometer was developed for the local measurement of water-surface slopes on the order of 1 centimeter per kilometer (cm/km). According to theory, a very precise measurement of centerline velocity obtained inside the pipe manometer should serve as a unique proxy for water-surface slope in the direction of the pipe axis. In order to confirm this theoretical relationship and calibrate the pipe manometer, water-surface elevation and pipe centerline velocity data were simultaneously measured in a set of experiments carried out in the tilting flume at the USGS Hydraulic Laboratory Facility at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. A description of the instrumentation and methods used to evaluate this technique for measuring water-surface slope as well as a summary of the entire data set is presented.

  19. Thermal–hydraulic calculation and analysis of a 600 MW supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler with annular furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi; Mao, Kaiyuan; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-linear model of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace is developed. • Many empirical correlations are used to solve the model. • The thermal–hydraulic characteristics of boiler are analyzed. • The results show that the design of the annular furnace is reasonable. - Abstract: The development of supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler has great economic and environmental value. An entirely new annular furnace structure with outer and inner ring sidewalls for supercritical CFB boiler has been put forward by Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd. (DBC). Its outer and inner ring furnace structure makes more water walls arranged and reduces furnace height availably. In addition, compared with other additional evaporating heating surface structures such as mid-partition and water-cooled panels, the integrative structure can effectively avoid the bed-inventory overturn and improve the penetrability of secondary air. The conditions of the 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler including capability, pressure and mass flux are harsh. In order to insure the safety of boiler operation, it is very necessary to analyze the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of water-wall system. The water-wall system with complicated pipe arrangement is regarded as a network consisting of series-parallel circuits, pressure nodes and linking circuits, which represent vertical water-wall tubes, different headers and linking tubes, respectively. Based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation, a mathematical model is built, which consists of some simultaneous nonlinear equations. The mass flux in circuits, pressure drop between headers, outer vapor temperature of water-wall system and metal temperature data of tubes at the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR), 75% BMCR and 30% BMCR loads are obtained by solving the mathematical model. The results show that the vertical water

  20. Numerical Simulation of Heat and Flow Behaviors in Butt-fusion Welding Process of HDPE Pipes with Curved Fusion Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunwoong; Oh, Ju Seok [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Butt-fusion welding process is used to join the polymeric pipes. Recently, some researchers suggest the curved surface to enhance a welding quality. We investigated how curved welding surface affects heat and flow behaviors of polymer melt during the process in 2D axisymmetric domain with finite element method, and discussed the effect to the welding quality. In this study, we considered HDPE pipes. In heat soak stage, curved phase interface between the melt and solid is shown along the shape of welding surface. In jointing stage, squeezing flow is generated between curved welding surface and phase interface. The low shear rate in fusion domain reduces the alignment of polymer to the perpendicular direction of pipes, and then this phenomenon is expected to help to enhance the welding quality.

  1. Heat pipes. Design and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeria, R.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipes are thermosiphons with vaporization where we can distinguish a boiler, a condenser, and eventually an adiabatic zone. To insure the returning liquid flow from the condenser to the boiler, surface tension forces, associated with the gravity forces, if need be, are used. For this, the condensing liquid is sucked by a capillary structure, generally situated against the inner wall. The review of the design methods, and particularly the prediction of the maximal performances shows the advantages and limitations of such devices. The main difficulties are technological for the heat pipes with high temperature liquid metals. The thermohydrodynamical limitations are: the maximum power which can be calculated by a balance between the friction forces and the active ones, the maximum heat flux leading to the dry-out of the evaporator, the critical conditions for the start up associated with the sonic conditions in the vapour phase. The description of heat pipes designed for some industrial applications (mainly for space) is given [fr

  2. Detection of surface cracks in cladded pipes by the multiple-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Standard ultrasonic techniques usually yield reliable inspection results for the steel structures of the nuclear power industry. Stainless-steel cladding of pipes, vessels, and nozzles to reduce the susceptibility of the base material to cracking has, however, led to unexpected inspection difficulties. Some solutions to the ultrasonic inspection problems of cladded pipes were found in multiple-beam transducer design and the application of novel waveform-processing and pattern-recognition methods. The paper is divided into four parts. First, the problems of standard ultrasonic inspection techniques in detecting surface and near-surface cracks are presented. Next, signal-reducing and background-interference-producing mechanisms (beam skewing, defocusing, multiple grain-boundary and clad-base-material-interface scattering, focusing, etc.) are postulated to guide attempts to improve the reliability of crack detection. The two modes of operation of the multiple-beam array featured in the multiple-beam technique (Mode I - Inspection by Threshold Detection, and Mode II - Confirmation by Pattern Recognition) are then described. Finally, the results of a detection reliability evaluation study involving the multiple-beam technique and four other detection techniques and ten cladded plates containing thirty-three thumbnail-shaped notches are cited

  3. A countermeasure for external stress corrosion cracking in piping components by means of residual stress improvement on the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1988-01-01

    Many techniques have been proposed as countermeasures for the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) on austenitic stainless steel piping caused by sea salt particles. However, not one seems perfect. The method proposed here is an expansion of IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) which has been successfully implemented in many nuclear power plants as a remedy for Intergranular Stress Corrossion Cracking. The proposed method named EIHSI (External IHSI) can make the residual stress compressive on the outer surface of the piping components. In order to confirm the effectiveness of EIHSI, one series of tests were conducted on a weld joint between the pipe flange and the straight pipe. The measured residual stresses and also the results of the cracking test revealed that EIHSI is a superior method to suppress the ESCC. The outline of EIHSI and the verification tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. PPOOLEX experiments on the dynamics of free water surface in the blowdown pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of the thermal stratification and mixing experiments carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The main objective of the experiments was to obtain verification data for the development of the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) and Effective Heat Source (EHS) models to be implemented in GOTHIC code by KTH. A detailed test matrix and procedure put together on the basis of pre-test calculations was provided by KTH before the experiments. Altogether six experiments were carried out. The experiments consisted of a small steam flow rate stratification period and of a higher flow rate mixing period. The dry well structures were heated up to approximately 130 deg. C before the stratification period was initiated. The initial water bulk temperature in the condensation pool was 13-16 deg. C. During the low steam flow rate (85-105 g/s) period steam condensed mainly inside the blowdown pipe. As a result temperatures remained constant below the blowdown pipe outlet while they increased towards the pool surface layers indicating strong thermal stratification of the wet well pool water. In the end of the stratification period the temperature difference between the pool bottom and surface was 15-30 deg. C depending on the test parameters and the duration of the low flow rate period. In the beginning of the mixing phase the steam flow rate was increased rapidly to 300-425 g/s to mix the pool water totally. Depending on the used steam flow rate and initial pool water temperature it took 150-500 s to achieve total mixing. If the test was continued long enough the water pool began to stratify again after the water bulk temperature had reached ∼50 deg. C despite of steam mass flux belonging to the chugging region of the

  5. PPOOLEX experiments on the dynamics of free water surface in the blowdown pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the results of the thermal stratification and mixing experiments carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The main objective of the experiments was to obtain verification data for the development of the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) and Effective Heat Source (EHS) models to be implemented in GOTHIC code by KTH. A detailed test matrix and procedure put together on the basis of pre-test calculations was provided by KTH before the experiments. Altogether six experiments were carried out. The experiments consisted of a small steam flow rate stratification period and of a higher flow rate mixing period. The dry well structures were heated up to approximately 130 deg. C before the stratification period was initiated. The initial water bulk temperature in the condensation pool was 13-16 deg. C. During the low steam flow rate (85-105 g/s) period steam condensed mainly inside the blowdown pipe. As a result temperatures remained constant below the blowdown pipe outlet while they increased towards the pool surface layers indicating strong thermal stratification of the wet well pool water. In the end of the stratification period the temperature difference between the pool bottom and surface was 15-30 deg. C depending on the test parameters and the duration of the low flow rate period. In the beginning of the mixing phase the steam flow rate was increased rapidly to 300-425 g/s to mix the pool water totally. Depending on the used steam flow rate and initial pool water temperature it took 150-500 s to achieve total mixing. If the test was continued long enough the water pool began to stratify again after the water bulk temperature had reached {approx}50 deg. C despite of steam mass flux belonging to the chugging region

  6. Evaluation of scale formation in waterwall heated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylasheva Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of forecasting assessments of the speed and the time of formation of depositions in the evaporator-tube elements of double-drum boilers. The values of thermal flow in the wall region of tank screens of boiler furnace are obtained, besides the velocity values of scaling metal corrosion products are obtained. Conclusions about the ability of forecasting unnominal situations and emergency risks dependent with damage to the screen surface heating pipes are made.

  7. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  8. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses For circumferential Part-through Surface Cracks At The Interface Between Elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  9. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Light Pipes, Hydrostatics, Surface Tension and a Milk Carton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of light pipes using low-cost materials, relating it to fiber optics communication. Also provides several experiments in hydrostatics and hydrodynamics using the materials for light pipe. (JM)

  10. Surface Crack Detection in Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipes Using BOTDA Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural deterioration after a period of service can induce the failure of prestressed concrete cylinder pipes (PCCPs, with microcracks in the coating leading to the corrosion of the prestressed wires. In this paper, we propose the use of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA strain sensors for detecting the onset of microcracking in PCCP coating: the BOTDA strain sensors are mounted on the surface of the PCCP, and distributed strain measurements are employed to assess the cracks in the mortar coating and the structural state of the pipe. To validate the feasibility of the proposed approach, experimental investigations were conducted on a prototype PCCP segment, wherein the inner pressure was gradually increased to 1.6 MPa. Two types of BOTDA strain sensors—the steel wire packaged fiber optic sensor and the polyelastic packaged fiber optic sensor—were employed in the experiments. The experimental distributed measurements agreed well with the finite element computations, evidencing that the investigated strain sensors are sensitive to localized deterioration behaviors such as PCCP microcracking.

  11. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  12. Energy pumping analysis of skating motion in a half pipe and on a level surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z C; Xin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an energy pumping mechanism for locomotion is analysed. The pumping is accomplished by exerting forces perpendicular to the direction of motion. The paper attempts to demonstrate an interesting application of the classical mechanics to two sporting events: a person skating in a half pipe and a person travelling on a level surface on a skateboard. The equations of motion based on simplified mechanical models are derived using the Lagrange mechanics. The energy-pumping phenomenon is revealed through numerical simulations with simple pumping actions. The result presented in this paper can be used as an interesting class project in undergraduate mechanics or physics courses. It also motivates potential new applications of energy pumping in many engineering fields. (paper)

  13. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  14. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  15. Differences in the composition of organic impurities in ground and surface waters. Consequences for the preparation of boiler feed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that current limits for total organic carbon (TOC) in the pharmaceutical industry (500 ppb) and semiconductor industry (10-25 ppb) should be regarded as precautionary measures and do not necessarily reflect true scientific evidence. For the power industry the situation is different. Here, recommended TOC-limits for boiler feed waters (in 1999: VGB: 200 ppb; EPRI: 100 ppb) are based on scientific and empirical data. The oxidation of, say, 50 ppb TOC to carbon dioxide in the water/steam cycle will increase steam condensate conductivity by 0.48 μ S /cm (values may depend on literature source, here [1]), a value which is not acceptable as it desensitizes the detection of leaks in cooling water heat exchangers. Apart from this indirect effect of TOC there is also evidence for direct negative effects of TOC on steel materials. Even small amounts of organic acids, which are produced as intermediates in the TOC oxidation process, may locally lower the pH down to levels [2] where erosion corrosion of boiler tubes can take place. It was also found that carbon is enriched in stress corrosion cracks of turbine materials [3]. The present paper will discuss the ''TOC-issue'' in boiler feed water preparation. Most of the results can be applied also to other industries, e.g. semiconductor, chemical or pharmaceutical. (authors)

  16. A low-cost, orientation-insensitive microwave water-cut sensor printed on a pipe surface

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-24

    This paper presents a novel and contactless water fraction (also known as water cut) measurement technique, which is independent of geometric distribution of oil and water inside the pipe. The sensor is based upon a modified dual helical stub resonators implemented directly on the pipe\\'s outer surface and whose resonance frequency decreases by increasing the water content in oil. The E-fields have been made to rotate and distribute well inside the pipe, despite having narrow and curved ground plane. It makes the sensor\\'s reading dependent only on the water fraction and not on the mixture distribution inside the pipe. That is why, the presented design does not require any flow conditioner to homogenize the oil/water mixture unlike many commercial WC sensors. The presented sensor has been realized by using extremely low cost methods of screen-printing and reusable 3D printed mask. Complete characterization of the proposed WC sensor, both in horizontal and vertical orientations, has been carried out in an industrial flow loop. Excellent repeatability of the sensor\\'s response has been observed under different flow conditions. The measured performance results of the sensor show full range accuracy of ±2-3% while tested under random orientations and wide range of flow rates.

  17. Elasto-plastic finite element analysis of axial surface crack in PHT piping of 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, D.S.; Bhate, S.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The leak before break (LBB) approach in nuclear piping design envisages demonstrating that the pressurized pipe with a postulated flaw will leak at a detectable rate leading to corrective action well before catastrophic rupture would occur. This requires analysis of cracked pipe to study the crack growth and its stability. This report presents the behaviour of a surface crack in the wall of a thick primary heat transport (PHT) pipe of 500 MWe Indian PHWR. The line spring model (LSM) finite element is used to model the flawed pipe geometry. The variation of crack driving force (J-integral) across the crack front has been presented. The influence of crack geometry factors such as depth, shape, aspect ratio, and loading on peak values of J-integral as well as crack mouth opening displacement has been studied. Several crack shapes have been used to study the shape influence. The results are presented in dimensionless form so as to widen their applicability. The accuracy of the results is validated by comparison with results available in open literature. (author). 47 refs., 8 figs

  18. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  19. Near-surface gravity actuated pipe (GAP{sup TM}) system for Brazilian deepwater fluid transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromage, Lionel; Brown, Paul A. [SBM Offshore (Monaco)

    2009-12-19

    The recent discovery of new deep water and ultra-deep water oil and gas fields offshore Brazil, including pre-salt reservoirs, has become a focal point for field development Operators and Contractors. The aggressive nature of fluids (sour, high density) in combination with deeper waters implies potential flow assurance issues. These issues challenge riser and pipeline technology to find cost effective solutions for hydrocarbon fluid transfer in field development scenarios involving phased tied-back. The near-surface GAP{sup TM}, system (Gravity Actuated Pipe{sup TM}), which has been in operation for more than two years on the Kikeh field offshore Malaysia in 1325 m of water between a Dry Tree Unit (SPAR) and a turret-moored FPSO, is considered to meet these challenges since such a product is quasi independent of water depth and takes advantage of being near surface to optimize flow assurance. Furthermore the GAP{sup TM} has undergone technical upgrades when compared to the Kikeh project in order to make it suitable for the more hostile met ocean conditions offshore Brazil. This paper presents the design features, the construction and assembly plans in Brazil and the offshore installation of a GAP fluid transfer system for operation in Brazilian deep waters. (author)

  20. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  1. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  2. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and...

  3. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  5. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    straight gas boiler, the running costs would be cheaper. This would result in significantly lower costs over a 10-year period. Biomass also has a superior environmental profile. The new Binder 650kW boiler, supplied by Living Energy, runs on dry woodchip, with the ideal moisture content being 20-30%. The long-term source of wood chip is pine sourced from local forestry activities. Council has considered using untreated urban timber waste collected at its transfer station and may conduct a trial in the future. Even if the trial is successful this would only supplement the main source of feedstock. The Binder boiler has automatic ash removal, which significantly reduces the maintenance cost on the previous system, which had to have ash manually removed three times a week on average. The ash is taken to a composter just north of Mount Gambier; mixed with other feedstock and turned into compost. The biomass boiler saves approximately 58 tonnes of greenhouse emissions per year. Due to the efficiency of the boiler, and the low moisture content of the wood chip, no smoke is produced, and only negligible particulates. “The trees that the biomass is sourced from are regrown and so the fuel source is essentially carbon neutral, as opposed to gas, which is a fossil fuel source,” said Izzard. “The biomass boiler is very efficient, up to 90%. It is more cost effective to run and has less environmental impact than coal-fired electricity.” The main disadvantage with this kind of biomass system is that it requires more human input than a straight gas system. With the latter, the fuel is piped in and the system runs mostly automatically, needing little human input. With a biomass system, the trees need to be harvested and chipped (which, in most situations will be occurring regardless, wood chips are simply purchased that were going to be made anyway), the chip needs to be stored (unless they can be made on demand, but for smaller systems this is unlikely to be cost effective), and

  6. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  8. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  9. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdowns...

  10. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  11. Characterization of the corroded surface morphology of a carbon steel piping elbow affected by flow-accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nakashima, Makoto; Tatsuki, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the inner surface of carbon steel piping affected by relatively severe flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) shows typical morphology in terms of roughness in many cases. Although hydrodynamic parameters would determine the characteristics of the rough surface developed in such cases, the detailed mechanism of the roughness formation is not fully known. In this study, the local FAC rate profile and morphology in terms of surface roughness for an entire 90-degree carbon steel piping elbow used in a fossil power plant have been investigated under two-phase flow in order to discuss the relationships between the FAC rate and characteristics of the inner surface morphology. For the axial direction, the FAC rate gradually increased with distance from the inlet, and it reaches the peak value in the downstream side, beyond which, the value kept decreasing slightly. Distributed horse-shoe pits and scalloped patterns were observed on the extrados side. The finding suggests that the extrados side of the pipe wall was covered with a continuous liquid film (single-phase). The result shows the possibility of the occurrence of FAC by a single-phase flow in the area where there is a sudden change in flow regime, even when the nominal phase state of the fluid is a two-phase flow regime. Both the local FAC rate and scallop coverage increase steeply near the middle parts of the elbow. There was a good correlation between the two, but it was not a one-to-one relationship because a significant decrease in FAC rate was observed in the downstream side; in contrast, the entire surface was covered with a fine scalloped pattern. The change in the morphology in terms of surface roughness clearly indicated that the overlapping of horse-shoe shaped pits gave a scalloped appearance. The results revealed that the inner surface shape affected by FAC is considered to essentially depend on the number density of nucleation sites for pit formation. (author)

  12. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  13. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  14. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  15. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibrations in a flexible double pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, A.; Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibration for a double pipe heat exchanger, made of PVDF, is investigated. In order to create forced vibrations (3-9 m/s2, 100 Hz) on the outer surface of the heat exchanger electro-dynamic vibrators are used. Experiments were performed at inner Reynolds numbers ranging from 2533 to 9960. The effects of volume flow rate and temperature on heat transfer performance are evaluated. Results demonstrated that heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing vibration level and mass flow rate. The most increase in heat transfer coefficient is 97% which is obtained for the highest vibration level (9 m/s2) in the experiment range.

  16. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibrations in a flexible double pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, A.; Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibration for a double pipe heat exchanger, made of PVDF, is investigated. In order to create forced vibrations (3-9 m/s2, 100 Hz) on the outer surface of the heat exchanger electro-dynamic vibrators are used. Experiments were performed at inner Reynolds numbers ranging from 2533 to 9960. The effects of volume flow rate and temperature on heat transfer performance are evaluated. Results demonstrated that heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing vibration level and mass flow rate. The most increase in heat transfer coefficient is 97% which is obtained for the highest vibration level (9 m/s2) in the experiment range.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  18. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  19. Comparing Methods of Separating Bacterial Biofilms on the Surface of Water Transportation Pipes and Equipment of Milking in the Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    setareh nabizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial biofilms can be both useful and harmful based on their combination and locations. Biofilm formation occurs as a stepwise process. Their formation in liquid transportation pipes used for milking system and drinking water in animal farms may create some problems and is a potential source of pollution. Speed of biofilm formation depends on many factors including: construction and functional characteristics of bacteria, the composition and culture conditions such as temperature and substratum. In this research the Bacillus subtillis bacteria with special characteristics was selected due to its capability for biofilm creation. Bacillus subtillis bacteria is mobility and a stronger connection than other bacteria levels are created. In the research conducted in the biofilm there are many resources on biofilm formation by Bacillus subtillis bacteria. Bacillus subtillis is saprophytic in the soil, water and air. There is also the ability to form spores of Bacillus subtillis. Materials and Methods Firstly the possibility of creating biofilms on different Plastic (polyvinilchlorid, polypropylene, polyethylengelycole, alluminum and glass surfaces in three temperatures of 4°C, 30°C and 37°C were studied. Two different methods of biofilms separation including separating swap and vortex were tested and their efficienceies were calculated. After biofilm formation on parts of the vortex separation method after washing parts in sterile conditions in a tube containing normal saline for 4 minutes was vortex. The bacterial suspension decreasing dilution series was created. Pour plate in medium using agar plate count agar and was cultured at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Numbers of colonies were counted. The numbers of biofilm cells were calculated. In swap method after biofilm formation on parts using a cotton swap was isolated biofilms. The swap was transferred to tube containing normal saline and the bacterial suspension decreasing dilution

  20. Determination of the pipe stemming load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical model for the emplacement pipe system is developed. The model is then employed to determine the force applied to the surface collar of the emplacement pipe, the pipe-stemming load, and the stress along the emplacement pipe as a function of stemming height. These results are presented as integrals and a method for their numerical integration is given

  1. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  2. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently

  3. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  4. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  5. Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jamuna Rani; K. Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of pipi...

  6. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... been developed as open, i.e. more dimensions and their corresponding quanti- cation can be added. In the present study the dynamic capability has been quantied and the feasible set for the optimization has been limited by means of a number of constraints. The constraints are: (i) simple constraints...

  7. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  8. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING ON SURFACE SETTLEMENT IN SAND AND GRAVEL STRATA CAUSED BY SUBWAY STATION CONSTRUCTION APPLYING PIPE-ROOF PRE-CONSTRUCTION METHOD (PPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  9. Ligament instability of semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattheck, C.; Morawietz, P.; Munz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The critical stress for ligament yielding in a plate (e.g. austenite SS) with a semi-elliptical surface crack was calculated using the Dugdale model. The necessary stress intensity factor for the strip load was obtained with the weight function method. The quality of the analytical expression was chequed with FEM-calculations. (orig.)

  10. Development and Evaluation of Compact Robot Imitating a Hermit Crab for Inspecting the Outer Surface of Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Imajo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial hermit crabs which are a type of hermit crabs live on land, whereas typical hermit crabs inhabit the sea. They have an ability of climbing a tree vertically. Their claws allow them to hang on the tree. In this study, an outer-pipe inspection robot was developed. Its locomotion mechanism was developed in imitation of the terrestrial hermit crab’s claws. It is equipped with two rimless wheels. Each of the spokes is tipped with a neodymium magnet, which allows the robot to remain attached to even a vertical steel pipe. Moreover, the robot has a mechanism for adjusting the camber angle of the right and left wheels, allowing it to tightly grip pipes with different diameters. Experiments were conducted to check the performance of the robot using steel pipes with different diameters, placed horizontally, vertically, or obliquely. The robot attempted to move a certain distance along a pipe, and its success rate was measured. It was found that the robot could successfully travel along pipes with vertical orientations, although it sometimes fell from oblique or horizontal pipes. The most likely reason for this is identified and discussed. Certain results were obtained in laboratory. Further experiments in actual environment are required.

  11. Large boiler modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the modularization strategy in boiler manufacture of Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd, designed specifically to provide steam capacities up to 1,000,000 lb/hr. Designed as a solution for the oil sands market, the boiler responds to the needs of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and other in situ processes. Manufacture of three modules: furnace, superheater, and saturated module, is detailed assembly phases are shown as well as the construction sequence. The boiler is bottom-supported and features a unique modularized design that maximizes shop assembly and provides certainty to delivery and overall project schedule. Moreover, it is adaptable for all liquid and gaseous fuel types, including natural gas, produced gas and emulsified liquid fuels. This highly modular solution makes it a comprehensive solution for projects where construction risks and costs would otherwise be prohibitive. Maximum modularization of the boiler and minimal site labour are key design features, ensuring compliance with the weight and dimensional constraints of Alberta's high load corridor.

  12. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible. Due...

  13. Crack-tip Stress Field of Fully Circumferential Surface Cracked Pipe Under Combined Tension and Thermal Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Jin Ho; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Yun Jae

    2014-01-01

    Under excessive plasticity, the fracture toughness of a material depends on its size and geometry. Under fully yielded conditions, the stresses in a material near its crack tip are not unique but rather depend on the geometry. Therefore, the single-parameter J-approach is limited to a high-constraint crack geometry. The JQ theory has been proposed for establishing the crack geometry constraints . This approach assumes that the crack-tip fields have two degrees of freedom. In this study, the crack-tip stress field of a fully circumferential surface-cracked pipe under combined loads is investigated on the basis of the JQ theory by using finite element analysis. The combined loads are a tensile axial force and the thermal gradient in the radial direction. Q-stresses of the crack geometry and its loading state are used to determine the constraint effects. The constraint effects of secondary loading are found to be greater than those of primary loading. Therefore, thermal shock is believed to be the most severe loading condition of constraint effects

  14. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  15. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  16. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  17. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  18. Chemical cleaning of boilers and corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhosary, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    While being assembled and installed, thermal-power equipment accumulates a large amount of corrosion products, scale (as much as 350 g/m 2 ), welding residue, and other contaminants that must be removed before the equipment is started up. This is generally done with various acids and inhibitors. For boilers this chemical cleaning process is termed pre start cleaning. In contrast, an operational cleaning of boilers is also carried out, in order to remove carbonate deposits, that interfere with heat transfer, as well as the corrosion products that accumulate with use. The techniques include rinsing with water to remove contaminants not firmly adhering to the metal surfaces, decreasing in alkali reagents to remove grease and to loosen scale, pickling in mineral and organic acids for scale removal, and passivation of the metal surface. decreasing is usually carried out in alkali reagents used are caustic soda, soda ash, tri sodium phosphate ammonia, and surface-active agents

  19. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  20. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  1. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  2. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  3. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  4. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atcharawadi Thong-On

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG welding of Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo tube to carbon steel pipe with chromium-containing filler. The cost of production could be reduced by the use of low cost material such as carbon steel pipe for boiler header. The effect of chromium content on corrosion behavior of the weld was greater than that of the microstructure. The lifetime of the welded boiler can be increased by improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the heat affected zone.

  5. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  6. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Failure analysis of boiler tubes in lakhra coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Baluch, M.M.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Present work deals with the failure analysis of a boiler tube in Lakhra fluidized bed combustion power station. Initially, visual inspection technique was adopted to analyse the fractured surface. Detailed microstructural investigations of the busted boiler tube were carried out using light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness tests were also performed. A 50 percent decrease in hardness of intact portion of the tube material and from area adjacent to failure was measured, which was found to be in good agreement with the wall thicknesses measured of the busted boiler tube i.e. 4 mm and 2 mm from unaffected portion and ruptured area respectively. It was concluded that the major cause of failure of boiler tube is erosion of material which occurs due the coal particles strike at the surface of the tube material. Since the temperature of boiler is not maintained uniformly. The variations in boiler temperature can also affect the material and could be another reason for the failure of the tube. (author)

  8. Comparison and evaluation of flexible and stiff piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, W.; Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was performed on a piping system, with various support configurations, to assess the difference in piping response for flexible and stiff piping systems. Questions have arisen concerning a basic design philosophy employed in present day piping designs. One basic question is, the reliability of a flexible piping system greater than that of a stiff piping system by virtue of the fact that a flexible system has fewer snubber supports. With fewer snubbers, the pipe is less susceptible to inadvertent thermal stresses introduced by snubber malfunction during normal operation. In addition to the technical issue, the matter of cost savings in flexible piping system design is a significant one. The costs associated with construction, in-service inspection and maintenance are all significantly reduced by reducing the number of snubber supports. The evaluation study, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was performed on a boiler feedwater line at Consolidated Edison's Indian Point Unit 1. In this study, the boiler feedwater line was tested and analyzed with two fundamentally different support systems. The first system was very flexible, employing rod and spring hangers, and represented the 'old' design philosophy. The pipe system was very flexible with this support system, due to the long pipe span lengths between supports and the fact that there was only one lateral support. This support did not provide much restraint since it was near an anchor. The second system employed strut and snubber supports and represented the 'modern' design philosophy. The pipe system was relatively stiff with this support system, primarily due to the increased number of supports, including lateral supports, thereby reducing the pipe span lengths between supports. The second support system was designed with removable supports to facilitate interchange of the supports with different support types (i.e., struts, mechanical snubbers and hydraulic

  9. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  10. Quality and nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cante, C.

    1977-08-01

    The design and manufacture of the components, assembly, erection and tests, these different stages in the making of a nuclear boiler are carried out according to very accurately defined techniques and organization. From the technical viewpoint, it is shown how standard practice, experience, tests, the respect of codes and standard specifications contribute to the quality of achievement. The organizing of the assurance of quality is exposed by more particularly bringing to mind an American text which sets forth a certain number of principles widely applied beyond the frontiers of the United States. (author)

  11. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... to the internal pressure the consequence of the increased volume (i.e. water-/steam space) is an increased wall thickness in the pressure part of the boiler. The stresses introduced in the boiler pressure part as a result of the temperature gradients are proportional to the square of the wall thickness...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...

  12. Multi-circulation boiler design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) requires steam, which was historically supplied by once-through steam generators (OTSG). OTSGs are now often replaced by drum boilers for steam generation. Drum boilers have a higher capacity than OTSGs and produce reduced blowdown. However, the volume of contaminants in feedwater is generally significant and ASME criteria require high-quality feedwater. The current study investigates a new design for a multi-circulation boiler that would allow cleaner steam to be generated from lower quality feedwater. In drum boilers, water circulates in one zone. By analyzing circulation fundamentals (notably heat flux and void fraction), the design of multiple circulation zones was envisaged to separate the clean water from the contaminated water. Working with distinct circulation zones would allow the quality of the steam from low quality feedwater to be improved, all the while maintaining the blowdown. The new design would result in a boiler which is easier to clean and would meet ASME criteria.

  13. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  14. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  15. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  16. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  17. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  18. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  19. Study of flue-gas temperature difference in supercritical once-through boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanchang; Li, Bing; Song, Ang

    2018-02-01

    The 600 MW coal-fired once-through Boilers with opposed firing at a power plant are found to experience marked temperature variation and even overtemperature on the wall of the heating surface as a result of flue-gas temperature (FGT) variation in the boiler. In this study, operational adjustments were made to the pulverizing, combustion, and secondary air box systems in these boilers, in order to solve problems in internal combustion. The adjustments were found to reduce FGT difference and optimize the boiler’ combustion conditions. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimization of coal-fired boiler of the same type in similar conditions.

  20. A fracture mechanics assessment of surface cracks existing in protective layers of multi-layer composite pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Ševčík, Martin; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2010), s. 1120-1125 ISSN 0263-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Protective layers * Multi-layer pipes damage * Fracture mechanics * Bi-material interface * Generalized stress intensity factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2010

  1. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating that...

  4. Comparisons of ASME-code fatigue-evaluation methods for nuclear Class 1 piping with Class 2 or 3 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1983-06-01

    The fatigue evaluation procedure used in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sect. III, Nuclear Power Plant Components, for Class 1 piping is different from the procedure used for Class 2 or 3 piping. The basis for each procedure is described, and correlations between the two procedures are presented. Conditions under which either procedure or both may be unconservative are noted. Potential changes in the Class 2 or 3 piping procedure to explicitly cover all loadings are discussed. However, the report is intended to be informative, and while the contents of the report may guide future Code changes, specific recommendations are not given herein

  5. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Dong; Chen Gongming; Zhou Xu; Bi Qincheng

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  7. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  8. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  9. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  10. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  12. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Rethinking ASME III seismic analysis for piping operability evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been recognized since the mid 1980's that there are very large seismic margins to failure for nuclear piping systems when designed using current industry practice, design criteria, and methods. As a result of this realization there are or have been approximately eighteen initiatives within the ASME , Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Division 1, in the form of proposed code cases and proposed code text changes designed to reduce these failure margins to more realistic values. For the most part these initiatives have concentrated on reclassifying seismic inertia stresses in the piping as secondary and increasing the allowable stress limits permitted by Section III of the ASME, Boiler Code. This paper focuses on the application of non-linear spectral analysis methods as a method to reduce the input seismic demand determination and thereby reduce the seismic failure margins. The approach is evaluated using the ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subgroup on Design benchmark procedure as proposed by the Subgroup's Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria. Using this procedure, criteria are compared to current code criterion and analysis methods, and several other of the currently proposed Boiler and Pressure Vessel, Section III, changes. Finally, the applicability of the non-linear spectral analysis to continued Safe Operation Evaluations is reviewed and discussed

  15. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  16. Practical aspects of acoustic plastic pipe location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, J.E.; Campbell, B.K. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ching, G.K. [Southern California Gas Co. (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Many gas distribution company operation and maintenance activities require precise knowledge of the location of buried plastic piping. Plastic pipe cannot be located if the tracer wire is gone or was never installed. Under sponsorship of the Southern California Gas Company, IGT successfully demonstrated an acoustic plastic pipe location technique and is developing the technique into a practical field instrument an acoustic signal is injected directly into the gas at a service. The acoustic signal travels in the gas in the pipes, not in the pipe wall. As the acoustic wave travels along the pipe, some of the sound radiates from the pipe through the soil to the surface of the ground. An array of sensors on the surface of the ground perpendicular to the pipe detects the acoustic signal, thereby locating the Pipe. Two different acoustic measurements are used. The first measurement locates the pipe to within {plus_minus} 3-ft. Then the second technique determines the location of the pipe to within {plus_minus} 6-in.

  17. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.C.; Knoell, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by 137 Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations

  18. A Computational approach in optimizing process parameters of GTAW for SA 106 Grade B steel pipes using Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, A.; Sai Ramnadh, L. V.; Manish, P.; Harnath, V.; Lakshman, V.

    2016-09-01

    Welding is one of the most common metal joining techniques used in industry for decades. As in the global manufacturing scenario the products should be more cost effective. Therefore the selection of right process with optimal parameters will help the industry in minimizing their cost of production. SA 106 Grade B steel has a wide application in Automobile chassis structure, Boiler tubes and pressure vessels industries. Employing central composite design the process parameters for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding was optimized. The input parameters chosen were weld current, peak current and frequency. The joint tensile strength was the response considered in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the statistical significance of the parameters and a Regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of input parameters over the response. From the experiment the maximum tensile strength obtained was 95 KN reported for a weld current of 95 Amp, frequency of 50 Hz and peak current of 100 Amp. With an aim of maximizing the joint strength using Response optimizer a target value of 100 KN is selected and regression models were optimized. The output results are achievable with a Weld current of 62.6148 Amp, Frequency of 23.1821 Hz, and Peak current of 65.9104 Amp. Using Die penetration test the weld joints were also classified in to 2 categories as good weld and weld with defect. This will also help in getting a defect free joint when welding is performed using GTAW process.

  19. Device for extracting steam or gas from the primary coolant line leading from a reactor pressure vessel to a straight through boiler or from the top primary boiler chamber of a water-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, K.

    1982-01-01

    In such a nuclear reactor, a steam or gas cushion can form when the primary system is refilled, which can cause blocking of the natural circulation or filling of the system in the area of the hot primary coolant pipe or in the top primary boiler chamber. In order to remove such a steam or gas cushion, a ventilation pipe starting from the bend of the primary coolant line is connected to the feed pipe for introducing water into the primary system. The feed pipe is designed on the principle of the vacuum pump in the area of the opening of the ventilation pipe. There is a sub-pressure in the ventilation pipe, which makes it possible to extract the steam or gas. After mixing in the area of the opening, the steam condenses or is distributed with the gas in the primary coolant. (orig.) [de

  20. Significance of residual stress on fatigue properties of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, A.; Maeda, Y.; Kanao, M.

    1984-01-01

    The mean stress effect on the fatigue properties of two kinds of welded pipes was investigated in cantilever bending. The fatigue strength changed with the mean stress on fillet welded pipes, but did not change on butt welded pipes. The fatigue crack initiated from the toe of weld on the outer surface of fillet welded pipes and from the undercut on the inner surface of butt welded pipes. The measurement of the fatigue crack propagation rate and the residual stress distribution through the thickness of pipe revealed that the difference in the fatigue properties between fillet and butt welded pipes arose from the weld-induced residual stress, tension on the inner surface and compression on the outer surface. It is suggested that the production of compressive residual stress along the inner surface would be an effective means for improving the fatigue strength of butt welded pipes. (author)

  1. Element and Crack Geometry Sensitivities of Finite Element Analysis Results of Linear Elastic Stress Intensity Factor for Surface Cracked Straight Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Dongil; Bae, Kyungdong; Je, Jinho; An, Joonghyok; Kim, Yongbeum

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the elastic stress intensity factors, K, for circumferential and longitudinal surface cracked straight pipes under single or combined loads of internal pressure, bending, and torsion based on three-dimensional (3a) finite element (FE) analyses. FE results are compared with two different types of defect assessment codes (API-579-1 and RUC-MR A106) to prove the accuracy of the FE results and the differences between the codes. Through the 3a FE analysis, it is found that the stress intensity factors are sensitive to the number of elements, which they were believed to not be sensitive to because of path independence. Differences were also found between the FE analysis results for crack defining methods and the results obtained by two different types of defect assessment codes

  2. Heat losses in power boilers caused by thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocot Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of heat losses caused by thermal bridges that occur in the steam boiler OP-140 is presented. Identification of these bridges were conducted with use of thermographic camera. Heat losses were evaluated based on methodology of VDI 4610 standard, but instead of its simplified equations, criterial equations based on Nusselt number were used. Obtained values of annual heat losses and heat flux density corresponding to the fully insulated boiler surfaces were compared to heat losses generated by thermal bridges located in the same areas. The emphasis is put on the role of industrial insulation in heat losses reduction.

  3. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  4. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  5. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc....... Traditionally boiler control systems have been designed in a rather simple manner consisting of a feed water controller and a pressure controller; two controllers which, in principle, operated without any interaction - for more details on boiler control see [4]. During the last year Aalborg Industries A/S has...... into account. The present study covers re-tube boilers. To be able to minimize the size (i.e. volume) of the boiler and, at the same time, obtain the best possible dynamic performance, it is important to minimize the water level uctuations in the boiler as much as possible. In the present study a detailed...

  6. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  7. Auger electron spectroscopy of the surface of a pipe-like solid C60+18n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostov, V.V.; Chernozatonskij, L.A.; Kosakovskaya, Z.Ya.; Babaev, V.V.; Guseva, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Auger and electron energy loss spectra obtained when probing the surface of nanofiber carbon material by an electron beam point out to C 60 football-type of covers with the outlet to the surface of nanopipe carbon molecules

  8. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  9. Ash Deposit Formation and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    Utilization of biomass on large suspension-fired boilers is a potentially efficient method to reduce net CO2 emissions and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. However, ash deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces may cuase operational problems and in severe cases lead to boiler stop...... by using an advanced online deposit probe in a full scale suspension-fired boiler using wood and straw pellets as fuel (Amageværket Unit 2, AMV2). The 250 MWth boiler has maximum capacity of 60t/h biomass, owned by Vattenfall, and located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The maximum operation period of boiler...... material was accumulated. Elemental analysis of the fuel ash, fly ash and deposit samples was made using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to determine elemental percentage of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, S and Cl. Elemental composition of fly ash samples during straw...

  10. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  11. Site radiography in boiler industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemachandran, P.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography enjoys a unique position in radiography of weldments made at erection sites of industrial boilers. It also faces problems due to unfavourable conditions existing in these sites. The over-all approach to radiography at boiler erection sites has been dealt with. The advantages of modern X-ray and gamma ray equipment for these particular applications are discussed. A few useful accessories which reduce the complexity of source positioning and allied problems due to elevated position are suggested. Safety problems at sites are also dealt with. (author)

  12. NDT in inspection-repairing of boiler AE-101 of fertilizers Plant-Talara-Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1988-01-01

    Experiences got from the use of NDT in inspection-repairing of boiler AE-101 of fertilizers Plant-Talara is presented after failures by pipes breakage. Applying liquid penetrant testing and visual inspection it was possible to determine the seriousness of the equipment the use of metallographic copies, ultrasonic measurements and hardness gave us an idea of the actual condition of the equipment, allowing a safe performance

  13. Innovative technology summary report: Pipe Explorertrademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pipe Explorertrademark system, developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been used to transport various characterizing sensors into piping systems that have been radiologically contaminated. DOE's nuclear facility decommissioning program must characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand-held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Various measuring difficulties, and in some cases, the inability to measure threshold surface contamination values and worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of traditional survey approaches. The Pipe Explorertrademark system provides a viable alternative. The heart of the system is an air-tight membrane, which is initially spooled inside a canister. The end of the membrane protrudes out of the canister and attaches to the pipe being inspected. The other end of the tubular membrane is attached to the tether and characterization tools. When the canister is pressurized, the membrane inverts and deploys inside the pipe. The characterization detector and its cabling is attached to the tethered end of the membrane. As the membrane is deployed into the pipe, the detector and its cabling is towed into the pipe inside the protective membrane; measurements are taken from within the protective membrane. Once the survey measurements are completed, the process is reversed to retrieve the characterization tools

  14. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-06

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage is described for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a Y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure. 4 figures.

  15. Hot clamp design for LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tateishi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for liquid metal fast breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal transients during reactor scrams. To reduce local thermal stresses, an insulted cold clamp was designed for the Fast Flux Test Facility and was also applied to some following prototype reactors. However, the cost minimization of LMFBR requires much simpler designs. This paper presents a hot clamp design concept, which uses standard clamp halves directly attached to the pipe surface with an initial gap. Combinations of flexible pipe and rigid clamp achieved a self-control effect on clamp induced pipe stresses due to the initial gap. A 3-D contact and inelastic history analysis were performed to verify the hot clamp concept. Considerations to reduce the initial stress at installation, to mitigate the clamp restraint on the pipe expansion during thermal shocks, and to maintain the pipe-clamp stiffness desired during a seismic event are discussed

  16. Hot clamp design for LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tateishi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Thin-wall, large-diameter piping for liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plants can be subjected to significant thermal transients during reactor scrams. To reduce local thermal stresses, an insulated cold clamp was designed for the fast flux test facility and was also applied to some prototype reactors thereafter. However, the cost minimization of LMFBR requires much simpler designs. This paper presents a hot clamp design concept, which uses standard clamp halves directly attached to the pipe surface leaving an initial gap. Combinations of flexible pipe and rigid clamp achieved a self-control effect on clamp-induced pipe stresses due to the initial gap. A 3-D contact and inelastic history analysis were performed to verify the hot clamp concept. Considerations to reduce the initial stress at installation, to mitigate the clamp restraint on the pipe expansion during thermal shocks, and to maintain the pipe-clamp stiffness desired during a seismic event were discussed

  17. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  18. Aseismic optimization of nonlinear joint elements in boiler plant structures based on substructure synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, E.; Suzuki, K.; Yasuda, T.; Ohwa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with an optimum design method for joint elements in boiler plant structures which are excited by earthquakes. Characteristics of joint elements which connect the boiler and its supporting structure, are supposed to be viscoelastic, elasto-plastic, or a combination of both. Considering the expansion of this study to an active or semi-active aseismic structural control of joint elements, the structures are modeled with the aid of block diagram. In order to improve the efficiency of calculation, substructure synthesis method is introduced. Time-domain optimization is carried out using a nonlinear programming technique. To prevent seismic damage of pipes and ducts, limitations for relative displacements between the boiler and its supporting structure is introduced is inequality constraints. Elasto-plasticity and viscoelasticity of joint elements are simulated by a combination of a spring, a Coulomb friction, and a dashpot. These joint element characteristics are optimized to minimize seismic time-response of the structures. This method is applied to actual boiler plant structures and has proven to be effective and practical for aseismic designs of boiler plant structures

  19. THE STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF THE THIN WALL BEARING UNITS TO ROLLS ROLLER SEATS PIPE CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of surface roughness of thin-walled houses bearing rollers for roller mills. Size and shape of the rear end housing was designed in order to measure the surface roughness of the inner cylindrical bearing surface with a wall thickness of 4, 5 and 6 mm. For comparison roughness was measured and a wall thickness of 26 mm. Welded housing and the base plate is clamped in the machine vice jaw of a width of 150 mm. Material components bearing small house has been fine-grain weldable steel bearing S355. Tool for finishing the hole with a diameter of 40 mm was used with a diameter of 32 mm with three cutting blades SDXT09M405R MM. Spindle speed was 1350 rev / min. Tool feed speed was 850 mm / min. The surface roughness was measured with a Mitutoyo SJ 400th.

  20. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  1. An Alluvial Surface Chronology Based on Cosmogenic 36Cl Dating, Ajo Mountains (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sharma, Pankaj

    1996-01-01

    A chronology of alluvial surfaces on piedmont slopes below the western Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, has been obtained using cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation and AMS radiocarbon dating. The apparent 36Cl ages of individual boulders range from 520,000 to 13,000 yr, and the 14C ages of organic material in the two young terraces are 2750-2350 and 17,800 cal yr B.P. The sequence of 36Cl ages is consistent with the apparent stratigraphic order, but groupings of similar ages for different surfaces appear to result from repeated reworking of older surfaces associated with the deposition of younger ones. The youngest surface gave a distribution of 36Cl ages about 30,000 yr older than the 14C and soil ages; however, this distribution had 36Cl ages that overlapped with 36Cl ages from active channels and hillslopes. We attribute the older-than-expected exposure ages of sampled boulders to inheritance of 36Cl while residing near the surface during very slow erosion on the mountain front. Our results show that although cosmogenic nuclide accumulation can help establish chronologies for surfaces in piedmont settings, care must be used in evaluating the effects of complex exposure histories.

  2. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  3. CaSO4 Scale Inhibition by a Trace Amount of Zinc Ion in Piping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangestiyono, W.; Sutrisno

    2017-05-01

    Usually, a small steam generator is not complemented by equipment such as demineralization and chlorination process apparatus since the economic aspect was a precedence. Such phenomenon was uncovered in a case study of green tea industrial process in which the boiler capacity was not more than 1 ton/hour. The operation of the small boiler affected the scaling process in its piping system. In a year operation, there was already a large scale of calcium attached to the inner surface of the pipe. Such large scale formed a layer and decreased the overall heat transfer coefficient, prolonged the process time and decreased the production. The aim of the current research was to solve the problem through a laboratory research to inhibit the CaSO4 scale formation by the addition of trace amounts of zinc ion. This research was conducted through a built in-house experimental rig which consisted of a dosing pump for controlling the flow rate and a thermocouple to control the temperature. Synthesis solution was prepared with 3,500 ppm concentration of CaCl2 and Na2SO4. The concentration of zinc was set at 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. The data found were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze crystal polymorph as the influence of zinc ion addition. The induction time was also investigated to analyze the nucleation time, and it was found on the 9th, 13th, and 19th minute of the zinc ion addition of 0.00, 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. After running for a four-hour duration, the scale grow-rate was found to be 5.799; 5.501 and 4.950 × 10-3 gr/min for 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm of zinc addition at 50 °C.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge point. (d) If diesel fuel lines are not buried in the ground sufficiently to protect them from... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated...

  5. On the whistling of corrugated pipes with narrow cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; González Diez, N.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes with a corrugated inner surface, as used inflexible pipes for gas production and transport, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocities are higher than a certain onset velocity. The onset velocity for classical corrugated pipes can be predicted on basis of the geometry

  6. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  7. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  8. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  9. Piping Stress Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis on Primary Sampling System, Reactor Cooling System, and Feedwater System for AP600 have been performed. Piping stress analysis is one of the requirements in the design of piping system. Piping stress is occurred due to static and dynamic loads during service. Analysis was carried out. Using PS+CAEPIPE software based on the individual and combination loads with assumption that failure could be happened during normal, upset, emergency and faulted condition as describe in ASME III/ANSI B31.1. With performing the piping stress analysis, the layout (proper pipe routing) of the piping system can be design with the requirements of piping stress and pipe supports in mind I.e sufficient flexibility for thermal expansion, etc to commensurate with the i tended service such as temperatures, pressure, seismic and anticipated loading

  10. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  11. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  12. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  13. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  14. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  15. Investigation of surface oxide morphology in SG feedwater pipes and study of its influence on flow accelerated corrosion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, G.; Alos-Ramos, O.; Monchecourt, D.; Mansour, C.; Delaunay, S.; Trevin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) affects carbon steel components in the secondary circuits of PWR plants. The mandatory use of the prediction tool BRT-CICERO in all its PWR plants enables EDF to perform efficient inspections programs and minimize the number of leaks in the secondary circuits. Due to the operating conditions, SG feedwater flow regulation (ARE) circuits can be affected by FAC phenomenon. Thickness loss has been reported by several plants during the last 10 years, although significant damage by FAC remains very rare. This paper describes the surface features observed on an ARE straight tube that has orange peel pattern with thickness loss on the one half of its inner surface and a thick fouling layer without much thickness loss on the other. An analysis of the oxide porosity and structure by SEM investigation has been carried out. The origin of fouling layer and its behavior in the ARE circuits environment (oxide solubility, flow stability/turbulence) have been discussed. Finally by comparing with the classic FAC models, an attempt of correlation between the presence of the fouling layer and the lower corrosion rate is proposed. (authors)

  16. A checking device for pipes in which a high pressure fluid is circulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, R.D.; Pitt, W.A.; White, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    A checking device for restricting the movements of a pipe in which a high pressure fluid is circulated, should said pipe happen to be ruptured. That device comprises a U-shaped checking, or retaining bar surrounding the pipe, and slightly spaced therefrom at each end of said bar a support member fixed to a frame member of the steam generator and an articulated connection between each of said ends and its respective support-member. That device can be applied to nuclear steam boilers [fr

  17. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  18. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  19. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  20. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  1. 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in scales formed in boilers of industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M. Braga; Farias, Emerson Emiliano G. de; Hazin, Clovis A.; Gazineu, Maria Helena P.; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco

    2011-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the production of steam in boilers, which is sent through pipes to machines and other equipment used in different sectors of the installations. The water commonly used in these processes is groundwater, which generally has high concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts, that can co-precipitate with naturally occurring radioactive elements such as 226 Ra and 228 Ra creating radioactive scales, which are deposited in pipes, thus decreasing the efficiency of steam production. In addition, 40 K that is present in all soils and rocks with a concentration of about 0.012% of natural potassium can also be concentrated in these scales. No data was found in literature relating to radionuclides present in the scales formed on boilers in general. In this context, the purpose of this work was to determine concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K, in scales generated inside boilers from different industries in the cities of Caruaru, Paulista and Goiana, Pernambuco. Determination of the radionuclides concentration was performed by gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, calculating their specific activities. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra were in the range of -1 and 228 Ra activity concentrations varied from 1 . Activity concentrations of 40 K were in the range of -1 . All these activity concentrations were lower than the limits established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission of for this type of matrix. (author)

  2. The Influence of the Ash from the Biomass on the Power Boiler Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing units, which use biomass for combustion and cofiring, are obliged to increase the amount of biomass from agricultural sources gradually in place of timber biomass from forests. Many different species of trees that grow on arable land, bushes, grasses or perennials can be used for energy aims. A huge variety of plants, that give biomass useful in the power industry, is connected with a big diversity of physical characteristics (hardness, specific gravity, moisture content, porosity and chemical composition. It significantly affects not only the biomass calorific value but also the condition of the boilers in which it is burnt. This paper presents the results of the research concerning the influence of the process of combustion biomass from seven plant species on the boilers fouling on the basis of ash chemical composition. The indicators that we used for the analysis were: boilers slagging, the tendency of fuel to form impurities, sintering and agglomeration. There was shown a significant variation in the content of alkalies, that cause the formation of sediment on the boilers heating surfaces. The smallest risk of heating boilers fouling is associated with perennial grasses incineration, especially the ones from the Miscanthus species, that contain significant quantities of silicon monoxide, which is responsible for the heating surfaces erosion. The usage of polycarpic plants as Virginia mallow or Jerusalem artichoke may cause pollution deposition and reduce the efficiency of boilers to the greatest degree. Because of the fact that biomass of different plant species show the diversity of energy parameters and tendencies to foul boilers there is a need to select the material to the combustion carefully and also blends of biomass raw materials (or biomass with coal should be composed so that they are adapted to the boiler parameters and to the conditions of the combustion process.

  3. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  4. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  5. Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology; Kaatsu naibu junkan ryudosho boiler no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, I. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nagato, S.; Toyoda, S. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper introduced support research on element technology needed for the design of hot models of the pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler in fiscal 1995 and specifications for testing facilities of 4MWt hot models after finishing the basic plan. The support research was conduced as follows: (a) In the test for analysis of cold model fluidization, it was confirmed that each characteristic value of hot models is higher than the target value. Further, calculation parameters required for computer simulation were measured and data on the design of air diffusion nozzle for 1 chamber wind box were sampled. (b) In the CWP conveyance characteristic survey, it was confirmed that it is possible to produce CWP having favorable properties. It was also confirmed that favorable conveyability can be maintained even if the piping size was reduced down to 25A. (c) In the gas pressure reducing test, basic data required for the design of gas pressure reducing equipment were sampled. Specifications for the fluidized bed combustion boiler of hot models are as follows: evaporation amount: 3070kg/h, steam pressure: 1.77MPa, fuel supply amount: 600kg-coal/h, boiler body: cylinder shape water tube internally circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  7. Influence of Deposit Formation on Corrosion at a Straw Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    Straw-fired boilers generally experience severe problems with deposit formation and are expected to suffer from severe superheater corrosion at high steam temperatures due to the large alkali and chlorine content in straw. In this study, deposits collected (1) on air-cooled probes and (2) directly...... at the existing heat transfer surfaces of a straw-fired boiler have been examined. Deposits collected on air-cooled probes were found to consist of an inner layer of KCl and an outer layer of sintered fly ash. Ash deposits formed on the heat transfer surfaces all had a characteristic layered structure......, with a dense layer of K2SO4 present adjacent to the metal surface. It is argued that the K2SO4 layer present adjacent to the metal surface may lead to reduced corrosion rates at this boiler. A discussion of the deposit structure, the K2SO4 layer formation mechanism, and the influence of the inner layer...

  8. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  9. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  10. Evaluation of seismic margins for an in-plant piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Earthquake experience as well as experiments indicate that, in general, piping systems are quite rugged in resisting seismic loadings. Therefore there is a basis to hold that the seismic margin against pipe failure is very high for systems designed according to current practice. However, there is very little data, either from tests or from earthquake experience, on the actual margin or excess capacity (against failure from seismic loading) of in-plant piping systems. Design of nuclear power plant piping systems in the US is governed by the criteria given in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B ampersand PV) Code, which assure that pipe stresses are within specified allowable limits. Generally linear elastic analytical methods are used to determine the stresses in the pipe and forces in pipe supports. The objective of this study is to verify that piping designed according to current practice does indeed have a large margin against failure and to quantify the excess capacity for piping and dynamic pipe supports on the basis of data obtained in a series of high-level seismic experiments (designated SHAM) on an in-plant piping system at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Germany. Note that in the present context, seismic margin refers to the deterministic excess capacities of piping or supports compared to their design capacities. The excess seismic capacities or margins of a prototypical in-plant piping system and its components are evaluated by comparing measured inputs and responses from high-level simulated seismic experiments with design loads and allowables. Large excess capacities are clearly demonstrated against pipe and overall system failure with the lower bound being about four. For snubbers the lower bound margin is estimated at two and for rigid strut supports at five. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  12. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Effect of Thermal Storage on the Performance of a Wood Pellet-fired Residential Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Butcher

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the direct use of biomass for thermal applications as a renewable technology is increasing as is also focus on air pollutant emissions from these sources and methods to minimize the impact. This work has focused on wood pellet-fired residential boilers, which are the cleanest fuel in this category. In the residential application the load varies strongly over the course of a year and a high fraction of the load is typically under 15% of the maximum boiler capacity. Thermal storage can be used even with boilers which have modulation capacity typically to 30% of the boiler maximum. One common pellet boiler was tested at full load and also at the minimum load used in the U.S. certification testing (15%). In these tests the load was steady over the test period. Testing was also done with an emulated load profile for a home in Albany, N.Y. on a typical January, March, and April day. In this case the load imposed on the boiler varied hourly under computer control, based on the modeled load for the example case used. The boiler used has a nominal output of 25 kW and a common mixed hardwood/softwood commercial pellet was used. Moisture content was 3.77%. A dilution tunnel approach was used for the measurement of particulate emissions, in accordance with U.S. certification testing requirements. The test results showed that the use of storage strongly reduces cycling rates under part load conditions. The transients which occur as these boilers cycle contribute to increased particulate emissions and reduced efficiency. The time period of a full cycle at a given load condition can be increased by increasing the storage tank volume and/or increasing the control differential range. It was shown that increasing the period strongly increased the measured efficiency and reduced the particulate emission (relative to the no storage case). The impact was most significant at the low load levels. Storage tank heat loss is shown to be a significant factor in thermal efficiency

  14. Residual stress improvement for pipe weld by means of induction heating pre-flawed pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, T.; Yoshida, K.; Okamoto, A.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been found in type 304 stainless steel piping of several BWR plants. It is already well known that IGSCC is most likely to occur when three essential factors, material sensitization, high tensile stress and corrosive environment, are present. If the welding residual stress is sufficiently high (200 to approximately 400 MPa) in the inside piping surface near the welded joint, then it may be one of the biggest contributors to IGSCC. If the residual stress is reduced or reversed by some way, the IGSCC will be effectively mitigated. In this paper a method to improve the residual stress named IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) is explained. IHSI aims to improve the condition of residual stress in the inside pipe surface using the thermal stress induced by the temperature difference in pipe wall, that is produced when the pipe is heated from the outside surface by an induction heating coil and cooled on the inside surface by water simultaneously. This method becomes more attractive when it can be successfully applied to in-service piping which might have some pre-flaw. In order to verify the validity of IHSI for such piping, some experiments and calculations using finite element method were conducted. These results are mainly discussed in this paper from the view-points of residual stress, flaw behaviour during IHSI and material deterioration. (author)

  15. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  16. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M.P.; Yanez, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits

  17. A numerical study on thermal behavior of a D-type water-cooled steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghari, M.; Hosseini, S.; Shokouhmand, H.; Sharifi, H.; Izadpanah, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a precise assessment on thermal performance of a D-type water-cooled natural gas-fired boiler the present paper was aimed at determining temperature distribution of water and flue gas flows in its different heat exchange equipment. Using the zonal method to predict thermal radiation treatment in the boiler furnace and a numerical iterative approach, in which heat and fluid flow relations associated with different heat surfaces in the boiler convective zone were employed to estimate heat transfer characteristics, enabled this numerical study to obtain results in good agreement with experimental data measured in the utility site during steady state operation. A constant flow rate for a natural gas fuel of specified chemical composition was assumed to be mixed with a given excess ratio of air flow at a full boiler load. Significant results attributed to distribution of heat flux on different furnace walls and that of flue gas and water/steam temperature in different convective stages including superheater, evaporating risers and downcomers modules, and economizer were obtained. Besides the rate of heat absorption in every stage and other essential parameters in the boiler design too, inherent thermal characteristics like radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients as well as overall heat transfer conductance and effectiveness of convective stages considered as cross-flow heat exchangers were eventually presented for the given operating condition. - Highlights: ► Detailed distribution of heat flux on all of the boiler furnace walls was obtained. ► Flue gas and water thermal behaviors in different heating sections were evaluated. ► A good agreement was made between numerical results and experimental data. ► Contribution of the boiler furnace to the total thermal absorption was 39%. ► Contribution of the boiler tube banks to the total thermal absorption was 61%.

  18. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98 weight...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  20. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams...

  1. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The...

  2. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharf Abdusalam M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  3. Study on unstable fracture characteristics of light water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi

    1998-08-01

    Many testing studies have been conducted to validate the applicability of the leak before break (LBB) concept for the light water reactor piping in the world. It is especially important among them to clarify the condition that an inside surface crack of the piping wall does not cause an unstable fracture but ends in a stable fracture propagating only in the pipe thickness direction, even if the excessive loading works to the pipe. Pipe unstable fracture tests performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute had been planned under such background, and clarified the condition for the cracked pipe to cause the unstable fracture under monotonous increase loading or cyclic loading by using test pipes with the inside circumferential surface crack. This paper examines the pipe unstable fracture by dividing it into two parts. One is the static unstable fracture that breaks the pipe with the inside circumferential surface crack by increasing load monotonously. Another is the dynamic unstable fracture that breaks the pipe by the cyclic loading. (author). 79 refs

  4. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  5. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO 2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO 2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO 2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  6. Development of fully automatic pipe welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanioka, Shin-ichi; Nakano, Mitsuhiro; Tejima, Akio; Yamada, Minoru; Saito, Tatsuo; Saito, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    We have succeeded in developing a fully automatic TIG welding system; namely CAPTIG that enables unmanned welding operations from the initial layer to the final finishing layer continuously. This welding system is designed for continuous, multilayered welding of thick and large diameter fixed pipes of nuclear power plants and large-size boiler plants where high-quality welding is demanded. In the tests conducted with this welding system, several hours of continuous unmanned welding corroborated that excellent beads are formed, good results are obtained in radiographic inspection and that quality welding is possible most reliably. This system incorporates a microcomputer for fully automatic controls by which it features a seam tracking function, wire feed position automatic control function, a self-checking function for inter-pass temperature, cooling water temperature and wire reserve. (author)

  7. Fabrication of an improved tube-to-pipe header heat exchanger for the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prislinger, J.J.; Jones, R.H.

    1977-05-01

    The procedure used in fabricating an improved tube-to-pipe header heat exchanger for the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) Facility is described. Superior performance is accomplished at reduced cost with adherence to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The techniques used and the method of fabrication are described in detail

  8. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, S.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  9. Boiler economy. Terms and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Economy calculations are nearly exclusively made by computers. Undisputed advantage is apart from the high speed in which even complex calculations are made the 'document character' of the printout. Disadvantageous is that apart from the soft manufacturer almost nobody knows the calculation formulations, basic assumptions and logical connections. One can only accept the result without being able to prove the 'correctness'. There is also hardly the possibility to gain knowledge as the reason for certain results is not explained. Based on known terms of boiler economy many questions arising in practice can be answered with sufficient accuracy. Excessive accuracy is with the many unknown or only estimated operating data anyhow not reasonable. (orig.) [de

  10. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  11. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  12. Treatment of Berkeley boilers in Studsvik. Project description and experiences - Berkeley Boilers Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Dave; Davidson, Gavin; Wirendal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. In November 2012 Studsvik was awarded a further contract for the remaining ten Berkeley Boilers with the requirement to remove all boilers from the Berkeley site by 31 March 2013. Again this was successfully achieved ahead of programme with all boilers in Sweden by 1 April 2013. A total of nine boilers have now been processed and all remaining boilers will be completed by end of September 2014. The projects have had many challenges including a very tight timescale and both have been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the boilers to date. (authors)

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  14. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  15. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  16. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  17. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, F.; Matev, M.; Sykora, J.; Chladek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  18. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  19. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  20. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  1. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  2. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  3. UPEI (University of Prince Edward Island) wood chip boiler to feed second Charlottetown area district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    A new $4.3 million district heating system will deliver heat to 31 subscribers from UPEI's wood-fired heating plant. The plan is to convert UPEI's own campus-wide heat distribution system from steam to more efficient hot water. The total plant output is 13.7 MW, enough to heat the campus and the 31 subcribers' buildings. During the 1987-88 fiscal year, the more northern part of the system will be completed. A year later the system will be extended south. When finished, the project will displace nearly 2 million l of fuel oil annually with just over 7000 green tonnes of wood chips. Hot water from the UPEI boiler plant travels along each route though buried insulated pipes. At the end of a run, the water reverses direction and returns to the boiler in another insulated pipe. It passes through small cylindrical heat exchangers in each building. Boiler and burner maintenance costs are eliminated. Once the user is familiar with the system, the old boiler and hot water tanks can be removed - making space available for other purposes. District heating is virtually noiseless. Insurance costs go down in many cases when boilers and combustion systems are no longer used. The Island's currently underutilized wood resource will be put to better use. These woodchips are made from wood that has been damaged by budworm and other diseases, or wood that is overmature. The project has sound environmental benefits ranging from reduced sulpher emissions to the possible long-term benefit of eliminating a number of underground fuel storage tanks and their potential for leaks.

  4. Deformation Detection in Piping Installations Using Profiling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapurisa, W. T.; Sithole, G.

    2012-07-01

    As-Built surveys of buildings and installations have received greater attention in recent years. An example is the 3D digital reconstruction of existing piping installations at chemical plants for plant maintenance, upgrades and safety standard concerns. This paper is directed at the reconstruction of piping installations with particular emphasis on the detection of deformities in pipes. Reconstruction begins with the automatic detection of individual piping elements which requires a prior segmentation. For segmentation, the profile intersection technique is used. Surfaces are considered as a network of intersecting curves as opposed to surface patches. Recreating such curves on a point set, and intersecting them, segments are identified. The entire scan is partitioned into a series of scan planes referred to as profiles. Points are then connected in each profile based on the surface they represent forming line segments. The line segments, which represent curves, are then intersected to identify segments. For pipes, line segments are elliptical. The centre of an ellipse lies on the pipes' axis and the semi minor axis is equivalent to the radius of the pipe. Therefore together the centres and semi minor axis are used to describe the position, orientation, size and radius of a pipe. For deformed pipes, the line segments deviate from the elliptical shape. By identifying deviations of the line segments from the elliptical shape deformations are identified. The algorithm allows for cylinders, spheres, cones and tori to be detected including deformities in their shape. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Pipe inspection using the BTX-II. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  6. Pipe inspection using the BTX-II. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  7. MSWI Boiler Ashes: Production and Quality Through the Horizontal Section of a Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    of the first phase of a wider study about the solid residues produced at the heat recovery system (boiler) of a waste incineration plant. The characterization was carried out not on the total output of the boiler but on the different solid residues produced at ten different horizontal sections. The aim...

  8. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer trademark system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90 degrees bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer trademark system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer trademark system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration

  9. Inelastic pipe elements for analysis of pipe whip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two alternative assumptions for the effects of moment interaction following yielding of a pipe are compared. The piping system must usually be divided into short finite elements, in order to account for wave propagation through the piping. Where short elements are used, it is accurate and convenient to use a lumped plasticity finite element model, the pipe being represented by three-dimensional beam-column elements in which yielding is assumed to be concentrated in generalized plastic hinges at the element ends. It is also convenient to assume that the generalized moment-rotation relationship at a hinge is elastic-perfectly-plastic, and to account for strain hardening using the well-known parallel element procedure. With this assumption, the task of monitoring hinge behavior is simplified, yet completely arbitrary moment-rotation relationships can be constructed. The interaction relationship defining the combinations of bending and torsional moments which produce yield at a plastic hinge can easily be determined. Classical plasticity theory adopts the normality criterion, in which post-yield deformations are divided into components normal and tangential to the yield surface. The normal components are then assumed to be plastic, producing no change in moment, and the tangential rotations to be elastic, producing moment change in accordance with the element elastic stiffness. An alternative, simpler assumption is that post-yield rotations are entirely plastic. With this assumption, the moments at the hinge remain unchanged, as in a 'rusty' hinge. The elasto-plastic element stiffness for this model does not change continuously during the response analysis, so that the computation is simpler, more economical, but less accurate

  10. IGA/SCC propagation rate measurements on alloy 600 steam generator tubing using a side stream model boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, H.; Matsueda, K.; Matsunaga, T.; Kitera, T.; Arioka, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Okamoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    IGA/SCC crack propagation rate measurements using various types of IGA/SCC predefected ALloy 600 tubing were tested in model boilers, a side stream model boiler at Ohi Unit 1 and similar model boilers in the laboratory. Types of IGA/SCC predefects introduced from the outside of the tubing were as follows. (1) Actual IGA/SCC predefect introduced by high temperature caustic environments; (2) Longitudinal predefect by electrodischarge machining (EDM) method, and then crack tip fatigue was introduced to serve as the marker on the fractured surface (EDM slit + fatigue). IGA/SCC crack propagation rate was measured after the destructive examination by Cr concentration profile on fracture surface for (1), and observation of intergranular fractured surface propagated from the marked fatigue was employed for (2) and (3) after the model boiler tests. As for the water chemistry conditions, mainly AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) + boric acid (5-10ppm as B in SGs) treatment for both model boilers, and some of the tests for the model boiler in the laboratory employed AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) without boric acid. The results of IGA/SCC crack propagation rate measurements were compared with each other, and the three methods employed showed a good coincidence with the rate of ca. 1 x 10 -5 mm/Hr for AVT (high N 2 H 4 ) + boric acid treatment condition, in the case that crack tip boron intensity (B/O value by IMMA analysis) of more than 1 was observed

  11. K{sub I} formula for pipes with a semi-elliptical longitudinal or circumferential, internal or external surface crack; Formulaire de K{sub I} pour les tubes comportant un defaut de surface semi-elliptique longitudinal ou circonferentiel, interne ou externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuliot, St

    2000-07-01

    The report presents the K{sub I} formula realized for pipes containing a semi-elliptical longitudinal or circumferential, internal or external surface crack. It describes successively: the geometry of the studied pipes and defects with the complement realized for limit values; the finite element models used for the K{sub I} calculation; the results validation by a comparison with available solutions; the results presented in tables for the deepest point and the surface point of the semi-ellipse, and all along the crack front; the variables and the interpolation tools for the optimization of the use of the formula. All the presented results constitutes a reference data base to complete the A16 guide for defect assessment. (authors)

  12. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  13. Design of a cavity heat pipe receiver experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark H.; Greenlee, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A cavity heat pipe experiment has been designed to test the critical issues involved with incorporating thermal energy storage canisters into a heat pipe. The experiment is a replication of the operation of a heat receiver for a Brayton solar dynamic power cycle. The heat receiver is composed of a cylindrical receptor surface and an annular heat pipe with thermal energy storage canisters and gaseous working fluid heat exchanger tubes surrounding it. Hardware for the cavity heat pipe experiment will consist of a sector of the heat pipe, complete with gas tube and thermal energy storage canisters. Thermal cycling tests will be performed on the heat pipe sector to simulate the normal energy charge/discharge cycle of the receiver in a spacecraft application.

  14. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  16. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  18. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  19. The load structure of electro boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, N.; Livik, K.

    1995-01-01

    Load measurements have been performed on 24 electro boilers with a time resolution of one hour throughout a period of one year. The boilers are used for space heating and heating of tap water in office buildings, shopping centres and apartment buildings. All boilers have tariffs with disconnection agreements. This report presents load analyses of the measurements from each boiler, and typical load profiles are calculated and presented. It also analyses how boilers are used in relation to the outdoor temperature and the power price on the spot market. All the measurements are performed in Bergen, Norway, in the period August 1993 - August 1994. Typical load profiles are shown, both annual and daily, as well as specific load parameters in addition to key figures used in calculating the total power load on the distribution network. The climate impact on energy and power load is evaluated. The report also shows examples of how the results may be applied in various special fields. 8 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  1. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-Fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    a significant effect under the investigated conditions. Addition of compounds which increase the melt fraction of the ash dposit, typically by forming a eutectic system, increases the adhesion strength, whereas addition of inert compounds with a high melting point decreases the adhesion strength. Furthermore......Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered in biomass combustion. Timely removal of ash deposits is essentialfor optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the adhesion strength of biomass ash from...... off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The effect of sintering temperature, sintering time, deposit composition, thermal shocks on the deposit, and steel type was investigated. The results reveal that the adhesion strength of ash deposits...

  2. The pipes of pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalif, David J

    2004-12-01

    The pipes of pan is the crowning achievement of Pablo Picasso's neoclassical period of the 1920s. This monumental canvas depicts a mythological Mediterranean scene in which two sculpted classical giants stare out, seemingly across the centuries, toward a distant and lost Arcadia. Picasso was influenced by Greco-Roman art during his travels in Italy, and his neoclassical works typically portray massive, immobile, and pensive figures. Pan and his pipes are taken directly from Greek mythological lore by Picasso and placed directly into 20th century art. He frequently turned to various mythological figures throughout his metamorphosing periods. The Pipes of Pan was also influenced by the painter's infatuation with the beautiful American expatriate Sara Murphy, and the finished masterpiece represents a revision of a previously conceived neoclassical work. The Pipes of Pan now hangs in the Musee Picasso in Paris.

  3. Development of intelligent pipe locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.

    1986-08-01

    An inductive pipe locator was developed, so that the position and depth of an underground gas pipe can be accurately located by passing an ac current to the pipe and measuring the generated magnetic field. An ac current (several to 100 kHz) of several tens of mA is transmitted to the underground pipe, and a magnetic sensor above the ground catches the induced magnetic field to estimate the position and depth of the pipe.

  4. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Ribbed Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2012-11-01

    From the view point of heat transfer control, surface roughness is one of the popular ways adopted for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. Such a surface roughness is often modeled with a rib. In the current investigation, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically-mounted ribs at Reτ=700, Pr=0.71, and p / k =2, 4, and 8. Here, p and k represent the pitch and rib height, respectively. The rib height is fixed as one tenth of the pipe radius. The profiles of mean velocity components, mean temperature, root-mean-squares (rms) of temperature fluctuation are presented at the selected streamwise locations. In comparison with the smooth-pipe case at the same Re and Pr, the effects of the ribs are clearly identified, leading to overall enhancement of turbulent heat transfer in terms of Nu. The budget of temperature variance is presented in the form of contours. The results of an Octant analysis are also given to elucidate the dominant events. Our LES results shed light on a complete understanding of the heat-transfer mechanisms in turbulent ribbed-pipe flow which has numerous applications in engineering. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012013019).

  5. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  6. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  7. DEFORMATION DETECTION IN PIPING INSTALLATIONS USING PROFILING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Mapurisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As-Built surveys of buildings and installations have received greater attention in recent years. An example is the 3D digital reconstruction of existing piping installations at chemical plants for plant maintenance, upgrades and safety standard concerns. This paper is directed at the reconstruction of piping installations with particular emphasis on the detection of deformities in pipes. Reconstruction begins with the automatic detection of individual piping elements which requires a prior segmentation. For segmentation, the profile intersection technique is used. Surfaces are considered as a network of intersecting curves as opposed to surface patches. Recreating such curves on a point set, and intersecting them, segments are identified. The entire scan is partitioned into a series of scan planes referred to as profiles. Points are then connected in each profile based on the surface they represent forming line segments. The line segments, which represent curves, are then intersected to identify segments. For pipes, line segments are elliptical. The centre of an ellipse lies on the pipes’ axis and the semi minor axis is equivalent to the radius of the pipe. Therefore together the centres and semi minor axis are used to describe the position, orientation, size and radius of a pipe. For deformed pipes, the line segments deviate from the elliptical shape. By identifying deviations of the line segments from the elliptical shape deformations are identified. The algorithm allows for cylinders, spheres, cones and tori to be detected including deformities in their shape. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  8. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely...

  10. 46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a.... (b) Periodic inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F...

  11. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and J...

  12. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested... testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F of this chapter. [CGD 85-080, 61...

  13. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  14. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  15. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  16. Failure rates in piping manufactured to different standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.; Cooper, G.D.

    1995-11-01

    Most non-nuclear process piping systems in Canada and the United States are constructed to the requirements of the piping codes of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME B31.1 and B31.3). Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, has additional requirements for piping that are expected to provide further assurance of pressure boundary integrity. This project attempted to determine if the additional requirements of Section III were beneficial in preventing failure of the pressure boundary. The approach taken in the study was to determine the causes of failure of non-nuclear piping subjected to service similar to that experienced by piping in CANDU nuclear power plants. The study examined information on carbon steel piping systems filled with water/steam which operate up to a maximum temperature of 600 F and a maximum pressure of 1600 psi. The failure mechanisms were identified and analysed to determine whether application of the requirements of Section III would have prevented the failure. Through a process of interviews and literature search, 186 failures were identified and assembled into a reference database. Many of the records were incomplete; therefore, the reference database was trimmed to include a subset of 65 failure points supported by complete data. This subset formed the basis for this study. The results from the study of other databases assembled for similar purposes were reviewed and compared to the conclusions reached in this study. These reviews confirmed the conclusions reached in this study. (author). 48 refs., 20 tabs

  17. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  18. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  19. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  20. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Yule, I.Y.; Sibson, S.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors at Torness and Heysham 2 are provided with dedicated access for remote inspection equipment. These in-service inspection (ISI) accesses comprise 12 penetrations above the core for inspection of the above core area and boilers, 12 below core penetrations for inspection of the lower boiler area and access through any of the 8 gas circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. This paper describes a manipulator which will access the reactor from above the core via any of the 8 peripheral penetrations. (UK)

  1. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  2. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  3. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  4. Pipe-flange detection with GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Néstor; De la Vega, Matías; Martinelli, Patricia; Osella, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for detecting pipe flanges. A case history is described in which GPR was successfully used to locate pipe flanges along an 8 km metal pipeline, using a fixed-offset methodology, from the ground surface. Summaries of numerical simulations and in situ tests, performed before the definitive prospecting to evaluate the feasibility of detection, are included. Typical GPR signals are analysed and several examples shown. Constant-time sections of data volumes and migration are evaluated with the goal of distinguishing flange signals from rock signals in unclear situations. The applied methodology was effective for detecting the pipe flanges in relatively short times, with accuracies below 10 cm in the horizontal direction and 20 cm in the vertical direction

  5. Characterizing the Performance of Pipe Bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Bernier, Evan T; Sandstrom, Fredrick; Weiss, Gregory G; Recht, Gunther W; Schatzer, David

    2018-01-01

    Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured. In such cases, side walls of the pipe were thrown first; the average fragment velocity was ~1000 km/s. In deflagrations, the end cap was first thrown; fragment velocities were only ~240 km/s. Blast overpressures varied; at 10 feet, 2 × 12 inch steel pipes containing ~550 g of detonable mixture produced overpressures of 5-6 psi; similar nondetonating pipes produced less than 2 psi. Maximum fragment throw distances were 250-300 m, with an average of ~100 m. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The investigation of the locomotive boiler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucholski, Z.; Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the history of narrow-gauge railway system is described. The other information about the steam locomotive construction, as well as the technical regulations of its construction and exploitation are also done. The results of the studies of the locomotive boiler material are presented. (authors)

  7. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    : a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat...

  8. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  9. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective for the development of the Pipe Explorer trademark radiological characterization system is to achieve a cost effective, low risk means of characterizing gamma radioactivity on the inside surface of pipes. The unique feature of this inspection system is the use of a pneumatically inflated impermeable membrane which transports the detector into the pipe as it inverts. The membrane's internal air pressure tows the detector and tether through the pipe. This mechanism isolates the detector and its cabling from the contaminated surface, yet allows measurement of radioactive emissions which can readily penetrate the thin plastic membrane material (such as gamma and high energy beta emissions). In Phase 1, an initial survey of DOE facilities was conducted to determine the physical and radiological characteristics of piping systems. The inverting membrane deployment system was designed and extensively tested in the laboratory. A range of membrane materials was tested to evaluate their ruggedness and deployment characteristics. Two different sizes of gamma scintillation detectors were procured and tested with calibrated sources. Radiation transport modeling evaluated the measurement system's sensitivity to detector position relative to the contaminated surface, the distribution of the contamination, background gamma levels, and gamma source energy levels. In the culmination of Phase 1, a field demonstration was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The project is currently in transition from Phase 1 to Phase 2, where more extensive demonstrations will occur at several sites. Results to date are discussed

  11. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90 0 sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions

  12. Pipe whip and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years changes in economic and safety considerations in nuclear power plants have resulted in a need to examine the problem of pipe whip in greater detail. Consequently, experimental programmes were set up in France, North America and Britain. Results from these tests combined with analytical work indicate that pipe whip followed by impact with surrounding pipework and structures may not be as serious as had been believed. Impact loads have been found to be much less (at least five times) than those predicted to the appropriate design regulations. Hence, the use of pipe whip restraints may have been overconservative. The use of fewer, better designed restraints, would result in greater accessibility of pipework, a reduced need for inspection of restraints, and a considerable financial saving. (author)

  13. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  14. WIND project tests and analysis on the integrity of small size pipe under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naohiko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Maruyama, Yu; Igarashi, Minoru; Hidaka, Akihide; Sugimoto, Jun

    1996-01-01

    In a severe accident of a light water reactor(LWR), fission products (FPs) released from fuel rods will be transported to the primary cooling system piping as aerosol and some of them will be deposited on the inner surface of piping. In such conditions the primary cooling system piping might be subjected to both of elevated temperature load due to decay heat of FPs and pressure load, and as a consequence the integrity of piping might be threatened. The WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) Project is being performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to investigate the FP aerosol behavior in reactor piping and the integrity of reactor piping under severe accident condition (K. Hashimoto et al., 1994, K. Hashimoto et al., 1995). In order to meet these two objectives, the Project comprises two test series: an aerosol behavior test series and a piping integrity test series. In the piping integrity test a straight stainless steel pipe is used to simulate a partial fraction of reactor piping under severe accident conditions. In parallel with conducting the tests, test analyses are performed with ABAQUS code (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc. 1989) using the test conditions to investigate the behavior of straight pipe against thermal and pressure loads. This paper describes the comparison of the scoping piping integrity test results and the analysis results with ABAQUS

  15. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  16. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  17. Implementation applicability of piping inspection using electromagnetic acoustic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urayama, Ryoichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Ohira, Taku; Kikuchi, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) method provides accurate and stable evaluation and its capability has been demonstrated through online monitoring using a large-scale corrosion test loop in operation at high temperature. This study applies EMAR with the signal processing method of the superposition of n th compression to the thickness evaluation of piping in a nuclear power plant during shutdown. Sections of piping evaluated by EMAR include those having long-term service, where thinning may produce scale-like surfaces, and those having complicated geometry. Moreover, measurement results obtained with EMAR and in ultrasonic testing are compared. The accuracy of the EMAR method depends on the pipe geometry, such as the pipe diameter and whether the pipe is straight or an elbow, the presence of welding, and complicated wall thinning. (author)

  18. Leak test of the pipe line for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji; Mori, Shoji.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tokai Research Establishment, most of the radioactive liquid waste is transferred to a wastes treatment facility through pipe lines. As part of the pipe lines a cast iron pipe for town gas is used. Leak test has been performed on all joints of the lines. For the joints buried underground, the test was made by radioactivity measurement of the soil; and for the joints in drainage ditch by the pressure and bubble methods. There were no leakage at all, indicating integrity of all the joints. On the other hand, it is also known by the other test that the corrosion of inner surface of the piping due to liquid waste is only slight. The pipe lines for transferring radioactive liquid waste are thus still usable. (auth.)

  19. A parametric study of porous wick in heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Jin; Jun, Sang Ook; Jung, Ji Hun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    A Heat pipe which acquires a power by a capillary force has been used to mainly cool heat sources in satellites for long times. Among types of heat pipes, Loop Heat Pipe, Capillary Pumped Loop have usually used porous wicks such as sintered powder and fine wick to circulate a working fluid. These porous wicks have many design variables which affect thermal phenomena such as a capillary driven force, disjoining pressure, drying limitation, boiling limitation, etc. Additionally, Fins connecting an evaporator surface with a porous wick also after thermal characteristics of heat pipe. Especially, a vapor blanket thickness being main variables to decide a wick thickness has to do with fin sizes. Accordingly, understanding design variables' characteristics of porous wicks and fins is important to execute design optimization of heat pipe. In this paper, analytical methods and results will be discussed in terms of parametric study

  20. Impact test on a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, R.F.; Shimura, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A carbon steel pipe was submitted to a series of progressive impact loadings on a drop table. Strain and acceleration were measured in relevant places of the pipe and recorded in time and frequency domain. The pipe withstood impact loads up to 560 G without any visual deformation being noticed. Strains 50% over the yield point strain were measured. A high level of damping coming from the supports may have attenuated the response of the pipe. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Stress index development for piping with trunnion attachment under pressure and moment loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Kim, J. M.; Park, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    A finite element analysis of a trunnion pipe anchor is presented. The structure is analyzed for the case of internal pressure and moment loadings. The stress results are categorized into the average (membrane) stress, the linearly varying (bending) stress and the peak stress through the thickness. The resulting stresses are interpreted per section III of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code from which the Primary (B 1 ), Secondary (C 1 ) and Peak (K 1 ) stress indices for pressure, the Primary (B 2 ), Secondary (C 2 ) and Peak (K 2 ) stress indices for moment are developed. Based on the comparison between stress value by stress indices derived in this paper and stress value represented by the ASME Code Case N-391-1, the empirical equations for stress indices are effectively used in the piping stress analysis. Therefore, the use of empirical equations can simplify the procedure of evaluating the local stress in the piping design stage. (author)

  2. The Wick-Concept for Thermal Insulation of Cold Piping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koverdynsky, Vit; Korsgaard, Vagn; Rode, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The wick-concept for thermal insulation of cold piping is based on capillary suction of a fiber fabric to remove excess water from the pipe surface by transporting it to the outer surface of the insulation. From the surface of the insulation jacket, the water will evaporate to the ambient air....... This will prevent long-term accumulation of moisture in the insulation material. The wick keeps the hydrophobic insulation dry, allowing it to maintain its thermal performance. The liquid moisture is kept only in the wick fabric. This article presents the principle of operation of cold pipe insulation using...... that the variations of these types of insulation systems work for pipes with temperature above 0C and for ambient conditions within common ranges for industrial applications....

  3. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  4. Turbulent flow in a partially filled pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry; Cregan, Hope; Dodds, Jonathan; Poole, Robert; Dennis, David

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent flow in a pressure driven pipe running partially full has been investigated using high-speed 2D-3C Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry. With the field-of-view spanning the entire pipe cross section we are able to reconstruct the full three dimensional quasi-instantaneous flow field by invoking Taylor's hypothesis. The measurements were carried out over a range of flow depths at a constant Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter and bulk velocity of Re = 32 , 000 . In agreement with previous studies, the ``velocity dip'' phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum streamwise velocity occurs below the free surface was observed. A mean flow secondary current is observed near the free surface with each of the counter-rotating rollers filling the half-width of the pipe. Unlike fully turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel or pressurized square duct flow where the secondary flow cells appear in pairs about a corner bisector, the mean secondary motion observed here manifests only as a single pair of vortices mirrored about the pipe vertical centreline.

  5. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  6. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  7. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  8. Heats pipes for temperature homogenization: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blet, Nicolas; Lips, Stéphane; Sartre, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is a review based on more than sixty references. • The review is sorted into various application fields. • Quantitative values of thermal gradients are compared with and without heat pipes. • Specificities of mentioned heat pipes are compared to other functions of heat pipes. - Abstract: Heat pipes offer high effective heat transfer in a purely passive way. Other specific properties of heat pipes, like temperature homogenization, can be also reached. In this paper, a literature review is carried out in order to investigate the existing heat pipe systems mainly aiming the reduction of temperature gradients. The review gathering more than sixty references is sorted into various application fields, like thermal management of electronics, of storage vessels or of satellites, for which the management of the temperature uniformity differs by the isothermal surface area, temperature ranges or the targeted precision of the temperature flattening. A summary of heat pipe characteristics for this function of temperature homogenization is then performed to identify their specificities, compared to other applications of heat pipes.

  9. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  10. Flexible Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  11. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique developme...... of the newly extruded material....

  12. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 12.1-12.9. Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with boilers. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: firetube and watertube boilers; boiler construction; procedures for operating and cleaning boilers; and boiler fittings,…

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454...

  14. 46 CFR 52.25-7 - Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-7 Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19). Electric boilers required to comply with this part must meet the applicable provisions in this part and the...

  15. 40 CFR 76.6 - NOX emission limitations for Group 2 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers. 76.6 Section 76.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Group 2 boilers. (a) Beginning January 1, 2000 or, for a unit subject to section 409(b) of the Act... owner or operator of a Group 2, coal-fired boiler with a cell burner boiler, cyclone boiler, a wet...

  16. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  17. Ash fouling monitoring and key variables analysis for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuanhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces is still a significant problem in coal-fired power plant utility boilers. The effective ways to deal with this problem are accurate on-line monitoring of ash fouling and soot-blowing. In this paper, an online ash fouling monitoring model based on dynamic mass and energy balance method is developed and key variables analysis technique is introduced to study the internal behavior of soot-blowing system. In this process, artificial neural networks (ANN are used to optimize the boiler soot-blowing model and mean impact values method is utilized to determine a set of key variables. The validity of the models has been illustrated in a real case-study boiler, a 300MW Chinese power station. The results on same real plant data show that both models have good prediction accuracy, while the ANN model II has less input parameters. This work will be the basis of a future development in order to control and optimize the soot-blowing of the coal-fired power plant utility boilers.

  18. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  19. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  20. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  1. Circulating fluidized bed boiler numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maggio, T. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Roulet, V. [E.D.F./DE/CNET, 92 - La Defense (France)

    1996-12-31

    Electricite de France (EdF) is actively involved in the development of CFB power plants. Thanks to a wide Research and Development program around the 125 MWe Emile Huchet and the 250 MWe Provence units (two boilers designed by Stein-Lurgi), EdF has been able to get a good knowledge of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in the circulating loop as well as the back pass. One of the main objectives of the R and D program was to gather this information and results in a steady state operating model of a CFB boiler and to simulate the operation of the 250 MWe Provence power plant. This model has been developed before the first ignition of the Provence power plant in order to check the design and to help on-field engineers during the start-up phase. Furthermore, this model allows R and D engineers to make parametric studies and to evaluate new designs. (authors) 5 refs.

  2. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  3. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  4. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation...... formation in suspension fired boilers. The presentation provides an overview of the knowledge obtained with respect to ash species behavior insuspension fired biomass boilers. A mechanistic understanding of the fly ash formation process in biomass fired PF boilers isobtained today. A high fraction of alkali...... salt species are released to the gas phase during the initial fuel combustion process. The salt species are present in gas phase in the boil chamberand upon cooling in the convective pass aerosols are formed. Recent studies indicates that a large fraction of the residual condensed phase ash fragments...

  5. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  6. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  7. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  8. Boiler systems for nuclear powered reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; George, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    A power generating plant which comprises a heat source, at least one main steam turbine and at least one main boiler heated by heat from the heat source and providing the steam to drive the turbine, comprises additionally at least one further steam turbine, smaller than the main turbine, and at least one further boiler, of lower capacity than the main boiler, and heated from the same heat source and providing steam for the further turbine. Particularly advantageous in nuclear power stations, where the heat source is a nuclear reactor, the invention enables peak loads, above the normal continuous rating of the main generators driven by the main turbines, to be met by the further turbine(s) and one or more further generators driven thereby. This enables the main turbines to be freed from the thermal stresses of rapid load changes, which stresses are more easily accommodated by the smaller and thus more tolerant further turbine(s). Thus auxiliary diesel-driven or other independent power plant may be made partly or wholly unnecessary. Further, low-load running which would be inefficient if achieved by means of the main turbine(s), can be more efficiently effected by shutting them down and using the smaller further turbine(s) instead. These latter may also be used to provide independent power for servicing the generating plant during normal operation or during emergency or other shutdown, and in this latter case may also serve as a heat sink for the shutdown reactor

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. Pipe Penetrating Radar: a New Tool for the Assessment of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekes, C.; Neducz, B.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development of Pipe Penetrating Radar (PPR), the underground in-pipe application of GPR, a non-destructive testing method that can detect defects and cavities within and outside mainline diameter (>18 in / 450mm) non-metallic (concrete, PVC, HDPE, etc.) underground pipes. The method uses two or more high frequency GPR antennae carried by a robot into underground pipes. The radar data is transmitted to the surface via fibre optic cable and is recorded together with the output from CCTV (and optionally sonar and laser). Proprietary software analyzes the data and pinpoints defects or cavities within and outside the pipe. Thus the testing can identify existing pipe and pipe bedding symptoms that can be addressed to prevent catastrophic failure due to sinkhole development and can provide useful information about the remaining service life of the pipe. The key innovative aspect is the unique ability to map pipe wall thickness and deterioration including cracks and voids outside the pipe, enabling accurate predictability of needed intervention or the timing of replacement. This reliable non-destructive testing method significantly impacts subsurface infrastructure condition based asset management by supplying previously unattainable measurable conditions. Keywords: pipe penetrating radar (PPR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), pipe inspection, concrete deterioration, municipal engineering

  11. Experimental investigation on Heat Transfer Performance of Annular Flow Path Heat Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Mochizuki et al. was suggested the passive cooling system to spent nuclear fuel pool. Detail analysis of various heat pipe design cases was studied to determine the heat pipes cooling performance. Wang et al. suggested the concept PRHRS of MSR using sodium heat pipes, and the transient performance of high temperature sodium heat pipe was numerically simulated in the case of MSR accident. The meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants alarmed to the dangers of station blackout (SBO) accident. After the SBO accident, passive decay heat removal systems have been investigated to prevent the severe accidents. Mochizuki et al. suggested the heat pipes cooling system using loop heat pipes for decay heat removal cooling and analysis of heat pipe thermal resistance for boiling water reactor (BWR). The decay heat removal systems for pressurized water reactor (PWR) were suggested using natural convection mechanisms and modification of PWR design. Our group suggested the concept of a hybrid heat pipe with control rod as Passive IN-core Cooling System (PINCs) for decay heat removal for advanced nuclear power plant. Hybrid heat pipe is the combination of the heat pipe and control rod. In the present research, the main objective is to investigate the effect of the inner structure to the heat transfer performance of heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, B 4 C. The main objective is to investigate the effect of the inner structure in heat pipe to the heat transfer performance with annular flow path. ABS pellet was used instead of B 4 C pellet as cylindrical structures. The thermal performances of each heat pipes were measured experimentally. Among them, concentric heat pipe showed the best performance compared with others. 1. Annular evaporation section heat pipe and annular flow path heat pipe showed heat transfer degradation. 2. AHP also had annular vapor space and contact cooling surface per unit volume of vapor was increased. Heat transfer coefficient of

  12. Heat flux experiments on heat pipes for plasma facing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kohlhaas, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Duwe, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Gervash, A. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Mazul, I. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The heat removal from the leading edge of limiter blades is a critical issue for the technical feasibility of the pump limiter concept. The aim of the present work was to investigate the capability of heat pipes to remove concentrated local heat fluxes. Tubular and flat heat pipes were subjected to local surface heat loads in the JUDITH electron beam facility. The heat pipes were tested until failure or until the operational limit of the component was reached. The absorbed heat fluxes at this point were of the order of several hundred W/cm{sup 2}. (orig.).

  13. Development of piping strain sensor for stress evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Tsunemichi; Nishimura, Kazuma; Ninomiya, Seiichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    In a small diameter piping, stresses are generated due to internal fluid or pump vibrations especially around the welding parts. Authors have successfully developed a pipe strain sensor which is able to measure such stresses. Unlike conventional methods using strain gages and adhesive bond, the sensor can measure the strain without putting adhesive bond on the piping surface. However, the strain sensor can provide measurements with a level of accuracy equivalent to that of conventional method using strain gages and adhesive bond. Accordingly, the strain sensor can significantly reduce the working time without any loss of the measurement accuracy. (author)

  14. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  15. ASME Based Quality Documentation Guidelines for Power- and Recovery Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to create ASME-based quality documentation guidelines for power- and recovery boilers. The client was a large international power- and recovery boiler manufacturer. The content of this thesis is mainly a report of ASME code and its effects on quality documentation. In thesis are widely compared ASME based quality documention differences between PED/EN projects quality documentation. Also ASMEs most important elements for power- and recovery boiler projects needs fo...

  16. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed. This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems.This thesis presents contributions for mo...

  17. Sewerage Collection Lines, StormSewerPipes-The data set is a line feature consisting of more than 74,000 segments representing storm sewer pipes. It was created to track the flow of surface water., Published in 2003, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Collection Lines dataset current as of 2003. StormSewerPipes-The data set is a line feature consisting of more than 74,000 segments representing storm sewer...

  18. Evaluation of the effect of sulfate, alkalinity and disinfector on iron release of iron pipe and iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing condition using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Zhang, Weiyu; Guo, Jianbo; Wu, Nana; Liu, Xinyuan

    2018-02-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM), particularly Box-Behnken design model, was used in this study to evaluate the sulfate, alkalinity and free chlorine on iron release of pipe with groundwater supply history and its iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing experiment. The RSM results together with response surface contour plots indicated that the iron release of pipe section reactors was positively related with Larson Ratio and free chlorine. The thin Corrosion scales with groundwater supply history upon collection site contained Fe3O4 (18%), α-FeOOH (64%), FeCO3 (9%), β-FeOOH (8%) and γ-FeOOH (5%), besides their averaged amorphous iron oxide content was 13.6%. After the RSM water quality changing experiment, Fe3O4, amorphous iron oxide and intermediate iron products (FeCO3, Green Rust (GR)) content on scale of Cl2Rs increased, while their α-FeOOH contents decreased and β-FeOOH disappeared. The high iron released Cl2Rs receiving higher LR water (1.40-2.04) contained highest FeCO3 (20%) and amorphous iron oxide (42%), while the low iron release Cl2Rs receiving lower LR water (0.52-0.73) had higher GR(6.5%) and the amorphous iron oxide (23.7%). In high LR water (>0.73), the thin and non-protective corrosion scale containing higher amorphous iron oxide, Fe(II) derived from new produced Fe3O4 or FeCO3 or GR was easy for oxidants and sulfate ions penetration, and had higher iron release. However the same unstable corrosion scale didn’t have much iron release in low LR water (≤0.73). RSM experiment indicated that iron release of these unstable corrosion scales had close relationship with water quality (Larson Ratio and disinfectant). Optimizing the water quality of new source water and using reasonable water purification measures can help to eliminate the red water case.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  20. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across the width of the breccia pipe. It must be questioned whether the preserved K08 architecture represents early pipe development in general, or is a special case of a late pipe geometry modification process. Previous literature describes sidewall and hanging wall caving processes elsewhere in the Venetia cluster and other kimberlites world wide. A requirement for emplacement models that include upward pipe growth processes is the availability of space (mass deficit at depth) into which the caving and/or dilating breccia can expand. It is possible that K08 might be connected to adjacent K02 at a depth somewhere

  1. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in large diameter pipes using radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.

    2012-01-01

    of misinterpreting the failure of such pipe component. On the whole the TRT method overestimated the degree of penetrated corrosion attack in the tangential position in the neighbourhood of 9% and the Double Wall Technique (DWT) had a maximum underestimation of 1.3% of the corroded surface area of the pipe. The TRT measurement of depth of local corrosion (pitting) was within an accuracy of ±0.37 mm and the measurement of corroded surface area (pit diameter) using DWT was within an accuracy of ± 0.29 mm. These tolerance limits are 5% less than the wall thickness of the pipe. The statistical interpretation of the obtained results from the study can reliably be used to develop a baseline data for the investigated pipe, through which effective monitoring of corrosion and deposit can be executed. (au)

  2. Energy, exergy and economic analysis of industrial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Ahamed, J.U.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is analyzed, and applied to the boiler system. Energy and exergy flows in a boiler have been shown in this paper. The energy and exergy efficiencies have been determined as well. In a boiler, the energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 72.46% and 24.89%, respectively. A boiler energy and exergy efficiencies are compared with others work as well. It has been found that the combustion chamber is the major contributor for exergy destruction followed by heat exchanger of a boiler system. Furthermore, several energy saving measures such as use of variable speed drive in boiler's fan energy savings and heat recovery from flue gas are applied in reducing a boiler energy use. It has been found that the payback period is about 1 yr for heat recovery from a boiler flue gas. The payback period for using VSD with 19 kW motor found to be economically viable for energy savings in a boiler fan.

  3. Residual strain distribution in bent composite boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fei; Hubbard, Camden R.; Sarma, Gorti; Keiser, James

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes

  4. Simulation and testing of a new condensing boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.; Tosato, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a new condensing boiler, characterized by the evacuation of flue-gases by natural draft. The best result is the consequent simplification of manufacturing, hook-up and operation of the boiler. Seasonal efficiency of the boiler, which operates with flue-gases conditioning to assure natural draft, rests about at same levels as for conventional condensing boilers. The authors emphasize the difficulty of simulate natural draft mechanism by mathematics because, in this case, flow of flue-gases and air at the draft diverter is strongly three-dimensional

  5. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  6. Drill pipe protector development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R. [Regal International Corp., Corsicanna, TX (United States); Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  7. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  8. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  9. The recovery boiler advisor. Combination of practical experience and advanced thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Eriksson, G. [LTH/RWTH (Germany); Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Aabo Advisor is a computer based program intended to provide information about the high temperature ash and fluegas chemistry in pulping spent black liquor recovery boilers of kraft pulp mills. The program can be used for predictions of a variety of furnace and flue gas phenomena, such as fireside fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces caused by the flue gas particulate matter, emissions of SO{sub 2}(g), HCl(g) and NO{sub x}(g) with the flue gas etc. The program determines the composition of the fluegas as well as the amount and composition of the two typical fly ash fractions found in recovery boiler fluegases, the condensed fly ash particles and the carry over particles. These data are used for calculating the melting behavior of the fly ash present at different locations in the boiler and this characteristic behavior is used for the fireside fouling predictions. The program may also be used for studying how different mill processes affecting the black liquor composition affects on the fireside chemistry of the recovery boiler. As input data for the calculations only a few boiler operation parameters and the composition of the black liquor is required. The calculations are based on a one-dimensional, multi-stage chemistry model where both thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and stoichiometric material balances are used. The model calculates at first the chemistry in the lower furnace and smelt after which it moves to the upper furnace and the radiative parts of the fluegas channel. As the last block the program calculates the chemistry in the convective part, the electrostatic precipitator cath and stack. The results from each block are presented in tables, key numbers and melt curves representing the fluegas or fly ash fraction present at each location

  10. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  11. Design and Analysis of Boiler Pressure Vessels based on IBR codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Kanimozhi, B.

    2017-05-01

    Pressure vessels components are widely used in the thermal and nuclear power plants for generating steam using the philosophy of heat transfer. In Thermal power plant, Coal is burnt inside the boiler furnace for generating the heat. The amount of heat produced through the combustion of pulverized coal is used in changing the phase transfer (i.e. Water into Super-Heated Steam) in the Pressure Parts Component. Pressure vessels are designed as per the Standards and Codes of the country, where the boiler is to be installed. One of the Standards followed in designing Pressure Parts is ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). The mandatory requirements of ASME code must be satisfied by the manufacturer. In our project case, A Shell/pipe which has been manufactured using ASME code has an issue during the drilling of hole. The Actual Size of the drilled holes must be, as per the drawing, but due to error, the size has been differentiate from approved design calculation (i.e. the diameter size has been exceeded). In order to rectify this error, we have included an additional reinforcement pad to the drilled and modified the design of header in accordance with the code requirements.

  12. Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković-Ognjanović Vladana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD, for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water distribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains

  13. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The intermittence of some renewable energy sources, mainly wind and solar, leads to rapid power variations, which have to be controlled in order to maintain the system stable. Controllable loads, like MW range electric boilers, are a good solution for this problem, as the warmed water can be reused......, minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF MODERNIZATION OF HIGH POWER WATER-HEATING BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Glamazdin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boilers of KVGM and PTVM series are characterized by high values of NOx and CO content in the combustion products. Reduction of NOx and CO content can be achieved by two ways: by installing the condensing heat recovery unit at the boiler outlet and by improving the heat and mass transfer processes in boiler furnaces. Application of the condensing heat recovery units causes pollution of resulting condensate by low-concentration acids. The authors conducted a study in order to determine the effectiveness of the previously applied methods of suppressing the emission of nitrogen oxides in the boilers of these types. Equalization of the temperature field and, consequently, enhancement of heat transfer in the furnace by substitution the used burners by the more advanced ones, the design of which facilitates reduction the emission of nitrogen oxides, were applied to all the upgraded facilities. The studies fulfilled demonstrate that a reduction of NOx emissions in water-heating high power boilers is fairly possible by means of modernization of the latter. The authors have developed the project of the PTVM-30 boiler modernization, which was implemented at a large boiler plant in the city of Vinnitsa (Ukraine. The project included a number of technical solutions. Six burners were replaced by the two ones that were located in the hearth; also the hearth screen was dismantled. At the same time, reducing the total surface area of the heating caused by the exclusion of hearth screen was compensated by filling the locations of the six embrasures of staff burners on the side screens with straightened furnace tubes. Installing the burners separate from the screen made it possible to eliminate the transfer of vibration to the furnace tubes, and – via them – to the boilers setting. Automation provided “associated regulations”. Draught machines were equipped with frequency regulators. During commissioning of the boiler the studies were carried out that

  15. Applied methodology for replacement pipe arcs in integral pipelines TE 'Oslomej'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temelkoska Bratica K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral pipelines in thermal power plants present a linear spatial bearing construction with high operating parameters, complex static and dynamic load. The integral pipelines along its entire length are hanging on construction spring hangers from the boiler building, where the boiler is placed, next to the machine hall where the turbine is placed. Therefore, it is important to monitor the condition and to remove any possible defects from the applied methods. This paper describes the methodology of replacement of the pipe arch on one of the integral pipelines-the line for hot superheated steam. In addition, in this paper are given the method methods that led to this methodology for testing and evaluation of the condition of the pipe arch material that had been in exploitation and the new pipe arch that will be embedded. Furthermore the approach, the technology of replacement, anchoring of the steam line, technology of welding etc., as well as the preparation of the final design of constructed condition are also covered in this paper.

  16. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  17. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... of the deposits formed is determined by the fly ash composition and the flue gas temperature; increases in the local flue gas temperature lead to higher contents of Si and Ca and lower contents of Cl in the deposits. The net deposit build-up rates in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers are at similar levels......, 0–100 g/m2·h, while the ash deposit propensity is an order of magnitude larger in grate fired boilers than in suspension-fired boilers. Deposit build-up rates were found to increase at flue gas temperatures close to the melting temperatures of the fly ash. Furthermore, the rate of deposit build...

  18. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  19. The assessment of water loss from a damaged distribution pipe using the FEFLOW software

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanek Małgorzata; Suchorab Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Common reasons of real water loss in distribution systems are leakages caused by the failures or pipe breakages. Depending on the intensity of leakage from a damaged buried pipe, water can flow to the soil surface just after the failure occurs, much later or never at all. The localization of the place where the pipe breakage occurs is relatively easy when water outflow occurs on the soil surface. The volume of lost water strongly depends on the time it takes to localize the place of a pipe br...

  20. Materials and boiler rig testing to support chemical cleaning of once-through AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Platts, N.; Raffel, A.S.; Rudge, A.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive programme of work has been carried out to evaluate two candidate inhibited cleaning solutions for possible implementation on plant, which would be the first chemical clean of an AGR boiler. The two candidate cleaning solutions considered were a Stannine-inhibited citric acid/formic acid mixture (GOM106) and inhibited hydrofluoric acid. Citric acid-based cleaning processes are widely used within the UK Power Industry. The GOM106 solution, comprising a mixture of 3% citric acid, 0.5% formic acid and 0.05% Stannine LTP inhibitor, buffered with ammonia to pH 3.5, was developed specifically for the AGR boilers during the 1970's. Although a considerable amount of materials testing work was carried out by British Energy's predecessor companies to produce a recommended cleaning procedure there were some remaining concerns with the use of GOM106, from these earlier studies, for example, an increased risk of pitting attack associated with the removal of thick 9Cr oxide deposits and a risk of unacceptable damage in critical locations such as the upper transition joints and other weld locations. Hence, additional testing was still required to validate the solution for use on plant. Inhibited hydrofluoric acid (HFA) was also evaluated as an alternative reagent to GOM106. HFA has been used extensively for cleaning mild and low'alloy steel boiler tubes in fossil-fired plant in the UK and elsewhere in Europe and is known to remove oxide quickly. Waste treatment is also easier than for the GOM106 process and some protection against damage to the boiler tube materials is provided by complexing of fluoride with ferric ion. Validation of the potential reagents and inhibitors was achieved by assessing the rate and effectiveness of oxide removal from specimens of helical boiler tubing and welds, together with establishing the extent of any metal loss or localised damage. The initial materials testing resulted in the inhibited ammoniated citric / formic acid reagent being

  1. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  2. Influence of Boiler Pipe Cladding Techniques on their Microstructure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy była ocena wpływ u metody napawania Inconelem 625 rur kotłowych ze stali P235GH i 16Mo3 na mikrostruk- turę i własności podłoża i napoiny. Badania prowadzono na odcinkach rur kotłowych napawanych stopem niklu Inconel 625. Rury zostały dostarczone do Fabryki Kotłów SEFAKO S.A. przez czterech dostawców, stosujących różne metody napawania, a mianowicie CMT, GMAW i GTAW. Badania wykazały, że mikrostruktura i własności mechaniczne rur napawanych istotnie zależą od zastosowanej metody napawania oraz od składu chemicznego materiału podłoża.

  3. Exergetic Modelling of Oil-Fired Steam Boilers | Ohijeagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance variables and potential for energy savings in oil-fired industrial steam boilers were studied. Operational parameters of steam boilers using low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel were used to determine thermodynamic properties of material streams and exergetic parameters. Analysis of thermodynamic ...

  4. Assessment of Some Performance Characteristics of Refuse Boiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pioneer palm oil boiler unit, in an immense power self-contained oil mill, impaired by many years of accumulated depreciation, was rebuilt in the pattern of a design-out scheme aimed primarily at rehabilitating the entire boiler system to a state of functionality. The research work studied the pre-maintenance and post ...

  5. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  6. Test of a small domestic boiler using different pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.; Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a 13 kW th commercial domestic boiler using pellets as fuel. Four different types of pellets were used and, for each one, the boiler was tested as a function of its capacity and the fan regulation affecting excess air. Measurements were performed for boiler heat load, pellet consumption rate, flue-gas temperature and composition. Mass balances allowed the calculation of the flue-gas flow rate and associated heat losses. Losses from incomplete combustion have also been quantified. Under boiler steady-state conditions the flue-gas O 2 concentration changes with boiler load and ventilation due to the regulation scheme of the boiler. Flue-gas CO shows a minimum for values of O 2 in the flue-gases of about 13%. NO x emissions are independent of excess air for low values of nitrogen in the fuel whereas, for larger values, NO x emissions increase with the O 2 present in the combustion products. The fractional conversion of the pellet nitrogen into NO x is in line with literature data. The boiler start-up was characterised by the temperature evolution inside and above the bed showing the propagation of combustion in the bed during about 10 min. During boiler start-up, a maximum in CO emissions was observed which is associated with the maximum combustion intensity, as typified by the flue-gas O 2 concentration and temperature, regardless the pellet type. (Author)

  7. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  8. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411 Section 77.411 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All...

  9. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection at Torness Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is achieved, via penetrations above and below the core area and boilers and through eight circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. A manipulator is described which can access the area above the reactor core via any of these eight peripheral penetrations. The design and fabrication of the manipulator has led to innovation with a number of possible solutions being tendered. In reactor deployment of the successful design is expected in early 1997. (UK)

  10. Comparative analysis study for piping seismic design criteria. Part 1: Methodology and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Branch, E.B.; Landers, D.F.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First of a Kind Engineering effort for the Advanced Light Water Reactor the Advanced Reactor Corporation formed a Piping Technical Core Group to develop a set of improved ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III design rules and approaches for ALWR plant piping and support design. In developing this proposed criteria the Technical Core Group conducted an extensive Comparative Analysis Study of many of the eighteen proposals for new or alternative seismic piping design criteria under consideration by The ASME Code Committee. As part of this comparative study the Technical Core Group also devised a process for determining the relative conservatism of each design criteria studied. In addition a method to relate these relative margins to EPRI/USNRC piping component test margins was developed which allows an assessment of the minimum margin to failure that could be expected from each set of design rules and criteria studied. The study was conducted in two phases and the methodology for each of these phases is presented. Phase 1 was done to develop the relative margins and relate these margins to the actual EPRI/USNRC test data. Phase 2 was done to study the optimized support configurations which could be created using each of the different criteria reviewed. Also, presented in this paper is a discussion of the different criteria selected for study, Analysis Methods/Criteria applied, the piping models for the study, and the specific inputs for the comparative analyses

  11. Ratcheting study in pressurized piping components under cyclic loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kiran, A.; Agrawal, M.K.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear power plant piping components and systems are often subjected to reversing cyclic loading conditions due to various process transients, seismic and other events. Earlier the design of piping subjected to seismic excitation was based on the principle of plastic collapse. It is believed that during such events, fatigue-ratcheting is likely mode of failure of piping components. The 1995 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code, Section-III, has incorporated the reverse dynamic loading and ratcheting into the code. Experimental and analytical studies are carried out to understand this failure mechanism. The biaxial ratcheting characteristics of SA 333, Gr. 6 steel and SS 304 stainless steel at room temperature are investigated in the present work. Experiments are carried out on straight pipes subjected to internal pressure and cyclic bending load applied in a three point and four point bend test configurations. A shake table test is also carried out on a pressurized elbow by applying sinusoidal base excitation. Analytical simulation of ratcheting in the piping elements is carried out. Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening model is used for ratcheting simulation. (author)

  12. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed....... This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  13. Boiling process modelling peculiarities analysis of the vacuum boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of the low and medium powered boiler equipment development was carried out, boiler units possible development directions with the purpose of energy efficiency improvement were identified. Engineering studies for the vacuum boilers applying are represented. Vacuum boiler heat-exchange processes where boiling water is the working body are considered. Heat-exchange intensification method under boiling at the maximum heat- transfer coefficient is examined. As a result of the conducted calculation studies, heat-transfer coefficients variation curves depending on the pressure, calculated through the analytical and numerical methodologies were obtained. The conclusion about the possibility of numerical computing method application through RPI ANSYS CFX for the boiling process description in boiler vacuum volume was given.

  14. Experience of implementation of in-furnace methods of decreasing NO x in E-320-13.8-560GM boilers: Problems and ways for their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Supranov, V. M.; Izyumov, M. A.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Usman, Yu. M.; Natal'in, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    During natural gas combustion, the content of nitrogen oxides in combustion products is approximately 450 mg/m3 in many E-320-13.8-560GM boilers in service, which is more than 3.5 times higher than the established maximum NO x concentrations in flue gases for such boilers. Estimates according to the existing techniques have shown that gas combustion on the basis of in-furnace techniques (the feeding of combustion products to burners together with air in the volume of 15% and two-stage combustion with 20% air feeding through the nozzles upstream of the burners) enables one to decrease NO x emissions to the level of concentrations of less than 100 mg/m3, which is lower than the maximum allowable values. However, the application of any of the proposed measures with respect to a boiler makes its operation under normal load significantly difficult, since the thermal capacity of the superheater is higher in both cases, which leads to an increase in the temperature of superheated steam above the maximum allowable temperature. On the basis of the developed adapted boiler model, which was created using the Boiler Designer software, we performed numerical studies to determine the required boiler reconstruction volume; the implementation of this reconstruction will provide reliable boiler operation at all working loads and ensure the normative values of NO x emissions. According to the results of thermal calculations, it was proposed to reduce the surface of the cold stage of the superheater circuit and increase the size of the economizer. It is noted that the implementation of environmental protection measures usually decreases the boiler efficiency. At the same time, it has been established that the technical and economic performance of the E-320-13.8-560GM boiler does not decrease owing to an increase in the economizer surface and a decrease in air inflows and overflows in regenerative air heaters and remains at the same level if the air inflow volume decreases from the

  15. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik; Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae

    2015-01-01

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  16. An investigation of wall temperature characteristics to evaluate thermal fatigue at a T-junction pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Utanohara, Yoichi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Thermal fatigue cracking may initiate at a T-junction pipe where high and low temperature fluids mix. In this study, wall temperature characteristics at a T-junction pipe were investigated to improve the evaluation method for thermal fatigue. The stainless steel test section consisted of a horizontal main pipe (diameter, 150 mm) and a T-junction connected to a vertical branch pipe (diameter, 50 mm). The inlet flow velocities in the main and branch pipes were set to 0.99 m/s and 0.66 m/s respectively to produce a wall jet pattern in which the jet from the branch pipe was bent by the main pipe flow and made to flow along the pipe wall. The temperature difference was 34.1 K. A total of 148 thermocouples were installed to measure the wall temperature on the pipe inner surface in the downstream region. The maximum of temperature fluctuation intensity on the pipe inner surface was measured as 5% of the fluid temperature difference at the inlets. The dominant frequency of the large temperature fluctuations in the region downstream from z = 0.5D m was equal to 0.2 of the Strouhal number, which was equal to the frequency caused by the vortex streets generated around the jet flow. The large temperature fluctuation was also observed with the period of about 10 s. The fluctuation was caused by spreading of the heated region in the circumferential direction. (author)

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  18. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of$40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over$25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings

  19. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.

  20. Mechanical properties of refractory concretes for boilers; Propriedades mecanicas de concretos refratarios para caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioletto, E.; Pelisser, F.; Peterson, M.; Angioletto, E.; Rocha, M.R.; Arnt, A.B.C. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: ean@unesc.net; Coelho, R. [Tractebel Energia, Florianpolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Refractory concretes are used in extremely physically demanding conditions. An important example is concretes used as sealing systems in boilers, where their dimensional stability at high temperatures is fundamental to durability and has a strong impact on maintenance costs and system idleness. In this work, refractory concretes with different compositions were characterized and then tested by dilatometry, for compressive strength and in assays involving adherence between tensile concrete/metal inserts, simulating the fixing system in boilers. Analysis of the results showed that refractory concretes do not present retraction due to air during drying, eliminating the possibility of cracking. While casting the plate/prototype with metal inserts, satisfactory concrete/metal adherence was verified and surface cracking occurred that did not influence the tensile bond strength between the insert and the concrete. (author)

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  3. 'Boilers' along the southeast coast of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Along the south shore of Bermuda, waves break continuously along algal/vermetid reefs (composed of algae and molluscs, not coral), forming 'boilers.' Boilers are named because the continuous breaking of waves makes it look as if the sea is boiling. This photograph taken from the International Space Station shows the eastern half of the main islands of Bermuda. Land use is about 6 percent cropland, 55 percent developed and 34 percent rural. Reflective white-colored areas are buildings and other developments surrounded by green areas of vegetation. St. David's Island is also home to the airport, with runways built out into Castle Harbour. Hurricane Erin passed northeast of Bermuda early on September 10 with 115 mile-per-hour winds (a Category 3 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Scale), but causing very minimal damage. Astronauts aboard Space Station Alpha photographed the area on September 14, 2001. By then, the skies had cleared and Erin had become an extratropical low near Newfoundland. Image ISS003-E-5735, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  6. Code boiler and pressure vessel life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States of America and in Canada, laws and controls for determining life assessment for continued operation of equipment exist only for those pressure vessels built to Section III and evaluated according to Section XI. In this presentation, some of those considerations which are made in the USA and Canada for deciding on life or condition assessment of boilers and pressure vessels designed and constructed to other sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are reviewed. Life assessment or condition assesssment is essential in determining what is necessary for continued operation. With no ASME rules being adopted by laws or regulations, other than OSHA in the USA and similar environmental controls in Canada, to control life assessment for continued operation, the equipment owner must decide if assessment is to be done and how much to do. Some of those considerations are reviewed along with methods and procedures to make an assessment along with a discussion of where the ASME B and PV Code currently stands regarding continued operation. (orig.)

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  8. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  9. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  10. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  11. Needs-driven soot blowing in waste boilers; Behovsstyrd sotblaasning i avfallspannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Davidsson, Kent

    2009-09-15

    The increased use of alternative and waste fuels has resulted in an increased number of plants having trouble with fouling and corrosion on boiler banks and superheater tubes. Frequent sootblowing will keep the surfaces relatively clean, but on the other hand, it may erode the tube material. An intelligent sootblowing system will initiate sootblowings on individual tube banks only when needed for that specific tube bank. Such a system depends on the detection of the degree of fouling of specific tube banks. In this project, the conditions for an intelligent sootblowing system at the waste fired boilers in Boraas are investigated from measured flows, temperatures and pressure drop. New thermocouples at the water tubes between the banks of the economiser have been installed and connected to the control and monitoring system of the boiler. From measured temperatures and flows, heat transfer coefficients are calculated and used to detect the fouling on the heat exchangers. A pressure transducer has been altered to measure the pressure over the boiler bank. At the superheaters, the measurements show a significant improvement of the heat transfer coefficients immediately following sootblowing. Thereafter, the heat transfer coefficients decline more slowly, almost linearly. The measurements indicate that the fouling rate is almost same for the two superheaters and do not motivate individual sootblowing sequences of the two superheaters. The pressure drop over the boiler bank was found too insensitive a measure to be used as an indicator for an intelligent sootblowing system, at least in this specific boiler. In the economiser, the decline of calculated heat transfer coefficients showed a relative rate of fouling on individual tube banks. The results show that the fouling rate is significantly higher in the top tube banks, which comes first in the direction of the flue gas, compared to downstream banks. Experiments by sootblowing the top tube bank more frequently than the

  12. The Wick-Concept for Thermal Insulation of Cold Piping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koverdynsky, Vit; Korsgaard, Vagn; Rode, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    the wick-concept in either of two variations: the self-drying or the self-sealing system. Experiments have been carried out using different variations of the two systems to investigate the conditions for exploiting the drying capabilities of the systems, and the results are presented. The results show......The wick-concept for thermal insulation of cold piping is based on capillary suction of a fiber fabric to remove excess water from the pipe surface by transporting it to the outer surface of the insulation. From the surface of the insulation jacket, the water will evaporate to the ambient air....... This will prevent long-term accumulation of moisture in the insulation material. The wick keeps the hydrophobic insulation dry, allowing it to maintain its thermal performance. The liquid moisture is kept only in the wick fabric. This article presents the principle of operation of cold pipe insulation using...

  13. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and groove...

  14. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7506 - Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do any boilers or process heaters have..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters General Compliance Requirements § 63.7506 Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements? (a) New or reconstructed boilers and process heaters in...

  17. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate of...

  18. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs to...

  19. 46 CFR 61.05-5 - Preparation of boilers for inspection and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of boilers for inspection and test. 61.05-5... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-5 Preparation of boilers for... preparing the boilers for the hydrostatic test, they shall be filled with water at not less than 70 °F. and...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in paragraphs...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7499 - What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the subcategories of boilers..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards § 63.7499 What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters? The subcategories of boilers and process...

  2. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification referring...

  3. 30 CFR 56.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the...

  4. Up-date on cyclone combustion and cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rocha, Rodrigo Carnera Castro da; Gazel, Hussein Felix; Martins, Diego Henrique dos Reis [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: mfmn@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler concept has been around for more than 70 years, and there are many types available. Boilers provide steam or hot water for industrial and commercial use. The Federal University of Para (UFPA) through the research group EBMA (Energy,Biomass and Environment) has been developing cyclonic furnace with a water wall, a boiler, aiming to use regional timbers (sawdust) and agro-industries residues as fuel to produce steam to be used in industrial processes as well as in power generation,. The use of cyclonic combustion for burning waste instead of burning in a fixed bed is mainly due to two factors efficiency improvement causing a more compact boiler and less risk of explosion, since their process does not generate an accumulation of volatile. Present state-of-art for commercial cyclone boilers has as set up a cyclone combustor with two combustion chambers, in fluid communication, where there ducts for supplying air and fuel directly into the first chamber and for forming a cyclonic flow pattern and a heat exchanger surrounding the second chamber for keeping low combustion temperature in both chambers. This paper shows the results of a literature review about design, construction and operation of cyclonic boilers using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. This information has been used for the design of a cyclone boiler to be constructed at UFPA for research purposes and its basic concept is presented at the end of this article. (author)

  5. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  6. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  7. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Apparatus and method of controlling the thermal performance of an oxygen-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand A.; Kang, Shin G.; Kenney, James R.; Edberg, Carl D.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein is a method of controlling the operation of an oxy-fired boiler; the method comprising combusting a fuel in a boiler; producing a heat absorption pattern in the boiler; discharging flue gases from the boiler; recycling a portion of the flue gases to the boiler; combining a first oxidant stream with the recycled flue gases to form a combined stream; splitting the combined stream into several fractions; and introducing each fraction of the combined stream to the boiler at different points of entry to the boiler.

  9. Metallurgical investigation of cracking of the isolation valve downstream piping of regenerative heat exchanger at beaver valley unit 1 station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    A metallurgical investigation was conducted to establish the mechanism and cause of cracking in the regenerative heat exchanger piping at Beaver Valley Unit 1 PWR station in the USA. The investigation, which was centered on an eight inch long pipe section containing the cracking included surface examinations, metallographic and fractographic examinations, and chemistry evaluations. The results of the examinations showed that there were two types of pipe degradation mechanisms that affected the type 304 stainless schedule 40 piping. These consisted of localized corrosive attack on the OD surface due to the presence of chlorides, sulphates and phosphates, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking in the pipe wall due to the presence of chloride contaminants. The overall results of the investigation showed that the introduction of contaminants from external sources other than pipe insulation was the cause of heat exchanger pipe cracking. (author)

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  11. Production and testing of tubes for nuclear boiler steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacson, M.

    1977-01-01

    Vallourec, second pipe manufacturer in Europe, has developed a workshop for the production of nuclear heat exchanger tubes in its Montbard plant. This workshop, by its special construction, production engineering and handling procedures, has attained nuclear standards and can produce U-bended tubes from diameter 12 to 25 mm with a maximum length of 36 meters. Its annual out-put is 1.500.000 meters. The final dimensions are obtained by a cold rolling procedure, followed by an outside and inside degreasing, a solution annealing in a controlled atmosphere continuous type furnace, a surface grinding and an inside surface conditionning. The non-destructive tests: eddy currents, ultrasonic tests and thickness mesures are recorded on a single tube basis. The curving and packing procedures have been specially developed for this production [fr

  12. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  13. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  14. Probabilistic procedure to evaluate integrity of degraded pipes under internal pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Herter, K.-H.; Julisch, P.; Otremba, F.; Schuler, X.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical crack sizes or permissible/allowable loading levels in pipes with degraded pipe sections (circumferential cracks) for the assurance of component integrity is usually based on deterministic approaches. Therefore along with numerical calculational methods (finite element (FE) analyses) limit load calculations, such as e.g. the 'Plastic limit load concept' and the 'Flow stress concept' as well as fracture mechanics approximation methods as e.g. the R-curve method or the 'Ductile fracture handbook' and the R6-Method are currently used for practical application. Numerous experimental tests on both ferritic and austenitic pipes with different pipe dimensions were investigated at MPA Stuttgart. The geometries of the pipes were comparable to actual piping systems in Nuclear Power Plants, both BWR as well as PWR. Through wall cracks and part wall through cracks on the inside surface of the pipes were considered. The results of these tests were used to determine the flow stresses used within the limit load calculations. Therefore the deterministic concepts assessing the integrity of degraded pipes are available A new post-calculation of the above mentioned tests was performed using probabilistic approaches to assure the component integrity of degraded piping systems. As a result the calculated probability of failure was compared to experimental behaviour during the pipe test. Different reliability techniques were used for the verification of the probabilistic approaches. (author)

  15. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  16. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  17. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  18. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  19. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  20. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Kawasaki, Ichio; Miura, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  1. Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance

  2. Finite element limit analysis based plastic limit pressure solutions for cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do Jun; Huh, Nam Su; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed FE limit analyses, the present paper provides tractable approximations for plastic limit pressure solutions for axial through-wall cracked pipe; axial (inner) surface cracked pipe; circumferential through-wall cracked pipe; and circumferential (inner) surface cracked pipe. Comparisons with existing analytical and empirical solutions show a large discrepancy in circumferential short through-wall cracks and in surface cracks (both axial and circumferential). Being based on detailed 3-D FE limit analysis, the present solutions are believed to be the most accurate, and thus to be valuable information not only for plastic collapse analysis of pressurised piping but also for estimating non-linear fracture mechanics parameters based on the reference stress approach

  3. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical decoupling...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...

  4. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  5. A flexible film type EMAT for inspection of small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Xiao, Pan; Zhao, Siqi; Chen, Zhenmao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Pipe structures are widely applied in industries, and different kinds of defects may occur in the structures during their long-time service. For non-destructive testing of defects in pipes of small diameter, it has to be conducted from the inner side of the pipe when there is no space for detection from the outside or the geometry of the outside tube surface is too complicated. In this work, a flexible film type Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) probe with a dual coil configuration is developed. The new probe is flexible and can be inserted into the pipe for inspection. First, the feasibility of the new probe was studied through numerical simulation. Then the feasibility of the proposed flexible EMAT for detection of wall thinning in small diameter pipe was verified experimentally. It was found that the new EMAT method is suitable for the detection of wall thinning defects for small pipes.

  6. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  7. Whistling of pipes with narrow corrugations: scale model tests and consequences for carcass design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes for gas production and transport with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocity is larger than a certain velocity. This onset velocity is dependent on the geometry of the corrugations, the operational conditions and

  8. Morphology of extruded high-density polyethylene pipes studied by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, D.; Drouillon, Philippe; Ghanem, Antoine; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1997-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structure of extruded polyethylene (PE) pipe. During extrusion, the outer surface of the pipe was cooled with water. Two cross sections, parallel and transverse to the extrusion direction, were examined in order to spatially follow the structural

  9. Nuclear piping design, pipe support design and engineering during installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podczerwinski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the computer-aided design of the piping and pipe supports of nuclear power plants. Hardware improvements have been made in the areas of man-machine communication, processing speed, and memory density. Topics considered include evolving design systems, application to current needs, safety-related small-bore piping and support design, as-built drawing review and reconciliation, large-bore pipe support design, snubber population reduction, and operating plant modifications. The improvements in man-machine communication hardware permit the designer to communicate with the computer in terms of pictures of elements of the design. The processing speed and memory density improvements enables the assembly of the design on the machine

  10. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  11. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  12. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  13. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic. Stage 5.4: Boiler with oxyfuel technology. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    This phase comprised a preliminary study of boiler design modification for the oxyfuel technology. The design was developed specifically for the Prunerov II power plant. It was defined as a reference boiler for combustion using air which was consequently modified for combustion with oxygen. Changes in the construction of boiler were designed and quantified using thermal conversion, which provided the necessary modification of the sizes of the fireplace and heating surfaces. An existing general mathematical model, modified for this specific task, was used for the thermal conversion calculations

  14. Method for Qualification of Coatings Applied to Wet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    The field application of a pipeline repair or rehabilitation coating usually cannot wait until ambient conditions become optimal. In a humid environment, water can condense on the pipe surface because the pipe surface is usually cooler than the ambie...

  15. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  16. Removal of a section of the CMS beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Over recent weeks, members of the TE-VSC group have been removing seven components of the beam pipe located at the heart of the CMS detector. The delicate operations involved have been performed in several stages as the detector opening work has progressed.   Of the seven components concerned, only the central vacuum pipe will be replaced. The other six will be stored in a special radiation-shielded area on the surface and subsequently reinstalled ready for the resumption of machine operation. The video below, which was filmed on 15 May, shows one of the seven components of the vacuum pipe - the HFCT2, located to the right of the interaction point – being brought up from the CMS cavern to the surface by the transport team at Point 5.

  17. Miniaturised Optical Fibre Sensor for Dew Detection Inside Organ Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baldini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor for the continuous monitoring of the dew formation inside organ pipes was designed. This aspect is particularly critical for the conservation of organs in unheated churches since the dew formation or the condensation on the pipe surfaces can contribute to many kinds of physical and chemical disruptive mechanisms. The working principle is based on the change in the reflectivity which is observed on the surface of the fibre tip, when a water layer is formed on its distal end. Intensity changes of the order of 35% were measured, following the formation of the water layer on the distal end of a 400/430 μm optical fibre. Long-term tests carried out placing the fibre tip inside the base of an in-house-made metallic foot of an organ pipe located in an external environment revealed the consistency of the proposed system.

  18. Augmented of turbulent heat transfer in an annular pipe with abrupt expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togun Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of heat transfer to turbulent air flow in the abrupt axisymmetric expansion of an annular pipe. The experimental investigations were performed in the Reynolds number range from 5000 to 30000, the heat flux varied from 1000 to 4000 W/m2, and the expansion ratio was maintained at D/d=1, 1.25, 1.67 and 2. The sudden expansion was created by changing the inner diameter of the entrance pipe to an annular passage. The outer diameter of the inner pipe and the inner diameter of the outer pipe are 2.5 and 10 cm, respectively, where both of the pipes are subjected to uniform heat flux. The distribution of the surface temperature of the test pipe and the local Nusselt number are presented in this investigation. Due to sudden expansion in the cross section of the annular pipe, a separation flow was created, which enhanced the heat transfer. The reduction of the surface temperature on the outer and inner pipes increased with the increase of the expansion ratio and the Reynolds number, and increased with the decrease of the heat flux to the annular pipe. The peak of the local Nusselt number was between 1.64 and 1.7 of the outer and inner pipes for Reynolds numbers varied from 5000 to 30000, and the increase of the local Nusselt number represented the augmentation of the heat transfer rate in the sudden expansion of the annular pipe. This research also showed a maximum heat transfer enhancement of 63-78% for the outer and inner pipes at an expansion ratio of D/d=2 at a Re=30000 and a heat flux of 4000W/m2.

  19. Evaluation of fracture toughness of nuclear piping using real pipe and tensile compact pipe specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.M.; Park, S.; Seok, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The tensile compact pipe (CP) specimen was proposed. • J-integral for the specimen was obtained by the plastic limit load analysis and FEA. • Fracture toughness tests by several types of specimens were performed and compared. • The constraint effects were considered by comparing Q-stresses for them. -- Abstract: The leak-before-break (LBB) concept is generally used to design the primary heat transport piping for a nuclear power plant. The LBB concept is based on the fracture resistance curve, which is obtained by J–R tests on various types of specimens. Fracture toughness data differ according to the various types of specimens. It has also been known that there is a difference in the constraint effect between real pipes and standard specimens, and LBB design using standard specimens is conservative. We propose a new type of specimen for J–R tests, a tensile compact pipe (CP) specimen, and perform fracture toughness tests on various types of specimens. We also perform constraint effect analysis on such specimens. The Q-stresses of the tensile CP specimens are lower than those of real pipes under 4-point bending, and are higher than those of elbow pipes. If the lever length of a tensile CP specimen is controlled, the specimen can simulate various stress conditions, and it is thought that the LBB design of piping in service can be performed using this specimen

  20. Evaluation of fracture toughness of nuclear piping using real pipe and tensile compact pipe specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.M.; Park, S.; Seok, C.S., E-mail: seok@skku.edu

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • The tensile compact pipe (CP) specimen was proposed. • J-integral for the specimen was obtained by the plastic limit load analysis and FEA. • Fracture toughness tests by several types of specimens were performed and compared. • The constraint effects were considered by comparing Q-stresses for them. -- Abstract: The leak-before-break (LBB) concept is generally used to design the primary heat transport piping for a nuclear power plant. The LBB concept is based on the fracture resistance curve, which is obtained by J–R tests on various types of specimens. Fracture toughness data differ according to the various types of specimens. It has also been known that there is a difference in the constraint effect between real pipes and standard specimens, and LBB design using standard specimens is conservative. We propose a new type of specimen for J–R tests, a tensile compact pipe (CP) specimen, and perform fracture toughness tests on various types of specimens. We also perform constraint effect analysis on such specimens. The Q-stresses of the tensile CP specimens are lower than those of real pipes under 4-point bending, and are higher than those of elbow pipes. If the lever length of a tensile CP specimen is controlled, the specimen can simulate various stress conditions, and it is thought that the LBB design of piping in service can be performed using this specimen.

  1. Energy efficiency in boilers; Eficiencia energetica em caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ricardo Silva The [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], email: ricthe@dee.ufc.br; Barbosa, Marcos Antonio Pinheiro; Rufino, Maria da Gracas [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: marcos_apb@unifor.br, gsrufino@unifor.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler is vapor generator equipment that has been widely used in industrial milieu as in electric energy generation in thermoelectric plants. Since their first conception, the boilers have been changed in order to provide security and energetic efficiency. They can present high losses of energy if they don't be operated according to some criteria. A considerable part of boilers operation cost include fuel expenses. So, the adoption of effective steps in order to reduce fuel consumption is important to industry economy, besides it brings environmental benefits through the reduction of pollution liberation. The present article has the objective of emphasizing the effective steps for the economy of energy in boilers, such as, the regulation of combustion; the control of soot and incrustations; the installation of economizers, air heaters and super heaters; the reduction in purges and reintroduction of condensed steam. (author)

  2. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Straw is used as fuel in relatively small-scale combined heat and power producing (CHP) grate boilers in Denmark. The large content of potassium and chlorine in straw greatly increases the deposit formation and corrosion of the superheater coils, compared to boilers firing coal. In this study......, mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...... are adopted to minimize deposit problems at the two boilers. At Masnedø the final superheater steam temperature is 520 °C, no soot blowing of the superheaters is applied and a relatively large superheater area is used. At Ensted, an external wood-fired superheater is used in order to obtain a final steam...

  3. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  4. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  5. Convective and radiative heat transfer in MHD radiant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K. H.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    A combined convection-gas radiation, two-zone flow model is formulated for study of the heat transfer characteristics of MHD radiant boilers. The radiative contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles are included in the formulation, and are determined by solving the radiation transport equation using the P1 approximation. The scattering and absorption cross sections of slag particles are calculated from Mie theory. The model is used to analyze the scale-up of heat transfer in radiant boilers with refractory thickness, wall emissivity, and boiler size under conditions of a gas composition and slag particle spectrum typical of coal-fired MHD combustion. A design procedure is suggested for sizing radiant boilers so as to achieve the required heat extraction rate and to provide a flow residence time that is adequate for decomposition of NO(x) to acceptable levels.

  6. Selection of pipe repair methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this research is to provide pipeline operators with testing procedures and : results of the performance of composite pipe repair methods and ultimately, improve their : selection and installation, and reduce the risks associated with...

  7. Light pipes for LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  8. Pulsating Heat Pipes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large radiator panels, based upon state of the art conventional heat pipes with attached fins for thermal load distribution and dissipation is the current baseline...

  9. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  10. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  11. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apo...

  12. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  14. Investigation of Turbulators for Fire Tube Boilers Using Exergy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AYHAN, Betül

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of five different types of ``turbulator" inserts for fire tube boilers is presented. The experimental setup was constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University. It was tested to evaluate the boiler efficiency according to TS 4040 standard, and to evaluate the second law efficiency of thermodynamics for the cases with and without inserts under the same operating conditions. Four new typ...

  15. Characterization of Accelerating Pipe Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan , vol...92, January 1970. 17. K. Kataoka, T. Kawabata, and K. Miki, "The Start-Up Response of Pipe Flow to a Step Change in Flow Rate," Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan , vol...Pipe Flows," Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan , vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 431-439, 1975. 19. E. van de Sande, A.P. Belde, B.J.G. Hamer, and W.

  16. Development of total systems of piping stress analysis and evaluation: ISAPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Teizaburo; Koyanagi, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Masanao

    1978-01-01

    IHI has developed the systems of piping stress analysis and evaluation: ISAPPS (IHI Stress Analysis Program for Piping Systems), which are further described in this paper. In addition, the results of structural analysis and heat transfer analysis were confirmed. An example of stress evaluation in accordance with the modified ASME Code Sec. III is shown. ISAPPS consists of the following seven parts, and is designed for easy adoption of other programs by making modifications. 1. Piping design oriented language programs 2. Structural analysis programs 3. Isometric plotting programs 4. Multi-file dumping program 5. Load combination program 6. Heat transfer program 7. Stress evaluation programs As one of the examples of structural analysis programs, IHI make use of the modified SAP IV developed by the University of California. Evaluations of stresses are performed in accordance with: 1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. III Class 1, 2 and 3 2. ANSI Code, B31.1 and B31.3 3. MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry ) Code ISAPPS is very useful for design of nuclear and chemical pipings and so on. (author)

  17. Study on production mechanism of welding residual stress at the juncture of a pipe penetrating a thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Enomoto, Kunio; Okamoto, Noriaki; Saitoh, Hideyo; Hayashi, Eisaku.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies welding residual stresses at the intersection of a small diameter pipe penetrating a thick plate. The pipe is welded to the plate, and Tungsten Innert Gas (TIG) cladding is melted on the inner surface of the pipe to protect it from stress corrosion cracking due to long operation in nuclear power plants. Stresses are calculated by heat conduction analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, and also measured by strain gauges. Welding residual stresses are shown to have no corrosive influence on the inner pipe surface, and the stresses are compressed enough to protect the pipe against stress corrosion cracking on the outer surface. It was also studied to make clear the production mechanism of the residual stresses which were generated by welding processes at the pipe. (author)

  18. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the

  19. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. ANALISIS KEGAGALAN SOOTBLOWER TERHADAP PERPINDAHAN PANAS DI PIPA BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Chandra Purnama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM menyebut konsumsi listrik nasional saat ini masih terbilang mini, yaitu seperempat dari indikator negara maju di dunia. Dengan angka 956 per Kilowatt-hour (kWh per kapita, konsumsi listrik Indonesia baru mencapai 23,9 persen dari konsumsi listrik negara maju sebanyak 4 ribu kWh per kapita. Salah satu komponen utama pada sistem pembangkit adalah boiler. Uap hasil produksi Boiler ini digunakan untuk memutar turbine yang akan menggerakkan generator guna menghasilkan listrik. Sootblower merupakan peralatan penunjang pada boiler yang berfungsi untuk membersihkan jelaga. Oleh karena itu peranan sootblower sangat penting dalam menjaga effisiensi boiler. Tujuan dari dilakukan analisis ini adalah mampu mengidentifikasi penurunan perpindahan panas yang terjadi pada pipa boiler, mengidentifikasi faktor penyebab kegagalan pada Sootblower, mengurangi energi yang terbuang akibat pengoperasian Sootblower. Metode penelitian untuk melakukan pelaksanaan analisis sootblower ini terdiri atas berbagai bagian, antara lain: studi literatur, proses pengumpulan data, kemudian data diolah dan dilakukan analisis guna mengetahui penyebab kegagalan pada sootblower. Hasil dari analisis kegagalan pada sootblower ini didapatkan bahwa sootblower gagal beroperasi karena ada masalah pada lance tube yang sering bengkok sehingga mempengaruhi proses perpindahan panas di pipa boiler, oleh sebab itu di rekomendasikan untuk penggantian material lance tube dari carbon steel A105 dengan defleksi 1,1 m menjadi chrome moly (AISI 4130 dengan defleksi 1,05 cm  dan dilakukan perawatan sootblower lebih baik dan rutin lagi.

  1. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  2. Establishing an Energy Efficiency Recommendation for Commercial Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle, J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton’s Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25~ percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge’s goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products (e.g. commercial boilers, chillers, motors) that could substantially impact the government’s energy reduction goals. When establishing efficiency recommendations, FEMP looks at standardized performance ratings for products sold in the U.S. marketplace. Currently, the commercial boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency as metrics when specifying boiler performance. For many years, the industry has used both metrics interchangeably, causing confusion in the market place about boiler performance. This paper discusses the method used to establish FEMP’s efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers in lieu of the various, and somewhat confusing, efficiency ratings currently available. The paper also discusses potential energy cost savings for federal agencies that improve the efficiency of boilers specified and purchased.

  3. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  4. Development of Intelligent pipe Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukinori

    1987-09-10

    As the cities gets denser, development of a pipe locator, which can easily detect the position of the complicatedly buried underground pipes with high accuracy, is greatly demanded. A newly developed intelligent pipe locator detects a magnetic field generated by flowing an alternating-current through a buried pipe by means of a sensor unit placed on the ground and by computing and displaying with a micro-computer the position, depth, and the reliability of the detected result in only 3 seconds. Results of a half year field test since Sept. 1986 shows that the error was improved twice up to 5% from 10% of the conventional pipe locator. Operation time was also reduced down to one-fifth of the former method. By the practical use of this locator on the spot, one can expect the security improvements, reduction of frilling cost, and more efficient operation. In Japan recently, the number of conventional pipe locator is more than 5000 units in about 15 types. (10 figs, 7 tabs)

  5. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  6. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, C. [National Power Training Institute, Durgapur (India)

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  7. Leaks in pipe networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

  8. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  9. Multi-terminal pipe routing by Steiner minimal tree and particle swarm optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Chengen

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided design of pipe routing is of fundamental importance for complex equipments' developments. In this article, non-rectilinear branch pipe routing with multiple terminals that can be formulated as a Euclidean Steiner Minimal Tree with Obstacles (ESMTO) problem is studied in the context of an aeroengine-integrated design engineering. Unlike the traditional methods that connect pipe terminals sequentially, this article presents a new branch pipe routing algorithm based on the Steiner tree theory. The article begins with a new algorithm for solving the ESMTO problem by using particle swarm optimisation (PSO), and then extends the method to the surface cases by using geodesics to meet the requirements of routing non-rectilinear pipes on the surfaces of aeroengines. Subsequently, the adaptive region strategy and the basic visibility graph method are adopted to increase the computation efficiency. Numeral computations show that the proposed routing algorithm can find satisfactory routing layouts while running in polynomial time.

  10. DBSSP - A computer program for simulation of controlled circulation boiler and natural circulation boiler start up behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Chen Tingkuan; Yang Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program, Drum Boiler Start-up Simulation Program (DBSSP), is developed for simulating the start up behavior of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers. The mathematical model developed here is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the boiler model, heat transfer in the waterwall, the superheater, the reheater and the economizer is simulated by the distributing parameter method, while heat transfer in the drum and the downcomer is simulated by lumped parameter analysis. The program can provide detailed flow and thermodynamic characteristics of the boiler components. The development of this program is based only on design data, so it can be used for any subcritical, controlled or natural circulation boiler. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements, and good agreements between them were found. This program is expected to be useful for predicting the characteristics and the performance of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers during the start up process. It also can be used to optimize a start up system for minimum start up time

  11. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less than 1 cfuยทcm-2 viable bacterium (except for PVC) was observed on the surface of test pipes between 48 and 168 h. ... Statistical evidence also showed that all physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, sulphate) had no significant effect on bacterial number at ...

  12. Heat flow in functionally graded pipes with isothermal boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryden, John [University of Western Ontario, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, London, ON (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The steady state two-dimensional temperature field within a functionally graded pipe having isothermal inner and outer surfaces is calculated. The analysis is based upon the theory of complex variables. An expression, which depends upon the spatial variation of the conductivity, is suggested for the equivalent homogeneous thermal conductivity. (orig.)

  13. Coarse particles-water mixtures flow in pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 2017 (2017), s. 338-341 ISSN 2411-3336 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydrotransport * coarse particles pipeline installation * pressure drop * pipe inclination Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  14. Coarse particles-water mixtures flow in pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 2017 (2017), s. 338-341 ISSN 2411-3336 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydrotransport * coarse particles pipeline installation * pressure drop * pipe inclination Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  15. Quality Determination of Pipe-Borne Water in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the pipe-borne water supplied to Sokoto metropolis was determined in this study. The total bacterial count was carried out using surface plating method of inoculation. The coliforms were enumerated using multiple tube fermentation technique (Most Probable Number Method). Some physicochemical ...

  16. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01

    {sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was

  17. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  18. NEP heat pipe radiators. [Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper covers improvements of heat pipe radiators for the thermionic NEP design. Liquid metal heat pipes are suitable as spacecraft radiator elements because of high thermal conductance, low mass and reliability, but the NEP thermionic system design was too large and difficult to fabricate. The current integral collector-radiator design consisting of several layers of thermionic converters, the annular-tangential collector heat pipe, the radiator heat pipe, and the transition zone designed to minimize the temperature difference between the collector heat pipe and radiator heat pipe are described. Finally, the design of micrometeoroid armor protection and the fabrication of the stainless steel annular heat pipe with a tangential arm are discussed, and it is concluded that the heat rejection system for the thermionic NEP system is well advanced, but the collector-radiator heat pipe transition and the 8 to 10 m radiator heat pipe with two bends require evaluation.

  19. An acoustic technique for tracing plastic pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, J.E.; Campbell, B.K. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Ching, G.K. (Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Research Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    Many operation and maintenance activities performed by a gas distribution company require precise knowledge of the location of the gas main and/or service. These activities range from pipe location for the repair of a leak to the marking of pipe location as part of a one call system. Records provide one method of knowing the location of piping; however, these records are not always sufficiently accurate for field work. Thus, techniques for pipe location have always been an important need of the industry, and electromagnetic pipe locators have filled this need for years. Electromagnetic pipe locators, however, cannot find plastic pipe unless a tracer wire is buried next to or above the pipe. With the increased use of plastic pipe, a new technique for finding buried pipe is required. A successful acoustic plastic pipe locator could eliminate the use of tracer wire in new polyethylene pipe installations, thereby reducing pipe installation costs. Under sponsorship of the Southern California Gas Company, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) successfully demonstrated the proof-of-concept of an active acoustic plastic pipe location technique and is developing the technique into a practical field instrument.

  20. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  1. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  2. Operation corrosion test of austenitic steel bends for supercritical coal boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizner J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion tests of both annealed and not annealed bends of HR3C and S304H steels in operation conditions of black and brown coal combustion boilers in EPRU and EDE. After a long-term exposure, the samples were assessed gravimetrically and metallographically. The comparison of annealed and unannealed states showed higher corrosion rates in the annealed state; corrosion of the sample surface did not essentially differ for compression and tensile parts of the beams. Detailed assessment of both steels is described in detail in this study.

  3. Computations of NOx emissions of domestic boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France). EM2C Lab.; Gicquel, O.; Darabiha, N.

    2001-07-01

    Due to severe regulations concerning pollutant emissions, practical devices using combustion to release energy must be designed from the start using accurate, predictive numerical tools. A partially premixed methane/air flame in a two-dimensional configuration is investigated in this work. This configuration is close to those used in real domestic gas boilers. The flame structure and flow pattern are calculated using complex chemistry and detailed transport models. A post-processing method is then used to predict NO emission. Computations are performed for two configurations. The two cases have the same primary and secondary mass flow-rates and equivalence ratio. The only difference between them is the introduction of an insert inside the primary injector. Both results have been compared to measurements. Calculations are found to be in good agreement with the flame shapes observed experimentally. The classical burner shows a Bunsen-type flame while the one with an insert has a totally different shape (butterfly-type flame). NO emission levels are also well predicted in both configurations. The butterfly flame induces a reduction in NO emission. This reduction seems to be due to the increased mixing between the burnt gases and the secondary air jet, which homogenizes the temperature distribution and reduces the maximum temperature. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of corrosion caused by the use of in natura biogas in steam generator boilers of carbon steel structural elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenelle, Marcellus; Alves, Helton Jose, E-mail: helquimica@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Pellizzer, Eder Luis [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC), Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Monteiro, Marcos Roberto; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Higa, Silvia Midori [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fontenelle, Isaddora [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    This work evaluates the corrosion process caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas in natura, in steels commonly used in the construction of steam generator boilers, simulating conditions close to those found on the real application of these materials, exposing the test bodies directly to biogas in natura, flame of combustion and gases resulting from the combustion of this biofuel, in chimney. After 314 hours of exposure under the specified conditions, the corroded surfaces of ASTM A178 and ASTM A516 were analyzed, by optical microscopy, electronic scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface hardness. The determination of corrosion rates for each test condition and each material tested can be used as a parameter for the determination of the minimum tolerance for mechanical stability, in the calculation of the minimum required thickness of the structural elements of the steam generator boilers fed to biogas. (author)

  5. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  6. Identification of boiler tube leak in PHWR by measuring short lived radioisotope Iodine-134 in boiler water using gamma spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The boiler tube made up of Monel-400 of RAPS-2 has failed on few occasions. Due to the failure of boiler tube, the active heavy water enters into boiler and feed water leading to contamination of radioactivity in secondary water circuit. The identification of boiler tube failure was done by measuring gamma ray activity of Iodine-134 in the boiler water with sample using gamma spectrometry with high purity germanium detector. In order to increase the sensitivity of the method 5 liters of Boiler water sample was passed through a plastic column containing 40 ml of anion resin and 10 ml of activated charcoal to capture the isotopes of Iodine in the anionic form and molecular form. Samples were collected from all 8 Boilers of RAPS-2. The activity of 134 I was shown only by Boiler - 5. No other boilers showed any activity of 134 I. This indicated that Boiler - 5 had leaky tubes. The leaky hairpin of boiler - 5 was identified by measuring Tritium and IP in the riser and down comer of all 10 HXs. On the basis of Tritium and IP result, HX-7 was identified as leaky hairpin. (author)

  7. An Investigation of Aging Behaviour in Microalloyed Steel (X70) UOE Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskel, J. B.; Ma, J.; Ivey, D. G.; Henein, H.

    Aging of microalloyed steel pipe can occur at relatively low temperatures associated with the pipe coating process and/or during long term storage or use. The aging phenomenon is primarily attributed to C diffusion to dislocations and subsequent pinning of these dislocations. Important factors in the aging process include time, temperature, chemical composition and plastic deformation (arising from the pipe forming process). The work presented in this paper uses a Box-Behnken experimental design to determine the effect of time, temperature, location in the UOE pipe (90° or 180° to the weld), position through the pipe wall thickness (ID, CL or OD) and the steel's C/Nb ratio (0.60, 1.25 and 1.80) on the change in yield strength of three (uncoated) X70 UOE pipes. Quantitative microstructure analysis is undertaken to determine the grain size and microconstituent fractions of the as-received pipe material. Quadratic equations and response surface(s) correlating the significant aging variables with changes in the longitudinal yield stress of the pipe are developed. Both through thickness position and the C/Nb ratio, followed by aging temperature, had the largest effect on the change in longitudinal yield strength.

  8. Failure analysis of cracked head spray piping from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Dragel, G.M.

    1983-07-01

    Several sections of Type 304 stainless steel head spray piping, 6.25 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter, from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor were examined to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages detected during hydrostatic tests. Extensive pitting was observed on the outside surface of the piping, and three cracks, all located at a helical stripe apparently rubbed onto the outer surface of the piping, were also noted. Metallographic examination revealed that the cracking had initiated at the outer surface of the pipe, and showed it to be transgranular and highly branched, characteristic of chloride stress corrosion cracking. The surface pitting also appeared to have been caused by chlorides. A scanning electron microprobe x-ray analysis of the corrosion product in the cracks confirmed the presence of chlorides and also indicated the presence of calcium

  9. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  10. Development of residual stress prediction model in pipe weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Yun Yong; Lim, Se Young; Choi, Kang Hyeuk; Cho, Young Sam; Lim, Jae Hyuk [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    When Leak Before Break(LBB) concepts is applied to high energy piping of nuclear power plants, residual weld stresses is a important variable. The main purpose of his research is to develop the numerical model which can predict residual weld stresses. Firstly, basic theories were described which need to numerical analysis of welding parts. Before the analysis of pipe, welding of a flat plate was analyzed and compared. Appling the data of used pipes, thermal/mechanical analysis were accomplished and computed temperature gradient and residual stress distribution. For thermal analysis, proper heat flux was regarded as the heat source and convection/radiation heat transfer were considered at surfaces. The residual stresses were counted from the computed temperature gradient and they were compared and verified with a result of another research.

  11. Radioactive recontamination on mechanically polished piping at Shimane-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, K.; Komoto, I.; Imamura, K.; Kataoka, I.; Uchida, S.

    1998-01-01

    In a series of preventive maintenance tasks for an aging plant, recirculation pipes of Shimane-1 NPP have been replaced by newly fabricated type 316 NG stainless steel pipes. Suppression of shutdown dose rate caused by 60 Co recontamination on the newly replaced piping was one of the major concerns in the recirculation pipe replacement. In order to suppress the shutdown dose rate, control of the 60 Co deposition rate coefficient as well as 60 Co radioactivity in the reactor water are essential. The deposition rate coefficient depends on surface roughness. The coefficient is suppressed by reduction of the effective surface area of pipes through mechanical polishing. Then the inner surface of the pipes was polished mechanically to reduce roughness prior to application in the plant. After measuring and evaluating radioactive recontamination, it was estimated that deposited amounts of radioactive corrosion products on the pipe inner surface would reach the saturated value in a few years, and would not exceed the level before replacement unless water chemistry is degraded. (author)

  12. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  13. Microcomputer generated pipe support calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, R.F.; Czarnowski, P.; Roemer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost and complexity of pipe support design has been a continuing challenge to the construction and modification of commercial nuclear facilities. Typically, pipe support design or qualification projects have required large numbers of engineers centrally located with access to mainframe computer facilities. Much engineering time has been spent repetitively performing a sequence of tasks to address complex design criteria and consolidating the results of calculations into documentation packages in accordance with strict quality requirements. The continuing challenges of cost and quality, the need for support engineering services at operating plant sites, and the substantial recent advances in microcomputer systems suggested that a stand-alone microcomputer pipe support calculation generator was feasible and had become a necessity for providing cost-effective and high quality pipe support engineering services to the industry. This paper outlines the preparation for, and the development of, an integrated pipe support design/evaluation software system which maintains all computer programs in the same environment, minimizes manual performance of standard or repetitive tasks, and generates a high quality calculation which is consistent and easily followed

  14. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a method to take into account the inertial effects and the fluid compressibility by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-element method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources (acoustical sources or forces exciting directly the structure). Equations have been written in the hypothesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. Indeed this is largely verified in almost practical cases. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consist of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provide an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted [fr

  15. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  16. A statistical estimator for the boiler power and its related parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the boiler power accurately is important for both controlling the plant and maximizing the plant productivity. There are two computed boiler powers for each boiler. They are steam based boiler power and feedwater based boiler power. The steam based boiler power is computed as the enthalpy difference between the feedwater enthalpy and the boiler steam enthalpy. The feedwater based boiler power is computed as enthalpy absorbed by the feedwater. The steam based boiler power is computed in RRS program and used in calibrating the measured reactor power, while the feedwater based boiler power is computed in CSTAT program and used for indication. Since the steam based boiler power is used as feedback in the reactor control, it is chosen to be the one estimated in this work. Because the boiler power employs steam flow, feedwater flow and feedwater temperature measurements, and because any measurement contains constant or drifting noise and bias, the reconciliation and rectification procedures are needed to determine the boiler power more accurately. A statistic estimator is developed to perform the function of data reconciliation, gross error detection and instruments performance monitoring

  17. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through

  18. ADAPTION OF NONSTANDARD PIPING COMPONENTS INTO PRESENT DAY SEISMIC CODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Clark; M. J. Russell; R. E. Spears; S. R. Jensen

    2009-07-01

    With spiraling energy demand and flat energy supply, there is a need to extend the life of older nuclear reactors. This sometimes requires that existing systems be evaluated to present day seismic codes. Older reactors built in the 1960s and early 1970s often used fabricated piping components that were code compliant during their initial construction time period, but are outside the standard parameters of present-day piping codes. There are several approaches available to the analyst in evaluating these non-standard components to modern codes. The simplest approach is to use the flexibility factors and stress indices for similar standard components with the assumption that the non-standard component’s flexibility factors and stress indices will be very similar. This approach can require significant engineering judgment. A more rational approach available in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is the subject of this paper, involves calculation of flexibility factors using finite element analysis of the non-standard component. Such analysis allows modeling of geometric and material nonlinearities. Flexibility factors based on these analyses are sensitive to the load magnitudes used in their calculation, load magnitudes that need to be consistent with those produced by the linear system analyses where the flexibility factors are applied. This can lead to iteration, since the magnitude of the loads produced by the linear system analysis depend on the magnitude of the flexibility factors. After the loading applied to the nonstandard component finite element model has been matched to loads produced by the associated linear system model, the component finite element model can then be used to evaluate the performance of the component under the loads with the nonlinear analysis provisions of the Code, should the load levels lead to calculated stresses in excess of Allowable stresses. This paper details the application of component-level finite

  19. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  20. Long-Term Strength of a Thick-Walled Pipe Filled with an Aggressive Medium, with Account for Damageability of the Pipe Material and Residual Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriev, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the study of scattered fracture of a thick-walled pipe filled with an aggressive medium, which creates uniform pressure on the inner surface of the pipe. It is assumed that the aggressive medium affects only the value of instantaneous strength. Damageability is described by an integral operator of the hereditary type. The problem is solved with allowance for residual strength of the pipe material behind the fracture front. Numerical calculation is carried out, and relationships between the fracture front coordinate and time for various concentrations of the aggressive medium and residual strength behind the fracture front are constructed.