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Sample records for boiler components operating

  1. Strength advance design of boiler components for DSS operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Tsuyoshi; Tsuta, Toshio; Yamaji, Seiichi; Miyoshi, Teiichi (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe, (Japan))

    1989-08-20

    The thermal power plants in the future are expected to operate under such medium loads as LNG, petroleum and coal burning. As a result, frequent start-ups at night (DSS operation) and week-end stops (WSS operation), etc. are conducted: sliding pressure operation system is adopted to reduce the thermal stress at the turbine and to improve the plant efficiency at partial load operation; this causes a rapid temperture change which gives rise to big thermal stress at various points of the boiler causing wide fatigue damage at the center of the stress. Simultneously, the creep damage at high temperature progresses by time. In order to attain sufficient life for the planned operation mode at the design of various boiler points, improvements have been conducted at internal bore edge of a thick cylinder, shape of the fin end piece, furnace/horizontal flue corner part and the attached metal pieces for enhancing the reliability. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Boiler operator's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Heselton, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Containing key information for operators and managers of large and small plants, this is an indispensable guide for those at advanced and early stages of their careers, as well as for managers interested in reducing operating expenses.

  3. Seeking for total efficiency on boiler operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, as for the boiler in the private power generation plant which has been in operation since July, 1974 based on the production increase project of the factory, the measures for energy conservation considered from the planning and design stage, the countermeasures to the low loading of the boiler by the epoch-making effect of the energy conservation in the production system since the oil crisis in 1973, and the cost management of the boiler are described. The outline of the private power generation plant is shown. The boiler facilities are the boiler for power generation of 81 kg/cm2, 433degC, 65 t/h, the saturation boiler of 30 kg/cm2, 211degC, 47 t/h, and the waste heat boiler of 22 kg/cm2, 211 degC, 4.2 t/h. As the measures for energy conservation, tangential corner firing-two stage combustion process was adopted, and the total heat of recovered drain has been utilized. The remodeling and the effect of improvement of the boiler and the turbine as the countermeasures to low loading are reported. The examples of other energy conservation in the waste tire incinerator, air compressor, exhaust desulfurizer and air preheater are described. (K.I.)

  4. Computer system for monitoring power boiler operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taler, J.; Weglowski, B.; Zima, W.; Duda, P.; Gradziel, S.; Sobota, T.; Cebula, A.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland). Inst. for Process & Power Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The computer-based boiler performance monitoring system was developed to perform thermal-hydraulic computations of the boiler working parameters in an on-line mode. Measurements of temperatures, heat flux, pressures, mass flowrates, and gas analysis data were used to perform the heat transfer analysis in the evaporator, furnace, and convection pass. A new construction technique of heat flux tubes for determining heat flux absorbed by membrane water-walls is also presented. The current paper presents the results of heat flux measurement in coal-fired steam boilers. During changes of the boiler load, the necessary natural water circulation cannot be exceeded. A rapid increase of pressure may cause fading of the boiling process in water-wall tubes, whereas a rapid decrease of pressure leads to water boiling in all elements of the boiler's evaporator - water-wall tubes and downcomers. Both cases can cause flow stagnation in the water circulation leading to pipe cracking. Two flowmeters were assembled on central downcomers, and an investigation of natural water circulation in an OP-210 boiler was carried out. On the basis of these measurements, the maximum rates of pressure change in the boiler evaporator were determined. The on-line computation of the conditions in the combustion chamber allows for real-time determination of the heat flowrate transferred to the power boiler evaporator. Furthermore, with a quantitative indication of surface cleanliness, selective sootblowing can be directed at specific problem areas. A boiler monitoring system is also incorporated to provide details of changes in boiler efficiency and operating conditions following sootblowing, so that the effects of a particular sootblowing sequence can be analysed and optimized at a later stage.

  5. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions. PMID:22316759

  6. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload. PMID:22316768

  7. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  8. Dynamic Boiler Performance:Modelling, simulating and optimizing boilers for dynamic operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients.New possibilities for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dyna...

  9. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency

  10. Provence 250 MWe unit: the largest CFB boiler in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delot, P.; Roulet, V.; Lucat, P.; Levy, D. [Electricite de France, La Defense (France)

    1997-12-31

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, `Circulating Fluidized Bed, is one of the most promising. The interest of this technology has been confirmed by the success of the first large French CFB boiler (E. Huchet 125 MWe), which has already logged more than 30 000 hours of satisfactory operation. Today, the first 250 MWe CFB unit in the world is in operation at Provence Power Station in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit, with a `pant leg` design, is also a very important step towards larger sizes, i.e. 400 MWe and bigger. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverised coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence/Gardanne power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler was ordered from GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. The 250 MWe Boiler is of the high pressure-reheat type firing local high-sulfur sub-bituminous coal with the possibility of cofiring high viscosity residual oil (with a high sulfur content) up to a 50%-50% energy ratio. This paper describes, besides the construction progress of the plant and technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries, the main observations made during commissioning. Also presented are some results of a 100% load test and the investigation program defined to give a thorough evaluation of this boiler with a view to the design of large CFB in the future.

  11. Operator's Manual, Boiler Room Operations and Maintenance. Supplement A, Air Pollution Training Institute Self-Instructional Course SI-466.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.

    This Operator's Manual is a supplement to a self-instructional course prepared for the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is the Boiler Room Handbook for operating and maintaining the boiler and the boiler room. As the student completes this handbook, he is putting together a manual for running his own boiler. The…

  12. Analytical model for erosion behaviour of impacted fly-ash particles on coal-fired boiler components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Das; K M Godiwalla; S P Mehrotra; K K M Sastry; P K Dey

    2006-10-01

    Fly ash particles entrained in the flue gas from boiler furnaces in coal-fired power stations can cause serious erosive wear on steel surfaces along the flow path. Such erosion can significantly reduce the operational life of the boiler components. A mathematical model embodying the mechanisms of erosion on behaviour, has been developed to predict erosion rates of coal-fired boiler components at different temperatures. Various grades of steels used in fabrication of boiler components and published data pertaining to boiler fly ash have been used for the modelling. The model incorporates high temperature tensile properties of the target metal surface at room and elevated temperatures and has been implemented in an user-interactive in-house computer code (EROSIM–1), to predict the erosion rates of various grades of steel. Predictions have been found to be in good agreement with the published data. The model is calibrated with plant and experimental data generated from a high temperature air-jet erosion-testing facility. It is hoped that the calibrated model will be useful for erosion analysis of boiler components.

  13. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  14. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  15. Testing Header Component of Electricity Power Industry Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of header component of Suralaya Unit II electricity power by replication method has been carried out. That header component is cross over pipe which interconnection between Primary and Superheater Outlet Header Secondary Superheater Outlet Header with the operation time over 14 years. The main composition of cross over pipe is 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo or frequently specified as ferritique steel. The replication testing shown that the damage classification on those cross over pipe in A class based on failure classification from Neubauer and Wedel. Simple calculation in favor of cross over pipe remaining lifetime is about 16.5 years moreover

  16. Review of conditions for reliable boiler operation; Bedingungen fuer einen zuverlaessigen Kesselbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodola, J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper discusses fundamentals of corrosion protection in boilers, different boiler water treatments used by the utility industry to achieve this objective as well as limitations boiler designs may impose on long term boiler performance. The purpose there is to determine whether chemists have the ability to guarantee reliable and problem free operation of any boiler. (orig.) [German] Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Grundlagen des Korrosionsschutzes in Kesseln, die verschiedenen von den Kraftwerken angewandten Kesselwasser-Fahrweisen und die Auswirkung der Kesselauslegung auf das langfristige Kesselverhalten. Es wird ueberlegt, ob Chemiker einen zuverlaessigen und problemfreien Betrieb eines jeden Kessels garantieren koennen. (orig.)

  17. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  18. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  19. Investigations of operation problems at a 200 MWe PF boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Peta Sandile; Toit Chris du; Naidoo Reshendren; Schmitz Walter; Jestin Louis

    2015-01-01

    To minimize oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission, maximize boiler combustion efficiency, achieve safe and reliable burner combustion, it is crucial to master global boiler and at-the-burner control of fuel and air flows. Non-uniform pulverized fuel (PF) and air flows to burners reduce flame stability and pose risk to boiler safety by risk of reverse flue gas and fuel flow into burners. This paper presents integrated techniques implemented at pilot ESKOM power plants for the determination of glob...

  20. Method and algorithm of ranking boiler plants at block electric power stations by the criterion of operation reliability and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, E. M.; Muradaliyev, A. Z.; Farzaliyev, Y. Z.

    2015-10-01

    A method and an algorithm of ranking of boiler installations based on their technical and economic indicators are proposed. One of the basic conditions for ranking is the independence of technical and economic indicators. The assessment of their interrelation was carried out with respect to the correlation rate. The analysis of calculation data has shown that the interrelation stability with respect to the value and sign persists only for those indicators that have an evident relationship between each other. One of the calculation steps is the normalization of quantitative estimates of technical and economic indicators, which makes it possible to eliminate differences in dimensions and indicator units. The analysis of the known methods of normalization has allowed one to recommend the relative deviation from the average value as a normalized value and to use the arithmetic mean of the normalized values of independent indicators of each boiler installation as an integrated index of performance reliability and profitability. The fundamental differences from the existing approach to assess the "weak components" of a boiler installation and the quality of monitoring of its operating regimes are that the given approach takes into account the reliability and profitability of the operation of all other analogous boiler installations of an electric power station; it also implements competing elements with respect to the quality of control among the operating personnel of separate boiler installations and is aimed at encouraging an increased quality of maintenance and repairs.

  1. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  2. German boiler and pressure vessel codes and standards: materials, manufacture, testing, equipment, erection and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods by which the safety objectives on the operation of steam boilers and pressure vessels in Germany can be reached are set out in Technical Rules which are compiled and established in technical committees. Typical applications are described in the Technical Rules. A chart shows how the laws, provisions and Technical Rules for the sections 'steam boiler plant' and 'pressure vessels' are interlinked. This chapter concentrates on legal aspects, materials, manufacture, testing, erection and operation of boilers and pressure vessels in Germany. (U.K.)

  3. Investigations of operation problems at a 200 MWe PF boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Sandile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To minimize oxides of nitrogen (NOx emission, maximize boiler combustion efficiency, achieve safe and reliable burner combustion, it is crucial to master global boiler and at-the-burner control of fuel and air flows. Non-uniform pulverized fuel (PF and air flows to burners reduce flame stability and pose risk to boiler safety by risk of reverse flue gas and fuel flow into burners. This paper presents integrated techniques implemented at pilot ESKOM power plants for the determination of global boiler air/flue gas distribution, wind-box air distribution and measures for making uniform the flow being delivered to burners within a wind-box system. This is achieved by Process Flow Modelling, at-the-burner static pressure measurements and CFD characterization. Global boiler mass and energy balances combined with validated site measurements are used in an integrated approach to calculate the total (stoichiometric + excess air mass flow rate required to burn the coal quality being fired, determine the actual quantity of air that flows through the burners and the furnace ingress air. CFD analysis and use of at-the-burner static, total pressure and temperature measurements are utilized in a 2-pronged approach to determine root-causes for burner fires and to evaluate secondary air distribution between burners.

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  5. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-04-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

  6. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  7. Research and design of 330 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xianbin; Shi, Zhenghai; Huang, Zhong [Thermal Power Research Institute, Xi' an (China); Jiang, Minhua [China Huaneg Group, Beijing (China); Yu, Long; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Fengjun; Zhang, Man [Harbin Boiler CO., Ltd, Harbin (China)

    2013-07-01

    Based on research and manufacture of 210MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, the key technologies of large CFB boiler have been Research, the plan design of 330MW CFB boiler have been performed, construction design of key components and scaling up characteristics were analysed, The 330MW CFB boiler designed demonstration project has been put into commercial operation, It is the largest capacity CFB boiler operated in china now, Operation of 330MW CFB boiler was stable and good performance has been proved.

  8. Use of Neural Networks for modeling and predicting boiler's operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for high boiler operating performance requires the application of improved techniques for the rational use of energy. The analysis presented is guided by an effort to find possibilities for ways energy resources can be used wisely to secure a more efficient final energy supply. However, the biggest challenges are related to the variety and stochastic nature of influencing factors. The paper presents a method for modeling, assessing, and predicting the efficiency of boilers based on measured operating performance. The method utilizes a neural network approach to analyze and predict boiler efficiency and also to discover possibilities for enhancing efficiency. The analysis is based on energy surveys of 65 randomly selected boilers located at over 50 sites in the northern province of Serbia. These surveys included a representative range of industrial, public and commercial users of steam and hot water. The sample covered approximately 25% of all boilers in the province and yielded reliable and relevant results. By creating a database combined with soft computing assistance a wide range of possibilities are created for identifying and assessing factors of influence and making a critical evaluation of practices used on the supply side as a source of identified inefficiency. -- Highlights: ► We develop the model for assessing and predicting efficiency of boilers. ► The method implies the use of Artificial Neural Network approach for analysis. ► The results obtained correspond well to collected and measured data. ► Findings confirm and present good abilities of preventive or proactive approach. ► Analysis reveals and specifies opportunities for increasing efficiency of boilers.

  9. Analysis of Boiler Operational Variables Prior to Tube Leakage Fault by Artificial Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kayiem Hussain H.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steam boilers are considered as a core of any steam power plant. Boilers are subjected to various types of trips leading to shut down of the entire plant. The tube leakage is the worse among the common boiler faults, where the shutdown period lasts for around four to five days. This paper describes the rules of the Artificial Intelligent Systems to diagnosis the boiler variables prior to tube leakage occurrence. An Intelligent system based on Artificial Neural Network was designed and coded in MATLAB environment. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from coal fired power plant in Malaysia. Ninety three boiler operational variables were identified for the present investigation based on the plant operator experience. Various neural networks topology combinations were investigated. The results showed that the NN with two hidden layers performed better than one hidden layer using Levenberg-Maquardt training algorithm. Moreover, it was noticed that hyperbolic tangent function for input and output nodes performed better than other activation function types.

  10. Effect of combustion catalyst on the operation efficiency of steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The state of the energy market of the Ukraine is analyzed. The priority of using local, low-grade solid fuel according to its flame combustion in power boilers of thermal power plants and heat and power plants in the short-term perspective is proven. Data of expert tests of boilers of TPP-210A, BKZ-160-100, BKZ-210-140, Ep-670-140, and TGM-84 models with the investigation of the effect of the addition of combustion catalyst into primary air duct on their operation efficiency are represented. Positive results are attained by burning the anthracite culm or its mixture with lean coal in all range of operating loads of boilers investigated. The possibility to eliminate the consumption of "backlighting" high-reactive fuel (natural gas or fuel oil) and to operate at steam loads below the technical minimum in the case of burning nonproject coal is given. Problems of the normalization of liquid slag run-out without closing the boiler taphole are solved.

  11. A method for optimum heating and cooling boiler components of a complex shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Piotr; Rząsa, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    A numerical method for determining a transient fluid temperature is presented. The method is formulated to minimizethe total time of heating and cooling operation based on the assumption that maximum tensile and compressivetotal stresses in a solid can not exceed the allowable value during the entire process. The method can be used for any construction element of a simple or complicated geometry. In this method, material properties of solids can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The method will be implemented for the heating operationof an outlet header. This construction element is mounted in supercritical power plants. The outlet header is installed in the 460 MW power unit and it is designed for the working pressure of p w = 26.5 MPa and the steam working temperature of T w = 554°C. The results obtained from the proposed method will be compared with the calculations according to TRD 301 - German boiler code

  12. Developments and operational experience with ceramic boiler wall protection systems in fluidised bed boilers; Entwicklungen und Betriebserfahrungen mit keramischen Rohrwandschutzsystemen in der Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Markus [Juenger + Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany); Roschek, Dirk; Ipsen, Christoph [Stadtwerke Flensburg GmbH, Flensburg (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    More alternative fuels, such as biomass, refuse derived fuels, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal etc. are being used in conventional CFB power plants originally designed for coal combustion. However, co-combustion of these materials causes problems which are not always advantageous for continuous plant operation, i.e. mostly substantially higher fouling susceptibility of the plants was noticed. In some cases even a far greater tendency to boiler damage was observed as result of corrosion, erosion, and mechanical effects. Based on these constraints, the cooperation between Stadtwerke Flensburg and Juenger+Graeter (J+G) resulted in the development of a ceramic boiler wall protection system which would significantly reduce the susceptibility to boiler damage in the combustion chamber.

  13. MEMS-Based Boiler Operation from Low Temperature Heat Transfer and Thermal Scavenging

    OpenAIRE

    Leland Weiss; Christopher Champagne; Emmanuel Ogbonnaya; Suvhashis Thapa

    2012-01-01

    Increasing world-wide energy use and growing population growth presents a critical need for enhanced energy efficiency and sustainability. One method to address this issue is via waste heat scavenging. In this approach, thermal energy that is normally expelled to the environment is transferred to a secondary device to produce useful power output. This paper investigates a novel MEMS-based boiler designed to operate as part of a small-scale energy scavenging system. For the first time, fabrica...

  14. Steam boiler technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, S.

    2002-07-01

    The steam boiler technology e-Book is provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The book covers the basics and the history of steam generation, modern boilers types and applications, steam/water circulation design, feedwater and steam systems components, heat exchangers in steam boilers, boiler calculations, thermal design of heat exchangers.

  15. Effect of a condensation utilizer on the operation of steam and hot-water gas-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Supranov, V. M.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Luning, B.

    2015-05-01

    Various designs for condensation utilizers of the low-grade heat of furnace gases that are constructed based on an open-type heat exchanger are considered. Computational investigations are carried out for the effect of the condensation utilizer with tempering and moistening of air on the operation of steam and hot-water boilers burning natural gas. The investigations are performed based on the predeveloped adequate calculating models of the steam and hot-water boilers in a Boiler Designer program complex. Investigation results for TGM-96B and PTVM-120 boilers are given. The enhancement of the operation efficiency of the condensation utilizer can be attained using a design with tempering and moistening of air supplied to combustion that results in an insignificant increase in the temperature of waste gases. This has no effect on the total operation efficiency of the boiler and the condenser unit, because additional losses with waste gases are compensated owing to the operation of the last. The tempering and moistening of air provide a substantial decrease in the temperature in the zone of active combustion and shortening the nitrogen oxide emission. The computational investigations show that the premoistening of air supplied to combustion makes the technical and economic efficiency of boilers operating with the Condensation Utilizer no worse.

  16. Design and operation of 1,000 MW coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1990, a 1,000 MW coal fired boiler, the largest capacity of its sort in Japan as well as Danes and Desex systems went into commercial operation after the commissioning trial operation at No. 1 Unit of Matsuura Thermal Power Station of the Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. The plant was constructed with an eye to stabilizing power supplies for the use of extensive areas and facilitating the diversification of energy resources, by utilizing, as its staple fuel, different kinds of imported coals with a variety of mineral characteristics. It is now satisfactorily operating with the most up-to-date technology introduced not only to enhance the system's reliability, efficiency, and operability but also to strengthen the environmental protection-- oriented capability. This paper introduces the design concept and trial operation performance of NOx control technologies in which the most advanced environmental control technologies have been integrated

  17. Operation corrosion test of austenitic steel bends for supercritical coal boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizner J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion tests of both annealed and not annealed bends of HR3C and S304H steels in operation conditions of black and brown coal combustion boilers in EPRU and EDE. After a long-term exposure, the samples were assessed gravimetrically and metallographically. The comparison of annealed and unannealed states showed higher corrosion rates in the annealed state; corrosion of the sample surface did not essentially differ for compression and tensile parts of the beams. Detailed assessment of both steels is described in detail in this study.

  18. Analysis of Boiler Operational Variables Prior to Tube Leakage Fault by Artificial Intelligent System

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Al-Naimi Firas B. I.; Amat Wan N. Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    Steam boilers are considered as a core of any steam power plant. Boilers are subjected to various types of trips leading to shut down of the entire plant. The tube leakage is the worse among the common boiler faults, where the shutdown period lasts for around four to five days. This paper describes the rules of the Artificial Intelligent Systems to diagnosis the boiler variables prior to tube leakage occurrence. An Intelligent system based on Artificial Neural Network was designed and coded i...

  19. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  20. The creep life of superheater and reheater tubes under varying pressure conditions in operational boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first of each manufacturer's 500 MW boilers supplied to the CEGB (Central Electricity Generating Board) have been subjected to an extensive programme of tests for performance optimization and safe operation. Around 250 thermocouples on superheater and reheater tubes have in each case been monitored as part of the exercise. The readings are corrected and used to compute creep rupture damage based on internationally agreed stress rupture data and a simple cumulative damage concept. Comparison of the design creep rupture life and the cumulative life consumed has in several applications been invaluable in influencing operating procedures and arranging tube modifications or replacements, so that loss of generation by creep rupture failure is minimized. (author)

  1. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  2. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  3. Optimizing the integrated design of boilers - simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Condra, Thomas Joseph;

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc.) it is...... important to see the 3 components as an integrated unit and optimize these as such. This means that the burner must be designed and optimized exactly to the pressure part where it is utilized, the control system must have a conguration optimal for the pressure part and burner where it is utilized etc....... Traditionally boiler control systems have been designed in a rather simple manner consisting of a feed water controller and a pressure controller; two controllers which, in principle, operated without any interaction - for more details on boiler control see [4]. During the last year Aalborg Industries A/S has...

  4. Performance of a domestic pellet boiler as a function of operational loads: Part-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V.K.; De Ruyck, J. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Bram, S. [Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Nijverheidskaai 170, 1070 Brussel (Belgium); Gauthier, G. [Unite de Thermodynamique et Turbomachines (TERM), Universite Catholique de Louvain (U.C.L.), 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Emissions and efficiency of a pellet boiler (40 kW) at nominal load were compared with emissions and efficiency at reduced load, while fired with six biomass pellets. The pellets include reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), pectin waste from citrus shells (Citrus reticulata), sunflower husk (Helianthus annuus), peat, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and wood pellets. The measurements of emissions comprised of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}) and flue dust mass concentrations (using DINplus and isokinetic sampling techniques). Emissions varied as a function of operational loads, for each type of pellets. The CO emissions were insignificant with reed canary grass (RCG), citrus pectin waste (CPW) and straw pellets at nominal load, however, at reduced load same pellets emitted 1.9, 4.0 and 7.4 times higher CO than wood pellets, respectively. Peat pellets emitted maximum CO at nominal load (4221.1 mgNm{sup -3}, 12.6 times higher than wood pellets) however; at reduced load CO emission was insignificant. The highest NO{sub x} emissions were reported with CPW, which were 3.4 and 4.6 times higher than wood pellets at nominal load and reduced load, respectively. Dust emissions were highest with sunflower husk and lowest with RCG pellets, at both operational modes. The best performance was reported with wood pellets, followed by RCG and pectin pellets, however, wood pellets combustion emitted 1.7 and 2.0 times higher dust{sub DINplus} than RCG at nominal and reduced loads, respectively. Not only fuel specific combustion optimization but also operational load specific optimization is essential for efficient use of agro-pellets in this type of boilers. (author)

  5. THREE-STAGE COMBUSTION (REBURNING) ON A FULL SCALE OPERATING BOILER IN THE U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a program to complete preliminary design of a three- stage combustion (reburn) system for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions control on an operating boiler in the U. S.S. R. he program to design the reburn system consisted of five tasks: visiting the Ladyz...

  6. Connection Between Internal Structural Stresses of the Ist and the IInd kind and Operational Reliability of the Boiler Heating Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Lyudmila; Tabakaev, Roman; Tashlykov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander; Zyubanov, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents new approaches to solving problems of forecasting the life of heating surface of boilers, based on an analysis of internal structural stresses of the first and second kind that could affect the intragranular and intergranular strength and reliability of the pipeline in continuous operation by making it work without damage by preventing the disclosure of zone cracks.

  7. Connection Between Internal Structural Stresses of the Ist and the IInd kind and Operational Reliability of the Boiler Heating Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubimova Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new approaches to solving problems of forecasting the life of heating surface of boilers, based on an analysis of internal structural stresses of the first and second kind that could affect the intragranular and intergranular strength and reliability of the pipeline in continuous operation by making it work without damage by preventing the disclosure of zone cracks.

  8. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits

  9. Review of biomass fired space heating/domestic hot water boilers' application, operation and design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring exercises have been carried out for ETSU, by a number of contractors, on a number of wood fired heating schemes; feasibility studies on proposed schemes have also been carried out. Monitoring reports and feasibility studies have been reviewed to try and establish the suitability and economic viability of the various types of plant used (or proposed) and their application. Of the sixteen schemes reviewed just over 30% showed a reasonable return on the incremental capital cost of plant compared to gas oil fired plant. These schemes had one or more of the following attributes: - Low wood fuel cost -Long operating hours -Relatively low incremental capital cost of wood plant over gas oil plant. Small systems with low operating hours (e.g. short weekday occupancy premises, like schools) and relatively high incremental operating and maintenance costs and capital costs exhibited no advantage over equivalent fossil fuel fired plant. The unit fuel cost advantage to wood, in these cases, was insufficient to outweigh the increased O and M and capital costs, because of the comparatively low annual fuel consumption. Most of the plants reviewed had low thermal efficiencies due to the simplicity of the fuel to air control systems and the wide range of heating demand over which they had to operate. The former can be increased by improved combustion control systems and the latter by correct sizing of boilers and/or the installation of hybrid systems. (Author)

  10. Questions and answers for boiler operation technique; 5. enl. and rev. ed.; Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik. Ein Lehrbuch fuer Teilnehmer an Ausbildungslehrgaengen fuer Kesselwaerter und fuer Studierende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, F. [ed.; Gritsch, T.; Hoehenberger, L.; Kisskalt, H.; Linke, W.; Stumpf, H.

    1998-10-01

    The question and answer method continues to be the best of learning. The person in the firm who has to deal with boilers must have reliable knowledge available, for safety reasons. Therefore TUeV employees developed the book `Questions and answers for boiler operation technique`. It is a sensible supplement to the `Handbook of boiler operation technique`. One suspects that the authors hold boiler maintenance courses and know everyday operation as experts. The 832 questions and answers developed by them are taken from practice. They quickly lead the reader to central areas of knowledge. The book is divided into twelve chapters, which deal with the following subjects: Units and basic physical terms, heat technology, types of boilers and boiler plant for the low, medium and high temperature range, safety and additional equipment for boiler operation, firing, feedwater and boiler water, environmental protection, maintenance of boiler plant, faults on boiler plant, boiler operation, damage, repairs, legal and other regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach wie vor gilt das Frage- und Antwortspiel als die beste Lernmethode. Der Mann im Betrieb, der mit Kesseln umzugehen hat, muss schon aus Sicherheitsgruenden ueber ein verlaesslich abrufbereites Wissen verfuegen. Deshalb entwickelten Mitarbeiter des TUeV das Buch `Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Es ist die sinnvolle Ergaenzung zu dem `Handbuch der Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Man spuert, dass die Autoren selbst Kesselwaerterlehrgaenge halten und als Sachverstaendige den Betriebsalltag kennen. Die von ihnen entwickelten 832 Fragen und Antworten sind aus der Praxis entnommen. Sie fuehren den Leser schnell auf die zentralen Wissensbereiche. Das Buch gliedert sich in zwoelf Kapitel, die folgende Themen behandeln: Masseinheiten und physikalische Grundbegriffe; Waermetechnik; Kesselbauarten und Kesselanlagen fuer den Nieder-, Mittel- und Hochtemperaturbereich; sicherheitstechnische und zusaetzliche Ausruestung fuer den

  11. Questions and answers for boiler operation technique; 4. rev. and enl. ed.; Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik. Ein Lehrbuch fuer Teilnehmer an Ausbildungslehrgaengen fuer Kesselwaerter und fuer Studierende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, F. [ed.; Gritsch, T.; Hoehenberger, L.; Kisskalt, H.; Linke, W.

    1995-12-31

    The question and answer method continues to be the best of learning. The person in the firm who has to deal with boilers must have reliable knowledge available, for safety reasons. Therefore TUeV employees developed the book `Questions and answers for boiler operation technique`. It is a sensible supplement to the `Handbook of boiler operation technique`. One suspects that the authors hold boiler maintenance courses and know everyday operation as experts. The 829 questions and answers developed by them are taken from practice. They quickly lead the reader to central areas of knowledge. The book is divided into twelve chapters, which deal with the following subjects: Units and basic physical terms, heat technology, types of boilers and boiler plant for the low, medium and high temperature range, safety and additional equipment for boiler operation, firing, feedwater and boiler water, environmental protection, maintenance of boiler plant, faults on boiler plant, boiler operation, damage, repairs, legal and other regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach wie vor gilt das Frage- und Antwortspiel als die beste Lernmethode. Der Mann im Betrieb, der mit Kesseln umzugehen hat, muss schon aus Sicherheitsgruenden ueber ein verlaesslich abrufbereites Wissen verfuegen. Deshalb entwickelten Mitarbeiter des TUeV das Buch `Fragen und Antworten zur Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Es ist die sinnvolle Ergaenzung zu dem `Handbuch der Kesselbetriebstechnik`. Man spuert, dass die Autoren selbst Kesselwaerterlehrgaenge halten und als Sachverstaendige den Betriebsalltag kennen. Die von ihnen entwickelten 829 Fragen und Antworten sind aus der Praxis entnommen. Sie fuehren den Leser schnell auf die zentralen Wissensbereiche. Das Buch gliedert sich in zwoelf Kapitel, die folgende Themen behandeln: Masseinheiten und physikalische Grundbegriffe; Waermetechnik; Kesselbauarten und Kesselanlagen fuer den Nieder-, Mittel- und Hochtemperaturbereich; sicherheitstechnische und zusaetzliche Ausruestung fuer den

  12. Assessment of residual life and prediction of further safe operation of selected elements of high-pressure boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Zebik, F.; Milinski, P.

    1986-01-01

    Service life of boilers in coal-fired power plants in Poland is increasing; in many cases, service life of various equipment types exceeds the designed service life. Problems associated with testing equipment with a service life exceeding 100,000 h (12 years) are discussed. The following methods for predicting the safe service life of pressure vessels operating under high-temperature conditions are discussed: a nondestructive calculation method, a method based on creep tests of materials (creep rate and time to failure under conditions close to operating conditions), a method based on fatigue test results (time to equipment failure under conditions of high temperature and constant strain amplitude). Recommendations for prediction of further safe service life of steam boilers and steam pipes are made. 15 refs.

  13. The early operation of the helical once-through boilers at Heysham 1 and Hartlepool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heysham 1 and Hartlepool AGR Reactors are equipped with 'pod' boilers set into the walls of the Pre-stressed Concrete Pressure Vessel. Each Reactor unit has eight pod boilers, which are of a somewhat unique single pressure, once through, helically wound type incorporating a reheater. The pods are provided with a limited amount of strain gauge and thermocouple instrumentation concentrated mainly in two specially instrumented boilers at each site. During Commissioning prior to power raising, extensive noise and vibration tests utilising the special attain gauge instrumented boilers, gave encouraging results. This has led to an increase in coolant gas mass flow of 5% above the design level. Following power raising in 1983 and 1984, detailed boiler performance testing, mainly using the special thermocouple instrumented boilers, showed that the actual behaviour differed from the computer design predictions. A major temperature tilt existed across the boiler tubes resulting in higher than predicted temperatures in the outer radius rows of tubes and the reverse situation in the inner tubes. The effect differed in magnitude between Hartlepool Reactor 1 and the other three Reactors probably due to construction differences. As a result output was initially limited to approximately 58% of design (380 MW (Generated)). A major programme of altering the flow control ferrules was carried out during the first statutory overhauls in 1985 and 1986. The initial results from Heysham 1 were not very encouraging (a gain of 70 MW(e)) but further computer model correlations led to revised patterns in Heysham and Hartlepool Reactor 2 which have since yielded improvements in output potential of up to 200 MW(e). The paper discusses the commissioning test results described above and describes the details of the extensive work carried out to achieve higher output. (author)

  14. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure boiler means a packaged boiler that is: (1) A steam boiler designed to operate at a steam pressure... steam boiler designed to operate at or below a steam pressure of 15 psig; or (2) A hot water boiler... efficiency for a commercial packaged boiler is determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.86...

  15. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  16. An inferential control scheme for optimizing the operation of boilers in multi-zone heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Z. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Dexter, A.L. [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    The impacts of boiler control on the overall performance of multi-zone heating systems have been studied using a simulation platform. Conventional boiler controllers have been investigated to determine the potential for optimization and to identify the key variables that should be taken into account. An inferential control scheme is accordingly proposed for use in multi-zone buildings where there is no measurement of the internal air temperature. The scheme estimates the overall average room temperature from available information, including boiler firing signals, external temperature and solar radiation. The output of the estimator is fed back to a PI controller that determines the hot water supply temperature setpoint. The estimator has been validated using experimental data obtained from different sources. It has been shown in simulation that this control scheme can significantly reduce the energy consumption of heating systems and improve the overall control performance in terms of the thermal comfort. (Author)

  17. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating...... the boiler performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with...

  18. Investigation of exhaust gas temperature distribution within a furnace of a stoker fired boiler as a function of its operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Piotr; Badyda, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Jacek; Młynarz, Szczepan

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of the exhaust gas temperature within the furnace of a grate boiler greatly depends on its operating parameters such as output. It has a considerably different character than temperature distributions in other types of boilers (with pulverised or fluidised bed), as it varies considerably across the chamber. Results presented in this paper have been obtained through research of a grate-fired hot water boiler with a nominal rating of some 30 MW. Measurements have been taken by introducing temperature sensors into prearranged openings placed in the boiler side walls. Investigation has been carried out for different output levels. Tests involved thermocouples in ceramic coating and aspirated thermocouples. The latter were used to eliminate influence of radiative heat transfer on measured results. Values obtained with both methods have been cross-checked.

  19. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  20. Temperature prediction method for superheater and reheater and reheater tubes of fossil power plant boiler during operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Shin; Song, Gee Wook; Yoo, Seong Yeon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The superheater and reheater tubes of a heavy load fossil power plant boiler can be damaged by overheating, and therefore, the degree of overheating is assessed by measuring the oxide scale thickness inside the tube during outages. The tube temperature prediction from the oxide scale thickness measurement is necessarily accompanied by destructive tube sampling, and the result of tube temperature prediction cannot be expected to be accurate unless the selection of the overheated point is precise and the initial operation tube temperature has been obtained. In contrast, if the tube temperature is to be predicted analytically, considerable effort (to carry out the analysis of combustion, radiation, convection heat transfer, and turbulence fluid dynamics of the gas outside the tube) is required. In addition, in the case of analytical tube temperature prediction, load changes, variations in the fuel composition, and operation mode changes are hardly considered, thus impeding the continuous monitoring of the tube temperature. This paper proposes a method for the short term prediction of tube temperature; the method involves the use of boiler operation information and flow network analysis based tube heat flux. This method can help in high temperature damage monitoring when it is integrated with a practical tube damage assessment method such as the Larson Miller Parameter.

  1. Formal Description of Components in Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Asen Petkov

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary development of hardware components is a prerequisite for increasing the concentration of computing power. System software is developing at a much slower pace. To use available resources efficiently modeling is required. Formalization of elements, present in the material, provides the basis for modeling. Examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the concept.

  2. Vibration detection of component health and operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to prevent catastrophic failure and eliminate unnecessary periodic maintenance in the shuttle orbiter program environmental control system components, some means of detecting incipient failure in these components is required. The utilization was investigated of vibrational/acoustic phenomena as one of the principal physical parameters on which to base the design of this instrumentation. Baseline vibration/acoustic data was collected from three aircraft type fans and two aircraft type pumps over a frequency range from a few hertz to greater than 3000 kHz. The baseline data included spectrum analysis of the baseband vibration signal, spectrum analysis of the detected high frequency bandpass acoustic signal, and amplitude distribution of the high frequency bandpass acoustic signal. A total of eight bearing defects and two unbalancings was introduced into the five test items. All defects were detected by at least one of a set of vibration/acoustic parameters with a margin of at least 2:1 over the worst case baseline. The design of a portable instrument using this set of vibration/acoustic parameters for detecting incipient failures in environmental control system components is described.

  3. Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA was performed on innovative small scale pellet boilers. • Pellet boilers impacts were compared to oil and natural gas boilers impacts. • Both literature and experimental data were used for life cycle analysis. • The environmental impact due to all life cycle phases was envisaged. • Sensitivity tests evidenced realistic ways for pellet boilers impact reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of two innovative 10 kW pellet boilers. In particular, the second boiler represents a technological evolution of the first one developed to improve its performance in terms of efficiency and environmental impact. For both boilers, emission factors measured during laboratory tests (full load tests and specific load cycle tests representative of real life boiler operation) have been used as input data in the life cycle analysis. The SimaPro software (v.8.0.4.30) was used for the LCA and the ReCiPe Midpoint method (European version H) was chosen to assess the environmental impact of all boilers (according to LCA ISO standards). In addition, the ReCiPe Endpoint method was used to compare the final results of all 5 boilers with literature data. The pelletisation process represented the most relevant share of the overall environmental impact followed by the operational phase, the manufacturing phase and the disposal phase. A sensitivity analysis performed on the most efficient pellet boiler evidenced the variation of the boiler’s environmental impact as a function of PM10 and NOX emission factors with respect to emission factors monitored during boiler full load operation. Moreover, the reduction of the boiler’s weight and the adoption of new electronic components led to a consistent reduction (−18%) of its environmental impact with respect to the previous technology. A second LCA has been carried on for a 15 kW oil boiler, a 15 kW natural gas boiler and a 15 kW pellet boiler

  4. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the

  5. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers Um modelo de otimização para as operações de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Damião Rocco; Reinaldo Morabito

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control), boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations), and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the go...

  6. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  7. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  8. Experience gained from shifting a PK-19 boiler to operate with increased superheating and with a load higher than its rated value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholshchev, V. V.

    2011-08-01

    Failures of steam superheater tubes occurred after the boiler was shifted to operate with a steam temperature of 540°C. The operation of the steam superheater became more reliable after it had been subjected to retrofitting. The modernization scheme is described. An estimate is given to the temperature operating conditions of tubes taking into account the thermal-hydraulic nonuniformity of their heating.

  9. Optimal utilization of exhaust gas. Planning, construction and operation of a waste heat recovery boiler for the combined-cycle power plant Plattling; Abgaswaerme optimal nutzen. Planung, Bau und Betrieb eines Abhitzekessels fuer das GuD-Kraftwerk Plattling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Gerd [Standardkessel, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive economic sectors. The requirements of an efficient energy supply are correspondingly stringent. In the year 1980, the Myllykovski Group (Ettringen, Federal Republic of Germany) and E.ON Energy Projects (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) concluded contracts to provide process steam and electricity to the paper industry in Plattling (Federal Republic of Germany). For this purpose, the specifically set up E.ON subsidiary company Kraftwerk Plattling GmbH operates a newly established gas and steam turbine plant. The waste heat recovery boiler as a main component was supplied by Standardkessel GmbH (Duisburg, Federal Republic of Germany).

  10. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  11. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  12. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as......This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...

  13. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verification as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and fire tube boilers. A detailed dynamic...... model of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic-Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any fluctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as...

  14. Modelling, simulating and optimizing Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling, simulating and optimizing including experimental verication as being carried out as part of a Ph.D. project being written resp. supervised by the authors. The work covers dynamic performance of both water-tube boilers and re tube boilers. A detailed dynamic model...... of the boiler has been developed and simulations carried out by means of the Matlab integration routines. The model is prepared as a dynamic model consisting of both ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations, together formulated as a Differential-Algebraic- Equation system. Being able...... to operate a boiler plant dynamically means that the boiler designs must be able to absorb any uctuations in water level and temperature gradients resulting from the pressure change in the boiler. On the one hand a large water-/steam space may be required, i.e. to build the boiler as big as possible...

  15. Study on Commissionina Operation of Biomass Power Plant Boiler%生物质电厂锅炉运行调试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华; 孙陆军; 陶哲; 宋武耀; 庞开宇

    2009-01-01

    生物质能是主要的可再生能源.分析了生物质发电现状,针对某生物质电厂秸秆锅炉,进行了运行调试研究.分析了锅炉点火条件、锅炉负荷控制方法、锅炉负压控制方法、蒸汽压力控制方法和锅炉停炉方法;讨论了设计参数和实际运行情况的差异.为生物质锅炉设计,改造和运行提供了参考.%Biomass energy is one of the main renewable resources. This paper analyzed the actuality of biomass generate electricity. The study of commissioning operation of straw boiler was completed. It analyzed the ignition condition of boiler, the method of load con-trol, the method of furnace pressure control, the method of steam pressure control and the method of boiler shut-down, discussed the difference between design parameters and opera-tion conditions. It provided the reference to design, rebuild and operation of biomass boiler.

  16. Biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahodil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  17. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  18. The Article Deals with the Improvement of Professional Activity Efficiency of Operational Personnel for Boiler-Turbine Department of Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Human factor is one of the main determining factors in providing stability and reliability of power systems operation. In this context it is significant to estimate the level of professional activity efficiency of operational staff for boiler-turbine department of power stations.The article presents developed by the author algorithm of carrying out such research as well as the results of experimental research, carried out in one of the power stations of the state industrial unity “Belenergo” ...

  19. Estimation of Scale Deposition in the Water Walls of an Operating Indian Coal Fired Boiler: Predictive Modeling Approach Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Application of computational intelligence for predicting industrial processes has been in extensive use in various industrial sectors including power sector industry. An ANN model using multi-layer perceptron philosophy has been proposed in this paper to predict the deposition behaviors of oxide scale on waterwall tubes of a coal fired boiler. The input parameters comprises of boiler water chemistry and associated operating parameters, such as, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity, iron and dissolved oxygen concentration of the feed water and local heat flux on boiler tube. An efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm has been employed to minimize neural predictions errors. Effects of heat flux, iron content, pH and the concentrations of total dissolved solids in feed water and other operating variables on the scale deposition behavior have been studied. It has been observed that heat flux, iron content and pH of the feed water have a relatively prime influence on the rate of oxide scale deposition in water walls of an Indian boiler. Reasonably good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of oxide scale deposition rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.

  20. Hot Corrosion Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Coating on T-91 Boiler Tube Steel at Different Operating Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the usefulness of high velocity oxy fuel-sprayed 75% Cr3C2-25% (Ni-20Cr) coating to control hot corrosion of T-91 boiler tube steel at different operating temperatures viz 550, 700, and 850 °C. The deposited coatings on the substrates exhibit nearly uniform, adherent and dense microstructure with porosity less than 2%. Thermogravimetry technique is used to study the high temperature hot corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion products of the coating on the substrate are analyzed by using XRD, SEM, and FE-SEM/EDAX to reveal their microstructural and compositional features for the corrosion mechanisms. It is found that the coated specimens have shown minimum weight gain at all the operating temperatures when compared with uncoated T-91 samples. Hence, coating is effective in decreasing the corrosion rate in the given molten salt environment. Oxides and spinels of nickel-chromium may be the reason for successful resistance against hot corrosion.

  1. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  2. Optimization of Load Assignment to Boilers in Industrial Boiler Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jia-cong; QIU Guang; CAO Shuang-hua; LIU Feng-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Along with the increasing importance of sustainable energy, the optimization of load assignment to boilers in an industrial boiler plant becomes one of the major projects for the optimal operation of boiler plants. Optimal load assignment for power systems has been a long-lasting subject, while it is quite new for industrial boiler plants. The existing methods of optimal load assignment for boiler plants are explained and analyzed briefly in the paper. They all need the fuel cost curves of boilers. Thanks to some special features of the curves for industrial boilers, a new model referred to as minimized departure model (MDM) of optimization of load assignment for boiler plants is developed and proposed in the paper. It merely relies upon the accessible data of two typical working conditions to build the model, viz. the working conditions with the highest efficiency of a boiler and with no-load. Explanation of the algorithm of computer program is given, and effort is made so as to determine in advance how many and which boilers are going to work. Comparison between the results using MDM and the results reported in references is carried out, which proves that MDM is preferable and practicable.

  3. Long-term operational experiences in the preparation of river Elbe water to boiler feedwater with membrane processes; Langzeitbetriebserfahrungen bei der Aufbereitung von Elbewasser zu Kesselspeisewasser mit Membranverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Juergen [OSMO Membrane Systems GmbH, Korntal-Muenchingen (Germany); Batram, Juergen; Portner, Ronny [Aurubis AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    In Hamburg/Germany, the Aurubis AG (formerly Norddeutsche Affinerie) operates an industrial power plant to generate electricity and steam. For the past ten years, the annual demand of boiler feedwater (350,000 m{sup 3}) has been obtained with an economical water treatment plant based on membrane processes directly from the river Elbe. The water treatment plant called NAqua built uses roughly pre-filtered river water. The produced water quality corresponds to the requirements of the current VGB-Standard 450 'Feedwater, Boiler Water and Steam Quality for Power Plants/Industrial Plants'. Since August 2002, the water treatment plant has been successfully in operation, and based on the described technique it belongs to the least recently operating plants in Germany. (orig.)

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  5. Experimental and computational investigation of a MEMS-based boiler for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A microboiler with capillary channels for low temperature energy harvesting. • Complete thermodynamic analysis is completed. • The boiler is designed for minimum thermal losses. • Capability of capillary channels to pump at various pressure is investigated. - Abstract: Thermodynamically limited processes make waste heat abundant in availability. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) steam powered micro system designed to scavenge waste heat from various sources (transportation, industries or solar) is presented. The key boiler component is fabricated and characterized in this work. The system design has been inspired by the various efforts implemented in development of micro heat recovery devices and engines. The complete system consists of three individual micro components (1) boiler, (2) free piston expander and (3) superheater. Specifically, design, fabrication techniques, test setup and results of the miniaturized boiler are presented in this paper. A key design feature of the boiler is the inclusion of capillary channels for fluid flow from the surrounding reservoirs to the heated area. The pressurized steam is created by the boiler as a result of phase transformation of the working fluid. This pressurized steam can be utilized to drive another MEMS device (PZT membranes, turbines, thermoelectric, etc.) to generate power. In this upgraded boiler design, radial capillary channels and a thin film glass steamdome were considered to improve the operating efficiency. These inclusions enhanced capillary flow, energy absorption via phase change, mass flow rate and operating pressure. The power inputs of 1.8 W and 2.7 W were selected to simulate and characterize the boiler performance based on real-world waste heat source temperatures. For these power inputs, the maximum power absorption efficiency demonstrated by the boiler via phase change of the working fluid was approximately 88%. The peak operating pressure demonstrated by the boiler was 8.5 k

  6. Steam boiler technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, S.

    2003-07-01

    This book is the published version of the e-book with the same name. The interactive lecture slides, which accompany most chapters, exist only in the online version and on the attached CD-Rom. The Steam Boiler Technology e-book is the main course book for the course on steam boiler technology provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The steam boiler technology e-Book is provided by the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. The book covers the basics and the history of steam generation, modern boilers types and applications, steam/water circulation design, feedwater and steam systems components, heat exchangers in steam boilers, boiler calculations, thermal design of heat exchangers. The chapters of the second edition have been corrected based on reader and reviewer comments, and four new chapters have been added. The user interface of the electronic version has also been updated. The password for the online book will be changed once a year. If you have problems accessing the online book, or need a new password, please contact sebastian.teir@hut.fi.

  7. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...

  8. A Probe on the Stable Operation of Converter Waste Heat Boiler%转炉余热锅炉稳定运行的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贱生; 刘洪

    2015-01-01

    Based on analysis of the factors affecting the stable operation of converter waste heat boiler, specific improvement measures in the aspects of water make up, boiler wa-ter and system management were put forward, which have achieved good effect in practical operation.%对转炉余热锅炉在运行过程中的影响运行效果因素进行了分析,由此在补水、锅水以及系统管理方面,提出了有针对性的改善措施,在实际运行中取得了较好的效果。

  9. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently

  10. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor (Phase I) decommissioning: Resolving ground water interference during outdoor component removal and soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive ground water was encountered in excavations as structures, pipe, and soil contaminated with Cs-137 were removed during the outdoor phase (Phase I) of the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor decommissioning. To avoid releasing contamination to a nearby surface stream, contaminated soil and water pumped or scooped into secondary pits above the level of ground water interference. These pits served as holding tanks/natural filters because high soil pH in the area enhanced attachment of Cs-137 to soil particles. Water seeped out of the secondary pits, leaving contaminated soil behind to easily scraped from the surfaces of the pit. Stabilization and revegetation of the area, complemented by a long-term environmental surveillance program, has resulted in successful closure, although total removal of all contamination was not possible. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Thermal Analysis of Superheater Platen Tubesin Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Falahatkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheaters are among the most important components of boilers and have major importance due to this operation in high temperatures and pressures. Turbines are sensitive to the fluctuation of superheaterstemperature;therefore even the slightest fluctuation in the outlet vapor temperature from the superheaters does damage the turbine axis and fins. Examining the potential damages of combustion in the boilers and components such as the superheaters can have a vital contribution to the progression of the productivity of boiler, turbine and the power plant altogether it solutions are to be fund to improve such systems. In this study, the focus is on the nearest tube set of superheaters to the combustion chamber.These types of tubes are exposed to a wide range ofcombustion flames such that the most heat transfer to them is radiation type.Here, the 320 MW boiler of Isfahan power plant (Iran, the combustion chamber, 16 burners and the platensuperheater tubes were remodeled by CFD technique. The fluid motion, the heat transfer and combustion processes are analyzed. The two-equation turbulence model of k-εis adopted to measure the eddy viscosity. The eddy dissipation model is used to calculate the combustion as well as the P-1 radiation model to quantify the radiation. The overheated zones of superheater tubes and the combustion chamber are identified in order toimprove this problem by applying the radiation thermal shields and knees with porous crust which are introduced as the new techniques.

  12. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandy, David W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  13. Remotely operated manipulators for work on primary systems components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are designed for an operating life of forty years. The positive operating record in the Federal Republic for more than the past twenty years, and also the high capital investiment, are obvious reasons for advocating an extension of plant operating life. Major aspects to be taken into account in extending plant life are increased plant safety, improvements in components and systems, preventive maintenance and repair, preservation and extension of plant availability, and plant status surveillance. Sophisticated repair measures nowadays can be carried out with high precision even in the immediate vicinity of a reactor and in inaccessible regions of pipe systems. The more and more advanced levels of automation of remotely operated service tools allow the radiation exposures of repair personnel to be reduced by considerable margins. (orig./GL)

  14. Fatigue aspects of an evaluation of the operational safety of components working in creep conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Okrajni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose is the method of the description of the thermo-mechanical fatigue process of power plant components working under mechanical and thermal loading. The work focuses on the chosen component strain-stress characteristics and their strength. The paper discusses the issue of modelling the heating and cooling processes of components in a power plants in the start-up and shut-down conditions of a boiler.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to describe the local stress-strain behaviour of the chosen component.Findings: The calculations of stress distribution on the chosen component surface show that the internal pressure induces considerably smaller values of stresses and strains in comparison with the same stresses specified for thermal loads. However, it should be noted that the impact of temperature gradients and thermal stresses is usually short-lived, therefore, its influence on creep processes is less significant in comparison to pressure load. Material fatigue is mainly the effect of thermal stresses. Thus, thermal impacts are responsible for cracks initiation and growth in areas of the greatest intensity of damage accumulation.Research limitations/implications: The presented analysis is the part of the complex investigation method which main purpose is increasing the accuracy of the TMF process description and thermo-mechanical life assessment. The possibility of applying the fatigue durability criteria currently assumed in standards still requires justification and confirmation in laboratory and industrial conditions to be closer to the real components behaviour. In such situation the industrial investigations curried out in the work give the model approach and data for the comparison the real behaviour with the predictions.Practical implications: The method of stress-strain behaviour analysis used in the paper could be useful in the practical cases when the real components mechanical behaviour

  15. Remaining Life Analysis of Boiler Tubes on Behalf of Hoop Stresses Produced During Operation of Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zeeshan Gauri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Boiler tube material plays an important role in efficient power generation from a fossil fuel power plant. In order to meet out the gap between fluids to increase heat available per unit mass flow of steam. Waste heat utilization phenomenon is a big challenge on fossil fuel power plants as after use of high grade coal in thermal power plants the efficiency of power plants is not at the level of required value. Clean and efficient power generation with economical aspects is the basic need of growing power generation plants to justify the quality of power and clean power generation. Life analysis technique to calculate remaining life of boiler tubes at critical zones of high temperature requires much attention and is an important hypothesis in research field. Generation of repetitive and fluctuating stress during flow of high temperature and pressure fluid require proper attention on the methodology to be used to calculate the efficiency of system and absorption efficiency of tube material. In this paper complete mathematical analysis of boiler tubes is conducted for calculation of remaining life of boiler tubes, Hoop stress values are calculated and used with mathematical tool to calculate the efficiency. Hoop stress based calculation of efficiency is more reliable and may give more accurate and practical aspects based results.

  16. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Small boiler uses waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  18. Boiler Operator Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanton S.

    1978-01-01

    This program, developed by the Nalco Chemical Company, helps with energy conservation in industrial plants. The program takes four to six weeks to complete. The training sessions last for about two hours. (BB)

  19. Component and operation experience of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor TRIGA MARK II is Jozef Stefan Institute's research reactor. It has been operating since 1966. A probabilistic approach of reactor safety estimation was used first in 1989 when a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the reactor was performed. A lack of reactor component data was found as the major problem in probabilistic assessment. It was decided to continue the work with specific data base development. The project has been divided in two phases. In the first phase specific data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. In the second phase the collected data were treated. The comparison of generic and specific data showed significant difference between the generic and specific data and leads to a conclusion that a generic data based PSA has a limited credibility indicating that there is a need to build a specific data base for research reactors. The TRIGA MARK II research reactor has three major purposes: operator training, research involving neutrons and isotope production. The paper represents specific data base formation for TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Podgorica. Specific data on reactor scrams, components operation and human errors were collected. The data of fifteen components were estimated by classical and Bayesian method. The results of both methods are very different. Because of good specific data the results of classical methods were preferred. The comparison of specific and generic data showed that there is a great need to build a specific data base for research reactors. It is expected to use the specific data for existing PSA of TRIGA MARK II reactor reevaluation and optimisation of its operation. (authors)

  20. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  1. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  2. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...... bricks in the boiler concept to each other and hereby obtain signicant reductions in the boiler concepts weight and foot-print . The actual development project has focused on an heavy fuel oil-red boiler for the marine market with a capacity in the range 1-10 t/h saturated steam. The development project...

  3. Numerical study on the impact of varying operation conditions on NOx emissions of large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue-yun [Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Trade Technology, Nanjing (China); Gao, Xiao-tao [Jiangsu Electric Power Test and Research CO., LTD, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Ming-yao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    For complying with the increasingly strengthened regulation on NOx emission from coal fired power plant, newly built large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boilers are all installed with low-NOx combustion systems to low NOx emissions. Understanding the characteristics of the system is essential for fully utilizing the system without affecting the combustion performance. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to simulate the combustion and NOx formation processes in the furnace of 1,000 MW ultra- supercritical boiler equipped with an advanced low-NOx combustion system so as to study the impacts of varying the operation conditions on its NOx emission as well as combustion characteristics. The combustion system is the Mitsubishi Advanced Combustion Technology system consisting of six levels corner-fired pollution minimum (PM) coal burners and additional air to achieve air staging combustion. With the help of CFD simulation, the distributions of the combustion temperature and CO, O{sub 2} and NO concentrations were calculated and analyzed. The main influential operation parameters studied include coal type, additional air flow rate, excess air level and mill groups in service. The CFD simulations indicated that the main reasons of the low NOx emission from this boiler are on two aspects: rationally organizing the combustion process to achieve relatively uniform temperature distribution and reducing combustion environment in the main combustion zone, and combining the utilizations of the large amount of additional air to achieve deep air stage and the low excess air level as well as PM burners. It was also found that varying the operational parameters had considerable effects on the performance of the combustion system.

  4. On possible non-polluting operation of the hot water boiler NB.2 of the power station Timisoara-South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results concerning the desulfurization by means of addition of waste limestone and the denitrification by means of urea injection into the flue gases exhausted by Hot Water Boiler NB.2 (HWB) of the Power Station Timisoara South. It stresses the efforts which in authors' opinion should be undertaken in order to ensure gas pollutant emissions under the values indicated by the Romanian regulations concerning air pollution control. The proposals for desulfurization and denitrification of the flue gases from HWB NB.2 as expressed in this paper do not involve large modifications of the boiler, nor high expenses for the execution of the auxiliary utilities or for injection materials. (author). 4 tabs., 19 refs

  5. Remaining Life Analysis of Boiler Tubes on Behalf of Hoop Stresses Produced During Operation of Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Zeeshan Gauri; Kavita Sankhala

    2014-01-01

    Boiler tube material plays an important role in efficient power generation from a fossil fuel power plant. In order to meet out the gap between fluids to increase heat available per unit mass flow of steam. Waste heat utilization phenomenon is a big challenge on fossil fuel power plants as after use of high grade coal in thermal power plants the efficiency of power plants is not at the level of required value. Clean and efficient power generation with economical aspects is the...

  6. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  7. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  8. The Arnot capacity increase project - An integrated boiler and turbine retrofit by Alstom - Implementation and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Mike; Stephen, Don; Rich, Glyn; Mills, Jeff; Allen, Steve

    2010-09-15

    In cooperation with South African utility giant Eskom, Alstom has undertaken an ambitious project to upgrade the six-unit Arnot Power Station. The objective was to retrofit major plant components in a cost effective manner in order to extend plant life and increase output. This paper will consider the implementation of the project, the challenges overcome and the operational experience subsequently gained. Lessons learned will be identified. Conclusions will be drawn concerning the effectiveness of a comprehensive feasibility study prior to project implementation and the ability of modern design and manufacturing techniques to retrofit older machines, thus releasing latent potential.

  9. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  10. Prediction of the minimum load of operation and minimum coal quality with stable combustion for utility pulverized-coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.C.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.H.; Zheng, C.G.

    1999-07-01

    MLO, the Minimum Load of Operation with stable combustion not supported by firing oil, and MCQ, the Minimum Coal Quality, which gives the lowest heat values of coals with different volatile matter contents, are defined on the basis of CSI, a combustion stability index. In order to predict MLO and MCQ, the simple, chemical reaction system model has been modified by means of the concept of lean flammability of gases. A three-dimensional combustion simulation code integrated with the modified model was used to study the combustion process in a 200MW pulverized coal fired utility boiler. The results showed that as the content of volatile matter increases, the value of CSI under different load levels increases accordingly, and the MLO becomes lower. The prediction of MCQ agreed also well with operational experiences. Much work should be done before the method proposed in this paper can be applied into practice.

  11. Establishment of Optimum Ecological System for Monitoring Boiler Units

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Nazarov

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed for ecological monitoring of a boiler unit. This model makes it possible to obtain maximum decrease in effluents at minimum reduction in economical operational efficiency of the boiler unit.

  12. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  13. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  14. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  15. Joint research for operability and life management of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and analytical research is being carried out in an industrially oriented project cluster dealing with estimating and managing lifetime of critical structures and components in energy industry. The research topics include systematic component lifetime management, lifetime of pressure bearing components, piping vibrations and integrity management, management of materials ageing, non-destructive inspection, water chemistry, oxide films and their role in service reliability and build-up of activity levels, stress corrosion cracking in Inconel welds, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of core components, development of crack growth testing methods as well as the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking. (orig.)

  16. Raising the Reliability, Efficiency, and Ecological Safety of Operation of the BKZ-210-140F Boiler Transferred to Stage Firing of Kuznetsk Coal in a U-Shape Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BKZ-210-140F boiler of the West-Siberian Cogeneration Plant was equipped initially with four uniflow tangentially oriented burners and tertiary air nozzles. In order to raise the efficiency of operation and lower harmful emissions the boiler was reconstructed. U-shape aerodynamics was organized in the furnace by mounting 8 burners, 8 secondary air nozzles, and 8 tertiary air nozzles on the front and rear walls of the furnace. The reconstruction ensured higher stability of ignition of pulverized coal without flame division and rated temperatures of the superheater metal, lowered the optimum excess air factor at the outlet from the superheater to 1.2 - 1.25, decreased the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products to 360 - 380 mg/m3, and increased the gross efficiency of the boiler to 91.5 - 91.7%

  17. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge...

  18. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  19. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  20. Boilers a practical reference

    CERN Document Server

    Rayaprolu, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    AAbrasion and Abrasion Index (see Wear)Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity (æ) (see Viscosity in Fluid Characteristics)Acid Cleaning (see Commissioning)Acid Rain (also see Air Pollution Emissions and Controls and Gas Cleaning)Acid Sludge (see Refuse Fuels from Refinery in Liquid Fuels)Acid Smuts (see Oil Ash)Acoustic Soot Blowers (see Sonic Horns)Acoustic Enclosure (see Noise Control)Acoustic Leak Detection SystemAdiabatic Flame Temperature (see Combustion)Aeroderivative (see Types of GTs in Turbines, Gas)Ageing of Boiler ComponentsAgro-Fuels and FiringAir Ducts (see Draught Plant)Air Flow Measureme

  1. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchao Wang; Yifeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the ...

  2. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  3. ON INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF AXISYMMETRIC COMPONENTS OPERATING WITHIN CREEP REGIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRABI K; LAWRENCE Ng

    2006-01-01

    A multiaxial paradigm for predicting creep damage/lives of components is described. Although in principle the paradigm is general, it is verified using axisymmetric experimental data. It is shown that the proposed paradigm is capable of predicting creep lives with an error of less than 2%. It is also shown that the proposed paradigm is more accurate than the reference stress method.

  4. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  5. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file with the FRA Regional... the boiler. Whenever welded or riveted repairs are performed on stayed portions of a steam...

  6. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  7. Preheating the Combustion Components and Furnace Operation Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Димитров, А. Д.; Шраменко, А. Н.; Пядухов, В. А.

    2015-01-01

    Different options of the internal use of the heat of effluent combustion products for the working heat process plants (HTHP) have been compared. Basic factors that affect the efficiency and the affordability of the HTHP operation were determined. The methods of the computation of the influence of the preliminary preheated material and preheated combustion products on the productivity and specific fuel consumption were given on the basis of balance equations. The influence produced on these va...

  8. Real working conditions and estimation on the rest time period of superheating system of the boiler OB 380 in TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a residual life-time assessment of the 110 MW boiler reheater components is presented. Real operational conditions for each reheater component as a basis for the life-time assessment are experimentally determined with specially designed diagnostic and data acquisition system during five different regimes of boiler operation. According to determined operational conditions compared with the respective properties of reheater components, two main conclusions are done: (a) more than 60% of the real life-time is spent and (b) a shorter life-time than it is designed could be expected for the several components of reheater system. Taking these conclusions into account, a preposition of measures to be taken in order to obtain satisfied reliability of reheater system in the future period are recommended. One of proposed measures is to obtain respective monitoring equipment [12] for the boiler reheater system. (Author)

  9. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  10. Implementation of a TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP application is designed, tested and demonstrated. • Thermal radiation was emitted by a porous emitter in the TPV unit. • The electric output of four TPV cell modules connected in series is measured and characterized under various conditions. • 246.4 Electricity is generated at the emitter temperature of 1265 °C. • This study shows that TPV generation in boilers/furnaces is feasible for micro-CHP application in residential buildings. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion using solid state devices such as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generators. TPV devices convert thermal radiation from heat sources into electricity without involving any moving parts. TPV opens up possibility for efficient and stand-alone power generation in boilers and furnaces. In this paper, a TPV integrated boiler was designed, built and investigated for micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) application in residential buildings. A full size gas fired residential boiler was used as a precursor for integration with TPV devices. Experiments were conducted with the prototype TPV boiler so as to evaluate various issues related to this new technology. The electric output of TPV modules installed in the boiler was characterized under different operating conditions. The TPV cell modules generated 246.4 W at an emitter temperature of 1265 °C, which would be enough to power the electrical components of the whole heating system. Moreover, such a TPV integrated boiler could be employed to form a micro-CHP system in residential homes, providing an effective means for primary energy savings, on-site power and energy security

  11. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  12. Optimization of Bed Material Consumption in a CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish M. Pullekunnel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Case-Study is to identify the scope of energy conservation and cost saving through optimization of bed material in a CFBC Boiler during plant start up. The study was undertaken at Abhijeet MADC Nagpur Energy Pvt. Ltd (AMNEPL, a 4X61.5 MW power plant at MIHAN, Khairy Khurd, Hingna, Nagpur. The scope of the study covers the savings achieved during light up of 4X250 TPH boiler and the effect of the application of the proposed method on the energy conservation possibilities and efficiency of boiler operation. The proposed method is an alternative to the conventional boiler light up of a CFBC boiler

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission limit for particulate matter. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and operate a bag leak detection... Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection... Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63.7500, you must comply with...

  14. Numerical modeling of pulverized coal combustion at thermal power plant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarova, Aliya; Bolegenova, Saltanat; Maximov, Valeryi; Beketayeva, Meruyert; Safarik, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with development and application the numerical model for solution of processes at combustion chamber of the thermal power plant boiler. Mathematical simulation is based on solution of physical and chemical processes occuring at burning pulverized coal in the furnace model. Three-dimensional flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical kinetics of the processes, effects of thermal radiation are considered. Obtained results give quantitative information on velocity distributions, temperature and concentration profiles of the components, the amount of combustion products including harmful substances. The numerical model becomes a tool for investigation and design of combustion chambers with high-efficiency and reliable operation of boiler at thermal power plants.

  15. Tokamak operation with high-Z plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to wall lifetime requirements and the problem of tritium co-deposition in hydrocarbon layers, a future burning plasma will most probably have a full high-Z wall. The prime candidate material is tungsten, which exhibits good thermo-mechanical properties and has a high energy threshold for physical sputtering. To investigate the reactor-compatibility of this wall material, ASDEX Upgrade is being converted into a full-tungsten coated tokamak in a step-by-step approach, with presently almost 70 % of W wall coverage. The effect of the reduction of primary carbon coverage on the plasma is so far moderate. Under tokamak conditions, carbon behaves like a recycling impurity, due to the deposition and re-erosion of soft hydrocarbon layers on the tungsten surface. During high density H-mode operation, the central tungsten concentrations remain typically low, i.e. well under 10-5. The situation is more critical in the improved H-mode or hybrid scenario. Here, the combination of hot edge conditions and peaked central density profiles result in high central tungsten concentrations of up to 10-4, which would be critical in a reactor. However, core electron density peaking is reduced by use of central ICR or ECR heating and thus in turn suppresses central tungsten accumulation. For extrapolation to reactor conditions, we need to separate the effects of the tungsten wall source, the penetration over the edge transport barrier (ETB) and the core transport with its strong neoclassical contribution. These issues are addressed by inspecting the tungsten behaviour in various discharge scenarios and parameters in ASDEX Upgrade. These include radiative cooling by medium-Z seed impurities and ELM frequency control by pellet injection to simulate a reactor plasma with small edge and divertor impurity radiation levels and a separatrix power flux close to the H-L threshold. Fast ions produced by NBI and ICR heating at the low field side appear to be an important tungsten erosion mechanism

  16. Ageing management and Long-term operation of NPP structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents methodological aspects for ageing management and long-term operation of NPP structures and components considering experience accumulated in nuclear area of Ukraine and IAEA recommendations. The research shows the role of ageing management for lifetime extension and justification of long-term operation of NPP structures and components. The given information is recommended to be used during development of regulatory and technical documents on ageing management and long-term operation

  17. Synthesizing Glue Operators from Glue Constraints for the Construction of Component-Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apel, Sven; Jackson, Ethan; Bliudze, Simon; Sifakis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We study glue operators used in component-based frameworks to obtain systems as the composition of atomic components described as labeled transition systems (LTS). Glue operators map tuples of LTS into LTS. They restrict the behavior of their arguments by performing memoryless coordination. In a previous paper, we have proposed a simple format for SOS rules that captures, in particular, glue operators from known frameworks such as CCS, SCCS, CSP, and BIP. This paper studies a new way for cha...

  18. Evaluation of surrogate boilers for steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion in PWR systems is a continuing problem that can result in significant expenditures for inspection, repair, and replacement of steam generators as well as for power replacement during outages. Model boilers operated in parallel to the steam generator may provide a useful tool for monitoring and studying steam generator corrosion and corrosion prevention processes. The potential benefits of such boilers as well as several conceptual boiler design alternatives are described, and approximate costs for fabrication and operation of such systems are presented

  19. Engineering solutions related to the furnace arrangement of a boiler designed for operating at supercritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtegman, A. V.; Ryzhii, I. A.; Sosin, D. V.; Kotler, V. R.

    2014-04-01

    When developing a coal-fired power unit designed for operating at supercritical steam conditions (SSCs), it is necessary not only to achieve high economic performance and the high reliability of a new power unit, but also to tackle many problems related to the efficient combustion of the solid fuel without exceeding the future standards for limitations on emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. The technological methods of suppression of nitrogen oxides capable of providing the permissible NO x emissions are discussed. The results of calculations are given that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the purpose in view by means of installation of new low-NO x burners and staged injection of the fuel even on combustion of the Ekibastuz black coal high in ash content.

  20. Dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler suitable for on-line monitoring of fossil/alternative fuel plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Derivation of dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler is presented. • Model is derived by employing basic laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. • Thus obtained boiler model does not include empirical relationships. • Model is validated against experimental data related to an external disturbance event. • The final model is used for simulation analysis/assessment of key boiler quantities. - Abstract: The environmental protection policies and legal obligations motivate process industries to implement new low-emission and high-efficiency technologies. For the purpose of production process optimization and related control system design it is worthwhile to first build an appropriate process model. Apart from favorable execution speed, accuracy, and reliability features, the model also needs to be straightforward and only include the physical and design characteristics of the overall plant and its individual components, instead of relying on empirical relationships. To this end, this paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model of the single-drum natural-circulation steam boiler evaporator circuit, based exclusively on the fundamental physical laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum, wherein the reliance upon empirical relationships has been entirely avoided. The presented boiler system modeling approach is based on the analysis of the physical phenomena within the boiler drum, as well as within downcomer and furnace tubes, and it also takes into account the boiler system design-specific features such as cyclone steam separators, thus facilitating the derivation of a fully-physical process model. Due to the straightforwardness of the derived process model, it should also be useful for the analysis of similar steam boiler facilities, requiring only adjustments of key operational and design parameters such as operating pressure, temperature, steam capacity and characteristics of ancillary equipment such as pumps. To

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  2. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

    2003-04-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  4. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  5. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  6. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  9. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  14. Prediction of the time-dependent failure rate for normally operating components taking into account the operational history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of the time-dependent failure rate has been studied, taking into account the operational history of a component used in applications such as system modeling in a probabilistic safety analysis in order to evaluate the impact of equipment aging and maintenance strategies on the risk measures considered. We have selected a time-dependent model for the failure rate which is based on the Weibull distribution and the principles of proportional age reduction by equipment overhauls. Estimation of the parameters that determine the failure rate is considered, including the definition of the operational history model and likelihood function for the Bayesian analysis of parameters for normally operating repairable components. The operational history is provided as a time axis with defined times of overhauls and failures. An example for demonstration is described with prediction of the future behavior for seven different operational histories. (orig.)

  15. Removal of External Deposits on Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. De

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available The superheater tubes in Port and Starboard boilers were found to have completely clogged by heavy deposits, which on analysis mainly vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphmatter. The cleaning of the deposits was accomplished by alternate spraying with 15-20 per cent hydrogen peroxide and washing with hot water jets. Over the past two years, since the date of cleaning, the IN ship is operating without any trouble in the boilers.

  16. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for ca...

  17. Steam boiler for fytomass

    OpenAIRE

    Baláš, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Diploma Thesis was the construction design of the steam boiler for fytomass. For the specified parameters of biomass have been gradually implemented stoichiometric calculations of which are further based calculation of enthalpies of combustion gas. In the next part have been dealt with heat balance of the boiler, the efficiency of the boiler, recirculation of exhaust gases and the temperature of the combustion gases in outlet from fire. Thereinafter, the proposal of partic...

  18. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  19. Competition analysis on the operating system market using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brătucu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating system market has evolved greatly. The largest software producer in the world, Microsoft, dominates the operating systems segment. With three operating systems: Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 the company held a market share of 87.54% in January 2011. Over time, open source operating systems have begun to penetrate the market very strongly affecting other manufacturers. Companies such as Apple Inc. and Google Inc. penetrated the operating system market. This paper aims to compare the best-selling operating systems on the market in terms of defining characteristics. To this purpose the principal components analysis method was used.

  20. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  1. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  2. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  3. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  4. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  5. 印尼煤掺烧方式对锅炉运行性能的影响%Influence of Indonesia Coal Blending Combustion Mode on Operating Performance of Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿平; 邓坚; 钟礼今; 王国强; 方庆艳; 张成; 陈刚

    2015-01-01

    在低氮燃烧条件下对一台700 MW四角切圆锅炉开展了印尼煤掺烧方式对锅炉运行性能影响的试验研究。设计了3种印尼煤与神混煤掺烧方式,测试不同掺烧方式下的金属壁面温度、锅炉效率和 NOx 排放量,以获得优化的印尼煤掺烧方式。对比结果表明,相比于其他掺烧方式,采用下层燃烧器掺烧印尼煤的方式,过热器和再热器的金属壁面温度、CO和NOx 排放量、排烟温度、飞灰含碳量均最低,锅炉效率最高,有利于提高锅炉运行安全性、经济性和环保性能。%Under low NOx combustion condition,experimental research on influence of Indonesia coal blending combustion mode on operating performance of boiler was developed for one 700 MW tangentially fired boiler. Three blending combus-tion modes of combining Indonesia coal and mixed coal were designed and temperature of metal wall,efficiency of the boiler and NOx emission load was tested with different combustion modes so as to obtain optimized combustion mode for Indonesia coal. Comparison results indicate that compared with other blending combustion modes,temperature of the metal walls,e-mission loads of CO and NOx ,exhaust gas temperature and carbon contents of fly ashes of the superheater and the reheater are the lowest and efficiency of the boiler is the highest by using the mode of Indonesia coal blending combustion in the lower burner which may be in favor of improving security,economy and environment protection performance of the boiler.

  6. Evaluation of surrogate boilers for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generator damage in pressurized water reactors is a continuing problem which results from a combination of factors including mechanical design, thermal hydraulics, materials selection, fabrication techniques, water chemistry, and system design and operation. A wide variety of steam generator damage mechanisms has been identified in operating PWRs including intergranular attack, thinning, stress corrosion cracking, erosion, denting, fatigue cracking, pitting, and fretting. Model boilers operated in parallel to the steam generators, i.e., surrogate boilers, may provide a useful tool in the study of these damage mechanisms, their causative factors, and the effects of corrosion actions. To evaluate the applicability of surrogate boilers to such studies, Steam Generator Owners Group I project S111-2 was established. Evaluation of numerous surrogate boiler design alternates led to identification of several possible acceptable approaches. The appropriate surrogate feedwater was identified as plant feedwater. Capability to operate with a tube-side temperature similar to the hot-leg temperature was considered necessary as was the ability to provide mechanical, thermal, and chemical corrosion acceleration. Practical and economically feasible surrogate boiler designs were developed in response to these design requirements

  7. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AOV failure data.

  8. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-operated valves (MOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The MOV failure modes considered are failure to open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the MOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for failure to open/close and operation demands.

  9. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rowley, P. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Schroeder, D. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  10. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  11. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  12. Planning Annual Shutdown Inspection for BFB Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sorsa, Tatu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to create an illustrative guidebook of annual inspection planning for BFB boiler to help power plant operator when planning of annual inspection is topical. This thesis was made for Andritz Oy and it is based on inspection reports and experiences of BFB boiler’s maintenance and inspection staff. In this thesis it is shown how to plan an annual inspection for BFB boiler and thesis gives good tools and hints for operator to manage inspection from the beginning ...

  13. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers Um modelo de otimização para as operações de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Damião Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control, boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations, and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the good outcomes achieved in applying the model and the lack of optimization tools to support the decisions in this system, the proposed model is a suitable alternative to support some of the key decisions in the system of steam production with multiple industrial boilers.Apresenta-se neste trabalho um modelo de programação linear inteira mista para apoiar algumas das principais decisões na operação de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais. O modelo contempla as decisões de gerenciamento dos combustíveis: compra nos fornecedores, transporte para a fábrica e níveis dos estoques, assim como determina o modo de funcionamento das caldeiras: momentos de acionamento (start-up, regime de aquecimento (warm-up e desligamento dos equipamentos (shutdown, e em quais deles haverá produção de vapor. Os ajustes e a validação do modelo ocorreram por meio de um estudo de caso realizado em uma indústria de alimentos de grande porte. Diante dos bons resultados obtidos com a aplicação do modelo e da ausência de protocolos ou ferramentas de otimização para apoiar as decisões no sistema estudado, o modelo proposto apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável para apoiar algumas das principais decisões no sistema de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais.

  14. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  15. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  16. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  17. 46 CFR 78.33-1 - Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. 78.33-1 Section 78.33-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-1 Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  19. Charting the boiler market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''boiler market'' of electricity, sometimes called unsecured transmission, is electric power consumption that in public statistics is restricted by the obligation of the customers to cut their consumption at short notice and therefore are granted some discount on the network lease. The present document is part of a project that aims to provide a better understanding of the flexibility in the Norwegian power market, limited by the power-intensive industry and the boiler market. It discusses the boiler market. It begins with a discusses of the available statistics, where different sources show very dissimilar consumption figures. Then it examines how the consumption in the boiler market developed during the winter 2002/2003. Finally, there is a description of the regulations of unsecured transmission and how the various network owners adapt to the regulations.

  20. The Effects of an Abolishing Operation Intervention Component on Play Skills, Challenging Behavior, and Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…

  1. Full power operation at Jet: consequences for in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilising to the fullest the enhanced capabilities of JET requires the installation of new in-vessel components. In this paper we discuss the requirements and describe the hardware solutions which are to be implemented and their effect on the future operation

  2. Artificial Intelligent System for Steam Boiler Diagnosis based on Superheater Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain H. Al-Kayiem; Firas B. Ismail Alnaimi

    2011-01-01

    Steam Boilers are important equipment in power plants and the boilers trip may lead to the entire plant shutdown. To maintain performance in normal and safe operation conditions, detecting of the possible boiler trips in critical time is crucial. Artificial Neural network applications for steam boilers trips are developed designed and parameterized. In this present study, the developed systems are a fault detection and diagnosis neural network model. Some priori knowledge of the demands in ne...

  3. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  4. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  5. Optimization of Boiler Heat Load in Water-Heating Boiler-House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bayrashevsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for optimization of water-heating boiler loads has been developed on the basis of approximated semi-empirical dependences pertaining to changes of boiler gross efficiency due to its load. A complex (∂tух/∂ξΔξ is determined on the basis of a systematic analysis (monitoring of experimental data and the Y. P. Pecker’s formula for calculation of balance losses q2. This complex makes it possible to set a corresponding correction to a standard value of the boiler gross efficiency due to contamination of heating surfaces.Software means for optimization of water-heating boilers has been developed and it is recommended to be applied under operational conditions.

  6. Fabrication and operating history considerations in assessing relative SCC susceptibility of BWR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum in material, stress and environmental conditions present in BWR components results in a varied intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) response. Fabrication techniques can significantly influence susceptibility to cracking. Components fabricated using cold forming processes tend to experience SCC initiation earlier than similar components subjected to annealing heat treatments, with the degree of acceleration related to the severity and extent of cold work. BWR field experience has shown that SCC initiation and growth was significantly accelerated by the presence of cold work in the upper steam dryer support ring components. Similarly, the propensity for IGSCC initiation and growth in Alloy 182 weld joints may be influenced by microfissuring formed during fabrication and related welding. Ultrasonic inspection results show apparent evidence of accelerated IGSCC initiation due to pre-existing microfissures in nozzle welds and butters. IGSCC is also influenced by irradiation and water chemistry conditions on a creviced component. In addition to demonstrated effects of coolant conductivity and accrued fluence on IGSCC behavior, the localized flux level apparently influences the potential for IGSCC in some components. BWR field experience shows evidence that the propensity for IGSCC in creviced and irradiated control blades is dependent on flux level in higher conductivity plants. Operating with higher purity coolant apparently significantly reduces the potential for IGSCC in creviced components exposed to high flux regions

  7. Actively cooled plasma facing components in Tore Supra: From material and design to operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaud, Ph. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC/SIPP, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: philippe.magaud@cea.fr; Monier-Garbet, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC/SIPP, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Travere, J.M. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC/SIPP, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC/SIPP, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2007-05-31

    In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), need to sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW m{sup -2}), erosion and flux of particles. Feedback from these challenging components is essential for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Tore Supra actively cooled high heat flux PFCs are able to sustain up to 10 MW m{sup -2} during long plasma pulses. They are at present the only ones in operation in a fusion device. They are described in details from design (including the testing programme used for concept validation) to operation. Lessons learned from the industrialization programme, which could be essential for ITER, will be presented. Finally, the experimental feedback with actively cooled walls, including in situ monitoring to guarantee plasma facing component safety, will be summarized. Another very important feature has been noticed, namely the in vessel progressive uptake of hydrogen, a likely source of concern for ITER.

  8. Operational impact on the JET ITER-like wall in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Power handling of beryllium plasma facing components exceeded expectations. • Local beryllium melting from power handling experiments to test the design limits. • Local beryllium melting from disruptions. • No change observed for most of the tungsten and tungsten-coated components. - Abstract: The JET ITER-like Wall (ILW) provides the same plasma facing component configuration as ITER during its active phase: beryllium in the main chamber and tungsten in the divertor. Moving from a carbon-based wall to an all metals wall requires some operational adjustment. The reduction in radiation at the plasma edge and in the divertor can lead to high power loads on the plasma facing components both in steady state and in transients and requires the development of radiative scenarios and the use of massive gas injection to mitigate disruptions. These tools are even more important now because an all metal wall is much less forgiving to thermal overloading the carbon based wall used to be. Here the impact of the first 11 months of operation on the ILW plasma facing components is discussed

  9. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs

  10. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  11. Reconciliation of fatigue usage factors for class-1 components considering plant operation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of metal fatigue for the period of extended operation requires a time-limited aging analysis (TLAA) and is an important task for Nuclear Power Station. Both cumulative usage factors of components and the actual numbers of design transient cycles have to be reviewed. The factors of environment are also imposed on metal fatigue by NRC as a multiplier. In reviewing the cycles of a generic BWR pressure vessel design transients, the number of cycles of some design transients have no sufficient margin for current license basis even for period of extended operation. The operating margins of technical specification, operating cycles of design transients and cumulative usage factors of components, are subjected to severe challenge under the review of license renewal. The objective of this study aims to relieve such limits by using design transients reconciliation based on existing plant operating history. The predicted fatigue usage factors of Feed water nozzle of the reactor vessel are shown as an example using the adjusting cycles of design transients.

  12. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents a performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for the component reliability as reported in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. One statistically significant trend was observed in the AOV data: The frequency of demands per reactor year for valves recording the fail-to-open or fail-to-close failure modes, for high-demand valves (those with greater than twenty demands per year), was found to be decreasing. The decrease was about three percent over the ten year period trended.

  13. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). Results (beta distributions for failure probabilities upon demand and gamma distributions for rates) are used as inputs to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission standardized plant analysis risk models of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the AOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified in two areas: AOV operation demands less than or equal to 20 demands per year and greater than 20 demands.

  14. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... operator of an existing cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or..., hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas, and non-mercury metals; or the Director determines certain...

  15. Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments

  16. Integrity operation of NPP-components - skills and tools to maintain competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For pressurised components there is a long tradition in all industrialised countries to specify requirements for the design, manufacturing and operation of pressurised equipment. Over the last 5 decades more and more of good industrial practice have been codified in detailed codes and standards which in itself represent a valuable resource regarding the characterisation of the state of the art. Many components being operated today have been manufactured to codes and standards which were less prescriptive at the time of manufacturing. It is a considerable challenge to manage the knowledge transfer necessary for updated safety analysis or root cause analysis in case of defect assessment. There are a number of helpful tools, which have been generated to support the knowledge transfer. Some of these tools and other aspects like professional training and necessary skills to cope with the gaining of knowledge are presented. In detail, the following topics are discussed: data supply, training and retraining, experts networks, and verification chains. (author)

  17. Analysis on Service Life of Hot-end Components of Gas Turbine Using Equivalent Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the gas turbine depends on the technical status and the maintenance level of the hot-end components in a large part.The three main factors influencing on the service life of the hot-end components of the gas turbine were analyzed first.On this basis,various common service life assessment methods for gas turbine were discussed in detail.Aiming at the features of the M701F gas-steam combined cycle unit in Huizhou LNG power plant,a gas turbine life assessment method based on equivalent operation time analysis was put forward.The calculation result of an example shows that the equivalent operation time analysis method is a simple and practical assessment method.

  18. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  19. Determining heat loss into the environment based on comprehensive investigation of boiler performance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Malygin, P. V.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2015-08-01

    A refined procedure for determining heat loss into the environment from heat-generating installations is presented that takes into account the state of their lining and heat insulation quality. The fraction of radiative component in the total amount of heat loss through the outer surfaces is determined. The results from experimental investigations of the thermal engineering and environmental performance characteristics of a foreign hot-water boiler in firing wood pellets are presented. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using such hot-water boilers for supplying heat to low-rise buildings, especially for the conditions of the North-Arctic region. The results from a thermal engineering investigation of wood pellets and furnace residue carried out on installations of a thermal analysis laboratory are presented together with the grain-size composition of fuel and indicators characterizing the mechanical strength of wood pellets. The velocity fields, flue gas flow rates, and soot particle concentrations are determined using the external filtration methods, and the composition of combustion products is investigated using a gas analyzer. The graphs of variation with time of boiler external surface temperature from the moment of achieving the nominal mode of operation and heat loss into the environment for stationary boilers are presented.

  20. Experience on sodium removal from FBTR components in its operating phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FBTR is a 40 MWt/13 MWe loop type, sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. There are two primary loops, two secondary loops and a common steam-water circuit. Criticality was achieved in 1985 and during the course of the 10 years of operation phase experience has been gained on the decontamination of certain core components, primary sodium pumps, CRDM parts, handling components and cold traps. This paper deals with the decontamination aspects of these components in detail. For core subassemblies a remote sodium cleaning system was provided in the hot cell. The unique feature of this system is that it pumps alcohol into wash chamber using compressed nitrogen. During cleaning, the sub assembly is loaded into the system using master slave manipulator and compressed nitrogen gas is used to pump alcohol into the system for cleaning the outer and inner surfaces of the sub assembly in cycles. Each cycle takes about 15 minutes and around 5 to 6 cycles of cleaning were employed to remove 100 g of sodium. The level of alcohol in the tank is measured by ultrasonic level probes. The used alcohol is pumped to medium active waste storage tank. Primary and secondary sodium pumps are the large components which were cleaned off sodium using steam and water in decontamination pit. Lower part of CRDM with a failed bellow was another component cleaned in decontamination pit. An electro decontamination technique was successfully developed to remove coloration on the lower part of CRDM for reuse. A stainless steel carrier with antimony capsule was the first radio active component to undergo sodium cleaning operation in decontamination pit meant for large primary sodium circuit components after making necessary modifications. Decontamination of other components such as fingers of grippers and scrapper rings of charging and discharging flasks was carried out with alcohol under inert atmosphere. The secondary loop cold trap was successfully cleaned by hydride decomposition and vacuum

  1. Use of demand forecast in operational purchasing : case: Vaisala corporation component level forecast purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of Vaisala, a Finnish technology company. Vaisala uses LEAN manufacturing models and assemble-to-order production strategy to better serve its customers. Material availability is ensured by using an enterprise resource planning program and component specific forecasting that is derived from demand forecast. A demand forecast offers the possibility to make the operations more efficient but still offer the customers’ higher value through better delivery times. It...

  2. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs

  3. TRD, technical codes and instructions on steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensed edition informing about layout and applications of the TRDs, materials, manufacture and dimensioning, calculations, equipment and installation, testing and operation, and boilers of groups I, II and III. (DG)

  4. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  5. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  6. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  8. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY CALCULATION PROCEDURE FOR THE AUTOMATIC WATER-LEVEL REGULATING INVARIANT SYSTEM IN THE BOILER SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuchorenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-element system for automatic water-level regulation in the boiler shell as well as its modifications received maximal dissimilation in the Republic of Belarus and the CIS countries power economies. Though, they possess the following shortages: occurrence of the steadystate errors at the end of the transient process during the control response to internal disturbances and those by over-heated steam; large level deviations at sharp and significant load changes, which often leads to the boiler or the power block deloading or stoppage. As a remedial action against the mentioned disadvantages, the invariant systems for the drum boiler automatic feed regulation were developed earlier. The first variant of the automatic regulation invariant system with the equivalent external disturbance individualization differs from the typical one in the way that they select the stabilizing controller arrangement on the basis of transmission response of the optimal controller. And the compensating device dynamic settings structure and parameters are chosen with respect to the equivalent controlled member including the stabilizing controller inner contour. The second variant offers the compensating device transmission response to the equivalent external disturbance represented as series-connected typical sections: a real differentiator and a quick-response unit. For the control action maximum value reducing in this scheme, there is a suppressing device additionally installed at the exit of the equivalent external disturbance compensation device. The automatic regulation invariant systems eliminate steady-state errors at all impacts and allow improving significantly the level control quality at variable conditions. For economic efficiency evaluation of the boiler-shell water level automatic regulation innovative system implementation as a system, the author proposes a technique allowing calculating the main components of the economic effect of its

  9. OPERATIONAL FAULT DIAGNOSIS IN INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS THROUGH MODELING THE INTERNAL LEAKAGE OF ITS COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a model of a high pressure hydraulic system was developed using the bond graph method to investigate the effect of the internal leakage of its main components (pump, cylinder and 4/2 way valve on the operational characteristics of the system under various loads. All the main aspects of the hydraulic circuit (like the internal leakages, the compressibility of the fluid, the hydraulic pressure drop, the inertia of moving masses and the friction of the spool were taken into consideration. The results of this modeling were compared with the experimental data taken from the literature and from an actual test platform installed in the laboratory. Modeling and experimental data curves correlate very well in form, magnitude and response times for all the system’s main parameters. This proves that the present method can be used to accurately model the response and operation of hydraulic systems and can thus be used for operational fault diagnosis in many cases, especially in simulating fault scenarios when the defective component is not obvious. This is very important in industrial production systems where unpredictable shutdowns of the hydraulic machinery have a considerable negative economic impact on cost.

  10. Limitations of the inspection and testing concepts for pressurised components from the viewpoint of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of in-service inspection and testing is to contribute to a safe and reliable operation of systems, structures and components. It is therefore the objective of inspections and tests to identify malfunctions and degradations at a stage early enough to avoid detrimental impacts on safety as well as on the reliability of the plant. Taking mostly the pressure boundary of German light-water reactors as an example, it is the intention of this paper to analyse how successful present inspection and testing requirements are and to discuss limitations. Based on a review of the world-wide operating experience the following questions of a more generic nature are addressed: - Are the relevant damage mechanisms being addressed in our codes and standards? - What are the criteria to develop a representative scope of inspection? - How to maintain a sufficient level of information for a decreasing number of nuclear power plants in operation? It can be concluded that the revision of codes and standards according to lessons learned from operating experience remains as an ongoing process. Furthermore, the criteria applied to derive a representative scope of inspection need to be addressed in more detail, specifically with respect to corrosion. The continuous evaluation of operating experience of a large number of plants is the most valuable source to identify beginning degradations. (author)

  11. Online monitoring of boiler rapping gears. Specific targets; Online-Monitoring von Kesselklopfwerken. Konkrete Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, Alfred; Koller, Felix Bruno [Hitachi Zosen Inova AG, Zurich (Switzerland). Research and Development

    2013-03-01

    The boiler rapping gear from Hitachi Zosen Inova AG (Zurich, Switzerland) is in operation since September 2012. This boiler rapping gear shows that a continuous monitoring of the rapping gear function as well as the automatic induction of correcting measures within a running operation are possible inducing positive results. The three mechanisms of control are: measurement of the pressure loss and outlet temperature, monitoring of the thermal process in the vessel, verification of the functionality of the boiler rapping gear. The verification of the functionality of the boiler rapping gear is the early indicator for the necessary maintenance work for the prolongation of the boiler operating period. Operators of waste incinerators may generate more efficiency from their investment by using boiler rapping gears.

  12. Development of high thermal flux components for continuous operation in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High heat flux plasma facing components are under development and appropriate experimental evaluations have been carried out in order to operate during cycles of several hundred seconds. In Tore Supra, a large tokamak with a plasma nominal duration in excess of 30 seconds, solutions are tested that could be later applied to the NET/ITER tokamak, where peaked heat flux values of 15 MW/m2 on the divertor plates are foreseen. The proposed concept is a swirl square tube design protected with brazed CFC flat tiles. Development programs and validation tests are presented. The tests results are compared with calculations

  13. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    OpenAIRE

    Juravliov A.A.; Sit M.L.; Poponova O.B.; Sit B.B.; Zubatii A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  14. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  15. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator. PMID:20178904

  16. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  17. Low temperature corrosion in bark fuelled, small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif; Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2008-05-15

    A number of small (3-12 MW), new biofuel boiler plants in southern Sweden, and (at least) in Austria, have suffered a high (wastage of mm/yrs) corrosion rate on the low temperature boiler side. This problem has been investigated with respect to its occurrence and its character by contacts with operators, by plant inspections, and by analysis of cold-side deposits. The plants affected have low feed water temperatures (< 100 deg C). The plants fire most types of Swedish biofuel: chips, bark, hog fuel, and 'GROT' (=twigs and tops). The results found give basis for a hypothesis that the corrosion results from the presence of an aqueous phase in the deposits, this phase being stabilized by dissolved salts having high solubility. It then follows that for each salt, there is a critical relative humidity (calculated from the flue gas water partial pressure and the cooling surface temperature as is common practice among boiler engineers) for both the presence of the aqueous phase and the corrosion. Some critical single salts, ZnCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} have been identified, and they give critical 'relative humidities' of 5% and 18% respectively. These figures are a lower bound. The corresponding figure, derived from the practical experience and the reported plant operational data, is between 20 and 30%. Corrosion tests have been carried out by exposing an air-cooled probe in the flue gases at a 12 MW boiler at Saevelundsverket in Alingsaas, and the material wastage at different temperatures has been measured with a profilometer. The high corrosion rates were reproduced in the tests for high relative humidities. The corrosion rate was small and not measurable (<0.1 mm/year) for relative humidity <22%. The work shows by means of indirect evidence that the corrosion critical components are ZnCl{sub 2} and possibly CaCl{sub 2} as well. The practical engineering design criterion derived from the work is that the relative humidity (calculated from the flue

  18. Supercritical boiler material selection using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Maity

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of world is being adversely affected by the scarcity of power and energy. To survive in the next generation, it is thus necessary to explore the non-conventional energy sources and efficiently consume the available sources. For efficient exploitation of the existing energy sources, a great scope lies in the use of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants. Today, the gross efficiency of Rankin cycle-based thermal power plants is less than 28% which has been increased up to 40% with reheating and regenerative cycles. But, it can be further improved up to 47% by using supercritical power plant technology. Supercritical power plants use supercritical boilers which are able to withstand a very high temperature (650-720˚C and pressure (22.1 MPa while producing superheated steam. The thermal efficiency of a supercritical boiler greatly depends on the material of its different components. The supercritical boiler material should possess high creep rupture strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high specific heat and very high temperature withstandability. This paper considers a list of seven supercritical boiler materials whose performance is evaluated based on seven pivotal criteria. Given the intricacy and difficulty of this supercritical boiler material selection problem having interactions and interdependencies between different criteria, this paper applies fuzzy analytic network process to select the most appropriate material for a supercritical boiler. Rene 41 is the best supercritical boiler material, whereas, Haynes 230 is the worst preferred choice.

  19. Energy efficiency in boilers; Eficiencia energetica em caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ricardo Silva The [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], email: ricthe@dee.ufc.br; Barbosa, Marcos Antonio Pinheiro; Rufino, Maria da Gracas [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: marcos_apb@unifor.br, gsrufino@unifor.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler is vapor generator equipment that has been widely used in industrial milieu as in electric energy generation in thermoelectric plants. Since their first conception, the boilers have been changed in order to provide security and energetic efficiency. They can present high losses of energy if they don't be operated according to some criteria. A considerable part of boilers operation cost include fuel expenses. So, the adoption of effective steps in order to reduce fuel consumption is important to industry economy, besides it brings environmental benefits through the reduction of pollution liberation. The present article has the objective of emphasizing the effective steps for the economy of energy in boilers, such as, the regulation of combustion; the control of soot and incrustations; the installation of economizers, air heaters and super heaters; the reduction in purges and reintroduction of condensed steam. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... Quality Control § 111.120 What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement? Quality control operations for...

  1. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    build-up increased with the K-content of the fuel ash and fly ash for grate-fired boilers. For suspension-fired boilers, deposition rates are comparatively low for wood-firing and increase with increasing fuel straw shares. Shedding of deposits occurs by melting during straw-firing on a grate at high......A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... been examined. The firing technology and the fuel utilized influence the fly ash and deposit chemical composition. In grate-firing, K, Cl, and S are enriched in the fly ash compared to the fuel ash, while the fly ash in suspension-firing is relatively similar to the fuel ash. The chemical composition...

  2. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  3. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  4. Numerical Analysis of the Factors about Combustion Stability on Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Weiping; Gao Yang; Li Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through the research of the coal pulverized catches fire and steadily combustion mechanism and the numerical Simulation of the 300MW Tangentially Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler by Coal-fire software?combine the operating data of the boiler, establish the corresponding relation between the result of numerical simulation and combustion stability. The result indicates that the higher volatile matter, lower content of ash and moisture of the coal, it helps the coal pulverized air current to ca...

  5. Online energy balance calculations for a BioGrate boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Palash

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the demand of an alternative source of energy that can substitute the depleting fossil fuel has introduced new challenges in process industries. Today, biomass fuel is increasingly used as a renewable source of energy used for power production. The BioGrate boiler is one of the latest technologies that utilize biomass fuel for power production. These boilers need to cater to the power demand of the market without any interruptions in their operations. However, the heat content of ...

  6. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apo...

  7. Optimising boiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings. PMID:19192603

  8. 600MW亚临界机组磨煤机运行参数影响试验分析%Experimental Analysis on 600MW Sub-critical Unit Boiler Coal Mill Operation Parameter Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战礼; 郝建刚

    2014-01-01

    某600MW亚临界机组于2006年投产,机组运行过程中发现,磨煤机性能比同类型机组略差,本文对制粉系统的煤粉细度、粉管风量偏差、制粉系统单耗、阻力等参数进行了试验,提出相应的改进措施和建议,为锅炉提高经济效益提供参考。%A 600MW Subcritical Units put into operation in 2006, during the operation of the unit, performance of Coal mill is slightly worse than the same type unit, In order to solve the problem, the fineness of pulverized coal, the differ-ence of powder tube quantity, consumption of pulverizing system, resistance and other parameters of pulverizing system is tested, corresponding improvement measures and recommendations is provided for improve economic benefit of boiler.

  9. 密闭电石炉余热锅炉工艺优化操作及改进%Process Optimization of Operation and Improvement in Waste Heat Boiler of Closed Calcium Carbide Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海宁; 孙波

    2012-01-01

    叙述了25.5 MVA密闭电石炉的余热锅炉经利用电石炉壁热空气代替余锅燃烧所需冷空气、锅炉除盐水预热、加强引风机清灰管理、优化运行过程中清灰操作、加强除尘器管理等方面进行的优化操作及改进后,中压蒸汽产量明显提高、低压蒸汽耗明显下降,达到工艺优化、节能的目的。%To describe process optimization of operation and improvement in waste heat boiler of 25.5 MVA closed calcium carbide furnace in terms of hot air utilization,desalted water preheating,induced draft fan cleaning,optimize the cleaning operation,and strengthening the dust management,etc.The output of medium pressure steam is increased and consume of low pressure steam is decreased apparently.The process optimization and energy saving and realized after making improvements.

  10. Capture of CO2 From Recirculating Flue Gas Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The possible need for an economical method for the separation of CO2 from flue gas adds a new set of challenges to power plant design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Many of the new requirements of CO2 separation are similar in nature to those addressed by the mature chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining and industrial chemical production. Chemical engineering processes are regularly used to separate heterogeneous vapors in processes such as the fractionation of hydrocarbons or the separation of the components of air. This paper addresses the application of chemical engineering processes to the mixtures of gases and vapors found in the flue gas of recirculating boilers. Adaptation of these techniques can lead to a reduction in the energy required to capture CO2.

  11. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  12. Applied studies in advanced boiler technology for Rankine cycle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, F.W.; Negreanu, M.J.

    1978-02-01

    A study is presented on a new rotational boiler design which has improved passive dynamic response and two-phase flow stability characteristics. A survey of small boiler manufacturers in the United States indicated that currently available designs are based on steady-state operating requirements rather than for dynamic performance. Recent work by EPA and ERDA which addressed boiler designs for mobile automotive Rankine cycle power systems showed that boilers of a monotube or multipass tube configuration design could be developed which were physically compact, but still were subject to the two-phase flow instability problem when coupled within an operating power system. The objectives of this work were to evaluate alternative boiler configurations which would improve boiler dynamic response and also have good two-phase liquid-vapor interface flow stability. The major physical design limitation of any boiler is the small external hot gas heat transfer coefficient. Such a low coefficient requires considerable design enhancements to increase the rate of energy transfer to the circulation system fluid. The rotational boiler is a physical design configuration which addresses this problem. The results of an analytic study using several mathematical model formulations showed that a rotational boiler could have a passive response time constant which was approximately one-half the magnitude for an equivalent single pass monotube boiler. An experimental prototype rotational boiler was designed, manufactured and tested, with the experimental results confirming that the experimental passive response time constants were comparable to the estimates from the analytic models. The experimental boiler operating in two-phase flow was found to be stable and responsive to external inputs. A rotational boiler configuration is a good alternative design configuration for small compact vapor generator designs based on fast transient passive response and two-phase flow stability.

  13. Components separation in complex ventral hernia repair: surgical technique and post-operative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samuel W; Oommen, Bindhu; Heniford, B Todd; Augenstein, Vedra A

    2014-03-01

    There are over 350,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHR) performed in the United States annually and a variety of laparoscopic and open surgical techniques are described and utilized. Complex ventral hernias such as recurrent hernias, those with infected mesh, open wounds, coexisting enteric fistulas, parastomal hernias, and massive hernias-especially those with loss of abdominal domain-require sophisticated repair techniques. Many of these repairs are performed via an open approach. Ideally, the aim is to place mesh under the fascia with a large overlap of the defect and obtain primary fascial closure. However, it is often impossible to bring together fascial edges in very large hernias. Component separation is an excellent surgical technique in selected patients which involves release of the different layers of the abdominal wall and in turn helps accomplish primary fascial approximation. The posterior rectus sheath, external oblique or the transverse abdominis fascia can be cut and allows for closure of fascia in a tension free manner in a majority of patients. In this chapter we describe the various techniques for component separation, indications for use, how to select an appropriate type of release and post-operative outcomes. PMID:24700223

  14. APPROACH TO DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF THE COMPONENT OF THE OPERATED CASCADE ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandey V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the industry and high level of development of technologies dictates the requirements to various electromechanical converters of energy and electric drives. Constantly there are new requirements to these types of devices and their characteristics that lead to creation of more and more difficult devices of the electric drive and control systems which example is cascade systems of electric drives. This type of drives solves part of problems of the modern industry. However, creation of such devices requires development of new approaches to design and creation of cascade systems of the electric drive and its components where one of the most complex challenges is determination of parameters of electromagnetic system. In the article, a new approach is given, in finding electromagnetic parameters of components of the operated cascade asynchronous electric drive, proceeding from the applied types of the electric windings distributed in space. This approach is realized at creation of the program complex, which is part of system of automatic design

  15. Numerical Simulation Study on NOx Emissions of the Ultra-supercritical Utility Boiler on Varying Operation Conditions%基于变工况运行超超临界锅炉NOx排放的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈跃云

    2012-01-01

    基于变工况运行,采用计算流体力学(CFD)模拟方法,对某电厂1000MW超超临界锅炉炉膛内CO、O2、NO浓度场和温度场进行计算和分析.影响该锅炉NOx排放浓度主要运行因素有燃用煤质、附加风量(AA风量)和过剩空气系数等.CFD数值模拟计算结果表明:锅炉通过合理组织炉内燃烧,实现了主燃烧区的较均匀的温度分布,主燃区的燃烧方式属于还原态燃烧方式;大量AA风的深度空气分级燃烧和锅炉低过量空气系数的有机结合及PM燃烧器的应用是该型锅炉NOx排放浓度低的主要原因.%Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to simulate the combustion and Nox formation processes in the furnace of a 1000 MW ultra-supercritical boiler so as to study the impacts of varying the operation conditions on its Nox emission as well as combustion characteristics. With the help of CFD simulation, the distributions of CO, O2 and NO concentrations and the combustion temperature were calculated and analyzed. The main influential operation parameters include coal type, additional air flow rate and excess air level. The CFD simulations indicated that the main reasons of low Nox emission from the boiler are on two aspects: rationally organizing combustion process to achieve relatively uniform temperature distribution and reducing combustion environment in the main combustion zone, and combining the utilizations of the large amount of additional air to achieve deep air stage and the low excess air level as well as PM burners.

  16. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  17. Energy operator demodulating of optimal resonance components for the compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compound faults diagnosis is a challenge for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. The vibration signals measured from gearboxes are usually complex, non-stationary, and nonlinear. When compound faults occur in a gearbox, weak fault characteristic signals are always submerged by the strong ones. Therefore, it is difficult to detect a weak fault by using the demodulating analysis of vibration signals of gearboxes directly. The key to compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes is to separate different fault characteristic signals from the collected vibration signals. Aiming at that problem, a new method for the compound faults diagnosis of gearboxes is proposed based on the energy operator demodulating of optimal resonance components. In this method, the genetic algorithm is first used to obtain the optimal decomposition parameters. Then the compound faults vibration signals of a gearbox are subject to resonance-based signal sparse decomposition (RSSD) to separate the fault characteristic signals of the gear and the bearing by using the optimal decomposition parameters. Finally, the separated fault characteristic signals are analyzed by energy operator demodulating, and each one’s instantaneous amplitude can be calculated. According to the spectra of instantaneous amplitudes of fault characteristic signals, the faults of the gear and the bearing can be diagnosed, respectively. The performance of the proposed method is validated by using the simulation data and the experiment vibration signals from a gearbox with compound faults. (paper)

  18. Topological properties of path connected components in spaces of weighted composition operators into L1

    OpenAIRE

    Izuchi, Kei Ji; IZUCHI, Yuko; OHNO, Shûichi

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates equivalence amongst the topological structures of path connected components in the spaces of weighted composition operators from $L^{\\infty}$, $H^{\\infty}$ and the disk algebra into $L^{\\infty}$ on the unit circle.

  19. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  20. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  1. DOWNSCALE APPLICATION OF BOILER THERMAL CALCULATION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Zbynĕk; Hrdlička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used thermal calculation methods are intended primarily for large scale boilers. Hot water small scale boilers, which are commonly used for home heating have many specifics, that distinguish them from large scale boilers especially steam boilers. This paper is focused on application of thermal calculation procedure that is designed for large scale boilers, on a small scale boiler for biomass combustion of load capacity 25 kW. Special issue solved here is influence of formation of dep...

  2. Numerical Analysis of the Factors about Combustion Stability on Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Weiping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the research of the coal pulverized catches fire and steadily combustion mechanism and the numerical Simulation of the 300MW Tangentially Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler by Coal-fire software?combine the operating data of the boiler, establish the corresponding relation between the result of numerical simulation and combustion stability. The result indicates that the higher volatile matter, lower content of ash and moisture of the coal, it helps the coal pulverized air current to catch fire . More fineness coal pulverized is favorable to catch fire. When boiler load reduced, it will influence the characteristic" lighted by itself " of the tangentially pulverized coal fired boiler, and it will cause combustion unstably.

  3. Boiler tube corrosion characterization with a scanning thermal line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Jacobstein, A. Ronald; Reilly, Thomas L.

    2001-03-01

    Wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant operational concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. Unfortunately, ultrasonic inspection is very manpower intense and slow. Therefore, thickness measurements are typically taken over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall and statistical analysis is used to determine the overall condition of the boiler tubing. Other inspection techniques, such as electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), have recently been evaluated, however they provide only a qualitative evaluation - identifying areas or spots where corrosion has significantly reduced the wall thickness. NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with ThermTech Services, has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to quantitatively measure the wall thickness and thus determine the amount of material thinning present in steel boiler tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed and accuracy for large structures such as boiler waterwalls.

  4. Assessing the emission factors of low-pour-fuel-oil and diesel in steam boilers

    OpenAIRE

    I.O Ohijeagbon; Jekayinfa, S.O.; M. A. Waheed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the emissions effects resulting from the use of low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel fuels in industrial steam boilers operation. The method of ultimate analysis of the products of combustion and emissions of pollutant analysis were used to estimate the annual rate of emissions of boilers. The results shows that the levels of uncontrolled boiler emissions on the environment can lead to increased greenhouse effects, global warming, and pollution and toxil...

  5. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Dlouhý; Tomáš Dupal; Jan Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heat...

  6. Energy Analysis of Baby Boiler for Steaming of Raw Cashew Nut Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Mohod; Khandetod, Y. P.; Sengar, S. H.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills with the help of baby boiler. The wide variations in energy intensity of these mills reveal the scope for energy conservation. The baby boiler coupled with cooker commonly used for steaming of raw seeds was evaluated. The variation in steam pressure, temperature and operating time with respect to fuel was observed along with thermal efficiency of a boiler. The energy intensity to pr...

  7. Research on Fuzzy Diagnosis Method of Boiler Steam and Water Pipe Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianglei; Wang, Yan

    Diagnosis pipe leakage timely and accurately is of great significance for safe and economic operation for boilers. According to the characteristics of the failure of boiler, this paper gives new function to describe fault symptoms and puts forward a new method of fault fuzzy recognition. Through simulation experiment, the new method was validated and compared with the existing fault diagnosis methods. The simulation results show that the new method for boiler failure recognition has high accuracy, and is better than other methods.

  8. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  9. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NOx reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO2/MJ fuel input and the NOx reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Development of candidate high heat flux components for steady state operation of the EAST device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EAST is a full superconducting tokamak, as a National project in ASIPP, which will operate in high power and steady state, and impose severe requirements on plasma facing components (PFC). There are three aspects important: 1) PFM has high enough thermal conductivity, which can fulfill the criteria to exhaust the high power deposit on PFC and can meet the requirements of surface temperature constraints; 2) Erosion resistance is also very important, which directly related to the lifetime of plasma facing components and plasma recycling control. 3) Integration behavior of PFC under actively water-cooled conditions. A series of multi-element doped graphite has been developed for the first wall, and a super carbon sheet has been chosen as compliant layer to improve the thermal contact and minimize the surface temperature; Contrary to CBM, SiC has much lower chemical and high-temperature sputtering, is capable of oxygen gettering and lower hydrogen recycling. The behavior of thick SiC gradient coatings on different CBM under steady state and pulsed high heat flux, and HT-7 limiter plasma irradiation was investigated. Tungsten is now under development being considered as one of the promising candidate materials for the divertor plate of EAST device, several joining Methods have been developed, 2mm thick tungsten tile brazed or direct by blast compound to copper alloy heat sink with functionally gradient layer, a modeling for residual stress analysis has been established and high heat flux experiments have also been finished, a small mock-up possess good performance, a large module is now under way. In the above experiments, the samples were examined with respect to the temperature distribution, changes of surface morphology, surface atomic composition and etc. (authors)

  11. Generation of heat and current by a rape-oil-operated unit-system heating and power station and a rape-oil-fired heating boiler; Waerme- und Stromerzeugung mit rapsoelbetriebenem Blockheizkraftwerk und rapsoelbetriebenem Heizkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppe, K. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1997-08-01

    Fuels on a rape-oil basis constitute an interesting ecological alternative to the conventional mineral oil products. In Germany rape is the plant with the highest yields of oil. It has been used so far as foodstuff, and within certain limits the European agricultural market regime provides on set-aside farmland the cultivation of products which must not be intended for the foodstuffs sector. In the following paper a report is given on the model project `Use of Rape Oil for the Heat and Current Supply in the Academy of the Lutheran Protestant Church of Saxony in Meissen` supported by the Saxon Ministry of the Environment and of Regional Development within the framework of the advancement programme `Pollution Control` [8, 14, 34], which was scientifically accompanied by the Institute for Power Engineering of the Dresden University of Technology [36]. Whereas the use of vegetable (rape) oil in engines has been investigated in the most different ways in the last few years, the operation of a commercial oil-fired boiler on rape oil is a novelty. (orig.)

  12. Influence of Heat Flux and Friction Coefficient on Thermal Stresses in Risers of Drum Boilers under Dynamic Conditions of Steam Demand

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Habib; Alzaharnah, I.; El-Shafei, M.; Merah, N.; Al-Anizi, S.; M. Y. Al-Awwad; Hajji, M

    2013-01-01

    Boiler swing rate, which is the rate at which the boiler load is changed, has significant influence on the parameters of the boiler operating conditions such as drum water pressure and level, steam quality in the riser tubes, wall temperatures of riser tubes, and the associated thermal stresses. In this paper, the thermal stresses developed in boiler tubes due to elevated rates of heat transfer and friction are presented versus thermal stresses developed in tubes operated under normal conditi...

  13. COMBINED BOILER WITH TPV

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    A TPV-system consists of a hot surface emitting heat radiation on a solar cell with a narrow bandgap.  A unit consisting of a boiler and a TPV-system has been constructed for testing of the performance of TPV cells. The emitter is heated by a fuel consisting of RME-oil. The radiation is collected and concentrated through two reflecting cones formed like a Faberge-egg, with an edge-type optical filter between the cones. The Faberge-egg is treated with electro-polishing in order to obtain a hig...

  14. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  15. Superheater corrosion in kraft recovery boilers; Korrosion hos oeverhettare i sodapannor. En oeversikt och diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, F. [AaF-IPK, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion seems to be the most essential factor limiting the life and the availability of kraft recovery boilers. The steam temperature from the kraft recovery boiler has, seen from the view of electricity production and steam turbine operation, traditionally been kept moderate, especially in comparison with steam data from normal utility power plants. So the corrosion of the superheaters has been more a limitation for the temperature of the steam produced by the boiler than a life length limitation. Both the pressure and the temperature of the steam are limited by corrosion. The temperature of the boiling water, and hence the pressure, is limited by the corrosion in the lower furnace. The temperature of the steam is limited by the corrosion in the superheater. Kraft boiler superheater corrosion is here governed not only by the boiler design, but more by the mill chemistry and boiler operation practice. This report discusses the formation and the properties of the deposits and their relation to boiler operation and the corrosion of the superheater tube material. We have tried to understand the corrosion in the kraft boiler superheaters better by comparing with the experience from the utility boilers. 86 refs, 79 figs

  16. Making the Most of the Operating Experience Feedback: Design of a Computerized Data Base Related to NPP Component Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricite de France carries out several analyses on NPP component behavior every year. However, these analyses are conducted separately by specialists of only the kind of component and regardless of the time factor. Seven years ago, a working group from the Nuclear Operation Division completed a detailed examination of component behavior of the 50 NPP then in operation, over a ten-years period (from 1980 to 1990). These analyses have been centered on main components only. Today, another working group will integrate this operating experience in a computerized process to facilitate access to all the information contained in the data base. This system will be based on a site server allowing a user-friendly connection, and updated periodically. (author)

  17. Gas mixing processes in nuclear AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the safe operation and control of Nuclear (A.G.R.) boilers, 2-D computational models are currently under development. The aim of these models is to predict the flow and temperature distribution of the gas and water side under different operational conditions. These models are based on numerical solutions of the 2-D flow and heat transfer equations for turbulent flow in boilers. Measurements on a closely pitched tube bank with water cooling have demonstrated considerable discrepancies between experimental results and computer predictions. This investigation is therefore being carried out to study theoretically and experimentally the flow and heat transfer process under such a boiler condition. A two dimensional computer model has been developed which incorporates the effects of gas mixing and the interactions between the gas and water side. To cover the complete heat exchanger the governing equations are written in the lumped parameter form. The governing equations have been solved by a computer code written in FORTRAN-77. To test the validity of this model, the computer predictions have been compared with experimental results. Results to date indicate reasonable agreement with experiment and a further refinement of the computer model is indicated. (author)

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  20. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  1. Maximising safety in the boiler house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Carr

    2013-03-01

    Last month's HEJ featured an article, the second in our new series of guidance pieces aimed principally at Technician-level engineers, highlighting some of the key steps that boiler operators can take to maximise system performance and efficiency, and thus reduce running both costs and carbon footprint. In the third such article, Derry Carr, C.Env, I.Eng, BSc (Hons), M.I.Plant.E., M.S.O.E., technical manager & group gas manager at Dalkia, who is vice-chairman of the Combustion Engineering Association, examines the key regulatory and safety obligations for hospital energy managers and boiler technicians, a number of which have seen changes in recent years with revision to guidance and other documentation. PMID:23573684

  2. Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of a pellet boiler operated with different agricultural fuels. ► Agricultural fuels could be burn in the tested boiler for a certain period of time. ► All the fuels (except straw and Sorghum) satisfied the European legal requirements. ► Boilers for burning agricultural fuels should have a flexible control system. - Abstract: The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15 kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion

  3. Sparse Component Analysis Using Time-Frequency Representations for Operational Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqian Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sparse component analysis (SCA has been widely used for blind source separation(BSS for many years. Recently, SCA has been applied to operational modal analysis (OMA, which is also known as output-only modal identification. This paper considers the sparsity of sources’ time-frequency (TF representation and proposes a new TF-domain SCA under the OMA framework. First, the measurements from the sensors are transformed to the TF domain to get a sparse representation. Then, single-source-points (SSPs are detected to better reveal the hyperlines which correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. The K-hyperline clustering algorithm is used to identify the direction vectors of the hyperlines and then the mixing matrix is calculated. Finally, basis pursuit de-noising technique is used to recover the modal responses, from which the modal parameters are computed. The proposed method is valid even if the number of active modes exceed the number of sensors. Numerical simulation and experimental verification demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  4. Use of filming amine treatment for cycle chemistry operation on an 8.4 MPa drum boiler unit after 20 years of storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galt, Kenneth J.; Sulliman, Sumayyah [Eskom Holdings SOC. Ltd., Johannesburg (South Africa). Chemical Discipline, Plant Engineering Group Technology

    2012-06-15

    In the late 1980s Eskom was faced with a large overcapacity situation ({approx} 30 %) and several stations were either shut down/mothballed or changed to two-shifting operation. By 2004, instead of overcapacity, there was an impending power shortage. Eskom began to build new stations and return mothballed plants to service. After 20 years of storage, Komati Unit 7 was the first mixed-metallurgy unit to be returned. Instead of implementing AVT(R) chemistry a decision was made to operate the unit under filming amine treatment (FAT). Although targeting compliance with existing Eskom cycle chemistry specifications (and the major international guidelines), the real criterion of success was minimisation of corrosion product (CP) transport, with Unit 7 being measured by comparison with CP transport on Unit 9, an all-ferrous unit operating AVT(O). The iron transport figures obtained showed comparable results on the two units, while copper transport was below detection levels. For Komati the ultimate goal is implementation of FAT on all 9 units; this paper relates the Komati FAT experience to date. (orig.)

  5. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  6. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  7. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained con...

  8. Selecting Actuator Configuration for a Benson Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of an optimal actuator configuration in an economic perspective. The objective is to minimize the economical cost of operating a given plant. Functionals encapsulating information of the business objectives given the different actuators has been established...... with particular focus on a boiler in a power plant operated by DONG Energy - a Danish energy supplier. The problem has been reformulated using mathematic notions from economics. The selection of actuator configuration has been limited to the fuel system which in the considered plant consists of three different...

  9. Fuel sulfur and boiler fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces of boilers and furnaces by `soot` leads to reduced efficiency and increased service requirements. The average level of annual efficiency reduction as a result of fouling if generally accepted as 2% per year. Improving the efficiency of equipment in the field may be the most important oil heat conservation opportunity at present. Improvements can be realized by reducing fouling rates, promoting lower firing rates in existing equipment, and enabling excess air levels to be set lower without raising concerns about increased service requirements. In spite of the importance of efficiency in the field there is very little data available on efficiency degradation rates with modern equipment, actual field operating conditions (excess air and smoke number settings) and service problems which affect efficiency. During 1993-94 field tests were initiated to obtain such data and to obtain information that would compliment existing and current laboratory work. Experimental work conducted on a bench scale level have included tests with various advanced burners, fuel types, and different operating conditions which have been done at the BNL Rapid Fouling Test Facility. This report will focus on the field study of fouling effects on ten residential heating service problems at each site are summarized. In addition, the technical difficulties involved with conducting such a field study shall also be discussed as the findings should serve to improve future work in this area.

  10. Competition analysis on the operating system market using principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brătucu, G.; Boitor, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operating system market has evolved greatly. The largest software producer in the world, Microsoft, dominates the operating systems segment. With three operating systems: Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 the company held a market share of 87.54% in January 2011. Over time, open source operating systems have begun to penetrate the market very strongly affecting other manufacturers. Companies such as Apple Inc. and Google Inc. penetrated the operating system market. This paper aims to co...

  11. Transient temperature response of in-vessel components due to pulsed operation in tokamak fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient temperature response of the in-vessel components (first wall, blanket, divertor/limiter and shielding) surrounding plasma in Tokamak Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) has been analysed. Transient heat load during start up/shut down and pulsed operation cycles causes the transient temperature response in those components. The fatigue lifetime of those components significantly depends upon the resulting cyclic thermal stress. The burn time affects the temperature control in the solid breeder (Li2O) and also affects the thermo-mechanical design of the blanket and shielding which are constructed with thick structure. In this report, results of the transient temperature response obtained by the heat transfer and conduction analyses for various pulsed operation scenarios (start up, shut down, burn and dwell times) have been investigated in view of thermo-mechanical design of the in-vessel components. (author)

  12. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  13. Thermal efficiency tests of boiler OB 380 at TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex thermal (balancing) tests have been performed on the boiler CB 380 at Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej' - Macedonia. Test have been dedicated to the examination of the boiler efficiency and all head-loses. For getting hat all relevant parameters for heat and material balance have been measured. Tests with and without high pressure water heaters in operation have been performed at different loads. All samplings and measurements at all boiler tracts have been performed. Results have shown relatively high boiler efficiency, at the given conditions, and completely justifiable correlation with operating parameters and regimes. Balance tests of the air heaters have revealed an extremely low, participation of hot air. An action program, based on the tests results, have been suggested as a platform for further boiler adjustments and operation at optimal conditions. (Author)

  14. Studies, Transport and Treatment Concept for Boilers from Berkeley NPP, England - 13599

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. Four boilers have been processed and the fifth is planned for completion by end of December 2012.The project had many challenges including a very tight timescale and has been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the first four boilers. It is the first UK project to send large components overseas for recycling and provides new insight into the processing of Magnox gas-circuit components. (authors)

  15. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  16. Safe exploitation of ship steam-boilers worked for normative service term

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Nickolay Nickitovich; Yakovlev Pavel Viktorovich

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of conformity of ship steam-boiler descriptions to the re-quirements of Register is executed. The operating conditions for all period of work have been analyzed. The typical problems affecting planning of repair works and current maintenance of boiler, and also possibilities of extension of the term of its exploitation have been defined.

  17. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  18. 300 MW燃煤火力发电厂锅炉运行及安全性能研究%300 MW coal-fired thermal power plant boiler operation and safety performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    China has abundant coal resources ,the current coal-fired power plants in China is still the main power grid .With China’ s sustained rapid development of power industry ,fire station’s capacity is also growing ,at present ,the existing main units concentrated in the range of 300MW 600MW unit capacity .Whether the stable operation of the unit depends largely on the quality of coal ,coal-fired power plants and many are not having a single kind of coal ,often configured in accordance with a certain percentage of a variety of coals ,coal ,.Therefore ,this article focused on the 300MW coal-fired power boiler combustion unit operating conditions ,to analyze the changes in the operation of thermal power fuel problem ,ensure safe operation of the Properties .%  我国拥有较为丰富的煤炭资源,当前,燃煤火力发电厂仍然是我国电网的主力电厂。随着我国电力工业的持续迅速发展,火力电站的容量也越来越大,目前,现存的主力机组集中在300 MW~600 MW范围内的单机容量。机组是否稳定运行,很大程度上取决于燃煤的质量,而许多燃煤火力发电厂都不是拥有单一的一种煤种,往往会按照一定比例配置多种煤种的混煤。为此,文章集中研究了300MW机组燃煤火力发电锅炉的燃烧运行情况,从而分析了火力发电燃料变化的运行问题,以确保其安全运行。

  19. Alkali metal Rankine cycle boiler technology challenges and some potential solutions for space nuclear power and propulsion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently.

  20. Mitigating the Risk of Stress Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) operated in the UK by EDF Energy have once-through boilers, which deliver superheated steam at high temperature (∼500 deg. C) and pressure (∼150 bar) to the HP turbine. The boilers have either a serpentine or helical geometry for the tubing of the main heat transfer sections of the boiler and each individual tube is fabricated from mild steel, 9%Cr1%Mo and Type 316 austenitic stainless steel tubing. Type 316 austenitic stainless steel is used for the secondary (final) superheater and steam tailpipe sections of the boiler, which, during normal operation, should operate under dry, superheated steam conditions. This is achieved by maintaining a specified margin of superheat at the upper transition joint (UTJ) between the 9%Cr1%Mo primary superheater and the Type 316 secondary superheater sections of the boiler. Operating in this mode should eliminate the possibility of stress corrosion cracking of the Type 316 tube material on-load. In recent years, however, AGRs have suffered a variety of operational problems with their boilers that have made it difficult to maintain the specified superheat margin at the UTJ. In the case of helical boilers, the combined effects of carbon deposition on the gas side and oxide deposition on the waterside of the tubing have resulted in an increasing number of austenitic tubes operating with less than the specified superheat margin at the UTJ and hence the possibility of wetting the austenitic section of the boiler. Some units with serpentine boilers have suffered creep-fatigue damage of the high temperature sections of the boiler, which currently necessitates capping the steam outlet temperature to prevent further damage. The reduction in steam outlet temperature has meant that there is an increased risk of operation with less than the specified superheat margin at the UTJ and hence stress corrosion cracking of the austenitic sections of the boiler. In order to establish the risk of stress

  1. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  2. Emission analysis of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present project is to study the emissions from some of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market. The aim is to identify the critical factors which determine the emission levels by means of emission measurements as well as temperature measurements in the combustion chamber. Four boilers with different design characteristics have been included in the project. All boilers use reversed combustion and fan-assisted combustion air supply, and have shown low tar emissions in earlier environmental tests. Boiler A is a boiler with a rather large mass of ceramics in the grate and in the burn-out zone, and a large volume of water. Boiler B has a smaller mass in the cast-iron grate and in the burn-out zone and a small water volume. Boiler C is a boiler with tertiary air and an incorporated accumulator tank. Boiler D has a zirconia-cell probe for continuous control of the air-excess ratio. The measurements have been made with the boilers in accumulator operation, i.e. at maximum heat output, since they are intended for this type of operation. Tests have, in addition to normal operating conditions, been made with high fuel moisture contents, high draught and a low boiler temperature at the start of the test. Measurements have been made of excess-air ratios, contents of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), NOx and a number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the flue gases as well as of combustion temperatures below the grate

  3. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  5. Numerical simulation based cold tests for a tangentially fired boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yuhua; ZHANG Jiayuan; ZHANG Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Such problems as flameout and serious slagging frequently occurred in a 170 t/h tangentially fired boiler burning inferior coals and with low load.Thus,cold tests were carried out to comprehensively investigate the performance of each air tube and the size and position of the tangential circle.Therefore,the cause and area of slagging in furnace can be determined.Thus,by numerical simulation on combustion,the optimal operation parameters for the boiler burning different coals under various loads conditions can be provided.The actual application showed that,the boiler fed with present coal can be long-term operated stably at 60% load,and its heat efficiency was up to 91%.Moreover,the abnormal flameout no longer occurred,and the slagging was alleviated a lot.

  6. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  7. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  8. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO2 mitigation.

  9. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  10. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-01-27

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder

  14. Investigation on structural integrity of graphite component during high temperature 950degC continuous operation of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite material is used for internal structures in high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The core components and graphite core support structures are so designed as to maintain the structural integrity to keep core cooling capability. To confirm that the core components and graphite core support structures satisfy the design requirements, the temperatures of the reactor internals are measured during the reactor operation. Surveillance test of graphite specimens and in-service inspection using TV camera are planned in conjunction with the refueling. This paper describes the evaluation results of the integrity of the core components and graphite core support structures during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation, a high temperature continuous operation with reactor outlet temperature of 950degC for 50 days, in high temperature engineering test reactor. The design requirements of the core components and graphite core support structures were satisfied during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation. The dimensional change of graphite which directly influences the temperature of coolant was estimated considering the temperature profiles of fuel block. The magnitude of irradiation-induced dimensional change considering temperature profiles was about 1.2 times larger than that under constant irradiation temperature of 1000degC. In addition, the programs of surveillance test and ISI using TV camera were introduced. (author)

  15. Concept for in-service inspections and operational monitoring of components belonging to Swiss safety categories 1 to 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper shows a concept for in-service inspections and operational monitoring of components belonging to safety categories 1 to 4. Furthermore, requirements on testing methods and in-service inspections of engineered safeguards against excess pressure are discussed. (RW)

  16. Statistical Average of Spin Operators for Calculation of Three-Component Magnetization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huai-Yu; ZHOU Bin; CHEN Nan-Xian

    2005-01-01

    When one wants to calculate all the three components of magnetization of Heisenberg model under random phase approximation, at least one of the components should be the solution of an ordinary differential equation. In this paper such an equation is established. It is argued that the general expressions of magnetization for any spin quantum number S suggested before are the solution of the ordinary differential equation.

  17. Channel and active component abstractions for WSN programming - a language model with operating system support

    OpenAIRE

    P. Harvey; Dearle, A.; Lewis, J.; Sventek, J.

    2012-01-01

    To support the programming of Wireless Sensor Networks, a number of unconventional programming models have evolved, in particular the event-based model. These models are non-intuitive to programmers due to the introduction of unnecessary, non-intrinsic complexity. Component-based languages like Insense can eliminate much of this unnecessary complexity via the use of active components and synchronous channels. However, simply layering an Insense implementation over an existing event-based syst...

  18. Exergy Analysis of Boiler In cogeneration Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang j gulhane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available – Effective energy utilization and its management for minimizing irreversibility has made human to look for efficient energy consumption & conversion. Based on several research activity and local power plant experience some key observation has made and is presented in this paper The aim of this paper is to be find out amount and source of irreversibilities gererated in boiler of 35 TPH boiler in 6 MW captive power plant so that any process in the system that having largest energy destruction can be identified that help designer to re design the system components

  19. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels; Montgomery, Melanie; Hede Larsen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. To avoid such high corrosion rates, woodchip...... has also been utilised as a fuel. Combustion of woodchip results in a smaller amount of ash, and potassium and chlorine are present in lesser amounts. However, significant corrosion rates were still seen. A case study of a woodchip fired boiler is described. The corrosion mechanisms in both straw-fired...... and woodchip fired boilers are discussed....

  20. GL Studio Components Operating Methods in MFC Environment%MFC环境下GL Studio组件交互方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田冬; 高凤岐; 夏明飞

    2012-01-01

    针对MFC环境下GL Studio组件交互困难的问题,从GL Studio使用环境和开发基本流程入手,提出了一种MFC环境下GL Studio组件绘制和交互方法,阐述了虚拟组件操作和MFC环境下GL Studio API的对应关系,并给出了连续旋钮人机交互的具体算法.%With regard to the interacting problems of GL Studio Components Operating in MFC Environment, a method for the rendering and interacting GL Studio components is put forward. GL Studio development environment is introduced,and the relation between virtual components and GL Studio API is presented. Then,a general algorithm of continuous knob operation is realized in detail.

  1. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  2. Burner tilting angle effect on velocity profile in 700 MW Utility Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Thangaraju, S. K.; Hassan, H.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-09-01

    700 MW of utility boiler is investigated with manipulation of inlet burner angle. Manipulation of burner titling angle is an operational methodology in controlling rear pass temperature in utility boilers. The rear pass temperature unbalance between right and left side is a problem caused by fouling and slagging of the ash from the coal fired boilers. This paper presents the CFD investigation on the 0° and -30° of the burner angle of the utility boiler. The results focusing on the velocity profile. The design condition of 0° burner firing angle is compared with the off-design burner angle -30° which would be the burner angle to reduce the rear pass temperature un-balance by boiler operators. It can be concluded that the -30° burner angle reduce the turbulence is fire ball mixing inside the furnace. It also shift the fire ball position in the furnace to reduce the rear pass temperature.

  3. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O2 concentration ([O2]effective) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O2]effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O2]effective, to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  4. Core operational Sentinel-3 marine data product services as part of the Copernicus Space Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Wannop, Sally; Tomazic, Igor; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the marine data available from the Marine Centre, part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The Marine Centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a centralised operational service for operational oceanography. These descriptions of the marine data are produced with a focus on a user service perspective. They include the scientific and operational feedback mechanisms on the performance of the services as well as practical information and user support mechanisms.

  5. Characteristics of working regimes in the burning chamber of the steam boiler OB 380 at TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with characterization of the 110 MWe boiler furnace operational parameters. Measurement of the flue gas temperatures and emitted heat fluxes as the main heat transfer parameters of the boiler furnace was performed during five different operational regimes. Analysis of measured parameters on the basis of designed values as the recommendations aimed to improve boiler efficiency and reliability are briefly presented. Installation of Flame position module of the monitoring system for utility boiler on-line diagnostics [6) is also recommended. (Author)

  6. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  7. Study of Microstructure Degradation of Boiler Tubes Due To Creep for Remaining Life Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sankhala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of power shortage in India, the main objective is to ensure availability of power plant and increasing its reliability. During assessment ,testing and inspection a simple question has to be asked again and again‖ How long the particular power plants can be operated safely and cost-effectively with satisfying increased requirements and operational availability with reduced pollutant emissions, even after their designed life. So to answer this important question regarding the operational capability of the existing plant the remaining life analysis (RLA has to be done. The condition of the plant equipments can be assessed only by way of a RLA methodology. On the basis of RLA proper decision can be made about the plants safety and availability. There are many methods to carry out the RLA of the critical components out of which ―microstructure study‖ is a method. In this paper we have tried to outline the RLA procedures and review the various damage mechanisms based on microstructure study. It is also presents the microstructure changes and properties of 106720 service hour exposed boiler tube in a 120 MW boiler of a thermal power plant.

  8. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  9. An essay on the dimension and components of customisation in service operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Gil, María José; Arias-Aranda, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    There is a scarcity of guidelines that trigger the adoption of Customisation, a concept frequently brought up in Service-related Operations management. This paper suggests a comprehensive framework of the Customisation process and its implications for Service Operations Management. We identify the two most outstanding approaches of Customisation, based upon the concepts of Customers'needings and Wishes. Main differences between them and their respective effects on the design of the Service Op...

  10. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  11. Assessment of wood pellet combustion in a domestic boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellet is a densified and homogeneous fuel to have better transport, storage and feeding capabilities than the original biomass for various domestic and industrial uses. A wood pellet boiler or stove needs to achieve complete combustion and high energy efficiency, which is often not easy for domestic application due to the design requirement for compact furnace and heat exchangers. This paper presents the design assessment of a 35 kW wood pellet boiler for domestic heating using experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. For wood pellets with a lower heating value of 18 MJ/ kg and diameter 8 mm, the gas composition, temperatures and ash characteristics were measured from different parts of the boiler for various operational load, air flow rate and furnace configurations. The effects of other key parameters on the performance of the boiler were analyzed by CFD, which include furnace shapes, flow distribution and directions of secondary/ tertiary air. The results show that introducing simple measures to enhance gaseous mixing and reactions can greatly improve the combustion efficiency in a compact furnace. The findings can be applied to wood pellet boilers with difference capacities. (author)

  12. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural

  13. The First Component of the Adaptive Optics Facility Enters Operations: The Laser Traffic Control System on Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, P.; Santos, P.; Summers, D.; Duhoux, Ph.; Arsenault, R.; Bierwirth, Th.; Kuntschner, H.; Madec, P.-Y.; Prümm, M.; Rejkuba, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Laser Traffic Control System (LTCS) entered routine operations on 1 October 2015 at the Paranal Observatory as the first component of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). LTCS allows the night operators to plan and execute the observations without having to worry about possible collisions between the AOF's powerful laser beams and other telescopes with laser-sensitive instruments. LTCS provides observers with real-time information about ongoing collisions, predictive information for possible collisions and priority resolution between telescope pairs, where at least one telescope is operating a laser. LTCS is now deployed and embedded in the observatory's operational environment, supporting high configurability of telescopes and instruments, right-of-way priority rules and interfacing with ESO's observing tools for Service and Visitor Mode observations.

  14. A case of small cell gastric carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component operated curatively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yata,Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We present a case of a primary advanced gastric tumor that was composed of 2 different pathological components: small cell carcinoma and moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient was still alive four years after the surgery was performed, without recurrence. A large part of the tumor consisted of a diffuse sheet of small cell carcinoma, which transitioned into another small portion consisting of moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma components. Therefore, this case raised the possibility that small cell gastric carcinoma may originate from totipotential stem cells of the stomach. Although small cell carcinoma progresses aggressively, and patients with it have an extremely poor prognosis, this patient recovered uneventfully after the surgical resection, and has remained in good health, without any recurrences.

  15. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  16. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher QH,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  17. Operation of Geothermal Heat System in The Hague, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal Heat system The Hague needs a provision in the shape of a geothermal heat system for additional heat supply to approximately 4000 dwellings in the Southwest of The Hague. Some interested persons and residents have questions about the operation of the system, the linkage to the source of geothermal heat, the need for an auxiliary heat boiler, the emission, the operating hours, the noise and the plume formation. This memo contains an explanation of the various components of the geothermal heat plant.

  18. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  19. Technical solutions on retrofitting TPP-210A boilers for firing low-grade coals with low reaction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, G. I.; Ivanenko, V. V.; Zhukov, K. G.; Fedotov, P. N.

    2013-06-01

    Results from development of a conceptual project for retrofitting TPP-210A boilers worked out by specialists of EMAlliance are described. Operation of the TPP-210A boilers installed at the Tripolskaya thermal power station is subjected to a comprehensive analysis. The existing difficulties connected with firing anthracite culm are considered. Two boiler retrofitting versions involving the use of a regenerative or tubular air heater are proposed. The advantages of the retrofitting version involving installation of a tubular air heater are described.

  20. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  1. A Novel Indirect Sequence Readout Component in the E. coli Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Møllegaard, Niels Erik

    2014-01-01

    nucleobase interactions in the major groove of the two operator half-sites. Crystal structure analyses have revealed that the interaction results in two strong kinks at the TG/CA steps closest to the 6-base-pair spacer (N6). This spacer exhibits high sequence variability among the more than 100 natural...

  2. On risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Operation and maintenance are significant contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning could rationally be based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory, and all costs through the lifetime of the structures should be included. This paper contains a study of a...

  3. Generic evaluation of operating experience with regard to the ageing behaviour of passive mechanical components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-90s, GRS has been dealing systematically with the assessment of the influences of ageing on the safety of nuclear power plants. This also involves the generic evaluation of operating experience. In the following, the procedure, methodological approaches and relevant results are presented in an exemplary manner for passive mechanical components. The results show that the number of events influenced by ageing phenomena that have so far occurred in German plants is low and that measures were taken where necessary to detect, monitor and control any changes due to ageing. As new insights may emerge over time concerning the assessment of the ageing behaviour of the components, it is considered necessary to continue with the ongoing generic evaluation of operating experience in order to obtain timely indications of any safety-relevant changes. (orig.)

  4. Operation experience at the Neuherberg Research Reactor (FRN) with several modifications of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first full power operation in September 1972 up till now (Dec. 1973) the TRIGA Mark III reactor FRN has run more than 500 MWh in steady state operation and has been pulsed for 265 times. During startup experiments, neutron- and gamma-flux mapping has been performed with special technical devices in the core and in several irradiation positions, mainly in the thermal column and in the exposure room. Furthermore reactivity values of each fuel element have been measured at full power of 1 MW, thus enabling a more accurate burnup calculation. Troubles with the rotary specimen rack occurred at power rates above 280 kW; here, the lazy susan stuck, caused by thermal stress. Thus it will be replaced by a hydraulic-operated type, which has been developed at the TRIGA reactor Heidelberg. In order to increase irradiation capacity, a new core configuration has been set up a few months ago, replacing several fuel-reflector-elements by irradiation tubes within the grid-plate positions E-22, G-2, G-17 and G-36. Four additional fuel elements had to be inserted to compensate for the resulting reactivity losses. The original plan of regaining sufficient excess-reactivity by inserting a fuel element in grid-plate position A-l failed because of local boiling in the center of the core by 1 MW-operation. Experiments at the reactor started with the begin of routine-operation in September 1973. Up till now, a total of 450 neutron- and gamma- irradiations have been performed, mainly for neutron-activations. (author)

  5. Characterization of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of high-tech electronic components

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Tănase; Stoica, Anicuţa; Iavorschi, Gustav; Pârvulescu, Oana Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of electronic components is very efficient. They have an excellent miniaturizing capacity and this fact creates adaptability for more practical situations. Starting from the observation that these cooling systems are not precisely characterized from the thermal efficiency point of view, the present paper proposes a methodology of data acquisition for their thermal characterization. An ...

  6. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  7. Formation of corrosion products protecting surfaces of the boiler proper tubes from the combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrzyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine how the oxidation product layer of the steel applied for the radiant tubes should increase if we are going to obtain the lowest possible corrosion losses.Design/methodology/approach: Boiler tubes, made of 13CrMo4-5 steel were subjected to tests. In the boiler BP-1150, the tubes ø 30 x 5 mm are joined by fins and form a membrane shield. According to the maps of tube wall thickness, in the zone of the highest heat load, sectors of the shield were sampled in the places where the tube wall thickness was equal or greater than 4.3 mm, i.e. the minimum calculation thickness, according to the specifications given by the boiler manufacturer. It means that the corrosive loss could be determined as small, in spite of a long operation time (more than 60,000 hours.Findings: The authors have determined structure and chemical and phase compositions of products and deposits forming in the radiant tubes in the regions of low corrosive losses after long-lasting operation (up to 60,000 hours. Then, they discussed a mechanism of formation of a compact layer protecting a steel surface against excessive oxidation under combustion gases.Practical implications: The layer on the tubes with small losses of wall thickness are characterized by the following properties: good compactness, very good adhesion to the metallic base, low amount of sulfur, especially in magnetite, no aggressive components at the phase boundary product – steel, small development of the phase boundary product-steel. Owing to those properties, even presence of sulfur in the products do not reduce their passivation qualities.Originality/value: Determination of the oxidation product layer of the steel applied for the radiant tubes.

  8. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  9. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA); Panchal, C B [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) components operating with seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Pesaran, A. A.; Panchal, C. B.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Boiler Retrofit for the Utilization of Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Leily Nurul Komariah; Marwani Marwani

    2016-01-01

    Fuel oil used in the boiler is able to substitute with biodiesel. In lower blends, there are no engine modification needed, but some researchers recommended some technical adjustments in order to maintain the boiler's performance and equipment durability. This study consists of the comparison between the performance of boiler before and after retrofitting on the use of biodiesel. The diesel oil was introduced in biodiesel blends of 10% (B10), 20% (B20) and 25% (B25). A fire tube boiler was us...

  12. Public Health Emergency Operations Center - A critical component of mass gatherings management infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elachola, Habidah; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Turkestani, Abdulhafiz; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings (MG) are characterized by the influx of large numbers of people with the need to have infrastructural changes to support these gatherings. Thus, Public Health Emergency Operations Center (PHEOC) is critical management infrastructure for both the delivery of public health functions and for mounting adequate response during emergencies. The recognition of the importance of PHEOC at the leadership and political level is foundational for the success of any public health intervention during MG. The ability of the PHEOC to effectively function depends on appropriate design and infrastructure, staffing and command structure, and plans and procedures developed prior to the event. Multi-ministerial or jurisdictional coordination will be required and PHEOC should be positioned with such authorities. This paper outlines the essential concepts, elements, design, and operational aspects of PHEOC during MG. PMID:27580322

  13. Safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administration company in Antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Sepúlveda M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administra-tion company in Antioquia, Colombia. To this end, their op-eration conditions shall be characterized, the associated risks identified, and their safety level assessed. Methodology:. a descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in twenty companies whose production processes involve boilers. A survey on the conditions for operation was applied on both the maintenance managers and the boilers’ operators in each company. A hazard risk assessment matrix was made as in-structed in the GTC-45 Colombian technical guide, and an assessment instrument was applied to determine the safety level for each boiler. Results: 70% of the assessed boilers obtained a low score (less than 65 points according to the scale, which has been validated by experts; the remaining boilers obtained an acceptable score (66 to 81 points. It was also found that 85% of the boilers had no operating instructions, and 60% of them did not have any kind of alarm. Conclusions: the stud-ied boilers had poor security conditions, mainly related to the absence of operation protocols, boiler operator training, and poor supervision by competent authorities

  14. Back-propagation operation for analog neural network hardware with synapse components having hysteresis characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michihito; Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware. PMID:25393715

  15. Back-propagation operation for analog neural network hardware with synapse components having hysteresis characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihito Ueda

    Full Text Available To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware.

  16. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  17. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    CERN Document Server

    Riccardo, V; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Thompson, V; Villedieu, E; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the JET ITER-like Wall Project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the redu...

  18. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47... Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating...

  20. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss predicted by the BP neural network model showed good agreement with the measured. Then, BP model and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II were combined to gain the optimal operating parameters which lead to lower NOx emissions and overall heat loss boiler. The optimization results showed that hybrid algorithm by combining BP neural network with NSGA-II can be a good tool to solve the problem of multi-objective optimization of a coal-fired combustion, which can reduce NOx emissions and overall heat loss effectively for the coal-fired boiler.

  1. Telescope Bibliographies: an Essential Component of Archival Data Management and Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Erdmann, Christopher; Rots, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the impact of astronomical facilities rests upon an evaluation of the scientific discoveries which their data have enabled. Telescope bibliographies, which link data products with the literature, provide a way to use bibliometrics as an impact measure for the underlying data. In this paper we argue that the creation and maintenance of telescope bibliographies should be considered an integral part of an observatory's operations. We review the existing tools, services, and workflows which support these curation activities, giving an estimate of the effort and expertise required to maintain an archive-based telescope bibliography.

  2. Telescope bibliographies: an essential component of archival data management and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, Edwin; Erdmann, Christopher; Rots, Arnold

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the impact of astronomical facilities rests upon an evaluation of the scientic discoveries which their data have enabled. Telescope bibliographies, which link data products with the literature, provide a way to use bibliometrics as an impact measure for the underlying observations. In this paper we argue that the creation and maintenance of telescope bibliographies should be considered an integral part of an observatory's operations. We review the existing tools, services, and workflows which support these curation activities, giving an estimate of the effort and expertise required to maintain an archive-based telescope bibliography.

  3. Stress and integrity analysis of steam superheater tubes of a high pressure boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Daniel Leite Cypriano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources that can lead to deterioration of steam superheater tubes of a high pressure boiler were studied by a stress analysis, focused on internal pressure and temperature experienced by the material at real operating conditions. Loss of flame control, internal deposits and unexpected peak charge are factors that generate loads above the design limit of tube materials, which can be subjected to strain, buckling, cracks and finally rupture in service. To evaluate integrity and dependability of these components, the microstructure of selected samples along the superheater was studied by optical microscopy. Associated with this analysis, dimensional inspection, nondestructive testing, hardness measurement and deposit examination were made to determine the resultant material condition after twenty three years of operation.

  4. Measurement and control systems for steam boilers; Regel- und Steuertechnik fuer Dampfkessel. Betriebsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, H. [Loos Deutschland GmbH, Loos International, Gunzenhausen (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Loos International has been building its own switchgear for Loos boiler systems since the 1960s. An operating management system for Loos steam boilers, based on a self-contained automation unit, has also been developed. All boiler control functions are combined on a single SPC with one central operating unit. The use of controlled-speed feed pumps is new. Integrated pump protection functions for constant level control mean that there is no need for the usual constant control module with overflow recirculation. Other LBC functions are the desalination control and automatic blowdown systems. Additional measurement and control parameters can be added to be basic functions of a modern steam boiler. Unlike usual configurations, the basic LBC configuration offers substantially more steam boiler operating modes, operating data and measurands on a plain language display, facilitating rapid inspection and assessment of all operating contexts on site. A high level of planning and operating reliability is achieved. This measurement and control technology for steam boilers offers many advantages to planners, plant constructors and other clients. (orig.) [German] Das Unternehmen Loos International in Gunzenhausen bietet Heiz- und Dampfkessel, Kesselhauskomponenten, Feuerung und Steuerung aus einer Hand. Loos hat ein Betriebsmanagement mit integriertem Vorwarnsystem fuer Loos-Dampfkessel entwickelt, bei welchem Betriebsdaten und Messwerte des Dampfkessels im Klartextdisplay angezeigt werden koennen. Der Autor stellt das System und dessen Vorteile und Nutzen im folgenden Beitrag vor. (orig.)

  5. Apparatus, components and operating methods for circulating fluidized bed transport gasifiers and reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-02-24

    The improvements proposed in this invention provide a reliable apparatus and method to gasify low rank coals in a class of pressurized circulating fluidized bed reactors termed "transport gasifier." The embodiments overcome a number of operability and reliability problems with existing gasifiers. The systems and methods address issues related to distribution of gasification agent without the use of internals, management of heat release to avoid any agglomeration and clinker formation, specific design of bends to withstand the highly erosive environment due to high solid particles circulation rates, design of a standpipe cyclone to withstand high temperature gasification environment, compact design of seal-leg that can handle high mass solids flux, design of nozzles that eliminate plugging, uniform aeration of large diameter Standpipe, oxidant injection at the cyclone exits to effectively modulate gasifier exit temperature and reduction in overall height of the gasifier with a modified non-mechanical valve.

  6. Application of probabilistic modelling to the lifetime management of nuclear boilers in the creep regime: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo probabilistic simulation has been applied to a large population of nominally identical components in an AGR boiler operating in the creep regime. Some of the components have a history of partial steam flow restrictions which can cause an elevation of their operating temperature, potentially raising the rate of creep life usage. Metal losses due to steam-side and gas-side oxidation and chemical cleaning operations can also exacerbate the rate of creep life usage. The R5 procedure has been used within a probabilistic program to calculate the expected frequency of both creep rupture and creep-fatigue crack initiation. The probabilistic approach is shown to provide a better quantitative guide to the commercial threat than traditional deterministic methodologies based on bounding data. In particular, probabilistic assessments identify the parameters which most significantly influence plant life. -- Highlights: • Flow restrictions and metal losses adversely affect boiler creep-fatigue lives. • Rupture and crack initiation assessments employ the R5 methodology. • Probabilistic assessment provides a quantitative guide to the commercial risk. • Probabilistic assessment identifies the most significant parameters

  7. Final stage of first supercritical 460MW{sub e} CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska (Poland); Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology has been growing in size and number over the past two decades and it has established its position as utility scale boiler technology. Plant sizes up to 300 MW{sub e} are in operation today and designs for larger boilers are being developed. The next natural step for CFB technology is to go for supercritical steam parameters and larger boiler sizes. A Polish utility company Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA (PKE) placed an order to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy for a 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler for their Lagisza power plant. Contract was signed at the end of year 2002 and the engineering work is now ongoing. This will be the first supercritical once-through CFB boiler in the world. A modern power plant is designed for high efficiency not only for economical reasons but also for enhanced environmental performance in terms of reduced emissions and quantity of ash generated due to lower fuel consumption. Cutting CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the main drivers. To achieve these goals, supercritical steam parameters have been applied. Now this technology is available also for CFB technology. This combines a high plant efficiency with the other well known benefits of CFB technology, such as: fuel flexibility, low emissions and high availability. The boiler design for 460 MW{sub e} Lagisza power plant utilizes low mass flux BENSON Vertical once-through technology developed and licensed by Siemens AG, Germany. CFB boiler with low and uniform furnace heat flux is extremely well suited for the Benson technology providing a stable operation of the boiler also during load changes and abnormal operation conditions. The paper describes the 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler concept and presents the technical solutions of the boiler design with auxiliary equipment, as well as first experiences from boiler erection period and commissioning. In spite of achieving this remarkable milestone the development of the CFB

  8. Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor

  9. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  10. Selecting Actuator Configuration for a Benson Boiler:Production Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of an optimal actuator configuration in an economic perspective. The objective is to minimize the economical cost of operating a given plant. Functionals encapsulating information of the business objectives given the different actuators has been established with particular focus on a boiler in a power plant operated by DONG Energy - a Danish energy supplier. The problem has been reformulated using mathematic notions from economics. The selection of actuator co...

  11. Adaptive controlling of power boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, W.; Kalita, M; Smolarz, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents research on adaptive control (AC) of combastion process in in¬dustry. Results were obtained from research conducted in laboratory combustion chamber with usage of Fiber Optical Measurement System (FOMS) with electronic block. Simulation proved that implementing AC and FOMS to burning process improves flue gasses parameters -direct measure of power boiler ecologic and economical quality of work.

  12. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  13. The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Leading Order for Two-Component Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Emmons, Samuel B; Platter, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We consider a homogeneous, balanced gas of strongly interacting fermions in two spin states interacting through a large scattering length. Finite range corrections are needed for a quantitative description of data which experiments and numerical simulations have provided. We use a perturbative field theoretical framework and a tool called the Operator Product Expansion (OPE), which together allow for the expression of finite range corrections to the universal relations and momentum distribution. Using the OPE, we derive the $1/k^6$ part of the momentum tail, which is related to the derivative of the energy with respect to the finite range. By comparing the $1/k^4$ term and the $1/k^6$ correction in the momentum distribution to provided Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data, we show that including the $1/k^6$ part offers marked improvements. Our field theoretical approach allows for a clear understanding of the role of the scattering length and finite effective range in the universal relations and the momentum distri...

  14. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  15. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  16. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  17. Demanding fuel combustion. Metso CFB multifuel boiler experience in Stora Enso Ostroleka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Rafal [Stora Enso Poland S.A., Ostroleka (Poland)

    2013-04-01

    Stora Enso Poland erected a combined cycle power plant for supplying its Ostroleka mill with power and heat. The central component is a circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFB) boiler designed for multi-fuel combustion like biomass and residues of the paper mill. The thermal rating of the CFB boiler amounts to 164 MW and two turbines supply up to 43 MW of power. (orig.)

  18. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  19. Conditioning monitoring of hot, thick-walled components in boilers with ultra-sound laminography as innovative testing procedure; Zustandsueberwachung von heissgehenden, dickwandigen Bauteilen an Dampfkesselanlagen unter Einbeziehung der Ultraschalllaminographie (USL) als innovatives Pruefverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Klaus [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG, Mannheim (Germany); Mueller, Falk [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet und Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Puchner, Korbinian; Schmitt-Thomas, Karlheinz G. [Ingenieure fuer Schadenanalyse und Technologieentwicklung GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the course of inspection of high-temperature components, the assessment of the microstructure is of significant importance for safety and reliability. For non-destructive investigation, however, only the surface of the components is available. With the UT-laminography it is possible to classify structures on the basis of correlations between ultrasound velocity and microstructural influences especially increasing of inhomogeneity by creep stresses. (orig.)

  20. Final stage of first super-critical 460 MW CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE, Lagisza Power Plant (Poland); Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Steam boilers with circulating fluidised bed combustion have been advanced in the past years and proved well as large-scale technology. A further step was the development and construction of a boiler with super-critical steam parameters and increased output. In 2002 the Polish utility Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA awarded a contract to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy to erect a fluidised bed boiler for the Lagisza power plant. Construction of the 460 MW plant was started in 2006. The plant has been in commercial operation since 2009. (orig.)

  1. Low temperature corrosion in bark fuelled, small boilers; Laagtemperaturkorrosion i barkeldade, mindre pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif; Goldschmidt, Barbara [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    A number of small (3-12 MW), new biofuel boiler plants in South Sweden, and (at least) in Austria, have suffered a high (wastage of mm/yrs.) corrosion rate on the low temperature boiler side. This problem has been investigated with respect to its occurrence and its character by contacts with operators, by plant inspections, and by analysis of cold side deposits. The plants affected have low feed water temperatures (< 100 deg C ). The plants fire most types of Swedish biofuel: chips, bark, hog fuel, and 'GROT'(=twigs and tops). The results found give basis for a hypothesis that the corrosion results from the presence of an aqueous phase in the deposits, this phase being stabilized by dissolved salts having high solubility. It then follows that for each salt, there is a critical relative humidity (calculated from the flue gas water partial pressure and the cooling surface temperature as is common practice among boiler engineers) for both the presence of the aqueous phase and the corrosion. Some critical single salts, ZnC12 and CaC12 have been identified, and they give critical 'relative humidities' of 5% and 18% respectively. These figures are a lower bound. The corresponding figure, derived from the practical experience and the reported plant operational data, is between 20 and 30%. Corrosion tests have been carried out by exposing an air-cooled probe in the fluegases at a 12 MW boiler at Saevelundsverket in Alingsaas, and the material wastage at different temperatures has been measured with a profilometer. The high corrosion rates were reproduced in the tests for high relative humidities. The corrosion rate was small and not measurable (<0.1 mm/yr) for relative humidity < 22%. The work shows by means of indirect evidence that the corrosion critical components are ZnCl{sub 2} and possibly CaCl{sub 2} as well. The practical engineering design criterion derived from the work is that the relative humidity (calculated from the flue gas water partial

  2. Biomass boiler energy conversion system analysis with the aid of exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conventional exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis are performed. • The combustion process dominates the exergy destruction. • Increase excess air will decrease the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • Increase the SH temperatures will increase the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • The avoidable exergy destructions in the air heaters are very small. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis of a real biomass boiler. These analyses can be used for both the diagnosis and optimization of a biomass boiler as well as for the design of a new biomass boiler. Conventional exergy analysis is performed to recognize the source(s) of inefficiency and irreversibility and identify exergy destruction in different components of the biomass boiler. An advanced exergy analysis is performed to provide comprehensive information about the avoidable exergy destruction and real fuel-saving potential for each component, as well as the overall system. Sensitivity studies of several design parameters including the excess air, biomass moisture and steam parameters were evaluated. The results show that the maximum exergy destruction occurs in the combustion process, followed by the Water Walls (WW) & Radiant Superheater (RSH) and the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH). The fuel-saving and exergy efficiency improvement strategies for different components are discussed in this paper

  3. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  4. Gas Boiler Powered by the Fuel Cell System

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Badea; Madalin Costin

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new solution for supply of boilers with electrical energy in the order to achieve autonomy from electrical grid. The paper presents the experimental system implemented in the university lab, the components and implementation in Matlab-Simulink for simulation. As a result of numeric simulation performed, the experimental bench has been achieved. The problem of power quality, especially the THD factor, affects the sensitivity of equipment at perturbations. In...

  5. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  6. First-term Status Report for the Component Operational Experience Degradation and Ageing Programme (CODAP) - 2011-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural integrity of piping systems is important for plant safety and operability. In recognition of this, information on degradation and failure of piping components and systems is collected and evaluated by regulatory agencies, international organisations (e.g., OECD/NEA and IAEA) and industry organisations worldwide to provide systematic feedback to reactor regulation and research and development programmes associated with non-destructive examination (NDE) technology, in-service inspection (ISI) programmes, leak-before-break evaluations, risk-informed ISI, and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications involving passive component reliability. Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The Project is organised under the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3. Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May 2010. Majority of the member organizations of the

  7. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  8. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm3 NOx for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NOx in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NOx formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NOx reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  9. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon; Przemysław Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Atmospheric Carbonation of Concrete Components in a Deep Geological Radwaste Disposal Site during Operating Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of concrete intermediate-low level waste cell components were conducted to evaluate potential chemical degradations affecting these components during the operating period of a radioactive waste repository in a deep Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas components diffusion processes, leading to a progressive drying of the concrete and an array of chemical reactions affecting the cement paste. The carbonation process depends strongly on the progression of the drying front inside the concrete, which in turn is sensitive to the initial water saturation and to nonlinear effects associated with permeability and tortuosity phenomenological laws. Results obtained with a modified version of Tough-React-EOS4 to represent realistic tortuosity evolution of materials with clogging and saturation are presented and commented upon. Strong porosity clogging of the carbonated concrete is not observed in the simulations; slight porosity opening is in general predicted, except for high initial liquid saturation of the concrete, in which case a moderate porosity reduction is found. Carbonation depths on the order of 0.6 to 1.1*10-3 m.yr-1 are predicted for cementitious components. However, these values are probably overestimations both in depth and intensity of carbonation. The model of cement drying needs some revision to correctly weight diffusion control in the discretized representation of the cement/air boundary. Also, the kinetic model of mineral reactivity needs improvements with respect to the influence of liquid saturation on reaction rates, which are actually strongly decreased in dry materials, and with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates. (authors)

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  15. Methodology for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a framework of thermodynamic, energy and exergy, analyses of industrial steam boilers. Mass, energy, and exergy analysis were used to develop a methodology for evaluating thermodynamic properties, energy and exergy input and output resources in industrial steam boilers. Determined methods make available an analytic procedure for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers for appropriate applications. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtained for the entire boiler was 69.56% and 38.57% at standard reference state temperature of 25 °C for an evaporation ratio of 12. Chemical exergy of the material streams was considered to offer a more comprehensive detail on energy and exergy resource allocation and losses of the processes in a steam boiler. - Highlights: ► We evaluated thermodynamic properties and performance variables associated with material streams. ► We analysed resources allocation, and magnitude of exergetic losses in steam boilers. ► Chemical exergy of material streams contributed to improved exergy values. ► High operational parameter will lead to higher boiler exergy. ► Exergy destroyed was higher in the combustion as against the heat exchanging unit

  16. Water cleaning of the fire box screens of the PK-14-2 boiler with combustion of shredded peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzenko, S.I.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Tyurin, E.A.; Novikov, B.P.; Timofeyev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.

    1981-04-01

    Combustion of shredded peat in the PK-14-2 boiler of the Yaroslav HPP-1 is accompanied by intensive slagging of the furnace screens, with the formation of connected tough deposits, which leads to slagging of the panel steam superheater and the convective steam superheater, limitations on the boiler load and to a decrease in its technico-economic indicators. The AVOD-1BL system for cleaning the fire box using long-range water spraying equipment is an effective means of removing connected and friable deposits forming with combustion of shredded peat. Considering the high concentration of calcium oxide in the ash of shredded peat, the results of studies of slagging and cleaning of fire box screens of the PK-14-2 boiler of the Yaroslav HPP-1 might be of interest in planning boiler units for Berezov coal, and also in operation of boilers operating on Kansko-Achin basin coals.

  17. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  18. Film-forming amines in shell boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Holger [Astrium RST Rostock GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kolk, Christian zum [BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Studies were conducted with the aim of providing answers to important questions concerning the use of film-forming amines in steam generators. Tests were carried out in test steam generators under controlled conditions to study the three following application areas: the influence of film-forming amines on boiling behavior and heat transfer, the influence of film-forming amines on oxidic protective film formation, and the influence of film-forming amines on critical operating conditions. In the experiments water treatment with trisodium phosphate (which is normally used with shell boilers) was compared with treatment with film-forming amines. In all three areas the treatment with film-forming amines achieved comparable or better results than the treatment with trisodium phosphate. (orig.)

  19. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Amol S. Kinkar; G. M. Dhote; R.R. Chokkar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays...

  20. Scandinavian baffle boiler design revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov Borivoj Lj.; Pešenjanski Ivan K.; Spasojević Momčilo Đ.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether the use of baffles in a combustion chamber, one of the well-known low-cost methods for the boiler performance improvement, can be enhanced. Modern day tools like computational fluid dynamics were not present at the time when these measures were invented, developed and successfully applied. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of location and length of a baffle in a furnace, for different mass ...

  1. KINERJA ECONOMIZER PADA BOILER

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sjahid Akbar; Fredi Suryadi; Dedy Dwi Prastyo

    2009-01-01

    This paper employed the dual response approach for case of Multivariate Robust Parameter Design (MRPD) which is developed by Del Castillo and Miro Quesada. MRPD method can be applied for any design of experiment. The optimization in this method uses minimizing variance function with restriction on mean function. In this paper, MRPD is applied to the case of optimization of heat transfer efectivity and operational cost at economizer. Those two responses are optimized by setting the level of co...

  2. Investigations for safety assessment of welded components made of 15 NiCuMoNb 5 (WB 36) with respect to operation-induced loss in toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The welded products used for the investigations reported, relating to operation-induced changes of materials properties at operating temperatures exceeding 300 C, are a sheet and two seamless pipes, each not used, and two burn-out specimens taken from one out of four boiler cylinders with circumferential and longitudinal welded seams dismantled after 57,000 operating hours. Except for the sheet which meets practically all quality requirements of the KTA safety code, the quality of the products examined corresponds to that of older LWR plants. In the two burner cylinder specimens, an operating temperature of 350 C induced a varying increase in the strength of materials, accompanied by a decrease in the impact energy, primarily in the transition zone. Such changes could be observed also in the three non-used welded specimens, after long-term annealing treatments from 18,000 h at 335 C up to a maximum of 3,000 h at 400 C. Whereas the operation-induced increase in materials strength in most cases was within the values known to be normal, the impact energy values at 0 C were below the value of ≥31 J required in the VdTUeV-WB.377 publication. This effect was sometimes found also in the optimized welded specimens, for which the impact energy should be ≥41 J according to KTA 3211.1, although their impact energy values were distinctly higher than in the conventional specimens. The operation-induced changes in the materials' toughness (KIJ values) were even more serious than those in the impact energy, both in the transition zone as well as at Charpy upper-shelf energies, with the decrease being particularly clear at 350 C

  3. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  4. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion. PMID:12048812

  5. Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

    1999-09-12

    The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

  6. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Business opportunities in boiler control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, A.P.

    1988-03-01

    Each year some Pound 4.5 billion is spent on fuel to fire the UK non-domestic boiler stock. The average age of the 500 000 population of boilers is more than 10 years and in that time great advances have been made in the capacity and capability of microprocessor controls. There is undoubtedly an enormous potential to retrofit existing boilers with the latest controls both to improve efficiency of production and utilisation.

  8. 600MW机组对冲燃烧锅炉低氮燃烧改造及运行调整%Low NOx burner retrofit and operation adjustment of 600 MW opposed wall firing boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应明良; 戴成峰; 胡伟锋; 徐良; 屠小宝

    2011-01-01

    For the high NO.duscharge density of 600 MW opposed wall firing boiler,the retrofitting of combustors with low NOx was carried on. By replacing low NOx burner,arranging OFA appropriately, and adopting staged-air furnace combustion technology, the NOx discharge density was decreased to 300 mg/m3.The unburned carbon mass fraction in fly ash was not changed greatly.By replacing parts of the low-temperatuer superheater with the economizer, the desuperheating water flow of superheater was reduced,the gas temperature in air preheater outlet was decreased and teh echaust gas temperature of boiler was decreased.All of these are good for improving the boiler efficiency.After the replacing of parts of the low-temperature superheater with the ecoomizer, the water temperature of economizer outlet wasd increated .But the under-saturationg temperaturae difference and the safety margin still exist.%为解决600MW火电机组对冲燃烧锅炉NO,排放质量浓度过高的问题,进行了低氮燃烧改造.通过低氮燃烧器更换,合理布置燃尽风喷嘴,采用全炉膛分级燃烧技术,使NOx排放质量浓度降低至300mg/m3左右,达到了降低NOx排放的效果,同时锅炉飞灰含碳质量分数没有明显的变化.通过部分低温过热器置换为省煤器.降低了过热器减温水流量,同时空气预热器进口烟气温度下降,锅炉排烟温度也会随之下降,有利于提高锅炉热效率.部分低温过热器置换后省煤器出口水温提高,但还有一定的欠饱和温差,距汽化仍有一定的安全裕度.

  9. Modeling of fire-tube boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, F.J. Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In fire-tube boilers, the flue gas passes inside boiler tubes, and heat is transferred to water on the shell side. A dynamic model has been developed for the analysis of boiler performance, and Matlab has been applied for integrating it. The mathematical model developed is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the model, the two parts of the boiler (fire/gas and water/steam sides), the economizer, the superheater and the heat recovery...

  10. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  11. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  12. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NOx, SOx, and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Operant Conditioning: A Minimal Components Requirement in Artificial Spiking Neurons Designed for Bio-Inspired Robot’s Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cyr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the operant conditioning (OC learning process within a basic bio-inspired robot controller paradigm, using an artificial spiking neural network (ASNN with minimal component count as artificial brain. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes that are learned from the consequences of previous actions, using progressive prediction adjustment triggered by reinforcers. In a robotics context, virtual and physical robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown environments with no supervision. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple ASNN can efficiently realise many OC scenarios. The elementary learning kernel that we describe relies on a few critical neurons, synaptic links and the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP as learning rules. Using four tasks of incremental complexity, our experimental results show that such minimal neural component set may be sufficient to implement many OC procedures. Hence, with the described bio-inspired module, OC can be implemented in a wide range of robot controllers, including those with limited computational resources.

  14. Operation and conveying characteristics of a multi-component screw-spindle pump; Funktionsweise und Foerdercharakteristik einer Mehrphasenschraubenspindelpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabkova, Katerina; Hatesuer, Florian; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). FG Technische Thermodynamik

    2011-07-01

    Multicomponent conveyor systems are used especially in petroleum and natural gas production. The contribution describes a multi-component screw-spindle pump which is compact and efficient and can even convey fluids with a high gas concentrations and will also operate dry-running for a short period of time. Various types and their functions are explained, and a multi-component screw-spindle pump is integrated in an experimental plant for the purpose of investigating its conveying characteristics. The pumping circuit and its components are described in detail, and the results of experiments carried out with it are presented. It was found that the production rate depends on the pump speed, on the pressure gradient between the pump inlet and outlet, and on the gas volume. The volume flow will get slower at higher pressure gradients and with high gas volumes. [German] Mehrphasenfoerdersysteme werden in der Industrie immer mehr verwendet, vor allem bei der Erdoel- und Erdgasgewinnung. In diesem Bereich ist die doppelflutige Variante der zweispindeligen Mehrphasen-Schraubenspindelpumpe aufgrund ihrer kompakten Bauweise und Foerdercharakteristik besonders geeignet. Sogar die Foerderung von Fluiden mit sehr hohem Gasanteil und auch ein kurzfristiger Trockenlauf sind moeglich. In dieser Arbeit werden verschiedene Typen von Mehrphasenpumpen (MPP) vorgestellt und deren Funktionsweise naeher erlaeutert. Zur Untersuchung des Foerderverhaltens unter unterschiedlichen Randbedingungen wird eine MPP in eine Versuchsanlage integriert. Der Foerderkreislauf mit seinen Komponenten wird ausfuehrlich beschrieben und im Anschluss werden die Ergebnisse der durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen diskutiert. Es zeigt sich, dass die MPP-Foerderrate von der Drehzahl der MPP, von der Druckdifferenz zwischen Einlass und Auslass der MPP und vom Gasanteil beeinflusst wird. Bei hoeheren Druckdifferenzen sowie bei hohen Gasanteilen nimmt der Volumenstrom ab.

  15. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  16. Sulphation of cuprous and cupric oxide dusts and heterogeneous copper matte particles in simulated flash smelting heat recovery boiler conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki-Kilpinen, T.

    2004-07-01

    Copper smelting with the Outokumpu flash smelting process generates significant amounts of SO{sub 2}-rich off-gas and flue dust. From the smelting unit, gases with a dust load are directed into a heat recovery boiler (also known as a waste heat boiler). In the radiation section temperature decreases, sulphates become thermodynamically stable, and the sulphation of oxidic dust particles commences. Releasing heat may lead to an increase in particle temperatures, softening of the sulphated particles, and the formation of dust accretions on the heat transfer surfaces. Decreased heat transfer efficiency and blockages of the gas flow paths may cause severe operational problems. To maintain stable boiler operation, sulphation behaviour has to be well understood, but only scant published data concerning dust sulphation reactions is available. The objective of this work was to gain basic knowledge of the sulphation behaviour of dust components to ascertain that boiler design and operation can be carried out so that sulphate formation takes place in a controlled manner. The reactions of synthetic Cu{sub 2}O and CuO (mainly 37-53 {mu}m) and a partially oxidised copper matte were studied experimentally with the aim of arriving at a better understanding of dust sulphation in industrial heat recovery boilers. The parameters in the laboratory-scale experiments were gas composition (20-60 vol-% SO{sub 2}, 2.5-10 vol-% O{sub 2}), temperature (560-660 deg C), reaction time, and particle size. Standard chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with EDS were utilised when examining the samples. Sulphate formation was found to be sensitive to gas composition and temperature. Also particle size and surface morphology have significant effects on the sulphation rate. On the basis of the experimental results the temperature range for effective sulphation of pure cuprous oxide is narrow; the optimal sulphate formation temperature lies between 580-640 deg C, depending on the gas

  17. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  18. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  19. Boiler feedwater treatment using reverse osmosis at Suncor OSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment system for boiler feedwater at a Suncor plant was discussed. The selection process began in 1993 when Suncor identified a need to increase its boiler feedwater capacity. The company reviewed many options available to increase the treated water capacity. These included: contracting the supply of treated water, adding additional capacity, replacing the entire plant, reverse osmosis, and demineralization. The eventual decision was to build a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment plant with the following key components: a Degremont Infilco Ultra Pulsator Clarifier and a Glegg Water Conditioning multimedia filter, Amberpack softeners and reverse osmosis arrays. The reverse osmosis plant was environmentally favourable over an equivalent demineralization plant. A technical comparison was provided between demineralization and reverse osmosis. The system has proven to be successful and economical in meeting the plants needs. 5 figs

  20. Leak detection evaluation of boiler tube for power plant using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main equipment of thermal power plant, such as boiler and turbine, are designed and manufactured by domestic techniques. And also the automatic control facilities controlling the main equipment are at the applying step of the localization. and many parts of BOP(Balance Of Plant) equipment are utilizing, localized. But because the special equipment monitoring the operation status of the main facilities such as boiler and turbine are still dependent upon foreign technology and especially boiler tube leak detection system is under the initial step of first application to newly-constructed plants and the manufacturing and application are done by foreign techniques mostly, fast localization development is required. Therefore, so as to study and develop boiler tube leak detection system, we performed studying on manufacturing, installation in site, acoustic emission(AE) signal analysis and discrimination etc. As a result of studying on boiler tube leak detection using AE, we conformed that diagnosis for boiler tube and computerized their trend management is possible, and also it is expected to contribute to safe operation of power generation facilities.

  1. Fruit fly optimization algorithm based high efficiency and low NOx combustion modeling for a boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenxing∗; SUN Baomin; XIN Jing

    2014-01-01

    In order to control NOx emissions and enhance boiler efficiency in coal-fired boilers,the thermal operating data from an ultra-supercritical 1 000 MW unit boiler were analyzed.On the basis of the support vector regression machine (SVM),the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA)was applied to optimize the penalty parameter C,ker-nel parameter g and insensitive loss coefficient of the model.Then,the FOA-SVM model was established to predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency,and the performance of this model was compared with that of the GA-SVM model optimized by genetic algorithm (GA).The results show the FOA-SVM model has better prediction accuracy and generalization capability,of which the maximum average relative error of testing set lies in the NOx emissions model,which is only 3 .5 9%.The above models can predict the NOx emissions and boiler efficiency accurately,so they are very suitable for on-line modeling prediction,which provides a good model foundation for further optimiza-tion operation of large capacity boilers.

  2. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  3. Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify component's ageing by operational data analysis-A case study for the ageing PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some results of a case study on 'Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis', which was done in the frame of the EC JRC Ageing PSA Network. Several techniques: visual evaluation, nonparametric and parametric hypothesis tests, were proposed and applied in order to demonstrate the capacity, advantages and limitations of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis. Engineering considerations are out of the scope of the present study

  4. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  5. Comparative Analysis on Several Operation Schemes for Raw Water Heater of Boiler Feedwater Treatment System%几种锅炉补给水处理系统原水加热器运行方案的分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓凡; 潘灯

    2016-01-01

    Due to low temperature of raw water in boiler feedwater treatment system, high-quality steam is used for heating that consumes too much energy. Therefore, the paper proposes to use waste heat from power plant circulating cooling water to heat raw water of boiler feedwater treatment system. The paper analyzes four operation schemes for raw water heater system, aiming to recycle part of the waste heat. Through technical and economic comparison, the paper presents a scheme of combing hot water heater with steam heater to save energy, reduce emissions as well as meet requirements of different operating conditions. The scheme is char-acterized by its higher integrated index of economical efficiency and performance.%针对目前锅炉补给水处理系统因原水温度低,而利用高品质蒸汽加热耗费能源的现象,提出利用发电厂循环冷却水的余热,加热锅炉补给水处理系统的原水。分析了4种原水加热器系统运行方案,目的在于回收部分废弃的热量。通过技术和经济性比较,给出采用热水加热器和蒸汽加热器配合使用方案,达到节能减排,同时满足各种运行工况需求,综合经济性能指标较高。

  6. Online monitoring of the two-dimensional temperature field in a boiler furnace based on acoustic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online monitoring of the temperature field is crucial to optimally adjust combustion within a boiler. In this paper, acoustic computed tomography (CT) technology was used to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. The physical principles behind acoustic CT, acoustic signals and time delay estimation were studied. Then, the technique was applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. Acoustic CT technology was used to monitor the temperature field of the cross-section in the boiler furnace, and the temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. The linear sweeping frequency signal was adopted as the sound source signal, whose sweeping frequency ranged from 500 to 3000 Hz with a sweeping cycle of 0.1 s. The generalized cross-correlation techniques with PHAT and ML were used as the time delay estimation method when the boiler was in different states. Its actual operation indicated that the monitored images accurately represented the combustion state of the boiler, and the acoustic CT system was determined to be accurate and reliable. - Highlights: • An online monitoring approach to monitor temperature field in a boiler furnace. • The paper provides acoustic CT technology to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. • The temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. • The technique is applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. • The monitored images accurately represent the combustion state of the boiler

  7. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  8. Safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administration company in Antioquia, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Diego L. Sepúlveda M; Jairo Ramírez G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to determine the safety conditions of steam boilers in companies associated with a professional risk administra-tion company in Antioquia, Colombia. To this end, their op-eration conditions shall be characterized, the associated risks identified, and their safety level assessed. Methodology:. a descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in twenty companies whose production processes involve boilers. A survey on the conditions for operation was applied on both the maintena...

  9. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers; Utvaerdering av foerutsaettningarna foer SNCR i naagra mindre anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K. [Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project `SNCR for small boilers`, supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Experimental gas/particle flow characteristics of a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler at different staged-air ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To acquire the gas/particle flow characteristics of an in-assembly down-fired 600-MWe supercritical utility boiler, experiments were conducted by using particle dynamics anemometer (PDA) measurement within a two-phase small-scale model at various staged-air ratio settings (i.e., 0%, 6%, and 12%). The mean velocity, particle volume flux, and particle number concentration along several cross sections, were discussed well in the present work, in addition to the decay and trajectories of the downward gas/particle flow. For all three settings, asymmetric gas/particle flow characteristics appeared in the lower furnace, with the gas/particle flow in the front-half furnace penetrating greatly further and occupying much more furnace volume than that in the rear-half furnace. The longitudinal-velocity components are clearly higher near the front wall than near the rear wall. Decreasing the staged-air ratio can only weaken the gas/particle flow asymmetries to some extent. An estimation on the furnace performance, i.e., severe asymmetric combustion, low burnout, and high NOx emissions, is given out for the boiler's commercial operation in the near future. -- Highlights: ► Asymmetric gas/particle flow characteristics appeared at various staged-air ratio settings. ► Decreasing the staged-air ratio only weakens the gas/particle flow asymmetries to some extent. ► An evaluation of asymmetric combustion, low burnout, and high NOx emissions is given out for the boiler.

  11. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler. PMID:10502602

  12. Dependence of the servie life of nuclear power plant components on operating conditions of the plant within the power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The service life of the main components of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors is limited by accumulated damage afflicted on the most stressed parts of the structure at low cycle fatigue caused by changes in the operating regime. A brief analysis is presented of the consequences of this fatigue, of its causes and methods of evaluation. In order to assess the levels of exhausting the service life of pressure components it is necessary to follow the history of changes in operating parameters and to evaluate the accumulated effect of fatigue damage. Further information on the state of the component may be acquired using diagnostic methods and crack testing. The results of evaluating the operation so far of the V-1 nuclear power plant show that there are reserves in the service life of the main components. (Ha)

  13. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  14. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  15. The impact of biomass co-combustion on the erosion of boiler convection surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The lower ash content of biomass, the more quickly ash settles on boiler tubes. • The higher share of biomass, the more quickly ash settles on boiler tubes. • Operation of jet blowers involves intense fly ash erosive wear of heating surfaces • Application of acoustic or microblasting technology is advantageous. - Abstract: The erosive wear of boiler tubes caused by fly ash in coal combustion flue gases has been studied for a long time. However, there are practically no data concerning the intensity of the erosion of the heating surfaces of boilers fired with both coal and biomass, and thus it is difficult to design these particular areas appropriately. The essential problem is the tendency of the fly ash from biomass combustion to produce ash deposits on the boiler convection surfaces and to cause slagging on the radiant surfaces. In such cases, both an increase in the deposits and a shortening of the time over which the ash fouling accumulates to the maximum level are observed. Consequently, if the boiler is fitted with steam or air blowers, they are started more frequently; if not, they have to be installed. The research conducted here proves that the situation leads to serious damage to the tubes, which results from the erosion caused by ash particles carried by the blowing agent jet. The authors of this paper attempt to make a quantitative evaluation of the impact of co-firing two types of biomass (coniferous wood chips and willow wood chips) on both types of tube erosion

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  17. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits

  18. Investigation of transient behaviour of combi boiler type appliances for domestic hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi boiler type appliances heating both space and water demanded for use and consuming natural gas as the energy source are one of the most common branches of the household goods. This study touches mainly on two types of combi boiler concepts to investigate only domestic hot water (DHW) heating function since highly efficient condensing appliances have been manufactured in terms of space heating. First concept has the normal working configuration of the heat exchangers of a standard combi boiler; whereas, the second has the opposite operation order of the heat exchangers. 1D transient energy equations have been constructed with the help of the laws of thermodynamics in order to model the heat exchangers in a standard combi boiler. After obtaining a general mathematical model for the standard combi boiler, the energy equations have been discretised with finite difference scheme, and solved numerically in Matlab®. Subsequently, numerical results are validated experimentally in different working modes of a standard appliance. As the last step, similar results are obtained for the second proposed concept using the related equations of the standard combi model to compare both concepts on a numerical basis. - Highlights: • 1D theoretical model of a combi boiler was constructed and verified experimentally. • Preliminary estimations will be obtained from the model about the laboratory tests. • Number of the laboratory tests will be decreased thanks to the theoretical model. • The model was used to compare the transient behaviour of two kinds of combi boilers. • The second combi boiler alternative to standard one has a higher comfort potential

  19. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO2 allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO2 emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO2 removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies

  20. Thermoelectric Power Generation Utilizing the Waste Heat from a Biomass Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdil, Marian; Pospisil, Jiri

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the presented work is to test the possibility of using thermoelectric power to convert flue gas waste heat from a small-scale domestic pellet boiler, and to assess the influence of a thermoelectric generator on its function. A prototype of the generator, able to be connected to an existing device, was designed, constructed, and tested. The performance of the generator as well as the impact of the generator on the operation of the boiler was investigated under various operating conditions. The boiler gained auxiliary power and could become a combined heat and power unit allowing self-sufficient operation. The created unit represents an independent source of electricity with effective use of fuel.

  1. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Trangbæk, K

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained control to obtain optimal load gradients in the recirculation mode. A model predictive controller is designed for a simulation model with good results. It is also shown how the feed water flow can be use...

  2. 46 CFR 61.05-20 - Boiler safety valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler safety valves. 61.05-20 Section 61.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-20 Boiler safety valves. Each safety valve for a drum, superheater, or reheater of a boiler shall...

  3. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  4. Complex thermo - technical tests of the boiler OB 380 at TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further improvement of good production results of Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej' - Macedonia, respectively elimination of the existing difficulties and limitation as well as the preparation of the reconstruction and life extension program, have been based on the execution of a complex Program of investigations, of the boiler operating conditions. Program has been composed by: a closer characterization of lignite and its behavior in the pulverized coal preparation system, an investigation of the furnace heat exchange conditions, an investigation of metal temperature regimes of all high temperature loaded heat exchangers, an investigation of boiler efficiency and measurements of noxious gases contents in the exit flue gases. Results of the investigations have shown a full justification of the complex approach and simultaneous execution of investigation of different boiler processes and tracts. Using such approach an extensively broad picture about operating processes, under defined conditions, have been obtained. Namely, results of investigations of different boiler processes have been interpreted on a such way to show, in a real light their essential interconnections. The conclusion of all investigations have pointed to the necessity of the execution of the numerous measure. Elimination of the imperfections of the main and auxiliary equipment, under the execution of maintenance works, reconstruction and modernizing, as well as a further adjustments of the boiler operation processes can result in the achievement of targeted goals. A further coordinated action of the lignite mine and power plant is one of the main preconditions. Results are presented in details in other symposium papers. (Author)

  5. Techno-economic study of a heat pump enhanced flue gas heat recovery for biomass boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active condensation system for the heat recovery of biomass boilers is evaluated. The active condensation system utilizes the flue gas enthalpy exiting the boiler by combining a quench and a compression heat pump. The system is modelled by mass and energy balances. This study evaluates the operating costs, primary energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions on an Austrian data basis for four test cases. Two pellet boilers (10 kW and 100 kW) and two wood chip boilers (100 kW and 10 MW) are considered. The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. Meanwhile the primary energy efficiency is increased by 3–21%. The greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents are calculated to 15.3–27.9 kg MWh−1 based on an Austrian electricity mix. The payback time is evaluated on a net present value (NPV) method, showing a payback time of 2–12 years for the 10 MW wood chip test case. - Highlights: • A heat pump was studied to recover both sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. • The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. • For a 10 MW wood chip boiler a payback time of 2–12 years was estimated

  6. Boiler Retrofit for the Utilization of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Nurul Komariah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil used in the boiler is able to substitute with biodiesel. In lower blends, there are no engine modification needed, but some researchers recommended some technical adjustments in order to maintain the boiler's performance and equipment durability. This study consists of the comparison between the performance of boiler before and after retrofitting on the use of biodiesel. The diesel oil was introduced in biodiesel blends of 10% (B10, 20% (B20 and 25% (B25. A fire tube boiler was used for the test with pressure of 3 bar and heat input capacity of 60,000 kcal. The boiler retrofit is conducted by fine tuning the fan damper scale (FDS and adding a heating feature on fuel system. It was specifically intended to maintain the quality of combustion and boiler efficiency as well as to avoid an increase in fuel consumption. The combustion behaviour was monitored by exhaust emissions of CO, NOx, and SO2. The fan damper scale (FDS and fuel temperature is adjusted by the increasing portion of biodiesel used. The fuel heating apparatus was set at temperature of 40oC for the use of B10, and 60oC for B20 and B25. The FDS adjustment was successfully resulted a reduction in rate of combustion air by average of 9.2%. The boiler retrofitting for the utilization of B10, B20 and B25 showed an increase in boiler efficiency by 0.64%, 0.42% and 2.6% respectively. The boiler retrofitting is surprisingly reduced the fuel consumption by average of 11.2%.

  7. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  8. Power for the industrial age: a brief history of boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1996-02-01

    Boilers were first designed in Greece during the Hellenistic period by Hero, but they were regarded purely as a novelty and no industrial application was found for these toys until the seventeenth century when mining engineers used them for steam-powered pumps. By the end of the 17th century the early shell boilers were replaced by tube boilers, the direct ancestors of the modern boiler. Among the best known of the early boiler manufacturers was Babcock and Wilcox, and they supplied boilers to one of the first electric power plants. In the early 20th century superheaters, economizers, stokers and pulverizers were added to the design of the utility boiler. Fusion-welded boiler drums added to safety. More recently environmental concerns have initiated a new generation of boilers, such as the pressurised fluidised bed combustion boilers and their advanced versions. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The use of virtual reality and intelligent database systems for procedure planning, visualisation, and real-time component tracking in remote handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organisation of remote handling (RH) operations in fusion environments is increasingly critical as the number of tasks, components and tooling that RH operations teams must deal with inexorably rises. During the recent JET EP1 RH shutdown the existing virtual reality (VR) and procedural database systems proved essential for visualisation and tracking of operations, particularly due to the increasing complexity of remote tasks. A new task planning system for RH operations is in development, and is expected to be ready for use during the next major shutdown, planned for 2009. The system will make use of information available from the remote operations procedures, the RH equipment human-machine interfaces, the on-line RH equipment control systems and also the virtual reality (VR) system to establish a complete database for the location of plant items and RH equipment as RH operations progress. It is intended that the system be used during both preparation and implementation of shutdowns. In the preparations phase the system can be used to validate procedures and overall logistics by allowing an operator to increment through each operation step and to use the VR system to visualise the location and status of all components, manipulators and RH tools. During task development the RH operations engineers can plan and visualise movement of components and tooling to examine handling concepts and establish storage requirements. In the implementation of operations the daily work schedules information will be integrated with the RH operations procedures tracking records to enable the VR system to provide a visual representation of the status of remote operations in real time. Monitoring of the usage history of items will allow estimates of radiation dosage and contaminant exposure to be made. This paper describes the overall aims, structure and use of the system, discusses its application to JET and also considers potential future developments.

  10. CEGB research on boiler leaks and their detection in service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penalty in loss of output to an electricity generation organisation as a consequence of failure to deal effectively with small LMFBR boiler leaks would be large. There is therefore a considerable incentive for these organisations to satisfy themselves that proper provisions are made to ensure that both the incidence and the severity of boiler leaks are minimised. In the UK, responsibility for the research, development and design work for this and indeed for most aspects of future nuclear power plant rests with the UKAEA and NPC; nevertheless as a consequence of its 'informed operator' policy the Central Electricity Generating Board has devoted some research effort to this field in recent years. o date, research work has been put in hand with the objective of achieving an understanding of the basic behaviour of boiler leaks. In addition, attention has been given to leak detection by monitoring the sodium for increases in oxygen and hydrogen levels. In both cases leaks into liquid sodium rather than into the gas space have been considered. In the course of the work hydrogen and oxygen meters based on the galvanic cell principle have been constructed and evaluated. The former is a new device which is comparable in performance with hydrogen meters based on the ion pump. The present state of the work is briefly described in this paper

  11. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  12. Boiler efficiency methodology for solar heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, D.; Conwell, J. C.; Pacheco, J. E.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains a summary of boiler efficiency measurements which can be applied to evaluate the performance of steam-generating boilers via both the direct and indirect methods. This methodology was written to assist industries in calculating the boiler efficiency for determining the applicability and value of thermal industrial heat, as part of the efforts of the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) funded by Sandia National Laboratories. Tables of combustion efficiencies are enclosed as functions of stack temperatures and the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the gas stream.

  13. ENERGY CONSERVATION OF BOILER FEED PUMP BY DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE AUTO SCOOP CONTROL METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Manish R. Moroliya; S. V. Prayagi; Bhojraj N. Kale

    2014-01-01

    The proposed project is to perform Energy audit of Feed water system at Abhijeet MADC Nagpur Energy Private Limited (AMNEPL), 4X61.5 MW Mihan Power Plant, Khairy Khurd, Hingna, Nagpur. The objective of the audit is to identify and obtain energy efficiency through operation of boiler feed pump by means of scoop control in auto mode (DP method) during daily operation of the plant at varying load conditions. The scope of the audit covers the boiler feed pumps and the feed water...

  14. Modelling of thermal processes and optimization of energy-ecology characteristics of the modern boiler plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation accomplished in the framework of this work is concerned with the thermal processes in the furnaces of modern steam and hot-water boilers on fossil fuels. Aerodynamic and thermal conditions in the furnaces are described and models for separate processes and phenomena that occur there are presented. By using proper CFD technique, three-dimensional models of furnaces of coal-fired power boiler, hot-water boiler with circulating fluidized bed combustion and steam boiler on liquid/gaseous fuel are created. Graphical pre-processor is used for geometry creation and mesh generation of the investigated boiler plants. Mathematical model for the gas-solids mixture flow is based on Lagrange approach for the discrete phase simulations, in addition to the transport equations for the gas phase. A standard steady semi-empirical k-E model is employed for description of the turbulent flow. Coupling of velocity and pressure is achieved by the SIMPLEC method. Coal combustion is modelled as non-premixed kinetics/diffusion-limited process by the mixture fraction/probability density function approach for the reaction chemistry, with equilibrium assumption applied for description of the system chemistry. Radiation heat transfer is computed by means of the P-1 model, which is simplified variance of the P-N model, based on the expansion of the radiation intensity into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics. Presence of discrete solid phase in the main gas stream is effectively taken into consideration through additional terms in the radiation energy transfer equation and in other model equations. Variable emissivity coefficient of the combustion products is modelled with the weighted-sum-of-grey gases-model. A model for NOx formation and reduction is included in the computations. Numerical simulations provide results concerning the boilers operation in several regimes. A methodology for optimisation of energetic-ecological characteristics of boiler plants is proposed

  15. Design and performance of the helically coiled boilers of two AGR power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hartlepool and Heysham-I AGR stations have been commissioned and operating since 1983. The main features, of the design of the helical once-through boilers raising the steam for power generation, are outlined. The modifications to the feed inlet flow ferrules, necessary to improve the boiler performance and optimize the power output, have been described. Comparisons between the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the boilers before and following these alterations are given. The improvements in the computer code predictions of the plant performance have also been presented. (author)

  16. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  17. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  18. A Model for Optimization and Analysis of Energy Flexible Boiler Plants for Building Heating Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    This doctoral thesis presents a model for optimization and analysis of boiler plants. The model optimizes a boiler plant with respect to the annual total costs or with respect to energy consumption. The optimum solution is identified for a given number of energy carriers and defined characteristics of the heat production units. The number of heat production units and the capacity of units related to each energy carrier or the capacity of units related to the same energy carrier can be found. For a problem comprising large variation during a defined analysis period the model gives the operating costs and energy consumption to be used in an extended optimization. The model can be used to analyse the consequences with respect to costs and energy consumption due to capacity margins and shifts in the boundary conditions. The model is based on a search approach comprising an operational simulator. The simulator is based on a marginal cost method and dynamic programming. The simulation is performed on an hourly basis. A general boiler characteristic representation is maintained by linear energy or cost functions. The heat pump characteristics are represented by tabulated performance and efficiency as function of state and nominal aggregate capacities. The simulation procedure requires a heat load profile on an hourly basis. The problem of the presence of capacity margins in boiler plants is studied for selected cases. The single-boiler, oil-fired plant is very sensitive to the magnitude of the losses present during burner off-time. For a plant comprising two oil-fired burners, the impact of a capacity margin can be dampened by the selected capacity configuration. The present incentive, in Norway, to install an electric element boiler in an oil-fired boiler plant is analysed. 77 refs., 74 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Numerical simulations of the industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler under air- and oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured and numerical results of air-fuel combustion process within large scale industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is presented in this paper. For numerical simulations the industrial compact CFB boiler was selected. Numerical simulations were carried out using three-dimensional model where the dense particulate transport phenomenon was simultaneously modelled with combustion process. The fluidization process was modelled using the hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach. The impact of the geometrical model simplification on predicted mass distribution and temperature profiles over CFB boiler combustion chamber two kinds of geometrical models were used, namely the complete model which consist of combustion chamber, solid separators, external solid super-heaters and simplified boiler geometry which was reduced to the combustion chamber. The evaluated temperature and pressure profiles during numerical simulations were compared against measured data collected during boiler air-fuel operation. Collected data was also used for validating numerical model of the oxy-fuel combustion model. Stability of the model and its sensitivity on changes of several input parameters were studied. The comparison of the pressure and temperature profiles for all considered cases gave comparable trends in contrary to measured data. Moreover, some additional test was carried out the check the influence of radiative heat transfer on predicted temperature profile within the CFB boiler. - Highlights: • Hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach was used for modelling particle transport, air- and oxy-fuel combustion process. • Numerical results were validated against measured data. • The influence of different boiler operating conditions on calculated temperature profile was investigated. • New strategy for resolving particle transport in circulating fluidized bed was shown

  20. Optimal scheduling of sootblowers in power plant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Urbano, Pedro Manuel

    1997-11-01

    Burning coal or other fossil fuels in a utility boiler fouls the surfaces of its heat exchangers with ash and soot residues. These deposits affect the performance of the power plant since they reduce heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water or steam. Fouling can be removed during the operation of the plant with the use of lances, called sootblowers, that direct high-pressure air or steam onto the fouled surfaces. Sootblowing operations are key to plant efficiency and boiler maintenance, but they also incur operating costs. A utility boiler may have a hundred or so sootblowers placed in fixed locations. Deciding which of these should be used at any moment is complicated by the lack of instrumentation that can monitor fouling levels. This dissertation studies the optimization problem of scheduling sootblowing activities at a utility plant. The objective is to develop an optimization approach to determine which sootblowers should be activated at any moment in order to maximize plant efficiency. To accomplish this, three issues are addressed. First, models are developed that can estimate fouling conditions indirectly during plant operation using commonly available data. The approach used relies on a sequential application of linear regression fits. Secondly, autoregressive exogenous (ARX) models are used to describe the dynamics of the fouling process and to estimate the consequences of fouling on plant efficiency. All the foregoing empirical models are developed using data from a power plant. Finally, using the empirical models, an optimization model is formulated for the sootblowing scheduling problem and different optimization approaches that combine nonlinear programming with heuristics methods are investigated for its solution. The applicability of dynamic programming to this optimization problem is also explored.

  1. Measurement of O2 in the Combustion Chamber of Apulverized Coal Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Janeba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational measurements of the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber of a pulverized coal boiler are not yet common practice. Operators are generally satisfied with measuring the O2 concentration in the second pass of the boiler, usually behind the economizer, where a flue gas sample is extracted for analysis in a classical analyzer. A disadvantage of this approach is that there is a very weak relation between the measured value and the condition in specific locations in the fireplace, e.g. the function of the individual burners and the combustion process as a whole. A new extractionline was developed for measuring the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber. A planar lambda probe is used in this approach. The extraction line is designed to get outputs that can be used directly for diagnosis or management of the combustion in the boiler.

  2. ENERGY CONSERVATION OF BOILER FEED PUMP BY DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE AUTO SCOOP CONTROL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish R. Moroliya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed project is to perform Energy audit of Feed water system at Abhijeet MADC Nagpur Energy Private Limited (AMNEPL, 4X61.5 MW Mihan Power Plant, Khairy Khurd, Hingna, Nagpur. The objective of the audit is to identify and obtain energy efficiency through operation of boiler feed pump by means of scoop control in auto mode (DP method during daily operation of the plant at varying load conditions. The scope of the audit covers the boiler feed pumps and the feed water system in each unit of the AMNEPL power plant. Boiler feed pump is one of the equipments in a power plant with the highest auxiliary consumption.

  3. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed......Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper......, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat...

  4. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels; Karstensen, C.

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2: a...... zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  5. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Karstensen, Claus; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a ue gas boiler covering the ue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been dened for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2: a zone...... submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic- Equation system (DAE). Subsequently MatLab/Simulink has...... been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results an experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  6. Untypical bromine corrosion in boilers co-firing biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the untypical corrosion resistance of rotary air preheaters in a biomass co-fired power plant.Design/methodology/approach: The selected results of some components of regenerative rotary air preheaters in a biomass co-fired power plant are presented. The macro and microstructure of corroded components of a LUVO preheater after 3 years of service are presented. The chemical composition of corrosion products was determined by X-ray microanalysis.Findings: Data concerning toxicity and identification of PBDEs (Polibrominated diphenyl ethers in the biomass is very limited. The presented research provides information and the proposed corrosion reaction mechanism in environments containing biomass with aggressive compounds like Cl, Si, H and Br.Research limitations/implications: An extended research on PBDEs in power plant fuels is necessary to give a full assessment of the corrosion mechanism in the presented environment; obligatory classification of the co-fired biomass.Originality/value: Firstly, an assessment of the danger for boiler materials co-firing biomass containing brominated organic flame and presentation of the reaction during the corrosion process and degradation of power boiler components in the presented environment. Secondly, the highlighting of the problem that there is a need to properly select and determine the chemical composition of the biomass used.

  7. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 3 -- Comment response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the continued operation of Pantex Plant was published in March 1996. The document assessed the alternatives of no action, relocation of the storage of plutonium components resulting from nuclear weapon disassemble activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the proposed action (preferred alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. This report contains the comments and responses received on the Draft EIS

  8. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  9. Superheater materials for waste incinerator boilers. Trials at the Hoegdalen plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain an acceptable length of life for the superheaters in waste incinerated boilers a considerably lower steam temperature is used than when incinerating conventional fuel. In spite of this the life of the superheaters is unsatisfactory, with the occurrence of damage in some type of incinerator boilers after only a few years operation. The use of high alloyed material instead of conventional pressure vessel steels can increase the length of life and improve operational efficiency in existing incinerator boilers. Such tubes permit higher steam data for new plants. Cooled materials testing probes have been mounted in the flue gas duct close to the superheater in two boilers in the Hoegdalen plant, Stockholm. The materials temperatures have been maintained in the range 400-500 degrees C. Low metal losses have been obtained, in particular with Alloy 625, but also with Alloy 825 and Sandvik Sanicro 28. The attack on the tubes is corrosion, caused by the aggressive dust which is trapped in the superheaters. In these trials it has been shown that correct boiler design is very important, in conjunction with the choice of materials

  10. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  11. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  12. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  13. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

  14. Burning of high-ash Ekibastuz coal in the boiler furnace of 300-500 MW power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvrivishvili, A.R.; Tsepenok, A.I.; Serant, F.A.; Mezhov, E.A.; Lavrinienko, A.A. [JSC ZiO-COTES, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gordeev, V.V. [JSC Machine-Builidng Factory of Podolsk (ZIO), Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses combustion of Ekibastuz black coal in pulverized-coal fired boilers operating in 300-500 MW power units. Main technical solutions related to modernization of combustion system of PK-39 and P-57 boilers manufactured by JSC Machine-Building Factory of Podolsk to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions down to {<=}600 mg/nm{sup 3} (at normal conditions and O{sub 2} = 6%). Correctness of these technical solutions is justified by 3D simulation of combustion process.

  15. Second-order sliding mode fault-tolerant control of heat recovery steam generator boiler in combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation plants are intrinsically complex systems due to their numerous internal components. Higher energy efficiency in power plants is now achieved through employing combined cycles. In this article, an adaptive robust Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) is designed to overcome the faults in Heat Recovery Steam Generator boilers (HRSG boilers) as one of the main parts of a combined cycle plant. On condition that a fault occurs in the HRSG boiler, the control system must be able to reconfigure its parameters to maintain the admissible thresholds in dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature, and drum water level. To achieve good performance for the boiler, the proposed adaptive robust SMC shall conquer the effects of faults and uncertainties by estimating their upper bounds adaptively, and force the outputs of the multivariable boiler to track the outputs of a desired multivariable reference model. Manipulating a suitable control input and using second-order sliding mode control strategy, the output tracking error slides to zero on a PID sliding surface. Besides tracking, the controlled boiler tolerates faults in system matrix, faults in input matrix, and external disturbance signal. Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed FTC (Fault-Tolerant Control) system for an uncertain non-minimum phase HRSG boiler. Highlights: ► This paper proposes a PID-based adaptive second-order sliding mode controller (SMC). ► SMC is robust to actuator and sensor faults and tracks outputs of a reference system. ► SMC is used in fault tolerant control of a heat recovery steam generator boilers. ► Boiler and reference system have different number of states and inputs. ► Performance of SMC is investigated with different faults scenarios in simulations.

  16. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  17. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  18. BOILER EFFICIENCY EVALUATION AND MONITORING THROUGH DATA MINING TECHNIQUES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. TYAGI,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost of energy is the highest among all other components in the production of textile products. So energy efficiency analysis and control has assumed paramount importance. Boiler consumes measure chunk of fuel in any processing industry. Efficiency of any Boiler depends upon minimization of various indirect losses of theboiler so that amount of energy input in the boiler by burning the fuel can be maximum utilized for generation of steam and cost of steam can be minimized ultimately. The proposed data mining technique can prove to be a very effective tool for evaluating and maintain cluster wise boiler efficiency and indirect losses. Also it is veryhelpful to meet the objective of energy conservation and fuel saving by curbing the losses with the help of various check points. Cluster wise evaluation of boiler efficiency is a major highlight of data mining technique. Effective use of data mining will ear mark various areas where energy and there by precious fuel can be saved.

  19. Seward CFB boilers will curb water pollution and air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    When Reliant Energy Co's Seward station begins commercial operation in 2004, it will replace an 80-yr-old pulverized-coal plant with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) facility that more than doubles the capacity while slashing total air emissions. The baseload facility, located in Indiana County, PA, will be fuelled by local low-grade waste coal. Added to the back end of the two 292-MW CFB boilers, selective noncatalytic reduction equipment will lower NOx emissions, and ALSTOM's flash dryer absorber (FDA) system will lower SO{sub 2} emissions whilst using less limestone. 3 photos.

  20. Atmospheric emission of nitrogen oxide from kraft recovery boilers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery boiler NOx emissions are low compared with those from power boilers. However tighter environmental requirements to decrease the acidic emissions implies that all sources have to be addressed. There are an ongoing evaluation and development of NOx control technologies in the pulp industry. Basically air staging, selective catalytic reduction, SCR, and selective noncatalytic reduction, SNCR, have been discussed. Other NOx control options may be available as a result of ongoing research and development. As a background in the work to reduce the acid rain it has been considered necessary to have a good picture of the NOx emission from recovery boilers, and the Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Sweden have therefore sponsored this study. The intention is to give a good general view and try to explain the reasons for the large differences between boilers. Data from the 30 kraft recovery boilers which were in operation in Sweden during 1999 have been collected. Both NOx levels and specific conditions which could have an influence on the level have been included. The evaluation show a clear correlation between the nitrogen content in the liquor and the NOx level. It seams also that a long retention time in the furnace give an opportunity to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide. For most boilers in Sweden the NOx levels are reported in mg/MJ and comparison could be done between different types of boilers. However for recovery boilers there could be a large uncertainty in the calculation which gives the amount (mg) of NOx, the definition of the heat input to be used (MJ) is either not clear. As a base for the study the measured concentration in ppm is used instead. The reported values are in the range of 30 - 100 ppm, however the majority of the boilers operate in a more narrow range 60-80 ppm. Air staging and other combustion methods could not reasonably reduce the NOx emission with more than 20% in the next decade. If the goal is higher other methods must

  1. Ash particle erosion on steam boiler convective section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuronen, V.

    1997-12-31

    In this study, equations for the calculation of erosion wear caused by ash particles on convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers are presented. A new, three-dimensional test arrangement was used in the testing of the erosion wear of convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers. When using the sleeve-method, three different tube materials and three tube constructions could be tested. New results were obtained from the analyses. The main mechanisms of erosion wear phenomena and erosion wear as a function of collision conditions and material properties have been studied. Properties of fossil fuels have also been presented. When burning solid fuels, such as pulverized coal and peat in steam boilers, most of the ash is entrained by the flue gas in the furnace. In bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers, particle concentration in the flue gas is high because of bed material entrained in the flue gas. Hard particles, such as sharp edged quartz crystals, cause erosion wear when colliding on convective heat exchanger tubes and on the rear wall of the steam boiler. The most important ways to reduce erosion wear in steam boilers is to keep the velocity of the flue gas moderate and prevent channelling of the ash flow in a certain part of the cross section of the flue gas channel, especially near the back wall. One can do this by constructing the boiler with the following components. Screen plates can be used to make the velocity and ash flow distributions more even at the cross-section of the channel. Shield plates and plate type constructions in superheaters can also be used. Erosion testing was conducted with three types of tube constructions: a one tube row, an in- line tube bank with six tube rows, and a staggered tube bark with six tube rows. Three flow velocities and two particle concentrations were used in the tests, which were carried out at room temperature. Three particle materials were used: quartz, coal ash and peat ash particles. Mass loss

  2. Characterization of model boiler specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the general results of an investigation of three crevice corrosion samples provided by Westinghouse from the S112-1 Model Boiler Program. These samples had all been formed under essentially the same initial chemical conditions, but two had been treated with inhibitors at the end of the experimental runs. The first received no neutralization during the model runs, the second was treated with Ca(OH)2 and the third was treated with boric acid. The samples were prepared for examination in several different ways. The samples were characteristic of dented intersections and had the general conformation of a thin-walled inner Inconel cylinder within a thick-walled carbon steel cylinder. An original 12-mil inter-cylinder gap had been packed with powdered magnetite. This magnetite had been augmented by further growth of magnetite during the model runs, making the oxide layer considerably thicker than the original 12-mils in some areas of the samples. The cylinders were sectioned and polished perpendicular to their long axes and the resulting surfaces examined

  3. Conversion of Furnace oil fired boiler to biomass(Gliricidia) fired (External/Internal) furnace boiler : NA

    OpenAIRE

    Channa Gaya Siriwardhana, Kahandawa Arachchilage

    2010-01-01

    In the present era, with the prevailing competition, the cost of production plays a vital role. As the price of petroleum oils, especially diesel and furnace oil are growing at a steeper rate than solid fuel price, finding a substitute for furnace oil is one of the alternative available. Furnace oil used in boilers can be totally substitute by biomass with an equivalent ratio of 3.5:1 kg/liter on the basis of calorific value. This may results in saving of more than 60% of operating cost and w...

  4. The levels of forming at students of general school operating mobility as executive component of arbitrary management of moving activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyushenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of researches is to determine concept «Personality mobility» in the light of pictures of arbitrary management conduct and activity of man In the article is considered question of diagnostics of forming operating mobility for the students of general school as activity of constituent of arbitrary management. It is certain four levels of formed operating mobility for lower boys, for teenagers and for senior pupils. It is well-proven that for period of studies at general school the indexes of operating mobility of students are not change substantially.

  5. The CERL in-situ probe for boiler ferrule bore mensuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensuration of the bores of boiler feed control ferrules in-situ within the AGR boilers can be done using a Central Electricity Research Laboratories-designed probe and ancillary equipment. From these measurements it is possible to determine the loss coefficients of the ferrules with fair accuracy. These loss coefficients may differ from the intended values because of poor quality control during manufacture or because of erosion and oxide deposition in service. This Report describes the construction and operation of the equipment. (author)

  6. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significan...

  7. EFFICIENCY OF MULTI-MODULE SOLAR COLLECTORS AS A PREFIX TO A BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Influencing factors on thermal and economic efficiency of the combined of heat supply installation are established. Constructive circuits of solar heat supply "prefix" interaction with boiler installation are worked out. Mathematical models of heat exchange processes in elements of combined heat supply system with the account solar engineering characteristics are developed. The techniques of analysis of efficiency of multi-modular system of solar collectors with compulsory circulation for water heating boiler allowing calculating of efficiency factor; heat removal factor and heat transfer factor with the account of construction and operation conditions of alternative heat supply system are presented.

  8. Study and design of platen superheater of 300 MW CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Man; Lv, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics; Jiang, Xiaoguo [Harbin Boiler Company Limited, Harbin (China)

    2013-07-01

    In order to avoid overtemperature tube explosion of the platen superheater, the measurements of metal temperatures and the heat transfer coefficients of the platen superheater in a commercial 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler are conducted in this work. The measured data is analyzed and the theoretical calculation is made. On the basis, the reasonable steam flow path and the value range of heat transfer coefficient of the middle temperature platen superheater are applied for design. Furthermore, based on operation experience from several 300 MW CFB boilers, a design principle of the mass velocity and the arrangement of the platen superheater in the furnace is given.

  9. Numerical studies of the combustion of fuel oil in the boiler furnace at reduced load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantsov Aleksandr A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the work due to the need to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the boiler units on reserve fuel after reconstruction associated with a change in the base fuel and approaches of numerical analysis. Analysis of physical and chemical processes in the furnace volume of boiler BKZ–210–140 operating on reserve fuel and rated load when using the Euler and Euler combined and Lagrangian modeling approaches. Results of the numerical modeling of the processes of aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion in the furnace volume.

  10. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  11. Usage of Boiler Unit Exhaust Gas Heat in Contact Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Results of investigations pertaining to operation of a GM-50-14/250 boiler with a contact economizer are given in the paper. The paper reveals influence of contact economizer on fuel economy and reduction of nitrogen oxide discharge.

  12. THREE STAGE COMBUSTION (REBURNING) TEST RESULTS FROM A 300 MW BOILER IN THE UKRAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a program to design, install, and test a natural gas three-stage combustion (reburn) system on a 300-MWe, opposed-wall, wetbottom (slagging) coal-fired utility boiler operating in the Ukraine. The U. S. EPA sponsored this-program in support of a working...

  13. Gain-Scheduled Control of a Fossil-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the objective is to optimize the control of a coal fired 250 MW power plant boiler. The conventional control system is supplemented with a multivariable optimizing controller operating in parallel with the conventional control system. Due to the strong dependence of the gains...

  14. Investigation of fuel lean reburning process in a 1.5 MW boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We examine a detailed study of fuel lean reburning process in a 1.5 MW gas-fired boiler. → Experimental and numerical researches are conducted. → We investigate change in the level of NOX and CO emission. → The recirculation flow is important in the fuel lean reburning process. -- Abstract: This paper examines a detailed study of fuel lean reburning process applied to a 1.5 MW gas-fired boiler. Experimental and numerical studies were carried out to investigate the effect of the fuel lean reburning process on the NOX reduction and CO emission. Natural gas (CH4) was used as the reburn as well as the main fuel. The amount of the reburn fuel, injection location and thermal load of boiler were considered as experimental parameters. The flue gas data revealed that the fuel lean reburning process led to NOX reduction up to 43%, while CO emission was limited to less than 30 ppm for the 100% thermal load condition. The commercial computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT 6.3, which included turbulence, chemical reaction, radiation and NO modeling, was used to predict the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics under various operational conditions in the boiler. Subsequently, predicted results were validated with available measured data such as gas temperature distributions and local mean NOX concentrations. The detailed numerical results showed that the recirculation flow developed inside the boiler was found to play an important role in improving the effectiveness of fuel lean reburning process.

  15. Emission of volatile organic compounds from oil-fired and gas-fired heating boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from different types of oil-fired and gas-fired boilers have been investigated. Measurements have been made at three excess air ratios for two different burners for domestic boilers using light fuel oil, as well as at larger plants using WRD, heavy fuel oil and LPG. Significant emissions of VOC, in this case methane, ethylene and acetylene, could only be found in one case with a burner for domestic boilers adjusted to a soot number of 9, according to Bacharach. However, this represents practically unrealistic operating conditions. In all other cases the concentrations of VOC were below the detection limits. The emissions of NOx varied between 26 mg NO2/MJ in one case for a burner for domestic boilers, to 183 NO2/MJ for one of the heavy fuel oil plants. In conclusion, the survey shows that the VOC emissions from oil-fired and gas-fired boiler plants are very low. (3 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  16. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA.

  17. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA

  18. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following: development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power, selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the fourth unit), communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server, development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data, real time monitoring system development based on web using JAVA

  19. Study of the degradation of power generation combustion components at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated temperature combustion of fuel oil that contains large amounts of vanadium, asphaltenes and mostly sulfur, presents a major challenge for materials selection and design of combustion components for the electric power generation. The combustion system, which consists of air nozzles and air swirlers, plays a key role in the performance of electric power plants. Air nozzles and air swirlers, which were operated for one year in a 350 MW boiler, were analyzed, presenting accelerated degradation. The particular features of corrosion behavior of these components made by stainless steels: 304, 446 and HH, are presented. The results obtained after optical, metallographic, and microprobe analysis revealed that the components flame contact at very high operating temperature promoted all materials degradation mechanisms. Under this scenario, it is very difficult to find a material resistant to such accelerated wastage conditions. So, the solution of the problem must be oriented to re-design and improve the efficiency of the flame contact with these components

  20. Study of the degradation of power generation combustion components at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrejon, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico (Mexico); Serna, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: aserna@uaem.mx; Wong-Moreno, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, Col. San. Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Fragiel, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada-UNAM, Km 7 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Lopez-Lopez, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, Col. San. Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    Elevated temperature combustion of fuel oil that contains large amounts of vanadium, asphaltenes and mostly sulfur, presents a major challenge for materials selection and design of combustion components for the electric power generation. The combustion system, which consists of air nozzles and air swirlers, plays a key role in the performance of electric power plants. Air nozzles and air swirlers, which were operated for one year in a 350 MW boiler, were analyzed, presenting accelerated degradation. The particular features of corrosion behavior of these components made by stainless steels: 304, 446 and HH, are presented. The results obtained after optical, metallographic, and microprobe analysis revealed that the components flame contact at very high operating temperature promoted all materials degradation mechanisms. Under this scenario, it is very difficult to find a material resistant to such accelerated wastage conditions. So, the solution of the problem must be oriented to re-design and improve the efficiency of the flame contact with these components.

  1. Assessing the emission factors of low-pour-fuel-oil and diesel in steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohijeagbon, I.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the emissions effects resulting from the use of low pour fuel oil (LPFO and diesel fuels in industrial steam boilers operation. The method of ultimate analysis of the products of combustion and emissions of pollutant analysis were used to estimate the annual rate of emissions of boilers. The results shows that the levels of uncontrolled boiler emissions on the environment can lead to increased greenhouse effects, global warming, and pollution and toxilogical impacts on human health. Only carbon monoxide emission was found to vary with the levels of oxygen generation in the products of combustion, while other substances were generally in relation to constituents and rates of consumption of fuel.

  2. Static and Transient Performance Prediction for CFB Boilers Using a Bayesian—Gaussian Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiwenYe; WeidouNi

    1997-01-01

    A bayesian-Gaussian Neural Network(BGNN)is put forward in this paper to predict the static and transient performance of Circulating Fluidized Bed(CFB) boilers.The advantages of this network over Back-Propagation Neural Networks(BPNNs),easier determination of topology,simpler and time saving in training process as well as self-organizing bility,make this network more practical in on-line performance prediction for complicatied processes,Simulation shows that this network is comparable to the BPNNs in predicting the performance of CFB boilers.Good and practical on-line performance predictions are essential for operation guide and model predictive control of CFB boilers,which are under research by the authors.

  3. Parameter Tuning via Genetic Algorithm of Fuzzy Controller for Fire Tube Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama I. Hassanein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal use of fuel energy and water in a fire tube boiler is important in achieving economical system operation, precise control system design required to achieve high speed of response with no overshot. Two artificial intelligence techniques, fuzzy control (FLC and genetic-fuzzy control (GFLC applied to control both of the water/steam temperature and water level control loops of boiler. The parameters of the FLC are optimized to locating the optimal solutions to meet the required performance objectives using a genetic algorithm. The parameters subject to optimization are the width of the membership functions and scaling factors. The performance of the fire tube boiler that fitted with GFLC has reliable dynamic performance as compared with the system fitted with FLC.

  4. 600 MW机组对冲燃煤锅炉尾部CO浓度偏高的调整试验%Operation optimization on high CO emissions of a 600 MW unit swirl-opposed firing boiler after low-NOx burner retrofitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 张广才; 严晓勇; 李冰

    2014-01-01

    After low-NOx burner transformation of a supercritical 600 MW swirl-opposed firing boiler,the CO concentration in the tail became high and the NOx emission didn't reach the expectations due improper operation adj ustment.The analysis shows that the uneven distribution of oxygen along the width and depth direction of the furnace is the main cause.Thus,according to the structural characteristics of the retrofited burners,the burner parameters were optimized.After that,the CO concentration at rated load reduced from 2 000μL/L to lower than 100μL/L,the carbon content in fly ash reduced to below 0.5%,the boiler effi-ciency increased by 0.8%,and the NOx emission concentration dropped from 400~450 mg/m3 to about 2 5 0 mg/m3 .%某超临界600 MW机组旋流对冲燃烧锅炉低氮改造后,由于运行调整不理想,致使锅炉尾部C O浓度偏高且N Ox 排放未达到预期目标.分析认为,其主要原因是锅炉沿炉膛宽度及深度方向氧量分布不均所致.对此,根据燃烧器改造后的结构特点,对燃烧器参数进行优化调整,在保证NOx 排放的前提下将锅炉满负荷时尾部 CO 浓度由2000μL/L 左右降至100μL/L以下,飞灰可燃物含碳量降至0.5%以下,锅炉效率提高0.8百分点,NOx 排放浓度由改造前的400~450 mg/m3降至250 mg/m3左右.

  5. Glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO): favorable outcome after post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with nimustine (ACNU) and teniposide (VM26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of an oligodendroglial component within a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a prognostically favorable factor, but the clinical outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO) after combined post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy has rarely been reported. We analyzed overall and progression-free survival in a group of ten consecutive patients initially diagnosed with GBMO between 1996 and 2004 (4.2% of all GBM patients). Median (range) age was 54 (34–73) years, 90% were resected and median radiotherapy dose was 54 (45–60.6) Gy. 80% of patients received post-operative chemotherapy with nimustine (ACNU) and VM26 (teniposide) for a median of 3.5 (1–6) cycles, the remainder were treated with post-operative radiotherapy alone. All specimens were reviewed by an experienced neuropathologist. Neuropathological re-evaluation revealed GBM with an oligodendroglial component of 30% or less in five cases, predominant oligoastrocytic tumors with focal areas of GBM in four patients and WHO grade III oligoastrocytoma with questionable transition to GBM in one patient. Four of ten patients were alive at at 40, 41, 41 and 82 months. The median overall survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 26 months, the 2-year survival rate was 60% (progression-free survival: 9.8 months and 40%, respectively). In conclusion, patients with GBMO treated with post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ACNU/VM26 had a better prognosis than reported for GBM in modern chemoradiation series

  6. Decontamination operations on a PWR fuel channel assembly. An on-line corrosion evaluation of component materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of decontamination procedures were carried out on a defueled PWR fuel assembly during October 1991. The procedures involved the use of proprietary solutions (LOMI, CAN-DEREM) based upon mixed organic acids and complexing agents. The radioactive species incorporated in the metal oxide surfaces of the fuel channel assembly components are dissolved for subsequent removal on ion-exchange resin beds. Alkaline permanganate treatments were also used to condition the metal oxide for subsequent dissolution by the LOMI and CAN-DEREM procedures. Decontamination procedures must be effective in solubilizing the radioactive contamination without causing excessive or localized corrosion of the component itself. To date, this has usually been addressed by coupon analysis following completion of the decontamination process

  7. Fault Analysis and Innovation in Slag Discharge System of 440-t/h CFB Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qisheng; Song Jinghui

    2009-01-01

    @@ CFB boilers have been widely used in China in recent years with their perfect performances in coal adaptability,load variation capability and lower pollutant emission.The No.3 135-MW CFB unit in Lianzhou Power Plant is the first 440-t/h series CFB unit in Guangdong Province.It finished 72-hour trial operation in Feb.2004 and was transferred to trial operation.During the trial operation and the next commercial operation,there were some problems happened in the boiler slag discharging system,seriously affecting the safe and reliable operation and the loading capability.After innovation,these problems have been completely solved.Hopefidly the solutions may be used for reference to the units with similar problems.

  8. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  9. Adaptive monitoring of emissions in energy boilers using self-organizing maps: An application to a biomass-fired CFB (circulating fluidized bed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of operating costs, and reduction of harmful emissions released into the atmosphere are issues of major concern in modern energy plants. While air emissions have to be restricted due to tightening environmental legislation, at the same time it is ever more important to be able to respond quickly to any changes in the load demand or fuel quality. As unpredictability increases with changing fuel quality and more complex operational strategies, undesired phenomena such as increased emission release rates may become more likely. Therefore, it is crucial that emission monitoring systems are able to adapt to varying conditions, and advanced methodologies are needed for monitoring and decision-support. In this paper a novel approach for advanced monitoring of emissions in CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boilers is described. In this approach a model based on SOM (self-organizing maps) is updated regularly to respond to the prevailing condition of the boiler. After creating each model a new set of measurements is input to the system, and the current state of the process is determined using vector distance calculation. Finally, the system evaluates the current condition and may alert if a preset limit defined for each emission component is exceeded. - Highlights: • An adaptive monitoring approach based on self-organizing maps is presented. • The system can monitor the current state of a combustion process and its emissions. • The system is designed to alert when the preset limits defined for emissions are exceeded. • Due to regular updating routine the system is able to adapt to changing conditions. • The application is demonstrated using data from a biomass-fired energy boiler

  10. Corrosion of evaporator tubes in low emission steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Topolska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to reveal the mechanisms of corrosion processes of outer surfaces of low-emission steam boiler evaporator tubes. Examinations were performed to find the reasons of different corrosion susceptibility of tubes situated at combustion chamber on various levels.Design/methodology/approach: Examinations were conducted on several segments of Ø 57 x 5.0 mm evaporator tubes made of 16M (16Mo3 steel grade. Segments were taken from level of 10 meters and 18 meters from the chamber bottom of low-emission coal fired steam boiler after two years operation. Microstructure degradation of base material was estimated. Metallographic evaluation of scale morphology, its micro sites chemical composition analysis and distribution of elements on cross sections have been performed.Findings: Eexaminations of evaporator tubes indicated that reduction of wall thickness was considerable at the segments taken from level of 10 m, when at level of 18 m this reduction was small. The morphology of scales consisted of external layer which was porous and weakly connected to the tube surface, and internal layer, which was dense and adherent to the base metal. In these two layers the bands reach in sulfur were detected. The sulfide corrosion seems to be the main degradation mechanism of the tube surface at the level of 10 m.Research limitations/implications: Corrosion of the water wall tubes in low-emission steam boilers is a result of reaction of steel tube surface with the aggressive substoichiometric environment contains sulfur. The chemical composition of flue gases changes along the water wall. The exact compound of flue gases has not been determined in this study.Practical implications: Prevention of water wall tubes corrosion can be achieved by changing in operation conditions or replacement of tube materials. The first mentioned action is limited to accurate burner’s adjustment or introduces a flow of additional air along the walls and create

  11. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  12. Modelling and predictive control of a drum-type boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Boilers generate steam continuously and on a large scale. Controlling the boiler process is extremely difficult - it is a highly nonlinear process, its dynamics vary with load and it is strongly multivariable. It is also inherently unstable due to the integrator effect of the drum. In addition, boilers are commonly used in situations where the load can change suddenly and without prior warning. Traditionally, boilers have been controlled by Single-Input, Single-Output (SISO) Proportional ...

  13. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov Sergei A.; Zavorin Alexander S.; Buvakov Konstantin V.; Sheikin Vyacheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  14. Experimental installation with pressurized fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, W.; Szwarc, W.; Jurek, K.; Prokop, A. (Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1990-01-01

    Describes a test installation with a 3 MW pressurized fluidized bed boiler. The installation was commissioned at the Institute of Heat Engineering at the Technical University in Warsaw. Predesign assumptions and the lay-out of the installation are given. A schematic diagram of the pressurized (0.6 MPa) fluidized bed boiler with an inner diameter of 1.4 m and a total height of 5.45 m is shown. The fuel feeding system consists of a coal and adsorbent container, two feeders and an air jet pump for pneumatic transport. A water type boiler is integrated into the pressure vessel. Flue gas cyclones are also integrated into a separate pressure vessel. The computerized control system and instrumentation are described. Temperatures, pressures, pressure differences, rotational speeds and the chemical composition of gases are monitored.

  15. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  16. Combustion stability assessment for utility pulverized coal-fired boilers under low loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.-C.; Huang, Y.-L.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.-H.; Zheng, C.-G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Dept. of Power Engineering

    2000-08-01

    Based on the influence of chemical equivalence ratio on the combustion stability of utility pulverized coal-fired boilers and the control theory about system stability, a combustion stability index, CSI, which refers to the maximum reduction ratio of the fuel mass flow rate that can be overcome by the stable combustion process under a constant air mass flow rate, was proposed to assess quantitatively the combustion stability in the boilers. MLO, the Minimum Load of Operation with stable combustion not supported by firing oil, and MCQ, the Minimum Coal Quality, which gives the lowest heat values of coals with different volatile matter contents for stable operation of boilers, are defined on the basis of CSI. In order to predict MLO and MCQ, a simple chemical reaction system model has been modified by means of the concept of lean flammability of gaseous fuels. A three-dimensional combustion simulation code integrated with the modified model was used to study the stability of combustion process in a 200 MWe pulverized coal fired utility boiler. The predictions of MLO and MCQ agreed confidently with operational experiences. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Optimization of Boiler Heat Load in Water-Heating Boiler-House

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Bayrashevsky; N. P. Borushko

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for optimization of water-heating boiler loads has been developed on the basis of approximated semi-empirical dependences pertaining to changes of boiler gross efficiency due to its load. A complex (∂tух/∂ξ)Δξ is determined on the basis of a systematic analysis (monitoring) of experimental data and the Y. P. Pecker’s formula for calculation of balance losses q2. This complex makes it possible to set a corresponding correction to a standard value of the boiler gross effici...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  19. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... following any hydrostatic test where the pressure exceeds MAWP. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  20. Lower price for solar boilers must improve market penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government aims at 1.7 PJ thermal energy for the year 2007 to be supplied by solar water heaters. For that target the number of installed solar boilers must increase seven times the number of installed solar boilers in 1998. This can be stimulated by a considerable reduction of the market price for such boilers