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Sample records for boiler corrosion quarterly

  1. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  2. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  3. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  4. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  5. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  6. Chemical cleaning of boilers and corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhosary, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    While being assembled and installed, thermal-power equipment accumulates a large amount of corrosion products, scale (as much as 350 g/m 2 ), welding residue, and other contaminants that must be removed before the equipment is started up. This is generally done with various acids and inhibitors. For boilers this chemical cleaning process is termed pre start cleaning. In contrast, an operational cleaning of boilers is also carried out, in order to remove carbonate deposits, that interfere with heat transfer, as well as the corrosion products that accumulate with use. The techniques include rinsing with water to remove contaminants not firmly adhering to the metal surfaces, decreasing in alkali reagents to remove grease and to loosen scale, pickling in mineral and organic acids for scale removal, and passivation of the metal surface. decreasing is usually carried out in alkali reagents used are caustic soda, soda ash, tri sodium phosphate ammonia, and surface-active agents

  7. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mudgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  8. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  9. Boiler corrosion (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jul 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1976-07-01

    Research on design, improved efficiency, materials, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibiting additives and combustion in coal and fuel oil fired boilers are cited. Corrosion from limestone injection for pollution control, magnetohydrodynamics, ship boilers, and nuclear power plant boilers are included. (This updated bibliography contains 86 abstracts, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  11. Mitigating the Risk of Stress Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, A.; Owen, J.; Quirk, G.; G, Lewis; Rudge, A.; Woolsey, I.S.

    2012-09-01

    Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) operated in the UK by EDF Energy have once-through boilers, which deliver superheated steam at high temperature (∼500 deg. C) and pressure (∼150 bar) to the HP turbine. The boilers have either a serpentine or helical geometry for the tubing of the main heat transfer sections of the boiler and each individual tube is fabricated from mild steel, 9%Cr1%Mo and Type 316 austenitic stainless steel tubing. Type 316 austenitic stainless steel is used for the secondary (final) superheater and steam tailpipe sections of the boiler, which, during normal operation, should operate under dry, superheated steam conditions. This is achieved by maintaining a specified margin of superheat at the upper transition joint (UTJ) between the 9%Cr1%Mo primary superheater and the Type 316 secondary superheater sections of the boiler. Operating in this mode should eliminate the possibility of stress corrosion cracking of the Type 316 tube material on-load. In recent years, however, AGRs have suffered a variety of operational problems with their boilers that have made it difficult to maintain the specified superheat margin at the UTJ. In the case of helical boilers, the combined effects of carbon deposition on the gas side and oxide deposition on the waterside of the tubing have resulted in an increasing number of austenitic tubes operating with less than the specified superheat margin at the UTJ and hence the possibility of wetting the austenitic section of the boiler. Some units with serpentine boilers have suffered creep-fatigue damage of the high temperature sections of the boiler, which currently necessitates capping the steam outlet temperature to prevent further damage. The reduction in steam outlet temperature has meant that there is an increased risk of operation with less than the specified superheat margin at the UTJ and hence stress corrosion cracking of the austenitic sections of the boiler. In order to establish the risk of stress

  12. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  13. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  14. Influence of Deposit Formation on Corrosion at a Straw Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    Straw-fired boilers generally experience severe problems with deposit formation and are expected to suffer from severe superheater corrosion at high steam temperatures due to the large alkali and chlorine content in straw. In this study, deposits collected (1) on air-cooled probes and (2) directly...... at the existing heat transfer surfaces of a straw-fired boiler have been examined. Deposits collected on air-cooled probes were found to consist of an inner layer of KCl and an outer layer of sintered fly ash. Ash deposits formed on the heat transfer surfaces all had a characteristic layered structure......, with a dense layer of K2SO4 present adjacent to the metal surface. It is argued that the K2SO4 layer present adjacent to the metal surface may lead to reduced corrosion rates at this boiler. A discussion of the deposit structure, the K2SO4 layer formation mechanism, and the influence of the inner layer...

  15. Operation corrosion test of austenitic steel bends for supercritical coal boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizner J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion tests of both annealed and not annealed bends of HR3C and S304H steels in operation conditions of black and brown coal combustion boilers in EPRU and EDE. After a long-term exposure, the samples were assessed gravimetrically and metallographically. The comparison of annealed and unannealed states showed higher corrosion rates in the annealed state; corrosion of the sample surface did not essentially differ for compression and tensile parts of the beams. Detailed assessment of both steels is described in detail in this study.

  16. Corrosion in waste-fired boilers: A thermodynamic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becidan, Michael; Sørum, Lars; Frandsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    A twofold study using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations was carried out to study corrosion in MSW incinerators. Corrosion was associated with the amount of alkalis and trace metals gaseous chlorides. Firstly, a two-level factorial experimental design combined with a data analysis were used...

  17. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through

  18. Low temperature corrosion in bark fuelled, small boilers; Laagtemperaturkorrosion i barkeldade, mindre pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif; Goldschmidt, Barbara [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    A number of small (3-12 MW), new biofuel boiler plants in South Sweden, and (at least) in Austria, have suffered a high (wastage of mm/yrs.) corrosion rate on the low temperature boiler side. This problem has been investigated with respect to its occurrence and its character by contacts with operators, by plant inspections, and by analysis of cold side deposits. The plants affected have low feed water temperatures (< 100 deg C ). The plants fire most types of Swedish biofuel: chips, bark, hog fuel, and 'GROT'(=twigs and tops). The results found give basis for a hypothesis that the corrosion results from the presence of an aqueous phase in the deposits, this phase being stabilized by dissolved salts having high solubility. It then follows that for each salt, there is a critical relative humidity (calculated from the flue gas water partial pressure and the cooling surface temperature as is common practice among boiler engineers) for both the presence of the aqueous phase and the corrosion. Some critical single salts, ZnC12 and CaC12 have been identified, and they give critical 'relative humidities' of 5% and 18% respectively. These figures are a lower bound. The corresponding figure, derived from the practical experience and the reported plant operational data, is between 20 and 30%. Corrosion tests have been carried out by exposing an air-cooled probe in the fluegases at a 12 MW boiler at Saevelundsverket in Alingsaas, and the material wastage at different temperatures has been measured with a profilometer. The high corrosion rates were reproduced in the tests for high relative humidities. The corrosion rate was small and not measurable (<0.1 mm/yr) for relative humidity < 22%. The work shows by means of indirect evidence that the corrosion critical components are ZnCl{sub 2} and possibly CaCl{sub 2} as well. The practical engineering design criterion derived from the work is that the relative humidity (calculated from the flue gas water partial

  19. Detailed investigation of Cl-corrosion initiated by deposits formed in biomass-fired boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Lith, S. van

    2009-10-15

    The aim was to investigate deposit-induced Cl-corrosion under well-controlled laboratory conditions, simulating the conditions in biomass-fired boilers. This has been done by exposing pieces of superheater tubes, covered by synthetic salts, at temperatures and gas mixtures simulating biomass-fired conditions. The corroded specimens have been studied in detail using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), in order to determine the corrosion rate, and to investigate the chemistry and morphology of the corrosive attack. The project has been divided into four activities: A1: Relationship between the Cl-concentration in the deposit, and the corrosion rate. A2: Influence of cation type (K+ and Na+) on the mobility of Cl in the deposit. A3: Influence of metal temperature on the corrosion rate. A4: Critical evaluation of the existing experience for minimizing corrosion in full-scale boilers firing totally or partly with biomass. (LN)

  20. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  1. Measurement of waterwall corrosion in a boiler; Maetning av eldstadskorrosion i en panna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Jan; Henderson, Pamela; Mattsson, Mattias; Engel, Erik [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Waterwall corrosion has been studied with a probe, for the first time in Sweden. The method uses flat test pieces or coupons, 3 mm thick, which were manufactured from superheater steel tubes of 15Mo3 and SS 2218 (T22). The test pieces were exposed in the furnace of a power station in Uppsala on an air-cooled probe, in line with the surface of the furnace wall. The exposure time was 2013 hours and the temperature was controlled to 370 deg C, which was somewhat higher than the normal waterwall temperature. Deposits which had formed on the steel coupon surfaces were chemically analysed with SEM-EDS. Afterwards the coupons were sectioned along predetermined lines, where the original thickness had been measured. The sections were ground and polished without using water so that water soluble salts, like chlorides, would not be removed. Sections were analysed with a line-scan in a scanning electron microscope to study the chemical variations in the steel, oxide and deposit. The metal loss and oxide thickness were measured with a light optical microscope. The results from the measurements showed that the corrosion rate was low, only 0.005 mm per 1000 hours. In spite of this, the measurement technique was able to detect metal loss and measure oxide thickness. Waterwall corrosion measurements using a probe is a useful technique as the probe can be inserted and removed while the boiler is in operation. Use of flat specimens means that it is possible to measure small metal losses. A recommendation is that separate thermocouples are used for measurement and control.

  2. Evaluation of corrosion caused by the use of in natura biogas in steam generator boilers of carbon steel structural elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenelle, Marcellus; Alves, Helton Jose, E-mail: helquimica@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Pellizzer, Eder Luis [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC), Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Monteiro, Marcos Roberto; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Higa, Silvia Midori [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fontenelle, Isaddora [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    This work evaluates the corrosion process caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas in natura, in steels commonly used in the construction of steam generator boilers, simulating conditions close to those found on the real application of these materials, exposing the test bodies directly to biogas in natura, flame of combustion and gases resulting from the combustion of this biofuel, in chimney. After 314 hours of exposure under the specified conditions, the corroded surfaces of ASTM A178 and ASTM A516 were analyzed, by optical microscopy, electronic scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface hardness. The determination of corrosion rates for each test condition and each material tested can be used as a parameter for the determination of the minimum tolerance for mechanical stability, in the calculation of the minimum required thickness of the structural elements of the steam generator boilers fed to biogas. (author)

  3. Investigation and analysis of high temperature corrosion and degradation of marine boiler combustion swirler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, R. S.; Thakur, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    The present paper investigated and analyzed swirler material consisting of mild steel which was subjected to service for the period of one year in a 30 MW marine boiler. Due to the presence of high temperatures in the furnace coupled with the corrosive marine environment swirler material showed accelerated degradation and material wastage. An investigation into the feasibility of manufacturing the existing swirler with an alternate material or coating the swirler material with a thermal barrier coating was undertaken. Based on their properties and performance, SS 304 and SS 316 were proposed as the replacement materials for the swirler. The other alternative of coating the existing swirlers with a form thermal barrier coating to observe for any improvement in their performance at elevated temperatures was also tested. Stellite, which is a Ni-Co based coating, was carried out on the MS samples and the same were exposed to same temperatures mentioned above. The performance of the available options was evaluated with respect to the grain structure of the material, the hardness value of the materials and deterioration at elevated temperatures. Investigation showed the proposed materials/coatings like SS 304, SS 316 and Stellite coating revealed that SS 316 is the material best suited for high temperature application.

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994; January 1995--March 1995; April 1995--June 1995; July 1995--September 1995; October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers five quarters of work on the engineering development of a coal-fired low -emissions boiler systems. Contents include summaries of activities and key accomplishments for the following: project management; NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystems; controls and sensors subsystems; boiler subsystem; and balance of plant subsystem.

  5. Correlation of the corrosion rates of steels in a straw fired boiler with the thermodynamically predicted trend of KOH(g) in the flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of KOH(g) in flue gases without sulfur and chlorine compounds was studied. Relatively good correlation of the thermodynamically predicted trend of KOH(g) in the flue gases and the literature data of the corrosion rates of different steels in a straw fired boiler was found. A discussion on a possible, physically reasonable mechanism is also presented. However, the causality of the found correlation requires further studies. Highlights: ► Corrosion rates in a straw boiler correlate with the predicted trend of KOH(g). ► KOH(g) impinging the surface may be an important factor in corrosion in straw fired boilers. ► The proposed mechanism may be relevant also to other biomass fuels that release potassium hydroxide during combustion.

  6. quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  7. Relations between combustion, deposition, flue gas temperatures and corrosion in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Additives trials in three different plants, Sønderborg waste incineration plant and Ensted woodchip and straw firing boiler, are described. Both aluminium silicate containing additives and ammonium sulphate was tested. At Sønderborg, there was a drastic decrease in Cl deposition when...

  8. High temperature corrosion in biomass- and waste fired boilers. A status report; Kunskapslaeget betraeffande hoegtemperaturkorrosion i aangpannor foer biobraensle och avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, P.; Ifwer, K.; Staalenheim, A.; Montgomery, M.; Hoegberg, J.; Hjoernhede, A.

    2006-12-15

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion on the furnace walls or at the superheaters, especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 deg C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest from plant owners to reduce the costs associated with high temperature corrosion. At the same time there exists a considerable driving force towards improving the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of more advanced steam data. The purpose of the work presented here was to answer three main questions: What can be done to reduce high temperature corrosion with current fuel blends and steam temperatures? How can more waste fuels be burnt without an increased risk for corrosion? What needs to be done to reach higher steam temperatures in the future? The level of knowledge of high temperature corrosion in biomass- and waste-fired boilers has been described and summarised. The following measures are recommended to reduce corrosion in existing plant: Make sure that the fuel is well mixed and improve fuel feeding to obtain a more even spread of the fuel over the cross-section of the boiler. Use combustion technology methods to stabilize the oxygen content of the flue gases near the membrane walls and other heat transfer surfaces. Experiment with additives and/or supplementary fuels which contain sulphur in some form, for example peat. Reduce the flue gas temperature at the superheaters. Review soot-blowing procedures or protect heat transfer surfaces from soot blowers. Evaluate coated membrane wall panels in parts of the furnace that experience the worst corrosion. Test more highly alloyed steels suitable for superheaters and when replacing a superheater change to a more highly alloyed steel. For the future, the following should be considered: The role of sulphur needs to be investigated more and other additives should be investigated

  9. Chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers – Fe-O-Cl system thermodynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Robert

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chloride-induced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl system. The ranges of the metallic, oxide and chloride phase stability are determined within the temperature range T = 750-1000 K. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of gaseous phase determined by Deacon reaction are presented. The effect of H2O concentration in the gaseous phase on high-temperature corrosion process and gaseous NaCl influence on NaFeO2 formation in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 are discussed as well. The results are correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis is compared with assumptions of “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research prediction and a corrosion prevention in the industry.

  10. Relaxation and corrosion resistance of alloy 800 used for steam generator tubes of ship borne boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrieu, J.M.; Cortial, F.; Maillard, J.L.; Vernot-Loier, C.; Lebeau, M.

    1994-01-01

    The INCO ''INCOLOY 800'' trademark groups the Fe-Cr-Ni alloys containing 30 to 35% nickel, 19 to 23% chromium, 0,15 to 0,60% aluminium, 0,15 to 0,60% titanium and less than 0,10% carbon contents, used as construction materials for condenser and heat exchanger tubes. In parallel with water chemistry control and studies aimed at reducing the residual stresses resulting from tube expansion, studies have been conducted to a better understanding of this alloy, its metallurgy and its corrosion behaviour under accurately defined fabrication and heat treatment conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a behaviour study of INDRET alloy 800 concerning isothermal relaxation and effects of the said relaxation heat treatments on alloy microstructure studied with a transmission electron-chemical method to determine the sensitiveness to intergranular corrosion, and by electrochemistry in pressurized hot water. (authors). 4 figs., 5 tabs., 7 refs

  11. Sewage sludge as additive to reduce the initial fireside corrosion caused by combustion of shredder residues in a waste-fired BFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, T.; Pettersson, J.; Johansson, L.G.; Svensson, J.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry; Davidsson, K. [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Corrosion/deposition field tests have been carried out in a commercial waste-fired BFB boiler using air-cooled probes. The influence of 20% shredder light fraction (SLF), from recovery of metal scrap material, mixed with waste was studied at different material temperatures (280-420 C). In addition, 3% sewage sludge was added to the 20% SLF/waste mixture. The initial deposit and corrosion products were compared to when the normal waste (municipal solid waste and industrial wastes) fuel was used. After 24 hours exposure, the deposits were analyzed as for elemental composition while the corrosion products were characterised by ESEM/EDX and XRD. The results show that combustion of 20% SLF increased the amount of deposition, which in addition contains a larger fraction chlorine. This causes a higher initial corrosion rate. Adding 3% sewage sludge removes the effect of the SLF and deposits and corrosion products were comparable with the ones formed during the reference exposure. The results indicate that the initial fireside corrosion is chlorine induced and no signs of low-melting heavy metals salts were observed in the corrosion products. (orig.)

  12. Elevated Temperature Corrosion Studies of AlCrN and TiAlN Coatings by PAPVD on T91 Boiler Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lucky; Chawla, Vikas; Hundal, Jasbir Singh

    2017-11-01

    The present investigation discusses the hot corrosion behavior of AlCrN and TiAlN nano-coatings on T91 boiler steel by PAPVD process subjected to molten salt of Na2SO4-60%V2O5 at 900 °C for 50 cycles. Surface and cross-sectional studies were performed by AFM, SEM/EDS and XRD techniques to understand the corrosion kinetics and mechanism. T91 bare boiler steel as well as TiAlN-coated specimen has shown higher internal oxidation as well as weight gain. The better corrosion resistance of AlCrN-coated specimen has been observed by virtue of higher availability of Cr and Al in the oxide scale as well as adherent and dense coating. The betterment of AlCrN coating can be attributed to low internal oxidation as well as movement of Cr and Al toward oxide scale to form protective corrosion barriers.

  13. Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Steinbeck, T. [United Power Association, Elk River, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

  14. Superheater corrosion in biomass boiler - theories and tests in Vaestermalmsverket, Falun; Oeverhettarkorrosion i bioeldad panna - teorier och prov i Vaestermalmsverket, Falun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennquist, Eva-Marie

    2000-10-01

    It has lately been evident that a number of biomass-fired plants are experiencing major problems with corrosion of their superheaters. The major aim with this project is to contribute with increased knowledge in this area. The efforts to build up experience around different materials applicable for superheaters with high steam data is of great importance for future plants in Sweden. The main objective for 'Vaermeforsk' has been to transfer the experiences from this investigation to other boilers or plants with different types of fuel. This investigation has therefore been focused on the verification of SYCON's assumptions regarding the roles of chloride and alkali and the possibility of influencing/minimising superheater corrosion by optimisation of the fuel mix. Another important part was to verify that the boiler design, as such, does not create an unfavourable environment for the superheaters by producing reducing zones due to plume formation. Based on the above, the investigation has been divided into three loosely connected parts. (1) The role and reaction by chlorides in the deposits on a superheater, (2) Reducing environment - plume formation of non-combusted fuel, and (3) Choice of materials in the superheater. Serious corrosion has been detected in the superheater tubes of 'Vaestermalmsverket' in Falun. The material temperature was below 530 deg C. No serious inhomogeneous combustion problems or areas with reducing environments have been detected. The corrosion was therefore judged to be caused by alkali chlorides which condense on the superheater tubes. Tests with minor amounts of sulphur added to the biomass fuel have been shown to suppress the generation of alkali chlorides and their condensation on the superheater surfaces. A good correlation between calculated and measured values have been achieved. Very low corrosion rates have been measured on the test probes, constructed with different superheater material and placed in the

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  17. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Quarterly report, November 1986--January 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rini, M.J.; LaFlesh, R.C. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Beer, J.M.; Togan, M.A.; Yu, T.U. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, MA (US)

    1987-05-06

    During the quarter from October 1986 to January 1987 the following technical progress was made: (1) Initiated a literature study focusing on optimized burner aerodynamics and design methodologies for high efficiency swirl generation devices, (2) Completed design of Swirler Test Facility (STF) to be used for comparative swirler evaluations, and (3) Initiated facility preparation at MIT for thermal atomization studies and high shear viscosity measurements.

  18. HVOF Thermal Spray TiC/TiB2 Coatings for AUSC Boiler/Turbine Components for Enhanced Corrosion Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Koc, Rasit [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Fan, Chinbay [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-07

    The high temperatures of operations still pose significant risk of degradation and fatigue from oxidizing, corroding and eroding environment. In addition to unused O2, water from combustion and SOx from the coal sulfur oxidation that result in highly corrosive environment, acid gases such as HCl and other sulfur compounds may also be present. These adverse effects are further accelerated due to the elevated temperatures. In addition, ash particulates and unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur can cause erosion of the surface and thus loss of material. Unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur may also cause localized reduction sites. Thus, fireside corrosion protection and steam oxidation protection alternatives to currently used Ni-Cr overlays need to be identified and evaluated. Titanium carbide (TiC) is a suitable alternative on account of the material features such as the high hardness, the high melting point, the high strength and the low density for the substitution or to be used in conjunction with NiCr for enhancing the fireside corrosion and erosion of the materials. Another alternative is the use of titanium boride as a coating for chemical stability required for long-term service and high erosion resistance over the state-of-the-art, high fracture toughness (K1C ~12 MPam1/2) and excellent corrosion resistance (kp~1.9X10-11 g2/cm4/s at 800°C in air). The overarching aim of the research endeavor was to synthesize oxidation, corrosion and wear resistant TiC and TiB2 coating powders, apply thermal spray coating on existing boiler materials and characterize the coated substrates for corrosion resistance for applications at high temperatures (500 -750 °C) and high pressures (~350 bars) using the HVOF process and to demonstrate the feasibility of these coating to be used in AUSC boilers and turbines.

  19. Corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600

  20. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  1. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  3. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  4. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  6. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  8. Release of Corrosive Species above the Grate in a Waste Boiler and the Implication for Improved Electrical Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjer, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    , and thereby, the electrical efficiency of the plant can be increased. In this study, the local temperature, the gas concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2, and the release of the volatile elements Cl, S, Na, K, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sn were measured above the grate in a waste boiler to investigate if a selected fraction...... to extract a flue gas with high contents of tar. Gas concentration measurements of O2, CO, and CO2 showed that the waste experienced pyrolysis and combustion on grate sections 1 and 2, some char combustion takes place on section 3, and the slag was cooled on sections 4 and 5. The measurements showed...

  9. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  10. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm-combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1980 through December 31, 1980. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. The final detail design effort was completed and the final design report submitted. Progress on procurement activity authorized by full Phase II release on March 20, 1980, is discussed. Following approval by DOE, a purchase order was placed with the Norflor Construction Corporation for the prototype plant construction which began in November. Construction of the access roadway installation of the electric power, sewer and water lines was completed during this reporting period. Boiler construction continued.

  11. Corrosion/95 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in this conference represent the latest technological advances in corrosion control and prevention. The following subject areas are covered: cathodic protection in natural waters; materials for fossil fuel combustion and conversion systems; modern problems in atmospheric corrosion; innovative ideas for controlling the decaying infrastructure; deposits and their effects on corrosion in industry; volatile high temperature and non aqueous corrosion inhibitors; corrosion of light-weight and precoated metals for automotive application; refining industry corrosion; corrosion in pulp and paper industry; arctic/cold weather corrosion; materials selection for waste incinerators and associated equipment; corrosion measurement technology; environmental cracking of materials; advancing technology in the coating industry; corrosion in gas treating; green inhibition; recent advances in corrosion control of rail equipment; velocity effects and erosion corrosion in oil and gas production; marine corrosion; corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; underground corrosion control; corrosion in potable and industrial water systems in buildings and its impact on environmental compliance; deposit related boiler tube failures; boiler systems monitoring and control; recent developments and experiences in reactive metals; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion and corrosion control for steel reinforced concrete; international symposium on the use of 12 and 13 Cr stainless steels in oil and gas production environments; subsea corrosion /erosion monitoring in production facilities; fiberglass reinforced pipe and tubulars in oilfield service; corrosion control technology in power transmission and distribution; mechanisms and methods of scale and deposit control; closing the loop -- results oriented cooling system monitoring and control; and minimization of aqueous discharge

  12. Residual strain distribution in bent composite boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fei; Hubbard, Camden R.; Sarma, Gorti; Keiser, James

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes

  13. Corrosion of PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsey, R.

    1979-01-01

    Some designs of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators have experienced a variety of corrosion problems which include stress corrosion cracking, tube thinning, pitting, fatigue, erosion-corrosion and support plate corrosion resulting in 'denting'. Large international research programmes have been mounted to investigate the phenomena. The operational experience is reviewed and mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the corrosion damage are presented. The implications for design development and for boiler and feedwater control are discussed. (author)

  14. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  15. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  16. PENCEGAHAN KOROSI DENGAN BOILER WATER TREATMENT (BWT PADA KETEL UAP KAPAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleman Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explained about a using of Boiler Water Treatment (BWT as corrosion protection for boiler on ship. BWT used as addition on boiler water, which used destilat water. As experiment results, BWT used on destilat water and destilat - seawater mixed given not koagulan patch on. The simulation given not satisfied results, caused by good not equipment.

  17. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  18. Corrosion/96 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Topics covered by this conference include: cathodic protection in natural waters; cleaning and repassivation of building HVAC systems; worldwide opportunities in flue gas desulfurization; advancements in materials technology for use in oil and gas service; fossil fuel combustion and conversion; technology of corrosion inhibitors; computers in corrosion control--modeling and information processing; recent experiences and advances of austenitic alloys; managing corrosion with plastics; corrosion measurement technology; corrosion inhibitors for concrete; refining industry; advances in corrosion control for rail and tank trailer equipment; CO 2 corrosion--mechanisms and control; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion in nuclear systems; role of corrosion in boiler failures; effects of water reuse on monitoring and control technology in cooling water applications; methods and mechanisms of scale and deposit control; corrosion detection in petroleum production lines; underground corrosion control; environmental cracking--relating laboratory results and field behavior; corrosion control in reinforced concrete structures; corrosion and its control in aerospace and military hardware; injection and process addition facilities; progress reports on the results of reinspection of deaerators inspected or repaired per RP0590 criteria; near 100% volume solids coating technology and application methods; materials performance in high temperature environments containing halides; impact of toxicity studies on use of corrosion/scale inhibitors; mineral scale deposit control in oilfield related operations; corrosion in gas treating; marine corrosion; cold climate corrosion; corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; gaseous chlorine alternatives in cooling water systems; practical applications of ozone in recirculating cooling water systems; and water reuse in industry. Over 400 papers from this conference have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  20. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  1. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  2. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  3. Alloy 33 weld overlay extends boiler tube life and saves money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.; Clark, G.; Ossenberg-Engels, A. [ThyssenKrupp VDM (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Low-NOx burners installed in coal-fired utility boilers cause problems with boiler tube cracking. Materials with increased corrosion resistance such as the new Alloy 33 should be more resistant to this type of 'circumferential cracking'. Alloy 33 is cheaper and has lower nickel and molybdenum content than the traditional Alloy 622 and 625. The article describes extensive corrosion testing experiments carried out by ThyssenKrupp VDM on Alloy 33 and Alloy 622. In the lab, in environments representative of coal-fired boilers operating under low-NOx combustion conditions, Alloy 33 was found to be better than Alloy 622. Field tests compared Alloy 33 and Alloy 622 in two supercritical tangentially-fired boilers and one tangentially-fired high pressure drum boiler. After up to 23 months of exposure there was no evidence of cracks and only slight evidence of corrosion in Alloy 33. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 photos.

  4. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  6. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandy, David W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  8. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  9. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  10. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  11. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  12. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Straw is used as fuel in relatively small-scale combined heat and power producing (CHP) grate boilers in Denmark. The large content of potassium and chlorine in straw greatly increases the deposit formation and corrosion of the superheater coils, compared to boilers firing coal. In this study......, mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...... are adopted to minimize deposit problems at the two boilers. At Masnedø the final superheater steam temperature is 520 °C, no soot blowing of the superheaters is applied and a relatively large superheater area is used. At Ensted, an external wood-fired superheater is used in order to obtain a final steam...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  14. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  15. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  16. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  17. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  18. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Chemical and mechanical control of corrosion product transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O.; Blum, R. [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Daucik, K. [I/S Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The corrosion products formed in the condensate and feedwater system of once-through boilers are precipitated and deposited inside the evaporator tubes mainly in the burner zone at the highest heat flux. Depositions lead to increased oxidation rate and increased metal temperature of the evaporator tubes, hereby decreasing tube lifetime. This effect is more important in the new high efficiency USC boilers due to increased feedwater temperature and hence higher thermal load on the evaporator tubes. The only way to reduce the load on the evaporator tubes is to minimise corrosion product transport to the boiler. Two general methods for minimising corrosion product transport to the boiler have been evaluated through measurement campaigns for Fe in the water/steam cycle in supercritical boilers within the ELSAM area. One method is to reduce corrosion in the low temperature condensate system by changing conditioning mode from alkaline volatile treatment (AVT) to oxygenated treatment (OT). The other method is to filtrate part of the condensate with a mechanical filter at the deaerator. The results show, that both methods are effective at minimising Fe-transport to the boiler, but changing to OT has the highest effect and should always be used, whenever high purity condensate is maintained. Whether mechanical filtration also is required, depends on the boiler, specifically the load on the evaporator. A simplified calculation model for lifetime evaluation of evaporator tubes has been developed. This model has been used for evaluating the effect of corrosion product transport to the boiler on evaporator tube lifetime. Conventional supercritical boilers generally can achieve sufficient lifetime by AVT and even better by OT, whereas all measures to reduce Fe-content of feedwater, including OT and mechanical filtration, should be taken, to ensure sufficient lifetime for the new boilers with advanced steam data - 290 bar/580 deg. C and above. (au)

  20. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... been developed as open, i.e. more dimensions and their corresponding quanti- cation can be added. In the present study the dynamic capability has been quantied and the feasible set for the optimization has been limited by means of a number of constraints. The constraints are: (i) simple constraints...

  1. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  2. Organic Contaminants and Treatment Chemicals in Steam-Water Cycles : Thermal stability, decomposition products and flow-accelerated corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moed, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler feedwater and steam have to be of high purity, because of the susceptibility of the steam-water cycle to corrosion. Organic contaminants break down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam-water cycle

  3. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-04-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

  4. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  5. Large boiler modularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the modularization strategy in boiler manufacture of Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd, designed specifically to provide steam capacities up to 1,000,000 lb/hr. Designed as a solution for the oil sands market, the boiler responds to the needs of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and other in situ processes. Manufacture of three modules: furnace, superheater, and saturated module, is detailed assembly phases are shown as well as the construction sequence. The boiler is bottom-supported and features a unique modularized design that maximizes shop assembly and provides certainty to delivery and overall project schedule. Moreover, it is adaptable for all liquid and gaseous fuel types, including natural gas, produced gas and emulsified liquid fuels. This highly modular solution makes it a comprehensive solution for projects where construction risks and costs would otherwise be prohibitive. Maximum modularization of the boiler and minimal site labour are key design features, ensuring compliance with the weight and dimensional constraints of Alberta's high load corridor.

  6. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atcharawadi Thong-On

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG welding of Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo tube to carbon steel pipe with chromium-containing filler. The cost of production could be reduced by the use of low cost material such as carbon steel pipe for boiler header. The effect of chromium content on corrosion behavior of the weld was greater than that of the microstructure. The lifetime of the welded boiler can be increased by improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the heat affected zone.

  7. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible. Due...

  8. Corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.S.; Totlani, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion has always been associated with structures, plants, installations and equipment exposed to aggressive environments. It effects economy, safety and product reliability. Monitoring of component corrosion has thus become an essential requirement for the plant health and safety. Protection methods such as appropriate coatings, cathodic protection and use of inhibitors have become essential design parameters. High temperature corrosion, especially hot corrosion, is still a difficult concept to accommodate in corrosion allowance; there is a lack of harmonized system of performance testing of materials at high temperatures. In order to discuss and deliberate on these aspects, National Association for Corrosion Engineers International organised a National Conference on Corrosion and its Control in Bombay during November 28-30, 1995. This volume contains papers presented at the symposium. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  9. Ash deposition and high temperature corrosion at combustion of aggressive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O. [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Henriksen, N. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission, ELSAM is investigating the possibilities of using biomass - mainly straw - for combustion in high efficiency power plants. As straw has very high contents of chlorine and potassium, a fuel with high corrosion and ash deposition propensities has been introduced. ELSAM has investigated 3 ultra supercritical boiler concepts for combustion of straw alone or together with coal: (1) PF boilers with a relatively low share of straw, (2) CFB boilers with low to high share of straw and (3) vibrating grate boilers with 100% straw. These investigations has mainly been full-scale tests with straw fed into existing boilers. Corrosion tests have been performed in these boilers using temperature regulated probes and in-plant test tubes in existing superheaters. The corrosion has been determined by detailed measurements of wall thickness reduction and light optical microscopic measurements of the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion. Corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated using SEM/EDX together with thermodynamical considerations based on measurements of the chemical environment in the flue gas. Ash deposition is problematic in CFB boilers and in straw fired boilers, especially in years with high potassium and chlorine content of the straw. This ash deposition also is related to condensation of KCl and can probably only be handled by improved cleaning devices. (EG)

  10. High temperature corrosion investigation in an oxyfuel combustion test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Bjurman, M.; Hjörnhede, A

    2014-01-01

    constructed by Brandenburg Technical University to gain understanding into oxyfuel firing. Two air‐cooled corrosion probes were exposed in this oxyfuel combustion chamber where the fuel was lignite. Gas composition was measured at the location of testing. Various alloys from a 2½ Cr steel, austenitic steels...... (perhaps carburized) zone was used as a measure of corrosion rates. The lowest alloyed steel had the highest corrosion rate, and the other austenitic and nickel alloys had much lower corrosion rates. Precipitates in the alloy adjacent the corrosion front were revealed for both Sanicro 28 and C‐276. However......Oxyfuel firing and subsequent capture of CO2 is a way to reduce CO2 emissions from coal‐fired boilers. Literature is summarized highlighting results which may contribute to understanding of the corrosion processes in an oxyfuel boiler.Tests were conducted in a 500 kWth oxyfuel test facility...

  11. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  12. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  13. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  14. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  15. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Vehicle Corrosion Resistance; Seawater Injection Systems; Automating Improved Materials Performance; Boiler Water Corrosion; and New Advances in Pipeline Rehabilitation Coatings and Associated Technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  1. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahetová M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241 was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides, which caused a severe pitting corrosion, which led up to the perforation of the liner material. Simultaneous reduction of the thickness of the used sheets was due to by the general corrosion, which was caused by the sulfur in the solid fuel. The condensation then led to acid environment and therefore the corrosion below the dew point of the sulfuric acid has occurred. All is documented by metallographic analysis and microanalysis of the corrosion products.

  2. Corrosion monitoring during a chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, J.; Feron, D.; Roy, M.

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the possible corrosion induced by the chemical cleaning, a corrosion monitoring has been realized during the cleaning of the secondary circuit (including the model boiler) of ORION loop. It included coupons and electrodes and has required a preliminary setting in laboratory. The electrochemical device which was used during the chemical cleaning included two reference electrodes (Ag/AgCl) and eight metallic electrodes (carbon steel, stainless steel, Alloy 600 and Alloy 690) for free corrosion potential monitoring, three other carbon steel electrodes for instantaneous corrosion rate measurements by polarization resistance and three coupling devices with different surface ratios between carbon steel and Alloy 600. The results showed a good agreement between corrosion rates measured by weight losses on coupons or by electrochemistry (polarization resistance), and an increase of the carbon steel corrosion rate when it was coupled with Alloy 600. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  3. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  4. Quality and nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cante, C.

    1977-08-01

    The design and manufacture of the components, assembly, erection and tests, these different stages in the making of a nuclear boiler are carried out according to very accurately defined techniques and organization. From the technical viewpoint, it is shown how standard practice, experience, tests, the respect of codes and standard specifications contribute to the quality of achievement. The organizing of the assurance of quality is exposed by more particularly bringing to mind an American text which sets forth a certain number of principles widely applied beyond the frontiers of the United States. (author)

  5. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... to the internal pressure the consequence of the increased volume (i.e. water-/steam space) is an increased wall thickness in the pressure part of the boiler. The stresses introduced in the boiler pressure part as a result of the temperature gradients are proportional to the square of the wall thickness...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...

  6. Multi-circulation boiler design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Malcolm [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) requires steam, which was historically supplied by once-through steam generators (OTSG). OTSGs are now often replaced by drum boilers for steam generation. Drum boilers have a higher capacity than OTSGs and produce reduced blowdown. However, the volume of contaminants in feedwater is generally significant and ASME criteria require high-quality feedwater. The current study investigates a new design for a multi-circulation boiler that would allow cleaner steam to be generated from lower quality feedwater. In drum boilers, water circulates in one zone. By analyzing circulation fundamentals (notably heat flux and void fraction), the design of multiple circulation zones was envisaged to separate the clean water from the contaminated water. Working with distinct circulation zones would allow the quality of the steam from low quality feedwater to be improved, all the while maintaining the blowdown. The new design would result in a boiler which is easier to clean and would meet ASME criteria.

  7. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers used in thermal power plants are subjected to unacceptable levels of surface degradation by the combined effect of erosion–corrosion mechanism, resulting in the tube wall thinning and premature failure. The nickel-based superalloys can be used as boiler tube materials ...

  8. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in the real service environment of the coal-fired boiler of a thermal power plant. The cyclic experimental study was performed for 1000 h in the platen superheater zone of the coal-fired boiler where the ...

  9. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  10. Combustion of bark and wood waste in the fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Maslov, R. S.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Kondrat'eva, O. E.

    2016-11-01

    In the Energy Development Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2035, special attention is paid to increased use of local fuel kinds—one of which is biofuel, in particular, bark and wood waste (BWW)— whose application at thermal power plants in Russia has been not developed due to the lack of appropriate technologies mastered by domestic energy mechanical engineering. The article describes the experience of BWW combustion in fluidized bed boilers installed on the energy objects of northern European countries. Based on this, reference points were defined (it is the section of boiler air-gas path where initially the approximate temperatures are set), making it possible to carry out a thermal design of a boiler and ensure its operation reliability. Permissible gas temperature at the furnace outlet at BWW combustion amounted to 950-1000°C. Exit gas temperature, depending on the implementation of special measures on protection of air heater from corrosion, amounted to 140-190°C. Recommended hot air temperature is within the range of 200-250°C. Recommendations for determining the boiler furnace dimensions are presented. Based on the presented reference temperatures in the main reference points, the thermal design of hot water boiler of KV-F-116-150 type with 116 MW capacity was carried out. The analysis of the results and comparison of designed boiler characteristics with operating energy boilers, in which a fuel is burned in a fluidized bed, were carried out. It is shown that, with increasing the boiler capacity, the ratio of its heating power Q to the crosssectional area of furnace chamber F rises. For power-generating boiler of thermal capacity of 100 MW, the ratio is within 1.8-2.2MW/m2. The boiler efficiency exceeds 90% in the range of changes of exit gas temperature typical for such equipment.

  11. A review: Fly ash and deposit formation in PF fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based heat and power production in several countries. This has included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw and the use of additives to remedy problems with biomass firing. In parallel...... to the commercialization of the suspension biomass firing technology a range of research studies have improved our understanding of the formation of fly ash and the impact on deposit formation and corrosion in such boilers. In this paper a review of the present knowledge with respect to ash and deposit formation...... in biomass suspension fired boilers is provided. Furthermore the influence of co-firing and use of additives on ash chemistry, deposit properties and boiler operation is discussed....

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of residual hydrazine and morpholine in boiler feed water and steam condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsala, S.; Bansal, V.; Tuli, D.K.; Rai, M.M.; Jain, S.K.; Srivastava, S.P.; Bhatnagar, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrazine, an oxygen scavenger in boiler water, was derivatised to the corresponding acetone azine and determined at the ng ml -1 level by gas chromatography. Morpholine, a corrosion inhibitor used in steam boilers, was estimated either directly (if >2.0 μg ml -1 ) or by quantitative preconcentration (0.1 ng-2.0 μg ml -1 ). To obtain symmetrical peaks for these amines, the column packing was coated with KOH. Use of a nitrogen-specific detector improved accuracy of estimation of hydrazine and morpholine, giving a RSD of 1.9-3.6%. Chromatographic analysis of these amines in boiler feed water and steam condensate samples collected from boilers servicing a pertroleum refinery is described. Environmental safety regulations calls for monitoring of hydrazine and the methods developed can easily be adapted for this purpose. (orig.)

  13. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  14. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  15. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  16. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  17. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  18. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  19. Effects of Different Fuel Specifications and Operation Conditions on the Performance of Coated and Uncoated Superheater Tubes in Two Different Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Duoli; Dahl, Kristian V.; Madsen, Jesper L.

    2018-01-01

    Fireside corrosionis a serious concern in biomass firing powerplants such that the efficiency of boilers is limited by high temperature corrosion. Application of protective coatings on superheater tubes is a possible solution to combat fireside corrosion. The current study investigates the corros......Fireside corrosionis a serious concern in biomass firing powerplants such that the efficiency of boilers is limited by high temperature corrosion. Application of protective coatings on superheater tubes is a possible solution to combat fireside corrosion. The current study investigates...... the corrosion performance of coated tubes compared to uncoated Esshete 1250 and TP347H tubes, which were exposed in two different biomass-fired boilers for one year. Data on the fuel used, temperature of the boilers, and temperature fluctuations are compared for the two boilers, and how these factors influence...... thermal cycling took place, both the Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings failed. This highlights the differences between the two biomass plants and demonstrates thata coating solution has to be tailored to the operation conditions of a specific boiler....

  20. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  1. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  2. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating that...

  4. Steam generator corrosion 2007; Dampferzeugerkorrosion 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Between 8th and 9th November, 2007, SAXONIA Standortentwicklungs- und -verwertungsgesellschaft GmbH (Freiberg, Federal Republic of Germany) performed the 3rd Freiberger discussion conference ''Fireside boiler corrosion''. The topics of the lectures are: (a) Steam generator corrosion - an infinite history (Franz W. Alvert); (b) CFD computations for thermal waste treatment plants - a contribution for the damage recognition and remedy (Klaus Goerner, Thomas Klasen); (c) Experiences with the use of corrosion probes (Siegfried R. Horn, Ferdinand Haider, Barbara Waldmann, Ragnar Warnecke); (d) Use of additives for the limitation of the high temperature chlorine corrosion as an option apart from other measures to the corrosion protection (Wolfgang Spiegel); (e) Current research results and aims of research with respect to chlorine corrosion (Ragnar Warnecke); (f) Systematics of the corrosion phenomena - notes for the enterprise and corrosion protection (Thomas Herzog, Wolfgang Spiegel, Werner Schmidl); (g) Corrosion protection by cladding in steam generators of waste incinerators (Joerg Metschke); (h) Corrosion protection and wear protection by means of thermal spraying in steam generators (Dietmar Bendix); (i) Review of thick film nickelized components as an effective protection against high-temperature corrosion (Johann-Wilhelm Ansey); (j) Fireproof materials for waste incinerators - characteristics and profile of requirement (Johannes Imle); (k) Service life-relevant aspects of fireproof linings in the thermal recycling of waste (Till Osthoevener and Wolfgang Kollenberg); (l) Alternatives to the fireproof material in the heating space (Heino Sinn); (m) Cladding: Inconal 625 contra 686 - Fundamentals / applications in boiler construction and plant construction (Wolfgang Hoffmeister); (n) Thin films as efficient corrosion barriers - thermal spray coating in waste incinerators and biomass firing (Ruediger W. Schuelein, Steffen Hoehne, Friedrich

  5. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  6. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  8. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  10. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  11. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  12. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  14. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  15. NOVEL CORROSION SENSOR FOR VISION 21 SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng Ban

    2004-12-01

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this proposed project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This report describes the initial results from the first-year effort of the three-year study that include laboratory development and experiment, and pilot combustor testing.

  16. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  17. The analysis of furnace wall deposits in a low-NOx waste wood-fired bubbling fluidised bed boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Yousef; Viklund, Peter; Henderson, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use is being made of biomass as fuel for electricity production as the price of natural wood continues to rise. Therefore, more use is being made of waste wood (recycled wood). However, waste wood contains more chlorine, zinc and lead, which are believed to increase corrosion rates. Corrosion problems have occurred on the furnace walls of a fluidised bed boiler firing 100 % waste wood under low-NOx conditions. The deposits have been collected and analysed in order to understand the...

  18. Aircraft Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    transport anciens dont il a fallu remplacer les panneaux extrados en raison de is corrosion profonde des lisses. Ce type d’avion a etc mis en service h partir...as six years) where lavatories are placed above the lower section of the aft pressure dome bulkhead (fig.8)., corrosion Is found in the bulkhead web ...due to leakage of toilet fluids. One of the most severe corrosion ever found In this area was with the corrosion completely penetrated through the web

  19. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  20. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc....... Traditionally boiler control systems have been designed in a rather simple manner consisting of a feed water controller and a pressure controller; two controllers which, in principle, operated without any interaction - for more details on boiler control see [4]. During the last year Aalborg Industries A/S has...... into account. The present study covers re-tube boilers. To be able to minimize the size (i.e. volume) of the boiler and, at the same time, obtain the best possible dynamic performance, it is important to minimize the water level uctuations in the boiler as much as possible. In the present study a detailed...

  1. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers; Uppfoeljning av SNCR-installationer paa barkpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [AaF-IPK (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO{sub x} reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ fuel input and the NO{sub x} reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  2. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  3. Pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgaier, W.

    1985-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is a kind of electrolytic corrosion by which the surface of a material is locally affected owing to inhomogeneities on the part of the material or medium. The paper deals briefly with questions relating to the importance, to parameters medium or materialwise, influence on production and construction, as well as the general conditions for pitting corrosion. In particular oxygen corrosion in unalloyed and low-alloy steel, and pitting corrosion in ferritic chromium-steel and austenitic chromium-nickel (molybdenum) steel is described. (DG) [de

  4. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  5. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al

  6. Site radiography in boiler industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemachandran, P.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography enjoys a unique position in radiography of weldments made at erection sites of industrial boilers. It also faces problems due to unfavourable conditions existing in these sites. The over-all approach to radiography at boiler erection sites has been dealt with. The advantages of modern X-ray and gamma ray equipment for these particular applications are discussed. A few useful accessories which reduce the complexity of source positioning and allied problems due to elevated position are suggested. Safety problems at sites are also dealt with. (author)

  7. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  8. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  9. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. A major effort involving eight tasks was completed in Phase 1. In a subsequent Phase 2 extension, the earlier defined tasks were extended to finish and enhance the Phase 1 activities. This extension included efforts in improved weld/weldment performance, development of longer-term material property databases, additional field (in-plant) corrosion testing, improved understanding of long-term oxidation kinetics and exfoliation, cyclic operation, and fabrication methods for waterwalls. In addition, preliminary work was undertaken to model an oxyfuel boiler to define local environments expected to occur and to study corrosion behavior of alloys under these conditions. This final technical report provides a comprehensive summary of all the work undertaken by the consortium and the research findings from all eight (8) technical tasks including A-USC boiler design and economics (Task 1), long-term materials properties (Task 2), steam- side oxidation (Task 3), Fireside Corrosion (Task 4), Welding (Task 5), Fabricability (Task 6), Coatings (Task 7), and Design Data and Rules (Task 8).

  10. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels; Montgomery, Melanie; Hede Larsen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    In Denmark, biomass such as straw or woodchip is utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Biomass is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which c...

  11. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The City of Mount Gambier upgraded its boiler in September after analysis showed that biomass was still the optimal energy option. The Mount Gambier Aquatic Centre was built by the local city council in the 1980s as an outdoor pool facility for the public. The complex has three pools — an Olympic-sized, toddler and a learner pool — for a total volume of 1.38ML (including balance tanks). The large pool is heated to 27-28°C, the smaller one 30-32°C. From the very beginning, the pool water was heated by a biomass boiler, and via two heat exchangers whose combined capacity is 520 kW. The original biomass boiler ran on fresh sawdust from a local timber mill. After thirty years of dedicated service the original boiler had become unreliable and difficult to operate. Replacement options were investigated and included a straight gas boiler, a combined solar hot water and gas option, and biomass boilers. The boiler only produces heat, not electricity. All options were subjected to a triple bottom line assessment, which included potential capital costs, operating costs, community and environmental benefits and costs. The project was also assessed using a tool developed by Mount Gambier City Council that considers the holistic benefits — the CHAT Tool, which stands for Comprehensive Holistic Assessment Tool. “Basically it is a survey that covers environmental, social, economic and governance factors,” the council's environmental sustainability officer, Aaron Izzard told WME. In relation to environmental considerations, the kinds of questions explored by the CHAT Tool included: Sustainable use of resources — objective is to reduce council's dependence on non-renewable resources; Greenhouse emissions — objective is to reduce council's contribution of GHG into the atmosphere; Air quality — objective is to improve local air quality. The conclusion of these analyses was that while a biomass boiler would have a higher capital cost than a

  12. Medium pressure boiler water chemistry optimization using neutralizing amines mixture reagent AMINAT™ PK-2 at CEPP “Borovichi Refractories Plant” of JSC “BKO”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, O. V.; Butakova, M. V.; Orlov, K. A.; Vinogradov, S. V.; Pavlenko, L. S.

    2017-11-01

    An overview of the neutralizing amine based reagent AMINAT PK-2 usage for water chemistry of steam boilers for medium pressure boiler was given. Long term experiment showed that new reagent allows to decrease corrosion rate comparing with old water chemistry based on ammonia only. Two dosage schemes in different cycle places discussed. Scheme with two points on injection showed better results. Results of corrosion rates experiments and photos of tubes inner surfaces are presented. Based on fuel savings due to reducing scale formation the total annual economy for last year was 5.1 million Russian roubles.

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  15. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  16. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  17. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  18. B and W model boiler tests: effect of temperature on IGA rate. Initial and post-1878 operating conditions of the model boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) model boiler operated with 10 ppm weekly injections of NaOH for 41,900 hours (4.8 years). The model boiler operating conditions are given. Tube No. 24 failed by caustic intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) at the steam-water zone. IGA defect depths on tube 24 is compared at different locations, which also have different temperature conditions. The specific locations are: steam/water zone, drilled baffle plate, and lower tube sheet crevice. In all locations caustic will concentrate (although to different concentration levels). Nevertheless, an effect of temperature on IGA rate can be estimated. The degree of attack relative to the location and environment is shown. SEM fractographs illustrate the completely intergranular failure of Tube 24. A summary of the estimated results is presented. These results show the estimated IGA rate as a function of primary/secondary temperature and estimated caustic concentration. Details of the failure analysis of the model boiler can be found in the final report Destructive Examination of Babcock and Wilcox's Model Boiler for Intergranular Attack (IGA) on Tubes, EPRI S302-6, J.L.; Barna and L.W. Sarver

  19. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  20. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  1. High temperature corrosion in straw-fired power plants: Influence of steam/metal temperature on corrosion rates for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Biede, O; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion in straw-fired boilers has been investigated at various straw-fired power plants in Denmark. Water/air-cooled probes, a test superheater and test sections removed from the actual superheater have been utilised to characterise corrosion and corrosion rates. This paper describes...... the corrosion rates measured for the TP347H type steel. The corrosion morphology at high temperature consists of grain boundary attack and selective attack of chromium. The corrosion rate increases with calculated metal temperature (based on steam temperature), however there is great variation within...... these results. In individual superheaters, there are significant temperature variations i.e. higher temperature in middle banks compared to the outer banks, higher temperature in leading tubes, which have a high impact on corrosion. In a single loop the assumption that heat uptake (and heat flux) is linear...

  2. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-01-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs

  3. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  4. Quarterly Progress Report Fuels Development Operation: October - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J. J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation; Tobin, J. C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Physical Metallurgy; Minor, J. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuel Element Design; Evans, E. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Ceramic Fuels Development; Bush, S. H. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuels Fabrication Development

    1960-01-15

    The present Quarterly Report is the continuation of a series issued by the new Fuels Development operation. Reports in this series combine portions of the quarterly reports by the former Metallurgy Research and Fuel Technology Sub-Sections. Work reported includes research conducted by the Physical Metallurgy Operation, and research and development conducted by Fuel Design, Fuels Fabrication Development and Ceramic Fuels Development Operations. Studies formerly reported by the Radiometallurgy, Metallography, and Welding and Corrosion Units, in addition to portions of the Fuels Technology work, are reported elsewhere.

  5. Quarterly Progress Report Fuels Development Operation: July - September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S. H. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Physical Metallurgy; Minor, J. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuel Element Design; Evans, E. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Ceramic Fuels Development; Wallace, W. P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuels Fabrication Development

    1957-10-15

    The present Quarterly Report is the continuation of a series issued by the new Fuels Development operation. Reports in this series combine portions of the quarterly reports by the former Metallurgy Research and Fuel Technology Sub-Sections. Work reported includes research conducted by the Physical Metallurgy Operation, and research and development conducted by Fuel Design, Fuels Fabrication Development and Ceramic Fuels Development Operations. Studies formerly reported by the Radiometallurgy, Metallography, and Welding and Corrosion Units, in addition to portions of the Fuels Technology work, are reported elsewhere.

  6. Quarterly Progress Report Fuels Development Operation: January - March 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J. J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation; Tobin, J. C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Physical Metallurgy; Minor, J. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuel Element Design; Evans, E. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Ceramic Fuels Development; Bush, S. H. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Fuels Development Operation. Fuels Fabrication Development

    1958-04-15

    The present Quarterly Report is the continuation of a series issued by the new Fuels Development operation. Reports in this series combine portions of the quarterly reports by the former Metallurgy Research and Fuel Technology Sub-Sections. Work reported includes research conducted by the Physical Metallurgy Operation, and research and development conducted by Fuel Design, Fuels Fabrication Development and Ceramic Fuels Development Operations. Studies formerly reported by the Radiometallurgy, Metallography, and Welding and Corrosion Units, in addition to portions of the Fuels Technology work, are reported elsewhere.

  7. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  8. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  9. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  10. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  11. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  12. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  13. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98 weight...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  15. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams...

  16. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The...

  17. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  18. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  19. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO 2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO 2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO 2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  20. High temperature oxidation in boiler environment of chromized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, F. F.; Kurniawan, T.; Asmara, Y. P.; Ani, M. H. B.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-10-01

    The demand for increasing efficiency has led to the development and construction of higher operating temperature power plant. This condition may lead to more severe thickness losses in boiler tubes due to excessive corrosion process. Hence, the research to improve the corrosion resistance of the current operated material is needed so that it can be applied for higher temperature application. In this research, the effect of chromizing process on the oxidation behaviour of T91 steel was investigated under steam condition. In order to deposit chromium, mixture of chromium (Cr) powder as master alloy, halide salt (NH4Cl) powder as activator and alumina (Al2O3) powder as inert filler were inserted into alumina retort together with the steel sample and heated inside furnace at 1050°C for ten hours under argon gas environment. Furthermore, for the oxidation process, steels were exposed at 700°C at different oxidation time (6h-24h) under steam condition. From FESEM/EDX analysis, it was found that oxidation rate of pack cemented steel was lower than the un-packed steel. These results show that Cr from chromizing process was able to become reservoir for the formation of Cr2O3 in high temperature steam oxidation, and its existence can be used for a longer oxidation time.

  1. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  2. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  3. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    of flue gas cleaning equipment. This survey includes discussions on the inorganic constituents transformation during straw and coal combustion, alkali-ash and alkali sulfur reactions, a survey of power plant and test rig co-firing experiments, a discussion of equilibrium calculations, a discussion......In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...... of alkali getter experiments and a discussion of modeling of alkali reaction with kaolin. Presently there is still a need for a better understanding of especially the reaction of potassium with coal ash, thereby making better predictions of co-firing ash properties....

  4. Hot corrosion performance of LVOF sprayed Al2O3–40% TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cause of lost revenue.4,5 The hot corrosion of alloys usu- ally occurs in the environment where molten salts such as sulphates (Na2SO4), chlorides (NaCl) or oxides (V2O5) are deposited onto the surface. The Na2SO4–Fe2(SO4) environ- ment is found usually in the coal-fired boilers where the coal ash corrosion is induced ...

  5. Assessment of factors affecting boiler tube lifetime in waste-fired generators: New opportunities for research and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.; Krause, H.H. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem in numerous communities in the United States. In this country, approximately 195.7 million tons of MSW were produced in 1990 of which 17 percent was recovered for recycling or composting, 16 percent was combusted, and about 67 percent was disposed of in landfills. This paper discusses the combustion of refuse derived fuels and municipal wastes. The corrosion of the alloys used in boilers is described.

  6. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, S.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  7. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  8. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  9. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  10. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the

  11. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  12. Boiler economy. Terms and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Economy calculations are nearly exclusively made by computers. Undisputed advantage is apart from the high speed in which even complex calculations are made the 'document character' of the printout. Disadvantageous is that apart from the soft manufacturer almost nobody knows the calculation formulations, basic assumptions and logical connections. One can only accept the result without being able to prove the 'correctness'. There is also hardly the possibility to gain knowledge as the reason for certain results is not explained. Based on known terms of boiler economy many questions arising in practice can be answered with sufficient accuracy. Excessive accuracy is with the many unknown or only estimated operating data anyhow not reasonable. (orig.) [de

  13. The corrosion of steels in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Smith, C.A.; Smith, R.J.

    1976-09-01

    The role of sodium hydroxide corrosion is discussed in relation to the wastage of materials observed in fast reactor boilers under fault conditions in the vicinity of a water leak into sodium. An experimental technique to study the corrosion under varying conditions is described. The results presented are for 2 1/4Cr 1Mo obtained in static sodium hydroxide in a closed volume over the temperature range 1033K to 1273K. It is found that the corrosion rate can be followed by monitoring the hydrogen produced by the reaction, which can be written as: Fe + 2NaOH = NaFeO 2 + NaH + 1/2H 2 . After an initial acceleration period the rate law is parabolic. The effect on the corrosion rate of melt and cover gas composition has been in part investigated, and the relevance of mass flow of reactants is discussed. (author)

  14. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  15. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  16. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  17. Treatment of Berkeley boilers in Studsvik. Project description and experiences - Berkeley Boilers Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Dave; Davidson, Gavin; Wirendal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. In November 2012 Studsvik was awarded a further contract for the remaining ten Berkeley Boilers with the requirement to remove all boilers from the Berkeley site by 31 March 2013. Again this was successfully achieved ahead of programme with all boilers in Sweden by 1 April 2013. A total of nine boilers have now been processed and all remaining boilers will be completed by end of September 2014. The projects have had many challenges including a very tight timescale and both have been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the boilers to date. (authors)

  18. Corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H.; El Nemr, Ahmed; Esawy, Sami A.; Ragab, Safaa

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition efficiencies of some triazole, oxadiazole and thiadiazole derivatives for steel in presence of acidic medium have been studied by using AM1, PM3, MINDO/3 and MNDO semi-empirical SCF molecular orbital methods. Geometric structures, total negative charge on the molecule (TNC), highest occupied molecular energy level (E HOMO ), lowest unoccupied molecular energy level (E LUMO ), core-core repulsion (CCR), dipole moment (μ) and linear solvation energy terms, molecular volume (V i ) and dipolar-polarization (π *), were correlated to corrosion inhibition efficiency. Four equations were proposed to calculate corrosion inhibition efficiency. The agreement with the experimental data was found to be satisfactory; the standard deviations between the calculated and experimental results ranged between ±0.03 and ±4.18. The inhibition efficiency was closely related to orbital energies (E HOMO and E LUMO ) and μ. The correlation between quantum parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency has been validated by single point calculations for the semi-empirical AM1 structures using B3LYP/6-31G** as a higher level of theory. The proposed equations were applied to predict the corrosion inhibition efficiency of some related structures to select molecules of possible activity from a presumable library of compounds

  19. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  20. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  1. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  2. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, F.; Matev, M.; Sykora, J.; Chladek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  3. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  4. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy. Superni-75 in the real service environment of the boiler. T S SIDHU. 1,∗. , S PRAKASH. 2. , R D AGRAWAL. 2 and. RAMESH BHAGAT. 1. 1Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology,. Ferozepur 152 004. 2Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, ...

  5. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in the actual service environment of the coal- fired boiler of a thermal power plant at 900. ◦. C under cyclic conditions. This alloy is developed by Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited, Hyderabad ...

  6. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  7. MSWI Boiler Ashes: Production and Quality Through the Horizontal Section of a Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    of the first phase of a wider study about the solid residues produced at the heat recovery system (boiler) of a waste incineration plant. The characterization was carried out not on the total output of the boiler but on the different solid residues produced at ten different horizontal sections. The aim...

  8. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  9. Surface engineering for corrosion and wear resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, J. R

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Pitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Crevice Corrosion . . . . . . . . ....

  10. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the

  11. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  12. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  13. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  14. Single phase and two phase erosion corrosion in broilers of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.S.; Fountain, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a phenomenon causing metal wastage in a variety of locations in water and water-steam circuits throughout the power generation industry. Erosion-corrosion can occur in a number of regions of the once-through boiler designs used in the later Magnox and AGR type of gas cooled nuclear reactor. This paper will consider two cases of erosion-corrosion damage (single and two phase) in once through boilers of gas cooled reactors and will describe the solutions that have been developed. The single phase problem is associated with erosion-corrosion damage of mild steel downstream of a boiler inlet flow control orifice. With metal loss rates of up to 1 mm/year at 150 deg. C and pH in the range 9.0-9.4 it was found that 5 μg/kg oxygen was sufficient to reduce erosion-corrosion rates to less than 0.02 mm/year. A combined oxygen-ammonia-hydrazine feedwater regime was developed and validated to eliminate oxygen carryover and hence give protection from stress corrosion in the austenitic section of the AGR once through boiler whilst still providing erosion-corrosion control. Two phase erosion-corrosion tube failures have occurred in the evaporator of the mild steel once through boilers of the later Magnox reactors operating at pressures in the range 35-40 bar. Rig studies have shown that amines dosed in the feedwater can provide a significant reduction in metal loss rates and a tube lifetime assessment technique has been developed to predict potential tube failure profiles in a fully operational boiler. The solutions identified for both problems have been successfully implemented and the experience obtained following implementation including any problems or other benefits arising from the introduction of the new regimes will be presented. Methods for monitoring and evaluating the efficiency of the solutions have been developed and the results from these exercises will also be discussed. Consideration will also be given to the similarities in the metal loss

  15. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  16. Safe Use Limits for Advanced Ferritic Steels in Ultra-Supercritical Power Boilers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, RW

    2003-11-03

    In 2000, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Babcock & Wilcox Company to examine the databases for advanced ferritic steels and determine the safe limits for operation in supercritical steam power boilers. The materials of interest included the vanadium-modified 9-12% Cr steels with 1-2% Mo or W. The first task involved a review of pertinent information and the down-selection of a steel of special interest. The long-time database for 9Cr-1Mo-V steel was found to be most satisfactory for the examinations, and this steel was taken to be representative of the group. The second task involved the collection of aged and service exposed samples for metallurgical and mechanical testing. Here, aged samples to 75,000 hours, laboratory-tested samples to 83,000 hours, and service-exposed sample with up to 143,000 hours exposure were collected. The third task involved mechanical testing of exposed samples. Creep-rupture testing to long times was undertaken. Variable stress and temperature testing was included. Results were compared against the prediction of damage models. These models seemed to be adequate for life prediction. The fourth task involved the metallurgical examination of exposed specimens. Changes in microstructure were compared against published information on the evolution of microstructures in 9Cr-Mo-V steels and the results were found to be consistent with expectations. The fifth task involved a survey of steam and fireside corrosion. Data from the service-exposed tubing was examined, and a literature survey was undertaken as part of an activity in support of ultra-supercritical steam boiler technology. The corrosion study indicated some concerns about long-time fireside corrosion and suggested temperature limits were needed for corrosive coal ash conditions.

  17. Corrosion Testing of Thermal Spray Coatings in a Biomass Co-Firing Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of biomass and recycled fuel is increasing in energy production due to climate and energy targets. A 40% cut in greenhouse gas emission compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy consumption are set in EU Energy Strategy 2030. Burning fuels with high content of corrosive species such as chlorine and heavy metals causes deterioration of boiler components, shortened lifetime, limited availability of a plant and hence higher maintenance and investment costs and lower thermal and economic efficiency. Coatings can be applied to protect the critical boiler components against high temperature corrosion. In this study, five thermal spray coatings were tested in an actual biomass co-firing boiler for 1300 h with a measurement probe. The coatings were analyzed after the exposure by metallographic means and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX. The deposits formed on the specimens were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. At 550 °C, the coatings showed excellent corrosion performance compared to reference material ferritic steel T92. At 750 °C, tube material A263 together with NiCr and NiCrTi had the highest corrosion resistance. To conclude, thermal spray coatings can offer substantial corrosion protection in biomass and recycled fuel burning power plants.

  18. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  19. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  20. The load structure of electro boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, N.; Livik, K.

    1995-01-01

    Load measurements have been performed on 24 electro boilers with a time resolution of one hour throughout a period of one year. The boilers are used for space heating and heating of tap water in office buildings, shopping centres and apartment buildings. All boilers have tariffs with disconnection agreements. This report presents load analyses of the measurements from each boiler, and typical load profiles are calculated and presented. It also analyses how boilers are used in relation to the outdoor temperature and the power price on the spot market. All the measurements are performed in Bergen, Norway, in the period August 1993 - August 1994. Typical load profiles are shown, both annual and daily, as well as specific load parameters in addition to key figures used in calculating the total power load on the distribution network. The climate impact on energy and power load is evaluated. The report also shows examples of how the results may be applied in various special fields. 8 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J.E.; Simms, N.J. [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  2. Construction and commissioning of the Hinkley Point 'B' and Hunterston 'B' boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.C.; Holmes, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to construction and erection of the reactor boiler units, within the concrete pressure vessel, the units were received from the manufacturing works, and stored in clean and humidity controlled conditions. Because of the loading facilities into the reactor pressure vessel, a very precise erection procedure had to be adhered to. The activities associated with construction of feedwater inlet, superheater steam, and reheated steam inlet and outlet penetrations had to be programmed accordingly. By the very nature of the work load, the time scale involved, and the prime need to maintain the boiler unit materials free of deterioration from atmospheric corrosion after erection, early commissioning of storage systems were implemented; providing wet or dry storage conditions as dictated by the two Generating Boards. Pre-operational commissioning also covered the work of setting up all the steam and water controls, isolating valve systems and the automatic and sequence equipment associated with the feed water controls which are a major design feature of the once through boiler operation. (author)

  3. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  4. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  5. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  6. Chromium steel corrosion rates and mechanisms in aqueous nickel chloride at 300C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, J.E.; Broomfield, J.P.; Mitra, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of PWR steam generator carbon steel support structures and consequential denting of steam generator tubes led to investigation of alternative support designs and materials. In recent designs of steam generators the carbon steel drilled hole tube support plate has been replaced by one of quatrefoil or trefoil shape to minimize the contact area. These plates are now made of more corrosion resistant chromium steel (approx. 12%Cr) to ensure that they are less vulnerable to attack in the event of adverse boiler water chemistry. This study was initiated to examine the corrosion behavior of a range of chromium steels in the acid chloride environments characteristic of tube/support plate crevices under adverse boiler water conditions. Objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the relative susceptibility of candidate tube support plate steels to acid chloride corrosion; 2) investigate the corrosion product morphology and its relationship to the corrosion mechanism; 3) determine the effect of environment aggressiveness on 12%Cr (A405) steel corrosion rates and mechanisms; and 4) investigate the effect of restraint stress/environment on denting potential of A405. Experimental method and results are discussed

  7. Data for modern boilers used in co-combustion; Moderna panndata inom samfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Ola [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    This project is a survey and a description of today's technical status and future development trends in the field of co-combustion. The survey is done from an energy production company's point of view and two technical questions have been studied; the possibilities for high steam data and the possibilities for a wide load range. These parameters are limited by the corrosive properties of the fuel and the environmental requirements in the EU directive for combustion of waste. In the report following issues are discussed: Examples of and experiences from co-combustion plants and plants that combust problematic fuels and have high steam data. A future prospect of high steam data in co-combustion plants by the usage of modern technical solutions and a description of these solutions. Important research and development results from combustion of problematic fuels in combination with high steam data. Choice of firing technology, boiler design and auxiliary systems and its affection on the load range in a boiler for co-combustion. A literature survey has been done to get the latest results from combustion of problematic fuels. Then a number of interesting plants have been identified and facts about them have been collected by contacts with plant owners, suppliers and professional researchers and also through publications. The report shows that Sweden, Finland and Denmark are in the front line of using high steam data for co-combustion of biomass and waste fuels. There are/have been problems with superheater corrosion in many of these plants but a number of ways how to handle high steam data have been identified: Adjust the fuel mix or add additives; Use high alloy materials; Consider the final super heater as a part that is worn out by time; Place the final super heater in the particle loop seal/sand locker; Use an external separate fired super heater; Gasification and then co-combustion of the pyrolysis gas in a conventional existing boiler; Place the

  8. Second quarterly report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The report describes activities carried out in the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre or on its behalf. There are contributions to the following issues: fuel rod development, materials analysis and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, the safety of fast reactors, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental effects, sodium technology experiments, thermo- and fluid-dynamic studies in gases, studies on the layout of gas-cooled breeder reactors, studies on the layout of sodium-cooled breeder reactors. (HR) [de

  9. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely...

  11. 46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a.... (b) Periodic inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F...

  12. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and J...

  13. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested... testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F of this chapter. [CGD 85-080, 61...

  14. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  15. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  16. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  17. An advanced maintenance advisory and surveillance system for boiler tubes - AMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    In a recently completed European collaborative project, the aim was to address the issue of boiler tube failures and thereby plant availability. The reduction of forced outages due to component failures and the reduction of planned outages for preventative maintenance can both contribute in this respect. It has been possible to assess tube degradation due to erosion, corrosion and overheating through the use of on-line techniques (thin layer activation, corrosion probes and novel temperature sensors) and off-line techniques (cold air velocity measurements, laser shearography and measurements of steam side oxide) which have been developed in the project. These techniques have been demonstrated on an oil fired boiler in Portugal and a coal fired unit in Spain. The output from the monitoring techniques has been integrated in the AMASS maintenance advisory and surveillance system. This is a computerised system comprising a spatial database with add-on tools designed to assess data from individual monitors and to provide the user with information on tube life utilisation rates and the probability of tube failure occurring. A description of the monitoring techniques will be described along with some of the results of demonstrating them in the field. Also an overview of the computerized system and the way in which it works will be given along with examples of how it can be used to assist with preventative maintenance and to help avoid unplanned outages. (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. FAILURE ANALYSIS IN TUBING OF AIR PREHEATER OF BOILER FROM A SUGARCANE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy from sugarcane bagasse has made the sugar and alcohol mills search alternatives to reduce maintenance of the boilers, releasing more time to the production. The stainless steel use has become one of the main tools for such reduction. However, specification errors can lead to premature failures. This work reports the factors that led tubes of AISI 409 stainless steel fail after half season when applied in a air preheater of boiler from a sugarcane mill. In such application, the AISI 304 lasts about 15 seasons and the carbon steel about 3. A tube sent by the sugar mill was characterized by wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy and EDS. Results indicated chloride formation on the internal walls of the tube, which combined with the environment, accelerated the corrosion process. The carbon steel showed high lifetime due to a 70% higher thickness. Due to the work condictions is recommended the use of stainless steels with higher corrosion resistance, such as the traditional AISI 304 or the ferritic AISI 444, the last presents better thermal exchange.

  19. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  20. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  1. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Yule, I.Y.; Sibson, S.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors at Torness and Heysham 2 are provided with dedicated access for remote inspection equipment. These in-service inspection (ISI) accesses comprise 12 penetrations above the core for inspection of the above core area and boilers, 12 below core penetrations for inspection of the lower boiler area and access through any of the 8 gas circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. This paper describes a manipulator which will access the reactor from above the core via any of the 8 peripheral penetrations. (UK)

  2. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  3. Differences in the composition of organic impurities in ground and surface waters. Consequences for the preparation of boiler feed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that current limits for total organic carbon (TOC) in the pharmaceutical industry (500 ppb) and semiconductor industry (10-25 ppb) should be regarded as precautionary measures and do not necessarily reflect true scientific evidence. For the power industry the situation is different. Here, recommended TOC-limits for boiler feed waters (in 1999: VGB: 200 ppb; EPRI: 100 ppb) are based on scientific and empirical data. The oxidation of, say, 50 ppb TOC to carbon dioxide in the water/steam cycle will increase steam condensate conductivity by 0.48 μ S /cm (values may depend on literature source, here [1]), a value which is not acceptable as it desensitizes the detection of leaks in cooling water heat exchangers. Apart from this indirect effect of TOC there is also evidence for direct negative effects of TOC on steel materials. Even small amounts of organic acids, which are produced as intermediates in the TOC oxidation process, may locally lower the pH down to levels [2] where erosion corrosion of boiler tubes can take place. It was also found that carbon is enriched in stress corrosion cracks of turbine materials [3]. The present paper will discuss the ''TOC-issue'' in boiler feed water preparation. Most of the results can be applied also to other industries, e.g. semiconductor, chemical or pharmaceutical. (authors)

  4. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzell, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  5. Countermeasures to corrosion on water walls; Aatgaerder mot eldstadskorrosion paa panntuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Sund, Goeran; Pettersson, Rachel; Nordling, Magnus; Hoegberg, Jan

    2007-12-15

    Corrosion of water walls is becoming a problem for an increasing number of boilers. Wider use of biomass and waste for fuel, as well as requirements of reduced NO{sub x} emissions, makes it much more difficult to avoid combustion in a reducing atmosphere adjacent to the water walls. This has increased the need for corrosion protection in many existing boilers. In addition, biomass and waste fuelled plants currently being planned or built require well-functioning water wall protection from the start. The traditional water wall materials - ferritic low alloyed steels - are not easy to replace because of their outstanding heat transfer properties, ability to form a protective oxide layer on the inside of the tubes and low thermal expansion. For this reason, corrosion protection generally involves the use of some kind of coating on the tubes. In this report, the state-of-the-art regarding water wall corrosion protection is described in a literature survey. Methods covered are the use of refractories, overlay weld cladding, composite tubes and thermal spraying. The interest for overlay welding has increased recently since it can offer similar corrosion protection to composite tubes at a significantly reduced cost. Test panels have been exposed and monitored in different boilers. Six weld overlay materials were tested: the well-proven Alloy 625, a modified Alloy 625 in which niobium has been replaced by tungsten, Alloy 59, Alloy 22, a cheaper nickel base alloy 650 which contains some iron and a 310 grade stainless steel. A total of six panels were exposed in the most vulnerable positions in three different boilers. These included waste and biomass combustion as well as different steam data, sizes and types of boilers. Two further facilities, in which the test materials Alloy 625 and Sanicro 28 had already been installed, were also included in the investigation. The duration of service exposure was one operating season. The weld cladding was measured with a thickness

  6. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  7. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently

  8. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  9. Archives: South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home > Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 29 of 29 ...

  10. Ethology in animal quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, B J

    1986-01-01

    This contribution will be concerned with the interaction between environment, adaptability optimization and behaviour. Animal laboratory experiments demand repeated measurements under identical environmental conditions. This is a prerequisite for the conventional statistical methodology used in order to clarify causal relationships involved in various biological functions. The understanding of biological functions is a necessary fundament for knowledge to prevent illness and to achieve a palliative or specific therapy. It is reasonable to assume that the routines in the quarters are very artificial, considering an animal's normal living conditions. The experimental situation as well as animal maintenance involves a process of adaptation. Adaptability depends on type of animal, degree of domestification etc. However, even with respect to choice of suitable species, strain and genetic manipulation, the process of adaptation becomes an important variable for ethical and practical points of view. The more emphasis on constancy, the more do we run the risk of increasing the span between normal and laboratory conditions and subsequently increase the factor and problem of adaptation. This vicious circle should be broken rather by finding optimal conditions than by a middle course determined by experimental requirements, economical frames and general notions about what may be good for the animal. Optimization must involve an understanding of how the experiment and the way of maintenance of the animal in the animal quarters influence adaptability. This understanding requires a systematic exploring of what physio-chemical and psychological factors are of importance. We will probably never be able to control the variability in the degree of adaptation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The investigation of the locomotive boiler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucholski, Z.; Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the history of narrow-gauge railway system is described. The other information about the steam locomotive construction, as well as the technical regulations of its construction and exploitation are also done. The results of the studies of the locomotive boiler material are presented. (authors)

  12. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    : a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat...

  13. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  15. Safety issues arising from the corrosion-fatigue of waterwall tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, J. M.; Jarvis, P. (Stress Engineering Services (Europe) Limited, Chichester (United Kingdom)); Scully, S. (Electricity Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-05-15

    An incidence of waterwall tube failures, one leading to a significant steam release external to the boiler, has highlighted the need for rigorous risk assessment of such events. Initial review of the utility's experience revealed one of their boiler designs as having had a greater incidence of corrosion-fatigue issues in waterwall tubing than the others. These units were treated as a priority. To address failure likelihood, fracture mechanics calculations were performed. These studies defined the necessary inspection coverage and sensitivity required to underwrite safe operation at various potential loads. Personnel safety was considered the most important consequence of failure. Accordingly, potential steam releases were modelled to define safe exclusion zones within the boiler house. Standard calculations were found to be nonconservative; more exact formulae were needed to give realistic results. Using the results of these studies, the utility was able to draw up a realistic inspection plan. Safe operating pressures and appropriate exclusion zones were defined for each boiler, and for a range of operational scenarios. These tactics have allowed the utility to inspect the boilers in turn and to repair all significant defects in the waterwall tubes, whilst maintaining a good overall power output. In parallel, a root-cause investigation was performed to identify the factors contributing to the failures. Where possible, causative influences were reduced or mitigated so as to reduce the likelihood of failure whilst allowing increased flexibility of boiler operation. (orig.)

  16. Needs-driven soot blowing in waste boilers; Behovsstyrd sotblaasning i avfallspannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Davidsson, Kent

    2009-09-15

    The increased use of alternative and waste fuels has resulted in an increased number of plants having trouble with fouling and corrosion on boiler banks and superheater tubes. Frequent sootblowing will keep the surfaces relatively clean, but on the other hand, it may erode the tube material. An intelligent sootblowing system will initiate sootblowings on individual tube banks only when needed for that specific tube bank. Such a system depends on the detection of the degree of fouling of specific tube banks. In this project, the conditions for an intelligent sootblowing system at the waste fired boilers in Boraas are investigated from measured flows, temperatures and pressure drop. New thermocouples at the water tubes between the banks of the economiser have been installed and connected to the control and monitoring system of the boiler. From measured temperatures and flows, heat transfer coefficients are calculated and used to detect the fouling on the heat exchangers. A pressure transducer has been altered to measure the pressure over the boiler bank. At the superheaters, the measurements show a significant improvement of the heat transfer coefficients immediately following sootblowing. Thereafter, the heat transfer coefficients decline more slowly, almost linearly. The measurements indicate that the fouling rate is almost same for the two superheaters and do not motivate individual sootblowing sequences of the two superheaters. The pressure drop over the boiler bank was found too insensitive a measure to be used as an indicator for an intelligent sootblowing system, at least in this specific boiler. In the economiser, the decline of calculated heat transfer coefficients showed a relative rate of fouling on individual tube banks. The results show that the fouling rate is significantly higher in the top tube banks, which comes first in the direction of the flue gas, compared to downstream banks. Experiments by sootblowing the top tube bank more frequently than the

  17. 3rd quarterly report 1976 of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The report describes activities which were performed within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH Karlsruhe (GfK) or on behalf of the GfK during the third quarter. It contains contributions on the following subjects: Fuel rod development, material studies and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, safety of fast breeders, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental impacts, sodium technology tests, thermo- and fluid-dynamic tests in gas, tests concerning gas-cooled breeders. (HR) [de

  18. Hot Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Cladding in Smelting Off-Gas Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Zahrani, E.; Alfantazi, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    Degradation mechanisms and hot corrosion behavior of weld overlay alloy 625 were studied. Phase structure, morphology, thermal behavior, and chemical composition of deposited salt mixture on the weld overlay were characterized utilizing XRD, SEM/EDX, DTA, and ICP/OES, respectively. Dilution level of Fe in the weldment, dendritic structure, and degradation mechanisms of the weld were investigated. A molten phase formed on the weld layer at the operating temperature range of the boiler, which led to the hot corrosion attack in the water wall and the ultimate failure. Open circuit potential and weight-loss measurements and potentiodynamic polarization were carried out to study the hot corrosion behavior of the weld in the simulated molten salt medium at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). Internal oxidation and sulfidation plus pitting corrosion were identified as the main hot corrosion mechanisms in the weld and boiler tubes. The presence of a significant amount of Fe made the dendritic structure of the weld susceptible to preferential corrosion. Preferentially corroded (Mo, Nb)-depleted dendrite cores acted as potential sites for crack initiation from the surface layer. The penetration of the molten phase into the cracks accelerated the cracks' propagation mainly through the dendrite cores and further crack branching/widening.

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  1. Countermeasures to corrosion on water walls. Part 2; Aatgaerder mot eldstadskorrosion paa panntuber. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Elger, Ragna; Nordling, Magnus; Viklund, Peter

    2011-01-15

    Background: The problems with water wall corrosion have been accelerating over the last years. There are a number of reasons for this. Originally mild steels were successfully used in power plant water walls. The magnetite layer that forms at the fire side of the tubes when the boiler is taken into operation protected from corrosion attack. The fuels at that time (oil, coal, gas) were not able to break down the magnetite by corrosion. In addition, there were no restrictions for pollutions and for the combustion itself that could contribute to corrosion attack. The usage of fossil fuels has decreased substantially over the last 25 years, not least by environmental reasons. As a replacement a number of different kinds of bio mass fuels are used. These are typically more or less corrosive and the magnetite layers are attacked. The corrosion is often supported by reducing conditions as a result of the restrictions of the NO{sub x}-pollution. Also the waste fuelled boilers have huge corrosion problems. This has been the case for the last 25 years but nowadays the number of such plants is so much higher and the service data have been turned up. Corrosion protection of the water wall tubes started to be successful in the beginning of the seventies by the introduction of the composite tube. Such tubes are fabricated by mild steel or a low alloy core and corrosion resistant austenite steel or nickel base as an about 2 mm thick corrosion protective coating. Weld cladding of the water wall tubes was introduced in the 1980's as a significantly cheaper alternative to the composite tubes. Thermal spraying and refractory protection are other methods. These corrosion protection methods have not always been effective. For example, depending on incorrect materials selection, incorrect performance and incorrect method selection for the current corrosion or erosion attack. Therefore, there is a need for increased knowledge of which protection method and material that will work

  2. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  3. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    operating in the Pacific, Exercise Panamax ’05 (4th Combat Camera Squadron/Rick Sforza); Marines securing area along Amazon River , Exercise UNITAS ’04...companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas , a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez—Aguas de Amazonas Water for

  4. Applications of electricity and corrosion. Precautions for use of metals and stainless and refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    The development of applications of electricity poses highly diversified problems with materials where the resistance to corrosion prevails. Corrosion occurs under various conditions, which sometimes look harmless, and it covers diverse phenomenons linked to the nature of materials and to the physical and chemical context. However, in spite of the diversity of the processes used (electrical boilers, mechanical steam compression, heat pumps, Joule effect,) the knowledge required to approach the corrosion problems corresponds to a limited number of generic situations with regard not only to the phenomenons proper (general corrosion of copper, pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels, refractory alloys oxidation,) but also to chemical conditions which favour the corrosion (natural waters, acidic condensates, hot gases). This report is a short guide to anti-corrosion. With the aid of questions asked during the past few years, it aims to provide engineers in charge of the development of applications of electricity with a few recommendations upon the precautions for use of metallic materials. We analyze in turn the problems met with wet air and drying mists, chloride-containing neutral waters, alkaline waters and caustic media, acidic waters and concentrated acids, and, last, hot gases. We lay stress upon the behaviour of materials deemed to withstand corrosion under aqueous conditions (stainless steels and alloys, copper,titanium) and corrosion at high temperatures (refractory alloys). (author). 11 figs., 43 refs., 11 tabs

  5. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 12.1-12.9. Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with boilers. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: firetube and watertube boilers; boiler construction; procedures for operating and cleaning boilers; and boiler fittings,…

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454...

  7. 46 CFR 52.25-7 - Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-7 Electric boilers (modifies PEB-1 through PEB-19). Electric boilers required to comply with this part must meet the applicable provisions in this part and the...

  8. 40 CFR 76.6 - NOX emission limitations for Group 2 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers. 76.6 Section 76.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Group 2 boilers. (a) Beginning January 1, 2000 or, for a unit subject to section 409(b) of the Act... owner or operator of a Group 2, coal-fired boiler with a cell burner boiler, cyclone boiler, a wet...

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  10. NST Quarterly - issue April 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activity in radiocarbon dating and discusses the topic - Radiation energy technologies are finding new niches in the marketplace

  11. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  12. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  13. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  14. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  15. Circulating fluidized bed boiler numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maggio, T. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Roulet, V. [E.D.F./DE/CNET, 92 - La Defense (France)

    1996-12-31

    Electricite de France (EdF) is actively involved in the development of CFB power plants. Thanks to a wide Research and Development program around the 125 MWe Emile Huchet and the 250 MWe Provence units (two boilers designed by Stein-Lurgi), EdF has been able to get a good knowledge of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in the circulating loop as well as the back pass. One of the main objectives of the R and D program was to gather this information and results in a steady state operating model of a CFB boiler and to simulate the operation of the 250 MWe Provence power plant. This model has been developed before the first ignition of the Provence power plant in order to check the design and to help on-field engineers during the start-up phase. Furthermore, this model allows R and D engineers to make parametric studies and to evaluate new designs. (authors) 5 refs.

  16. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Highly Dense NiCr-Based Coatings in Chloride Salt Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Enwei; Yin, Song; Ji, Hua; Huang, Qian; Liu, Zekun; Wu, Shuhui

    2017-04-01

    To make cities more environmentally friendly, combustible wastes tend to be incinerated in waste-to-energy power plant boilers. However, release of chlorine gas (Cl2) during incineration causes serious problems related to hot corrosion of boiler tubes and poses a safety threat for such plants. In this study, a pseudo-de Laval nozzle was employed in a twin-wire arc spray system to enhance the velocity of in-flight particles. Highly dense NiCr-based coatings were obtained using the modified nozzle gun. The coating morphology was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and hot corrosion testing was carried out in a synthetic molten chloride salt environment. Results showed that the dense NiCr-based coatings exhibited high resistance against corrosion by chlorine, which can be related to the typical splat lamellar microstructure and chemical composition as well as minor alloying elements such as Ti and Mo.

  17. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  18. Catastrophes caused by corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, huge attention has been paid to the problem of corrosion damage and destruction of metallic materials. Experience shows that failures due to corrosion problems are very important, and statistics at the world level shows that the damage resulting from the effects of various forms of corrosion is substantial and that, for example, in industrialized countries it reaches 4-5% of national incomes. Significant funds are determined annually for the prevention and control of corrosion...

  19. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  20. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation...... formation in suspension fired boilers. The presentation provides an overview of the knowledge obtained with respect to ash species behavior insuspension fired biomass boilers. A mechanistic understanding of the fly ash formation process in biomass fired PF boilers isobtained today. A high fraction of alkali...... salt species are released to the gas phase during the initial fuel combustion process. The salt species are present in gas phase in the boil chamberand upon cooling in the convective pass aerosols are formed. Recent studies indicates that a large fraction of the residual condensed phase ash fragments...

  1. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  2. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  3. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  4. Boiler systems for nuclear powered reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; George, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    A power generating plant which comprises a heat source, at least one main steam turbine and at least one main boiler heated by heat from the heat source and providing the steam to drive the turbine, comprises additionally at least one further steam turbine, smaller than the main turbine, and at least one further boiler, of lower capacity than the main boiler, and heated from the same heat source and providing steam for the further turbine. Particularly advantageous in nuclear power stations, where the heat source is a nuclear reactor, the invention enables peak loads, above the normal continuous rating of the main generators driven by the main turbines, to be met by the further turbine(s) and one or more further generators driven thereby. This enables the main turbines to be freed from the thermal stresses of rapid load changes, which stresses are more easily accommodated by the smaller and thus more tolerant further turbine(s). Thus auxiliary diesel-driven or other independent power plant may be made partly or wholly unnecessary. Further, low-load running which would be inefficient if achieved by means of the main turbine(s), can be more efficiently effected by shutting them down and using the smaller further turbine(s) instead. These latter may also be used to provide independent power for servicing the generating plant during normal operation or during emergency or other shutdown, and in this latter case may also serve as a heat sink for the shutdown reactor

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  6. FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. Quarterly technical report, July 1-September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Program has completed one year of activity, accelerating the pace of cofiring development. Cofiring tests were completed at the Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco and at the Michigan City Generating Station of NIPSCO. The NYSEG work at Greenidge Station resulted in a workable, low cost method for injecting biofuels into coal-fired PC boilers. Support studies and modeling continued to provide analytics for the cofiring program. This report summarizes the activities during the fourth quarter of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  7. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  8. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  9. ASME Based Quality Documentation Guidelines for Power- and Recovery Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to create ASME-based quality documentation guidelines for power- and recovery boilers. The client was a large international power- and recovery boiler manufacturer. The content of this thesis is mainly a report of ASME code and its effects on quality documentation. In thesis are widely compared ASME based quality documention differences between PED/EN projects quality documentation. Also ASMEs most important elements for power- and recovery boiler projects needs fo...

  10. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed. This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems.This thesis presents contributions for mo...

  11. Energy, exergy and economic analysis of industrial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Ahamed, J.U.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is analyzed, and applied to the boiler system. Energy and exergy flows in a boiler have been shown in this paper. The energy and exergy efficiencies have been determined as well. In a boiler, the energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 72.46% and 24.89%, respectively. A boiler energy and exergy efficiencies are compared with others work as well. It has been found that the combustion chamber is the major contributor for exergy destruction followed by heat exchanger of a boiler system. Furthermore, several energy saving measures such as use of variable speed drive in boiler's fan energy savings and heat recovery from flue gas are applied in reducing a boiler energy use. It has been found that the payback period is about 1 yr for heat recovery from a boiler flue gas. The payback period for using VSD with 19 kW motor found to be economically viable for energy savings in a boiler fan.

  12. Simulation and testing of a new condensing boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.; Tosato, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a new condensing boiler, characterized by the evacuation of flue-gases by natural draft. The best result is the consequent simplification of manufacturing, hook-up and operation of the boiler. Seasonal efficiency of the boiler, which operates with flue-gases conditioning to assure natural draft, rests about at same levels as for conventional condensing boilers. The authors emphasize the difficulty of simulate natural draft mechanism by mathematics because, in this case, flow of flue-gases and air at the draft diverter is strongly three-dimensional

  13. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  14. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  15. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  16. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  17. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  18. Corrosion in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Gudla, Helene Virginie Conseil; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2017-01-01

    and high density packing combined with the use of several materials, which can undergo electrochemical corrosion in the presence of water film formed due to humidity exposure and bias conditions on the PCBA surface. This article provides a short review of the corrosion reliability issues of electronics due...... to the use of electronics under varying humidity conditions. Important PCBA aspects, which are fundamental to the corrosion cell formation under humid conditions, are discussed. Effect of hygroscopic residues from the process and service and their role in assisting water film build up and corrosion...... is presented. Various failure modes resulting from the corrosion and influence factors are discussed including humid and gaseous conditions....

  19. Development of a resilient mechanical sealing solution to resist electro corrosion in ultrapure feedwater applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowservice Flow Solutions Division, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Enders, Klaus; Schmerberg, Rainer [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Peitz (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of mechanical seals on high speed boiler feed pumps in the sixties, mechanical seals have proven to be a reliable, cost effective sealing method. However, since the introduction of combined water treatment chemistry used in today's modern fossil-fuelled power stations, keeping mechanical seal reliability high, became a challenge. A pragmatic approach is presented. A resilient sealing solution was developed to resist electro corrosion for such critical feed water pumps. (orig.)

  20. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  1. High temperature corrosion resistance of candidate nickel-based weld overlay alloys in a low NOx environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, R.M.; Du Pont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Changes in environmental regulations have led many fossil fuel-fired boiler operators to alter their combustion practices (low NOx, burning), thereby lowering plant emissions. This change has led to unacceptable wastage of carbon and low alloy steel waterwall tubes and expensive shutdowns due to severe corrosion. One favored solution is to weld overlay a more corrosion resistant alloy on top of existing tubes. Two nickel-based alloys developed for such applications were tested alongside the commercially available alloy 622 in a simulated low NOx, environment. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) examination of the weld overlays and corrosion scales demonstrated that microsegregation of molybdenum occurred in one of the candidate alloys and alloy 622. This microsegregation had a detrimental effect on the corrosion resistance of these alloys. The candidate alloy with higher chromium concentration, low nominal molybdenum concentration, and corresponding minimum molybdenum segregation, exhibited the best corrosion resistance of the examined alloys.

  2. High temperature corrosion resistance of candidate nickel-based weld overlay alloys in a low NO {sub x} environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, R.M. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)], E-mail: rmd3@lehigh.edu; DuPont, J.N. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Marder, A.R. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Changes in environmental regulations have led many fossil fuel-fired boiler operators to alter their combustion practices (low NO {sub x} burning), thereby lowering plant emissions. This change has led to unacceptable wastage of carbon and low alloy steel waterwall tubes and expensive shutdowns due to severe corrosion. One favored solution is to weld overlay a more corrosion resistant alloy on top of existing tubes. Two nickel-based alloys developed for such applications were tested alongside the commercially available alloy 622 in a simulated low NO {sub x} environment. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) examination of the weld overlays and corrosion scales demonstrated that microsegregation of molybdenum occurred in one of the candidate alloys and alloy 622. This microsegregation had a detrimental effect on the corrosion resistance of these alloys. The candidate alloy with higher chromium concentration, low nominal molybdenum concentration, and corresponding minimum molybdenum segregation, exhibited the best corrosion resistance of the examined alloys.

  3. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... of the deposits formed is determined by the fly ash composition and the flue gas temperature; increases in the local flue gas temperature lead to higher contents of Si and Ca and lower contents of Cl in the deposits. The net deposit build-up rates in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers are at similar levels......, 0–100 g/m2·h, while the ash deposit propensity is an order of magnitude larger in grate fired boilers than in suspension-fired boilers. Deposit build-up rates were found to increase at flue gas temperatures close to the melting temperatures of the fly ash. Furthermore, the rate of deposit build...

  4. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  5. Materials and boiler rig testing to support chemical cleaning of once-through AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Platts, N.; Raffel, A.S.; Rudge, A.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive programme of work has been carried out to evaluate two candidate inhibited cleaning solutions for possible implementation on plant, which would be the first chemical clean of an AGR boiler. The two candidate cleaning solutions considered were a Stannine-inhibited citric acid/formic acid mixture (GOM106) and inhibited hydrofluoric acid. Citric acid-based cleaning processes are widely used within the UK Power Industry. The GOM106 solution, comprising a mixture of 3% citric acid, 0.5% formic acid and 0.05% Stannine LTP inhibitor, buffered with ammonia to pH 3.5, was developed specifically for the AGR boilers during the 1970's. Although a considerable amount of materials testing work was carried out by British Energy's predecessor companies to produce a recommended cleaning procedure there were some remaining concerns with the use of GOM106, from these earlier studies, for example, an increased risk of pitting attack associated with the removal of thick 9Cr oxide deposits and a risk of unacceptable damage in critical locations such as the upper transition joints and other weld locations. Hence, additional testing was still required to validate the solution for use on plant. Inhibited hydrofluoric acid (HFA) was also evaluated as an alternative reagent to GOM106. HFA has been used extensively for cleaning mild and low'alloy steel boiler tubes in fossil-fired plant in the UK and elsewhere in Europe and is known to remove oxide quickly. Waste treatment is also easier than for the GOM106 process and some protection against damage to the boiler tube materials is provided by complexing of fluoride with ferric ion. Validation of the potential reagents and inhibitors was achieved by assessing the rate and effectiveness of oxide removal from specimens of helical boiler tubing and welds, together with establishing the extent of any metal loss or localised damage. The initial materials testing resulted in the inhibited ammoniated citric / formic acid reagent being

  6. Exergetic Modelling of Oil-Fired Steam Boilers | Ohijeagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance variables and potential for energy savings in oil-fired industrial steam boilers were studied. Operational parameters of steam boilers using low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel were used to determine thermodynamic properties of material streams and exergetic parameters. Analysis of thermodynamic ...

  7. Assessment of Some Performance Characteristics of Refuse Boiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pioneer palm oil boiler unit, in an immense power self-contained oil mill, impaired by many years of accumulated depreciation, was rebuilt in the pattern of a design-out scheme aimed primarily at rehabilitating the entire boiler system to a state of functionality. The research work studied the pre-maintenance and post ...

  8. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  9. Test of a small domestic boiler using different pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.; Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a 13 kW th commercial domestic boiler using pellets as fuel. Four different types of pellets were used and, for each one, the boiler was tested as a function of its capacity and the fan regulation affecting excess air. Measurements were performed for boiler heat load, pellet consumption rate, flue-gas temperature and composition. Mass balances allowed the calculation of the flue-gas flow rate and associated heat losses. Losses from incomplete combustion have also been quantified. Under boiler steady-state conditions the flue-gas O 2 concentration changes with boiler load and ventilation due to the regulation scheme of the boiler. Flue-gas CO shows a minimum for values of O 2 in the flue-gases of about 13%. NO x emissions are independent of excess air for low values of nitrogen in the fuel whereas, for larger values, NO x emissions increase with the O 2 present in the combustion products. The fractional conversion of the pellet nitrogen into NO x is in line with literature data. The boiler start-up was characterised by the temperature evolution inside and above the bed showing the propagation of combustion in the bed during about 10 min. During boiler start-up, a maximum in CO emissions was observed which is associated with the maximum combustion intensity, as typified by the flue-gas O 2 concentration and temperature, regardless the pellet type. (Author)

  10. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  11. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boiler. (c) Feed water regulators, heaters, and grease extractors. (1) Where feed water regulators, tubular feed water heaters, and grease extractors are installed, an alternate means of operation with... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...

  13. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  14. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411 Section 77.411 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All...

  15. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection at Torness Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is achieved, via penetrations above and below the core area and boilers and through eight circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. A manipulator is described which can access the area above the reactor core via any of these eight peripheral penetrations. The design and fabrication of the manipulator has led to innovation with a number of possible solutions being tendered. In reactor deployment of the successful design is expected in early 1997. (UK)

  16. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  17. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  19. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  1. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed....... This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  3. Boiling process modelling peculiarities analysis of the vacuum boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of the low and medium powered boiler equipment development was carried out, boiler units possible development directions with the purpose of energy efficiency improvement were identified. Engineering studies for the vacuum boilers applying are represented. Vacuum boiler heat-exchange processes where boiling water is the working body are considered. Heat-exchange intensification method under boiling at the maximum heat- transfer coefficient is examined. As a result of the conducted calculation studies, heat-transfer coefficients variation curves depending on the pressure, calculated through the analytical and numerical methodologies were obtained. The conclusion about the possibility of numerical computing method application through RPI ANSYS CFX for the boiling process description in boiler vacuum volume was given.

  4. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments...... and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  6. SRB seawater corrosion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  7. High temperature alkali corrosion of dense SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coated with CMZP and Mg-doped Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} in coal gas. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shaokai; Brown, J.J.

    1995-10-02

    SiC samples coated with CMZP and Mg-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, respectively, were tested in a 100-hour slagging combustion test at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. Results of measurements and analysis indicate that CMZP and Mg-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} coatings improved the high temperature alkali corrosion resistance under coal combustion atmospheres. It is clearly shown that it is important to obtain a homogeneous and crack-free coating and good adhesion of the coating to the surface of the substrate for the best corrosion resistance. Some measures to improve the coating procedure are presented.

  8. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of$40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over$25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings

  9. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.

  10. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Widdel, F. (2012) Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust. Envi- ronmental...inCluding oil and gas, from to 2011 [2]. Over that period of time approximately of all releases were attributed to corrosion . National ;sociati<Jn...c>fComJsicmEngineers (NACE) International [3] the cost of corrosion for onshore gas and liquid nsn1ission pipelines was $7 billion. However, there

  11. 'Boilers' along the southeast coast of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Along the south shore of Bermuda, waves break continuously along algal/vermetid reefs (composed of algae and molluscs, not coral), forming 'boilers.' Boilers are named because the continuous breaking of waves makes it look as if the sea is boiling. This photograph taken from the International Space Station shows the eastern half of the main islands of Bermuda. Land use is about 6 percent cropland, 55 percent developed and 34 percent rural. Reflective white-colored areas are buildings and other developments surrounded by green areas of vegetation. St. David's Island is also home to the airport, with runways built out into Castle Harbour. Hurricane Erin passed northeast of Bermuda early on September 10 with 115 mile-per-hour winds (a Category 3 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Scale), but causing very minimal damage. Astronauts aboard Space Station Alpha photographed the area on September 14, 2001. By then, the skies had cleared and Erin had become an extratropical low near Newfoundland. Image ISS003-E-5735, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. Code boiler and pressure vessel life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States of America and in Canada, laws and controls for determining life assessment for continued operation of equipment exist only for those pressure vessels built to Section III and evaluated according to Section XI. In this presentation, some of those considerations which are made in the USA and Canada for deciding on life or condition assessment of boilers and pressure vessels designed and constructed to other sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are reviewed. Life assessment or condition assesssment is essential in determining what is necessary for continued operation. With no ASME rules being adopted by laws or regulations, other than OSHA in the USA and similar environmental controls in Canada, to control life assessment for continued operation, the equipment owner must decide if assessment is to be done and how much to do. Some of those considerations are reviewed along with methods and procedures to make an assessment along with a discussion of where the ASME B and PV Code currently stands regarding continued operation. (orig.)

  13. South African Crime Quarterly: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SACQ is a quarterly journal published by the Crime and Justice Programme of the Institute for Security Studies. The journal is published in hard copy and is available on our website: www.issafrica.org. The journal is widely read nationally and internationally by criminal justice practitioners, researchers ...

  14. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    We are very pleased to announce that the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) has partnered with the University of Cape Town (UCT) as co-custodians of the South African Crime Quarterly (SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public ...

  15. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  16. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  17. NST Quarterly - April 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in genetic engineering. The articles summarized the improvement of orchids and tulips through genetic engineering and generating new varieties for the floriculture industry. It also reported, MINT won gold and silver at the International Invention 2000, 12-16 April 2000, Geneva

  18. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  19. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomiak Henryk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterification at oil manufacturing. The produced pellets were being burned in the 10 kW domestic boiler adapted to wood pellets combustion. The possibilities of pollutants generation (CO2, CO, NOx SOx and compounds containing chlorine in the exhaust gases coming from the boiler were numerically calculated using the latest version of CHEMKIN-PRO software, introduced by the American company Reaction Design. The results of the calculations correspond to the data obtained on a real object, in particular: combustion temperature, gas pressure, residence time of fuel in the burner, air flow, fuel consumption, as well as elementary composition of fuel supplied into the boiler. The proposed method of predicting the chemical composition of exhaust gases allows proper control of the combustion process and can be considered as an important step in reducing the pollutants (lower emission of NOx, SOx and CO2 neutral and thus to contribute to the improvement of the environmental quality. In addition, knowledge of the amounts of Clbased compounds produced in combustion process (under given conditions, can serve as an important hint in terms of corrosion prevention of boiler- and chimney steels.

  20. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  1. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 50 ... Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  4. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  5. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and groove...

  6. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  7. 30 CFR 57.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7506 - Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do any boilers or process heaters have..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters General Compliance Requirements § 63.7506 Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements? (a) New or reconstructed boilers and process heaters in...

  9. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate of...

  10. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs to...

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-5 - Preparation of boilers for inspection and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of boilers for inspection and test. 61.05-5... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-5 Preparation of boilers for... preparing the boilers for the hydrostatic test, they shall be filled with water at not less than 70 °F. and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7491 - Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are any boilers or process heaters not..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters What This Subpart Covers § 63.7491 Are any boilers or process heaters not subject to this subpart? The types of boilers and process heaters listed in paragraphs...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7499 - What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the subcategories of boilers..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards § 63.7499 What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters? The subcategories of boilers and process...

  14. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification referring...

  15. 30 CFR 56.13001 - General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for boilers and pressure... MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13001 General requirements for boilers and pressure vessels. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the...

  16. Nuclear Rocket Program quarterly progress report: Fourth quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1965-12-31

    This document summarizes the progress of the ANL Nuclear Rocket Study during the fourth quarter of Calendar Year 1965. It is intended as a report of the status of the rocket program in the period following the publication of ANL-7111 (December 1965). The present document is one of a series of program reports which are issued on a regular quarterly basis. During the period of time encompassed by the present document, a major portion of the ANL nuclear rocket effort, as well as primary program emphasis, was placed upon the development of fuel elements and fuel-element systems. Concentration on these aspects of the rocket development effort reflects a general recognition on the part of ANL and the sponsoring agency that the solution of the problem of fuel-element fabrication constitutes the most critical phase of the program.

  17. Quarterly financial reports | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 31 December 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 September 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 June 2011 · Summary of Expense Reductions to Accommodate Budget 2012 Appropriation Reduction (PDF) · What we do · Funding ...

  18. 32 CFR 643.127 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.127 Quarters. The assignment and rental of quarters to civilian employees and other nonmilitary personnel will be accomplished in accordance with AR 210-50. Responsibility of the Corps of Engineers for the establishment of rental rates for quarters rented to civilian and...

  19. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received...

  20. Up-date on cyclone combustion and cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rocha, Rodrigo Carnera Castro da; Gazel, Hussein Felix; Martins, Diego Henrique dos Reis [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: mfmn@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler concept has been around for more than 70 years, and there are many types available. Boilers provide steam or hot water for industrial and commercial use. The Federal University of Para (UFPA) through the research group EBMA (Energy,Biomass and Environment) has been developing cyclonic furnace with a water wall, a boiler, aiming to use regional timbers (sawdust) and agro-industries residues as fuel to produce steam to be used in industrial processes as well as in power generation,. The use of cyclonic combustion for burning waste instead of burning in a fixed bed is mainly due to two factors efficiency improvement causing a more compact boiler and less risk of explosion, since their process does not generate an accumulation of volatile. Present state-of-art for commercial cyclone boilers has as set up a cyclone combustor with two combustion chambers, in fluid communication, where there ducts for supplying air and fuel directly into the first chamber and for forming a cyclonic flow pattern and a heat exchanger surrounding the second chamber for keeping low combustion temperature in both chambers. This paper shows the results of a literature review about design, construction and operation of cyclonic boilers using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. This information has been used for the design of a cyclone boiler to be constructed at UFPA for research purposes and its basic concept is presented at the end of this article. (author)

  1. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  2. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  3. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  4. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Apparatus and method of controlling the thermal performance of an oxygen-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand A.; Kang, Shin G.; Kenney, James R.; Edberg, Carl D.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein is a method of controlling the operation of an oxy-fired boiler; the method comprising combusting a fuel in a boiler; producing a heat absorption pattern in the boiler; discharging flue gases from the boiler; recycling a portion of the flue gases to the boiler; combining a first oxidant stream with the recycled flue gases to form a combined stream; splitting the combined stream into several fractions; and introducing each fraction of the combined stream to the boiler at different points of entry to the boiler.

  6. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 77, 2nd Quarter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Keystone course at National Defense University (DOD/Daniel Hinton) 52 JPME Today / Writing Faculty Papers for JPME JFQ 77, 2nd Quarter 2015 issue...Special Purpose, Embodied, Conversational Intelligence with Environmental Sensors ( SPECIES ) agent. His agent-based sys- tem builds on existing...assess human states, to include whether or not the human is being truthful. Derrick’s prototype SPECIES agent was built to interview potential

  7. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 76, 1st Quarter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    a car, the doctors, sales - men, lawyers, pilots, military officers (my father was enlisted in the Army), police, firefighters, and store managers...effective, as demonstrated by regular changes in JFQ 76, 1st Quarter 2015 Duvall and Renfro 67 arms sales policies to Taiwan, it is the two approaches...pandemic commonly known as Swine Flu, which had not appeared in society in equal magnitude since 1918, spread from the state of Veracruz , Mexico, to

  8. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 57, 2nd Quarter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    d quarter 2010 / JFQ 35 LOVINS fatalities in Afghanistan in 2009. Should that conflict follow an Iraq-like profile , its casualty rates could rise...Middle Eastern terrorism. It had been hoped that the invasion of Iraq would produce a domino supported violent antigovernment terrorists in Colombia ...products (all pharmaceutical ) against chemical, biological, and radiological attacks. 22 Available at <www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/ gc_1219263961449.shtm#1

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  11. Substantiation of causes for damage of water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a high-pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    The damageability for water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a TPE-208 boiler is analyzed. The general cause for tube damage is the intensive underslime corrosion of the inner surface, which is caused by a local increase in the salt concentration in boiler water. The experiment-calculated method showed that continuous bleeding from an external cyclone being the first in water downstream causes a substantial increase in the concentration of salts (more than by a factor of three) and scale-forming agents within a contour of the loop of a distant cyclone in comparison with the variant of bleeding from a loop being the second in water downstream.

  12. Archaeological analogs and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  13. Corrosion evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Uh Chul; Han, Jeong Ho; Nho, Kye Ho; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo

    1997-09-01

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled which can measure very small crack. Stress corrosion cracking test system with SSRT operating high temperature was installed. Stress corrosion cracking test of newly developed alloy 600 and existing alloy 600 was carried out in steam atmosphere of 400 deg C. No crack was observed in both materials within a test period of 2,000 hrs. Corrosion fatigue test system operating at high temperature was installed in which fatigue crack was measured by CDPD. Lead enhanced the SCC of the Alloy 600 in high temperature water, had a tendency to modify a cracking morphology from intergranular to transgranular. Pit initiation preferentially occurred at Ti-rich carbide. Resistance to pit initiation decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 deg C. Test loop for erosion corrosion was designed and fabricated. Thin layer activation technique was very effective in measuring erosion corrosion. Erosion corrosion of a part of secondary side pipe was evaluated by the Check Family Codes of EPRI. Calculated values of pipe thickness by Check Family Codes coincided with the pipe thickness measured by UT with an error of {+-} 20%. Literature review on turbine failure showed that failure usually occurred in low pressure turbine rotor disc and causes of failure are stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. (author). 12 refs., 20 tabs., 77 figs.

  14. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  15. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  16. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  17. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  18. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  19. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  20. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Kawasaki, Ichio; Miura, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  1. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  2. Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

  3. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  4. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical decoupling...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...

  5. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  6. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  8. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  9. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  10. NST Quarterly - January 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in local heat shrinkable copolymer and electron beam technology for purification of flue gases. It announces an International Nuclear Conference themed ' a new era in nuclear science and technology - the challenge of the 21 century ' will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 29 to 30 Sept 1997

  11. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  12. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  13. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    R. Krishnan

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  14. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  15. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  16. Energy efficiency in boilers; Eficiencia energetica em caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ricardo Silva The [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], email: ricthe@dee.ufc.br; Barbosa, Marcos Antonio Pinheiro; Rufino, Maria da Gracas [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: marcos_apb@unifor.br, gsrufino@unifor.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler is vapor generator equipment that has been widely used in industrial milieu as in electric energy generation in thermoelectric plants. Since their first conception, the boilers have been changed in order to provide security and energetic efficiency. They can present high losses of energy if they don't be operated according to some criteria. A considerable part of boilers operation cost include fuel expenses. So, the adoption of effective steps in order to reduce fuel consumption is important to industry economy, besides it brings environmental benefits through the reduction of pollution liberation. The present article has the objective of emphasizing the effective steps for the economy of energy in boilers, such as, the regulation of combustion; the control of soot and incrustations; the installation of economizers, air heaters and super heaters; the reduction in purges and reintroduction of condensed steam. (author)

  17. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  18. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  19. Convective and radiative heat transfer in MHD radiant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K. H.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    A combined convection-gas radiation, two-zone flow model is formulated for study of the heat transfer characteristics of MHD radiant boilers. The radiative contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles are included in the formulation, and are determined by solving the radiation transport equation using the P1 approximation. The scattering and absorption cross sections of slag particles are calculated from Mie theory. The model is used to analyze the scale-up of heat transfer in radiant boilers with refractory thickness, wall emissivity, and boiler size under conditions of a gas composition and slag particle spectrum typical of coal-fired MHD combustion. A design procedure is suggested for sizing radiant boilers so as to achieve the required heat extraction rate and to provide a flow residence time that is adequate for decomposition of NO(x) to acceptable levels.

  20. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  1. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  2. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apo...

  3. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  4. Investigation of Turbulators for Fire Tube Boilers Using Exergy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AYHAN, Betül

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of five different types of ``turbulator" inserts for fire tube boilers is presented. The experimental setup was constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University. It was tested to evaluate the boiler efficiency according to TS 4040 standard, and to evaluate the second law efficiency of thermodynamics for the cases with and without inserts under the same operating conditions. Four new typ...

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  10. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Failure analysis of boiler tubes in lakhra coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Baluch, M.M.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Present work deals with the failure analysis of a boiler tube in Lakhra fluidized bed combustion power station. Initially, visual inspection technique was adopted to analyse the fractured surface. Detailed microstructural investigations of the busted boiler tube were carried out using light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness tests were also performed. A 50 percent decrease in hardness of intact portion of the tube material and from area adjacent to failure was measured, which was found to be in good agreement with the wall thicknesses measured of the busted boiler tube i.e. 4 mm and 2 mm from unaffected portion and ruptured area respectively. It was concluded that the major cause of failure of boiler tube is erosion of material which occurs due the coal particles strike at the surface of the tube material. Since the temperature of boiler is not maintained uniformly. The variations in boiler temperature can also affect the material and could be another reason for the failure of the tube. (author)

  12. ANALISIS KEGAGALAN SOOTBLOWER TERHADAP PERPINDAHAN PANAS DI PIPA BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Chandra Purnama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM menyebut konsumsi listrik nasional saat ini masih terbilang mini, yaitu seperempat dari indikator negara maju di dunia. Dengan angka 956 per Kilowatt-hour (kWh per kapita, konsumsi listrik Indonesia baru mencapai 23,9 persen dari konsumsi listrik negara maju sebanyak 4 ribu kWh per kapita. Salah satu komponen utama pada sistem pembangkit adalah boiler. Uap hasil produksi Boiler ini digunakan untuk memutar turbine yang akan menggerakkan generator guna menghasilkan listrik. Sootblower merupakan peralatan penunjang pada boiler yang berfungsi untuk membersihkan jelaga. Oleh karena itu peranan sootblower sangat penting dalam menjaga effisiensi boiler. Tujuan dari dilakukan analisis ini adalah mampu mengidentifikasi penurunan perpindahan panas yang terjadi pada pipa boiler, mengidentifikasi faktor penyebab kegagalan pada Sootblower, mengurangi energi yang terbuang akibat pengoperasian Sootblower. Metode penelitian untuk melakukan pelaksanaan analisis sootblower ini terdiri atas berbagai bagian, antara lain: studi literatur, proses pengumpulan data, kemudian data diolah dan dilakukan analisis guna mengetahui penyebab kegagalan pada sootblower. Hasil dari analisis kegagalan pada sootblower ini didapatkan bahwa sootblower gagal beroperasi karena ada masalah pada lance tube yang sering bengkok sehingga mempengaruhi proses perpindahan panas di pipa boiler, oleh sebab itu di rekomendasikan untuk penggantian material lance tube dari carbon steel A105 dengan defleksi 1,1 m menjadi chrome moly (AISI 4130 dengan defleksi 1,05 cm  dan dilakukan perawatan sootblower lebih baik dan rutin lagi.

  13. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  14. Establishing an Energy Efficiency Recommendation for Commercial Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, Michelle, J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton’s Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25~ percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge’s goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products (e.g. commercial boilers, chillers, motors) that could substantially impact the government’s energy reduction goals. When establishing efficiency recommendations, FEMP looks at standardized performance ratings for products sold in the U.S. marketplace. Currently, the commercial boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency as metrics when specifying boiler performance. For many years, the industry has used both metrics interchangeably, causing confusion in the market place about boiler performance. This paper discusses the method used to establish FEMP’s efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers in lieu of the various, and somewhat confusing, efficiency ratings currently available. The paper also discusses potential energy cost savings for federal agencies that improve the efficiency of boilers specified and purchased.

  15. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  17. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  18. DBSSP - A computer program for simulation of controlled circulation boiler and natural circulation boiler start up behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Chen Tingkuan; Yang Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program, Drum Boiler Start-up Simulation Program (DBSSP), is developed for simulating the start up behavior of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers. The mathematical model developed here is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the boiler model, heat transfer in the waterwall, the superheater, the reheater and the economizer is simulated by the distributing parameter method, while heat transfer in the drum and the downcomer is simulated by lumped parameter analysis. The program can provide detailed flow and thermodynamic characteristics of the boiler components. The development of this program is based only on design data, so it can be used for any subcritical, controlled or natural circulation boiler. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements, and good agreements between them were found. This program is expected to be useful for predicting the characteristics and the performance of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers during the start up process. It also can be used to optimize a start up system for minimum start up time

  19. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  20. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  1. Corrosion of valve metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draley, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  4. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  5. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  7. Surface modifications of steels to improve corrosion resistance in sulfidizing-oxidizing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrani, Vikas

    Industrial and power generation processes employ units like boilers and gasifiers to burn sulfur containing fuels to produce steam and syn gas (H 2 and CO), which can generate electricity using turbines and fuel cells. These units often operate under environments containing gases such as H 2S, SO2, O2 etc, which can attack the metallic structure and impose serious problems of corrosion. Corrosion control in high temperature sulfur bearing environments is a challenging problem requiring information on local gaseous species at the surface of alloy and mechanisms of degradation in these environments. Coatings have proved to be a better alternative for improving corrosion resistance without compromising the bulk mechanical properties. Changes in process conditions may result in thermal and/or environment cycling between oxidizing and sulfidizing environments at the alloy surface, which can damage the protective scale formed on the alloy surface, leading to increase in corrosion rates. Objective of this study was to understand the effect of fluctuating environments on corrosion kinetics of carbon steels and develop diffusion based coatings to mitigate the high temperatures corrosion under these conditions. More specifically, the focus was: (1) to characterize the local gaseous environments at the surface of alloys in boilers; (2) optimizing diffusion coatings parameters for carbon steel; (3) understand the underlying failure mechanisms in cyclic environments; (4) to improve aluminide coating behavior by co-deposition of reactive elements such as Yttrium and Hafnium; (5) to formulate a plausible mechanism of coating growth and effects of alloying elements on corrosion; and (6) to understand the spallation behavior of scale by measuring stresses in the scales. The understanding of coating mechanism and effects of fluctuating gaseous environments provides information for designing materials with more reliable performance. The study also investigates the mechanism behind

  8. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  9. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  10. Corrosion of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Adolphson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous and elevated-temperature oxidizing environments has been extensively studied for early-intended use of beryllium in nuclear reactors and in jet and rocket propulsion systems. Since that time, beryllium has been used as a structural material in les corrosive environments. Its primary applications include gyro systems, mirror and reentry vehicle structures, and aircraft brakes. Only a small amount of information has been published that is directly related to the evaluation of beryllium for service in the less severe or normal atmospheric environments associated with these applications. Despite the lack of published data on the corrosion of beryllium in atmospheric environments, much can be deduced about its corrosion behavior from studies of aqueous corrosion and the experiences of fabricators and users in applying, handling, processing, storing, and shipping beryllium components. The methods of corrosion protection implemented to resist water and high-temperature gaseous environments provide useful information on methods that can be applied to protect beryllium for service in future long-term structural applications

  11. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...

  12. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.; Mazille, H.

    2002-01-01

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)

  13. Computations of NOx emissions of domestic boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France). EM2C Lab.; Gicquel, O.; Darabiha, N.

    2001-07-01

    Due to severe regulations concerning pollutant emissions, practical devices using combustion to release energy must be designed from the start using accurate, predictive numerical tools. A partially premixed methane/air flame in a two-dimensional configuration is investigated in this work. This configuration is close to those used in real domestic gas boilers. The flame structure and flow pattern are calculated using complex chemistry and detailed transport models. A post-processing method is then used to predict NO emission. Computations are performed for two configurations. The two cases have the same primary and secondary mass flow-rates and equivalence ratio. The only difference between them is the introduction of an insert inside the primary injector. Both results have been compared to measurements. Calculations are found to be in good agreement with the flame shapes observed experimentally. The classical burner shows a Bunsen-type flame while the one with an insert has a totally different shape (butterfly-type flame). NO emission levels are also well predicted in both configurations. The butterfly flame induces a reduction in NO emission. This reduction seems to be due to the increased mixing between the burnt gases and the secondary air jet, which homogenizes the temperature distribution and reduces the maximum temperature. (orig.)

  14. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Deposition and High-Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert

    during straw combustion was studied in Sandia's Multifuel Combustor. A layer of condensed potassium salts was found on the side of the deposition probes. The layer had a very characteristic dendritic structure which was made up of small individual particles. Vapor deposition phenomena were investigated...... 500 ppmv SO2(g) to straw-combustion under high-temperature combustion conditions in the pilot-scale experiments at Sandia National Laboratories. The potassium sulfate found in these probe deposits are mainly believed to originate from deposition of gaseous potassium sulfate. This is based on a slow...

  16. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  17. Identification of boiler tube leak in PHWR by measuring short lived radioisotope Iodine-134 in boiler water using gamma spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The boiler tube made up of Monel-400 of RAPS-2 has failed on few occasions. Due to the failure of boiler tube, the active heavy water enters into boiler and feed water leading to contamination of radioactivity in secondary water circuit. The identification of boiler tube failure was done by measuring gamma ray activity of Iodine-134 in the boiler water with sample using gamma spectrometry with high purity germanium detector. In order to increase the sensitivity of the method 5 liters of Boiler water sample was passed through a plastic column containing 40 ml of anion resin and 10 ml of activated charcoal to capture the isotopes of Iodine in the anionic form and molecular form. Samples were collected from all 8 Boilers of RAPS-2. The activity of 134 I was shown only by Boiler - 5. No other boilers showed any activity of 134 I. This indicated that Boiler - 5 had leaky tubes. The leaky hairpin of boiler - 5 was identified by measuring Tritium and IP in the riser and down comer of all 10 HXs. On the basis of Tritium and IP result, HX-7 was identified as leaky hairpin. (author)

  18. Evaluation of boiler chemical cleaning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The EPRI/SGOG process, which has been selected by Ontario Hydro for use at the Bruce A station, is described. This process consists of alternating iron removal and copper removal steps, the two metals which comprise the bulk of the deposit in the Bruce A SGs. The iron removal solvent consists of ethylenediameinetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydrazine, ammonium hydroxide and a proprietary corrosion inhibitor CCI-801. The copper removal solvent consists of EDTA, ethylene diamine and hydrogen peroxide. Ontario Hydro proposes to clean a bank of four SGs in parallel employing a total of six copper removal steps and four iron removal steps. Cleaning all eight SGs in a single Bruce A unit will generate 2,200 m 3 of liquid waste which will be treated by a wet air oxidation process. The iron and copper sludges will be buried in a landfill site while the liquid waste will be further treated by the Bruce sewage treatment plant. Some ammonia vapour will be generated through the wet air oxidation process and will be vented through a stack on top of the high bay of the spent solvent treatment plant. With the exception of the proprietary corrosion inhibitor, all chemicals that will be employed in the cleaning and waste treatment operations are standard industrial chemicals which are well characterized. No extraordinary hazards are anticipated with their use as long as adequate safety precautions are taken

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  20. A statistical estimator for the boiler power and its related parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the boiler power accurately is important for both controlling the plant and maximizing the plant productivity. There are two computed boiler powers for each boiler. They are steam based boiler power and feedwater based boiler power. The steam based boiler power is computed as the enthalpy difference between the feedwater enthalpy and the boiler steam enthalpy. The feedwater based boiler power is computed as enthalpy absorbed by the feedwater. The steam based boiler power is computed in RRS program and used in calibrating the measured reactor power, while the feedwater based boiler power is computed in CSTAT program and used for indication. Since the steam based boiler power is used as feedback in the reactor control, it is chosen to be the one estimated in this work. Because the boiler power employs steam flow, feedwater flow and feedwater temperature measurements, and because any measurement contains constant or drifting noise and bias, the reconciliation and rectification procedures are needed to determine the boiler power more accurately. A statistic estimator is developed to perform the function of data reconciliation, gross error detection and instruments performance monitoring

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  2. A mathematical model for erosion-corrosion downstream of an orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.M.

    1989-08-01

    In certain types of nuclear plant, the internal surfaces of the steel high-pressure boiler tubes become covered with magnetite. This normal growth of protective magnetite may, in unfavourable circumstances, be replaced by rapid attack on the tube wall. Particularly at risk are the regions downstream of the orifice plates commonly fitted near the boiler inlet. An attempt is made to construct a mathematical model for this erosion-corrosion which is considerably more complete than those available hitherto. A systematic synthesis is developed of the various aspects of the phenomenon, namely the mechanism of the topotactic oxidation at the interface between magnetite and metal, the kinetics of the electrode reactions at the magnetite/solution interface, the thermodynamics of magnetite solubility and the calculation of mass transfer in solution. With one choice of parameters and some simplification, the treatment reduces to the original theory of Bignold. (author)

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  4. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  5. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  6. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  7. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, J.; Porteiro, J.; Míguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Gómez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  9. Evaluation of corrosive behavior of SAE 5155 by corrosion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jae Pil; Park, Keyung Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the influence of shot peening and corrosive condition for corrosion property was investigated on immersed in 3.5% NaCl, 10% HNO 3 + 3% HF, 6% FeCl 3 . The immersion test was performed on two kinds of specimen. The immersion periods was performed 30days. Corrosion potential, weight loss were investigated from experimental results. From test results, the effect of shot peening on the corrosion was evaluated

  10. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 1. Sustained boiler efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available situations. This paper presents a process integration technique for network synthesis using conceptual and mathematical analysis without compromising boiler efficiency. It was found that the steam flow rate to the HEN could be reduced while maintaining boiler...

  11. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  12. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  13. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  14. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  15. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  16. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  17. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  18. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  19. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  20. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  1. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  2. Trend chart: wind power. Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the fourth quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  3. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  4. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  5. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine is published quarterly and the contents include articles in Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmaceutical and Basic Medical Sciences with emphasis on health problems and solutions relating to developing countries. The readership are in - Libraries, Teaching Hospitals, Universities, ...

  6. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  7. Corrosion testing facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Subramanian, Venu

    1981-01-01

    Major types of corrosion tests, establishment of specifications on corrosion testing and scope of their application in practice are briefly described. Important organizations in the world which publish specifications/standards are listed. Indian organizations which undertake corrosion testing and test facilities available at them are also listed. Finally in an appendix, a comprehensive list of specifications relevant to corrosion testing is given. It is arranged under the headings: environmental testing, humidity tests, salt spray/fog tests, immersion tests, specification corrosion phenomena, (tests) with respect to special corrosion media, (tests) with respect to specific corrosion prevention methods, and specific corrosion tests using electrical and electrochemical methods (principles). Each entry in the list furnishes information about: nature of the test, standard number, and its specific application. (M.G.B.)

  8. Corrosion inhibitors for concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Deicing salts and salt-water spray can cause serious corrosion problems for reinforced concrete bridge structures. : These problems can lead to costly and labor-intensive repair and even replacement of the structure. Surface applied : corrosion inhib...

  9. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold is rea......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure.......A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold...

  10. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural

  11. Evaluation of corrosion resistance of two engineering alloys in molten salts by electrochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Villafane, A.; Almeraya-Calderon, F.; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Chacon-Nava, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Division de Deterioro de Materiales e Integridad Estructural, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Fac. Ciencias Qu' micas e Industriales, Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62215, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of two steels typically used in power boilers has been studied in the temperature range from 540 C to 680 C. Two environments were used: a) a synthetic salt mixture of 80% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and b) oil ash collected from a high temperature reheater. Corrosion rates obtained from electrochemical potentiodynamic polarisation curves (Tafel extrapolation) were compared for both steels exposed in each environment. The results showed that increases in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, being this effect most notorious above about 620 C. In the synthetic salt, and at temperatures up to about 580 C, both steels showed similar behaviour. With further increases in temperature, the T22 steel was less resistant and, at the highest temperature used here, its corrosion rate was almost seven times higher than that measured for the 347H steel. The results obtained with the natural oil ash for the T22 steel showed a dramatic increase in corrosion rate as temperature goes up over the range used. For the 347H steel, and up to about 580 C, the corrosion rates were similar to those obtained with the synthetic salt. Above 580 C, the corrosion rate measured increased slightly with temperature, being at 680 C about 2.5 times higher than that found by using the synthetic salt. Therefore, an important difference in corrosion rates has been found depending upon the corrosive salt used. This is an important result because imply that, at least for materials used in fossil power plants, more realistic data can be obtained by using natural ashes in the experimental work. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BOILERS (80 AND 40 TPH) AND 21MW STEAM TURBINE OF COGEN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    D.P.TAWARE; P.E.CHAUDHARI; U.M.SHIRSAT

    2014-01-01

    The proposed study is conducted at The Malegaon Sugar Mills, Baramati, and District Pune. Data is collected for a high pressure 80 TPH & 40TPH bagasse fired boiler. The boilers are natural circulation and bi-drum water tube type. The both boilers are equipped with super heater, air heater and economizer in order to utilize maximum available heat of flue gases. Boiler efficiency is calculated by indirect method. Also plant has 21 MW cogeneration capacity, with two turbines are installed with c...

  14. DYMEL code for prediction of dynamic stability limits in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deam, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of Hydrodynamic Instability in boilers were undertaken to resolve the uncertainties of the existing predictive methods at the time the first Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) plant was commissioned. The experiments were conducted on a full scale electrical simulation of an AGR boiler and revealed inadequacies in existing methods. As a result a new computer code called DYMEL was developed based on linearisation and Fourier/Laplace Transformation of the one-dimensional boiler equations in both time and space. Beside giving good agreement with local experimental data, the DYMEL code has since shown agreement with stability data from the plant, sodium heated helical tubes, a gas heated helical tube and an electrically heated U-tube. The code is now used widely within the U.K. (author)

  15. Engineering and economic aspects of centalized heating from nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Baturov, B.B.; Korytnikov, V.P.; Koryakin, Yu.I.; Chernyaev, V.A.; Kovylyanskij, Ya.A.; Galaktionov, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Some engineering and economic aspects for deployment of centralized nuclear boilers (NB) in the USSR are considered. Engineering, maintenance and economic features of NB as compared to organic-fuelled boilers and nuclear thermal power plants are discussed. Among major factors governing economic efficiency of NB underlined are oraganic fuel costs, reactor unit power, location relative to heat-consuming centres and capacity factor. It is concluded that NB can be economical for heating large consumers (more than 1500 G kal/hr). At the periphery NB can be competitive already at reactor unit power of several MWth. The development of HTGR type reactor-based nuclear-chemical boilers and lines for heat transport in a chemically bound state (e.g., CH 4 → H 2 +CO 2 +CO → CH 4 ) opens the way for a substantial breakthrow in the centralized NB efficiency

  16. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; Díaz, I.; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  18. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz, Iván; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  19. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  20. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  1. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  2. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdowns...

  4. Real-time monitoring energy efficiency and performance degradation of condensing boilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldi, S.; Le, Q.T.; Holub, O.; Endel, P

    2017-01-01

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiency than traditional boilers by using waste heat in flue gases to preheat cold return water entering the boiler. Water vapor produced during combustion is condensed into liquid form, thus recovering its latent heat of vaporization, leading to around 10–12%

  5. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  6. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date of...

  7. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary...

  8. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. (a) Beginning January 1, 2000, the owner or operator of a Group 1, Phase II coal-fired utility unit with a tangentially fired boiler or a dry bottom wall...

  9. 46 CFR 167.25-5 - Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-5 Inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. The inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances...

  10. 46 CFR 109.421 - Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 109... Report of repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. Before making repairs, except normal repairs and maintenance such as replacement of valves or pressure seals, to boilers or unfired pressure vessels in...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2833 - U.S. No. 1 Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Boilers. 51.2833 Section 51.2833 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Grades § 51.2833 U.S. No. 1 Boilers. U.S. No. 1 Boilers consists of onions which meet all the...

  12. 46 CFR 50.05-5 - Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. 50... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 50.05-5 Existing boilers, pressure vessels or piping systems. (a) Whenever doubt exists as to the safety of an existing boiler, pressure vessel, or piping system, the marine...

  13. 46 CFR 97.30-1 - Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. 97.30-1 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-1 Repairs to boilers and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the chief engineer...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

  15. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers. 76.8 Section 76.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Phase II boilers. (a) General provisions. (1) The owner or operator of a Phase II coal-fired utility unit with a Group 1 boiler may elect to have the unit become subject to the applicable emissions...

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating boilers. 52.01-35 Section 52.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers. (a) To determine the appropriate part of the regulations where...

  17. 46 CFR 167.25-1 - Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Marine Engineering § 167.25-1 Boilers, pressure vessels, piping and... the following standards for boilers, pressure vessels, piping and appurtenances: (1) Marine...

  18. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  19. 40 CFR 76.5 - NOX emission limitations for Group 1 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers. 76.5 Section 76.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Group 1 boilers. (a) Beginning January 1, 1996, or for a unit subject to section 404(d) of the Act... owner or operator of a Phase I coal-fired utility unit with a tangentially fired boiler or a dry bottom...

  20. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with the...