WorldWideScience

Sample records for bohrium 264

  1. From bohrium to copernicium and beyond SHE research at SHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-element research with SHIP at GSI is reviewed including the discovery of the chemical elements bohrium to copernicium, experimental developments, cold fusion of heavy ions, and the discovery of a shell region around hassium. Elements bohrium and heavier are located beyond the limit of liquid-drop stability. They exist by shell stabilization. A universal, sensitive, and fast method: in-flight separation and identification of single atomic nuclei has been developed with the velocity filter SHIP and the detector system to measure decay sequences of individual atoms. Research with single atomic nuclei including detection methods, identification, and physics results will be discussed. Experiments with actinide targets as well as prospects with NUSTAR at FAIR will be addressed.

  2. Properties of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ Nucleus under the Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lütfüoğlu, B C

    2016-01-01

    The energy eigenvalues and the wave functions of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ nucleus were calculated by solving Schr\\"odinger equation for Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon potential. Using the energy spectrum by excluding and including the quasi-bound eigenvalues, entropy, internal energy, Helmholtz energy, and specific heat, as functions of reduced temperature were calculated. Stability and emission characteristics are interpreted in terms of the wave and thermodynamic functions. The kinetic energy of a decayed $\\alpha$ particle was calculated using the quasi-bound states, which is found close to the experimental value.

  3. 40 CFR 264.255 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 264.255 Section 264.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.255...

  4. 40 CFR 264.18 - Location standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location standards. 264.18 Section 264...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 264.18 Location standards. (a) Seismic considerations. (1) Portions of new...

  5. 40 CFR 264.341 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 264.341 Section 264... Incinerators § 264.341 Waste analysis. (a) As a portion of the trial burn plan required by § 270.62 of this chapter, or with part B of the permit application, the owner or operator must have included an analysis...

  6. 40 CFR 264.14 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security. 264.14 Section 264.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR... Standards § 264.14 Security. (a) The owner or operator must prevent the unknowing entry, and minimize...

  7. Appraisal of H.264 Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. R. N. Mandavgane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC, the latest video Codec standard is the most popular among Video professionals owing to its exact and unambiguous guidelines for dealing with the input stream to be transported from one place to another, having minimum loss in the transit and a very good compression ratio, both attributes highly sought after in today’s world of high quality multimedia broadcast and reception. Another parameter is the bit rate with which the data has to be transmitted. This paper is an attempt to show how various input parameters affect the output of the H.264 Codec. The input video file is a .yuv file, which after encoding becomes a .264 file, which is also called a stream file because this file has to be sent as a stream to various locations owing to its small size. At the receiving end, this stream file is decoded back into .yuv file. In the entire process, there is some loss in the quality of the video transmitted. This loss has to be minimum and is indicated by a parameter called PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio. Apart from PSNR, there are some other parameters as well like sequence parameter set, picture parameter set, information about different frames as regards slices and macroblocks, all ensconced in different files. PSNR being an important parameter will be dealt with here. There are three different input profiles namely, baseline profile, main profile and extended profile for H.264. In this work, variation of bit rate versus PSNR is studied in all the three profiles. A higher PSNR for a given constant bit rate is rated as a better performance. Here, the input sequence is a yuv file (foreman_part_qcif.yuv with one reference frame. The quantization parameter for the I, B and P slices has been set at 30. The PSNR is plotted against bit rate and it is observed that they show a striking similarity with each other.

  8. The H.264 Advanced Video Compression Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Iain E

    2010-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding or MPEG-4 Part 10 is fundamental to a growing range of markets such as high definition broadcasting, internet video sharing, mobile video and digital surveillance. This book reflects the growing importance and implementation of H.264 video technology. Offering a detailed overview of the system, it explains the syntax, tools and features of H.264 and equips readers with practical advice on how to get the most out of the standard.: Packed with clear examples and illustrations to explain H.264 technology in an accessible and practical way.; Covers basic video coding co

  9. 40 CFR 264.11 - Identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification number. 264.11 Section... Facility Standards § 264.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746)....

  10. 40 CFR 264.253 - Response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.253 Response actions. (a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 264.251...

  11. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.93 Hazardous constituents. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  12. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  13. 40 CFR 264.270 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264... treat or dispose of hazardous waste in land treatment units, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise....

  14. 40 CFR 264.272 - Treatment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.272 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.272 Treatment demonstration. (a) For each waste that will be applied to...

  15. 40 CFR 264.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.250... treat hazardous waste in piles, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (b) The regulations in...

  16. 37 CFR 2.64 - Final action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 2.64 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.64 Final action. (a) On the first or any subsequent reexamination or reconsideration the refusal of...

  17. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... such. (c) Gift means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by,...

  18. 40 CFR 264.343 - Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards. 264.343 Section...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.343 Performance standards. An incinerator burning hazardous waste must be...

  19. 40 CFR 264.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or of a surface impoundment or waste pile required under §§ 264.228 and 264.258 to prepare a... post-closure regulations in §§ 264.117 through 264.120, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, and...

  20. H.264的熵编码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海骄; 干宗良

    2003-01-01

    H.264是ITU-T制定的一种新的视频压缩标准,同时也是MPEG-4的第十部分。H.264有着十分优秀的压缩性能。本文主要分析了H.264的两种熵编码方式:统一的变字长编码(UVLG)和内容自适应的二进制算术编码(CABAC),并对两种编码方式做比较。

  1. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  2. TANDBERG的优势H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    TANDBERG正式推出支持H.264协议的终端产品。挪威泰德通信公司于7月14日正式对外宣布,其全线终端产品均已支持H.264协议。作为全球视频会议技术的领导者,TANDBERG在国际电联(ITU)批准H.264协议后,率先在视频业首家推出支持H.264的产品,包括T8000/T7000/T6000/T2500/T1000/T880/T550在内等全线终端产品。

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSI264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16289-1 SSI264Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI264Z 714 - - - - Show SSI264 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI264 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI2-C/SSI264Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI26...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI264 (SSI264Q) /CSM/SS/SSI2-C/SSI264Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...rdst*rsil*fnv vrsrry*tmatitkrcrlvirk*shcrv*tyqws*phlscssigtrrl*iyv***fshcl vcsklll*mw*crfhpftq*klg*rfqnfpsrs

  4. 40 CFR 264.91 - Required programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.91 Required programs. (a) Owners and operators subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 264.1080 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and regulatory factors, product line specifications and customer needs) and economically practical... CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section 3.1.2(a) of Method... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 264.1080 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 264.1035 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... outlet. (C) For a boiler or process heater, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream... establish the design outlet organic concentration level, capacity of carbon bed, type and working capacity... Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1035 Recordkeeping requirements. (a)(1) Each owner...

  7. 40 CFR 264.271 - Treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land... land treatment program that is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment program. 264.271 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1200 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous... to owners or operators who store munitions and explosive hazardous wastes, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (NOTE: Depending on explosive hazards, hazardous waste munitions and explosives may also...

  9. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  10. 28 CFR 2.64 - Youth Corrections Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Youth Corrections Act. 2.64 Section 2.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.64...

  11. 40 CFR 264.4 - Imminent hazard action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent hazard action. 264.4 Section 264.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... § 264.4 Imminent hazard action. Notwithstanding any other provisions of these regulations,...

  12. 42 CFR 422.264 - Calculation of savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of savings. 422.264 Section 422.264 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Plan Approval § 422.264 Calculation of savings. (a) Computation of risk adjusted bids...

  13. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  14. 36 CFR 264.3 - Licensing for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing for commercial use. 264.3 Section 264.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.3 Licensing for commercial use. (a)...

  15. 28 CFR 26.4 - Other execution procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other execution procedures. 26.4 Section 26.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Implementation of Death Sentences in Federal Cases § 26.4 Other execution procedures. Except to the extent a court orders...

  16. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery... attached to, or forming an integral part of any machinery shall be removed or made ineffective except...

  18. 嵌入式设备上的H.264播放%Play of H.264 on Embedded Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫泽毅; 朱建新

    2006-01-01

    新一代视频编码标准H.264/AVC采用了许多先进的技术使得H.264算法具有很高的编码效率.讨论了嵌入式设备上的H.264播放方案,给出了基于S3C2410的H.264播放器的实现.

  19. H.264视频压缩新标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史慧

    2007-01-01

    H.264是最新的国际视频编码标准.本文简要介绍了视频编码标准的发展历程,着重阐述了H.264编码标准及其采用的主要编码技术.最后探讨了H.264在视频、广电等领域的应用前景.

  20. 对H.264/AVC FRExt的研究%Research on H.264/AVC fidelity range extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智锋

    2008-01-01

    H.264/AVC是由ISO/IEC与ITU-T组成的联合视频组(JVT)制订的新一代视频编码压缩标准,于2003年5月完成制订.介绍了H.264的扩展部分FRExt的技术特点, 详尽描述和分析了H.264 FRExt中新的编码工具,指出了其优越性和特点,并针对相应的H.264解码器的设计提出了一些建议.

  1. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 264.1059... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair is...

  2. 40 CFR 264.100 - Corrective action program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.100 Corrective action program. An owner or...

  3. 40 CFR 264.95 - Point of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.95 Point of compliance. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  4. 40 CFR 264.251 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....251 Section 264.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.251 Design and operating requirements. (a) A waste pile (except for an...

  5. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste... for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  6. 40 CFR 264.143 - Financial assurance for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to net worth less than 2.0; a ratio of the sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 264... Financial Requirements § 264.143 Financial assurance for closure. An owner or operator of each facility...

  7. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Process vents. 264.1032... Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or operator of a facility with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation,...

  9. 36 CFR 264.5 - Power to revoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power to revoke. 264.5... MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.5 Power to revoke. All authorities and licenses granted.... The Chief may also revoke any license or authorization when there is a failure to comply with...

  10. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....92 Section 264.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or...

  11. 12 CFR 264b.4 - Gifts of minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts of minimal value. 264b.4 Section 264b.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... more than one tangible gift is presented at or marks an event, the value of all such gifts must...

  12. Adaptive deblocking and deringing of H.264/AVC video sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to reduce blocking and ringing artifacts in H.264/AVC video sequences. For deblocking, the proposed method uses a quality measure of a block based coded image to find filtering modes. Based on filtering modes, the images are segmented to three classes and a specific deblocking...... in deblocking and deringing low bit-rate H.264 video sequences....

  13. 40 CFR 264.171 - Condition of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 264.171... Use and Management of Containers § 264.171 Condition of containers. If a container holding hazardous... leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container...

  14. 40 CFR 264.173 - Management of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 264.173... Use and Management of Containers § 264.173 Management of containers. (a) A container holding hazardous... container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture...

  15. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for closure. 264.142... Financial Requirements § 264.142 Cost estimate for closure. (a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with...

  16. 40 CFR 264.35 - Required aisle space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required aisle space. 264.35 Section... Preparedness and Prevention § 264.35 Required aisle space. The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to... Regional Administrator that aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes....

  17. Study on H. 264 Video Coding Standard%H.264视频编码技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 张琳

    2006-01-01

    介绍了视频编码的发展历程,并着重研究了最新的H.264编码标准以及H.264所采用的关键编码技术.阐述了H.264在视频移动通信、视频流服务、数字电视广播与存储领域的典型应用特点,指出H.264对视频源压缩、信道有效利用、缓解视频传输瓶颈的影响,H.264将是未来最重要的视频编码标准.

  18. TANDBERG产品对H.264的支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟义

    2003-01-01

    做为视频压缩的一种主流,H.264最近越来越受到大家的关注。H.264由于能在较低的带宽下提供更好的质量,因此越来越受到视频会议产品供应商的青睐。本文将从TANDBERG产品的角度,对H.264的支持情况进行阐述。

  19. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  20. AN EFFICIENT WATERMARKING SCHEME FOR H.264/AVC COMPRESSED VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since H.264/AVC is the most widely-deployed video coding standard and has gained dominance, the necessity of copyright protection and authentication that are appropriate for this standard is unquestionable. According to H.264/AVC specific codec architecture, an efficient watermarking scheme for H.264/AVC video is proposed. The watermark information is embedded into quantized residual coefficients by slightly modulating the coefficients with specific symbol encoding, instead of directly adding the watermark to the quantized coefficients. It is not necessary to fully decode H.264/AVC compressed stream both in the embedding and extracting processes. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can preserve high imperceptibility while achieving enough robustness against various attacks such as requantization, transcoding, AWGN, brightness and contrast adjustment.

  1. H.264/AVC标准近年的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 郭晓强; 储原林; 吴敏; 陈鹏

    2010-01-01

    H.264/AVC标准是ITU—TVideoCodingExpertsGroup(VCEG)与ISO/IECMovingPictureExpertsGroup(MPEG)联袂制定的视频编码标准。H.264/AVC标准具有高压缩效率,相比BMPEG-2标准,压缩效率提高了两倍以上。

  2. H.264 FRExt技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊联欢

    2005-01-01

    JVT于2004年完成了H.264 FRExt(High profile)标准的制定,该部分主要针对高分辨率和高清晰度有特别要求的专业应用。本文介绍了H.264 FRExt中的主要技术特点,并分析了其应用情况。

  3. Quantization Skipping Method for H.264/AVC Video Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-seon SONG; Min-cheol HONG

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantization skipping method for H.264/AVC video coding standard. In order to reduce the computational-cost of quantization process coming from integer discrete cosine transform of H.264/AVC, a quantization skipping condition is derived by the analysis of integer transform and quantization procedures. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has the capability to reduce the computational cost about 10%~25%.

  4. H.264视频编码技术研究%Research of H.264 video encoding technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑新科; 郑耐琴

    2012-01-01

    As a new generation of video coding standard, H. 264 has been a preferred video standard in recent years. In order to improve the video coding efficiency, many new technologies have been adopted by H. 264, but the wide application of H. 264 still relies on reducing its complexity and improving the real-time performance. Proceeding from the video coding, the inter-frame prediction, intra-frame prediction, transform and entropy coding are analysed in combination with JM8. 6. The probability of inter-frame prediction and intra-frame prediction modes are obtained on the basis of the experiments and analysis. The experiment results show that the complexity and real-time performance of H. 264 still need to be further improved.%H.264作为新一代的视频编码标准,在近年来成为首选的视频标准.为了提高视频编码效率,H.264已采用了许多新技术,但仍面临一些瓶颈问题,影响其编码效率.结合JM8.6从视频编码层出发对H.264的帧间预测、帧内预测、变换及熵编码进行了分析和研究.结合实验分析得出帧内及帧间预测模式的概率,结果说明H.264复杂度和实时性能仍有待进一步的改善.

  5. H.264编码技术和发展趋势%The H.264 Coding Technology and Its Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏

    2006-01-01

    自2003年推出H.264视音频编解码标准以来,H.264迅速在Internet网和视音频领域得到普及与推广.阐述H.264的定义、H.264编码技术的主要特点与改进及其应用前景和发展趋势.

  6. Design and Implementation of H.264 Elementary Stream Analyzer%H.264基本流分析仪的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑芳; 李华

    2009-01-01

    在H.264产品研制和运营过程中,需要标准符合性测试工具来验证H.264编码器生成的码流是否符合H.264标准.详细介绍了H.264基本流分析仪的功能、设计和实现方法,并给出了实验结果.

  7. Import Technologies of the New Video Coding Standard H.264/AVC%视频编码新标准H.264/AVC中的重要技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2004-01-01

    简要介绍了最新的视频编码标准H.264/AVC的制定情况,详细叙述了H.264/AVC基本框架中采用的几个重要技术,最后比较了H.264/AVC和已有的几个编码标准的性能,H.264/AVC的压缩性能最好.

  8. H.264抗误码工具分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊联欢

    2006-01-01

    视频通信不仅需要较高的压缩性能。还需要较好的抗误码性能。H.264的编码性能比MPEG-2.H.263和MPEG-4ASP提高约1倍,在抗误码方面也具有一些新的特点。本文对H.264中的一些抗误码工具进行了分析。并简单介绍了在抗误码方面可以起到较好作用的H.264分层编码标准SVC技术。

  9. H.264整数DCT的FPGA实现%Implementation of Integer DCT in H.264 on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱南坤; 黄士坦

    2008-01-01

    H.264整数DCT变换算法有助于减少计算复杂度,提高编码速度,进一步提高视频或图像的压缩效率.分析H.264整数DCT变换的快速算法及其实现原理,并提出一种用来具体实现一个4×4块的DCT变换的结构;同时给出用VHDL语言实现4×4块DCT变换的内部模块的源代码和仿真波形.仿真结果表明用该算法可快速实现一个4×4块的整数DCT变换.提出一种切实可行的用于H.264整数DCT变换的结构, 该结构可完全用硬件电路快速实现;对于用FPGA实现H.264整数DCT变换做了一次实践性的尝试,对深入理解H.264整数DCT变换及其算法的具体实现具有一定的实践意义.

  10. Efficient video downscaling transcoder from MPEG-2 to H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-wen WANG; Jun SUN; Rong XIE; Song-yu YU

    2008-01-01

    The new H.264 video coding standard achieves significantly higher compression performance than MPEG-2. As the MPEG-2 is popular in digital TV, DVD, etc., bandwidth or memory space can be saved by transcoding those streams into H.264 in these applications. Unfortunately, the huge complexity keeps transcoding from being widely used in practical applications. This paper proposes an efficient transcoding architecture with a smart downscaling decoder and a fast mode decision algorithm. Using the proposed architecture, huge buffering memory space is saved and the transcoding complexity is reduced. Performance of the proposed fast mode decision algorithm is validated by experiments.

  11. RATE CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR H.264 VIDEO ENCODER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jinzhu; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter proposes a rate control algorithm for H.264 video encoder, which is based on block activity and buffer state. Experimental results indicate that it has an excellent performance by providing much accurate bit rate and better coding efficiency compared with H.264. The computational complexity of the algorithm is reduced by adopting a novel block activity description method using the Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) of 16× 16 mode, and its robustness is enhanced by introducing a feedback circuit at frame layer.

  12. A Improved Search Algorithm of H.264 Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J Y; Zhang, Y L; Wang, Y; Wang, F G [PO Box 326, Harbin University of Science and Technology (South District), No.4 Linyuan Road, Dongli District, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Motion estimation search occupies most time of H.264 encode, Full Integer Motion Search is adopted by motion estimation search in encode model. But the asthmatic quantity of Full Integer Motion Search is too large, and could not be applied in some real time system. Fast Integer Motion Search suitable for H.264 is realized in this paper. This algorithm utilizes different motion characteristics of different images, adopts different search algorithms according as images with different motion characteristic separately. The test results show that this algorithm reduces 84.92% of motion estimation time when the Signal-to-Noise decrease less than 0.1%.

  13. Fast Motion Estimation and Intermode Selection for H.264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Byeong-Doo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC provides various useful features such as improved coding efficiency and error robustness. These features enable mobile devices to adopt H.264 standard to achieve effective video communications. However, the encoder complexity is greatly increased mainly due to motion estimation (ME and mode decision. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to jointly optimize intermode selection and ME using the multiresolution analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is over 3 times faster than other existing methods while maintaining the coding efficiency.

  14. Research on application of H.264/AVC%H.264/AVC技术的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤

    2009-01-01

    ITU-T和ISO联合开发的最新视频编码标准H.264/AVC具有压缩效率高、网络适应能力强等特点,对实现高效的媒体通信平台有着重要的工程意义和市场价值.介绍了H.264的技术特点、传输结构和编解码构架.提出了在Windows CE.NET操作系统下实现的一套H.264的实时解码软件系统.

  15. A New Effective Video Coding Standard - H.264%高效视频编码标准-H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟阳; 李文元

    2004-01-01

    H.264/AVC是ITU-T的视频编码专家组(VCEG)和ISO/IEC的活动图像编码专家组(MPEG)联合开发的一个最新的视频编码标准.其目的是为了获得很好的图像压缩效果并能适应不同的网络环境.文中对H.264/AVC标准的技术特点进行概要介绍.

  16. H.264/AVC先进视频编码研究%H.264/AVC --New standard of moving picture coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 严德聪; 杨宗凯

    2004-01-01

    为了取得更高的图像压缩性能和更多的实用功能,ISO/IECMPEG(运动图像专家组)和ITU-TVCEG(视频编码专家组)共同制订了一套新的视频编码标准H.264/AVC.介绍了H.264/AVC图像编解码系统的实现过程,对其采用的新技术进行了描述,最后将其与H. 263和MPEG-4标准进行了性能对比.

  17. 40 CFR 264.301 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator for any monofill, if: (1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would....301 Section 264.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  18. 40 CFR 264.315 - Special requirements for containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for containers... FACILITIES Landfills § 264.315 Special requirements for containers. Unless they are very small, such as an ampule, containers must be either: (a) At least 90 percent full when placed in the landfill; or...

  19. 12 CFR 26.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 26.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The prohibitions of... served by a management official of another credit union; (d) A depository organization that does not do... organized solely to serve depository institutions (a bankers' bank) or solely for the purpose of...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1 - Purpose, scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General § 264.1 Purpose, scope and applicability. (a) The purpose of this part is to establish minimum national standards which define the acceptable management of hazardous waste. (b) The standards in this... facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste,...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1201 Design and operating standards. (a) Hazardous waste munitions and explosives storage units must be designed and operated with...

  2. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator...

  3. 40 CFR 264.603 - Post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Miscellaneous Units § 264.603 Post-closure care. A miscellaneous unit that is a disposal unit must be maintained... treatment or storage unit has contaminated soils or ground water that cannot be completely removed...

  4. 40 CFR 264.1083 - Waste determination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL... waste management unit exempted under the provisions of § 264.1082(c)(1) of this subpart from using air..., as applicable to the waste management unit. (i) An initial determination of the average...

  5. H.264视频编码及其DSP实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于冰

    2011-01-01

    H.264协议是目前最先进的视频压缩标准,高复杂度是算法推广的最大瓶颈.本文研究了H.264的编码原理及其关键技术,并给出了H.264的DSP移植及优化方法,能有效的提高H.264编码器的编码速度.

  6. 45 CFR 264.0 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 264.0 Section 264.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OTHER ACCOUNTABILITY PROVISIONS § 264.0 What...

  7. 40 CFR 264.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper... systems or components. 264.192 Section 264.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.192 Design and installation of new tank systems...

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR264W, YCR086W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YOR264W DSE3 Daughter cell-specific protein, may help establish daughter fate Rows ...0 42 - Show YOR264W Bait ORF YOR264W Bait gene name DSE3 Bait description Daughter cell-specific protein, may help estab

  9. H.264编码中IDR帧应用的思考%Thoughts on Application of IDR Frame in H.264 Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河

    2012-01-01

    本文指出了H.264编码中IDR帧与普通I帧的区别,说明了IDR帧在H.264编码节目拆条编辑中的重要应用,给出了IPTV播出应用中编码器IDR帧设置应注意的问题及解决方法。%With development of source coding technology,H.264 coding technology is widely used in IPTV and Internet TV and application of IDR frame in H.264 coding in program demolition has become more prominent.This paper introduces important application of IDR frame in H.264 coding program demolition editing,and provides problems and solutions of coder IDR frame setting in IPTV broadcasting application.It has important significance for technical staff to master H.264 coding standard and technology character.

  10. H.264及相关视频编码标准论述%H.264 and Relevant Video Coding Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰; 张珂; 高远航

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 H.264的产生 视频压缩国际标准主要有:由ITU-T制定的H.261、H.262、H.263、H.264和由MPEG制定的MPEG-1、MPEG-2、MPEG-4,其中H.262/MPEG-2和H.264/MPEG-4 AVC由ITU-T与MPEG联合制定.

  11. 基于H.264/AVC扩展的可伸缩视频编码技术%H.264/AVC Extension-Based Scalable Video Coding Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎金; 赵威; 全子一; 门爱东

    2006-01-01

    联合视频组(JVT)最近正在研究开发基于H.264/AVC标准的可伸缩视频编码(SVC)方法,并且准备将其纳入H.264/AVC标准的扩展中.本文概述了SVC的编码结构,并重点讲述了H.264/AVC可伸缩编码扩展的关键技术.

  12. Research on Video Coding Technology Based on H.264%基于H.264的视频编码技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海国

    2011-01-01

    H.264标准是目前压缩比率最高的视频压缩标准,但其计算复杂度高,编码效率较低.本文研究了H.264的编码原理及关键技术,引入CPU和GPU并行的编码框架,能有效地提高H.264的编码速度.

  13. H.264's Application in Video Conference Service%H.264在会议电视业务中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏显峰

    2012-01-01

    本文首先介绍了会议电视业务的概念以及未来的发展方向,然后重点讲述了H.264图像压缩编码技术,对H.264技术优势进行介绍,并对H.264技术以及采用了H.264技术的会议电视业务未来的应用前景进行了分析.

  14. The Realization of H.264 Video Coding based on CUDA%基于CUDA的H.264视频编码实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海国

    2011-01-01

    H.264视频编码压缩比率高,但计算复杂度高,编码效率低.该文通过分析H.264编码器中各模块的编码性能,提出了基于CUDA编程模型的H.264视频编码并行框架实现方法,对H.264视频编码的各个关键模块进行CUDA实现,有效的提高了编码的速度.

  15. 基于H.264的运动估计快速算法研究%Fast Motion Estimation Algorithms Based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金萍

    2014-01-01

    According the characteristic of H.264,we bring forward the algorithm in H.264 video coding standard.This algorithm improve the capability of the search template、auto threshold and selection of forecast point.%本文针对H.264运动估计过于复杂的特性,提出了一种适应于H.264的运动估计算法和模块选择算法,以便降低运动估计的复杂度,提高编码的速度。

  16. 新视频压缩标准H.264/AVC的研究%Research on New Video Compression Standard H. 264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽云; 任煜海

    2005-01-01

    H.264/AVC是由ITU-T视频编码专家组和ISO/IEC运动图像专家组成立的联合视频专家组制定的最新视频编码标准.H.264/AVC标准的主要目标是增强压缩性能,并提供"网络友好"的视频表达.概述了H.264的特点及应用,并详细介绍了H.264/AVC的核心技术.

  17. An embedded Video Transmission System Based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing-min; LAN Ya-zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,an embedded Video Transmission System based on H.264 is proposed.In this system,the latest video compression standards-H.264 is used as video codec algorithm,the i.mx27 is used as the center processors of the system,embedded Linux is used as the operating system and RTP/UDP is used as the network transmission protocol.The paper introduces the design way and the frame of the system.The test results of the system show that the proposed system can support good quality transmission of the video information.The parameters with the transmission are D1,720*480,30fps and 4Mbps.In addition,in order to ensure the security of the video information in the transmission,the system provides the encryption to the information in the process of compressing.

  18. Adaptive mode-dependent scan for H.264/AVC intracoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yung-Chiang; Yang, Jar-Ferr

    2010-07-01

    In image/video coding standards, the zigzag scan provides an effective encoding order of the quantized transform coefficients such that the quantized coefficients can be arranged statistically from large to small magnitudes. Generally, the optimal scan should transfer the 2-D transform coefficients into 1-D data in descending order of their average power levels. With the optimal scan order, we can achieve more efficient variable length coding. In H.264 advanced video coding (AVC), the residuals resulting from various intramode predictions have different statistical characteristics. After analyzing the transformed residuals, we propose an adaptive scan order scheme, which optimally matches up with intraprediction mode, to further improve the efficiency of intracoding. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive scan scheme can improve the context-adaptive variable length coding to achieve better rate-distortion performance for the H.264/AVC video coder without the increase of computation.

  19. Embedding Protection Inside H.264/AVC and SVC Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamy-Bergot Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A backward compatible error-protection mechanism embedded into the H.264 (AVC or SVC syntax is described. It consists of the addition into the H.264 bitstream of supplementary network abstraction layer (NAL units that contain forward error-correction (FEC data generated by a block error-correction code. The proposed mechanism allows to leave the original information bits and NAL units intact and does not rely on any side information or extra signalling coming from lower layers, ensuring backward compatibility with the standard syntax. Simulation results obtained with Reed-Solomon and Low-density parity check error-correcting codes show significant improvements for both erroneous and lossy transmission channel configurations.

  20. Compressed Domain H.264 Baseline Encoder in Video Transcoding Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Essaki Muthu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of technology, there is an increase in the number of networks, types of devices and different content representation formats as a result of which interoperability between different systems and networks is gaining in importance. Video transcoding is the process of converting video from one format to another. H.264/AVC, developed by the Joint Video Team (JVT, is new standard which fulfils significant coding efficiency, simple syntax specifications and seamless integration of video coding into all current protocols and multiple architectures. The research work presented in this paper is carrying out compressed domain video encoding through integer transform in compliance with H.264 Standard in the transcoding pipeline. The core forward transform or H.264 Transform (HT and inverse transform are analysed and adopted in this paper. The complete encoder has been demonstrated with the help of three different types of input video sequences. This paper analysed different metrics/parameters involved in encoding. This research work proposed the method of computing the complexity. It has also been proposed that the combination of Quality, File size and Complexity shall be used as one of the important metrics to evaluate the video processing.

  1. The inner kiloparsec of the jet in 3C264

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, B; Feretti, L; Venturi, T; Lara, Lucas; Giovannini, Gabriele; Cotton, Bill; Feretti, Luigina; Venturi, Tiziana

    2003-01-01

    We present new multi-frequency EVN, MERLIN and VLA observations of the radio source 3C264, sensitive to linear scales ranging from the parsec to several kiloparsecs. The observations confirm the existence of regions with different properties in the first kiloparsec of the jet. The most remarkable feature is the transition between a well collimated narrow jet at distances from the core below 80 pc, to a conical-shaped wide jet, with an opening angle of 20 degrees. Another change of properties, consisting of an apparent deflection of the jet ridge line and a diminution of the surface brightness, occurs at a distance of 300 pc from the core, coincident with the radius of a ring observed at optical wavelengths. Our observations add new pieces of information on the spectrum of the radio-optical jet of 3C264, with results consistent with a synchrotron emission mechanism and a spectrum break frequency in the infrared. Brightness profiles taken perpendicularly to the jet of 3C264 are consistent with a spine brightene...

  2. H.264编码器在DM6437上的移植与优化*%Porting and Optimization of H.264 Encoder in DM6437

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安然; 张秀林; 刘玉

    2013-01-01

    H.264视频压缩标准是在2003年由联合视频组(JVT)开发的新一代视频编码标准。通过对H.264编码算法的系统分析,在DM6437开发环境中对H.264编码器进行了移植与优化,获得了质量和效率较高的视频编码图像。%H.264 video compression standard is developed by JVT as a new generation video coding standard.Through sys-tematic analysis of porting and optimization of H.264 encoder in DM6437, a high-quality and high efficiency video codec im-ages are provided.

  3. H.264压缩性能和应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊联欢

    2004-01-01

    随着ITU-T、MPEG标准组织分别批准了H.264标准,具有较好压缩性能的H.264标准得到了业界的广泛关注,其应用前景非常广阔。本文主要介绍、分析H.264标准的压缩性能比较和应用情况。

  4. Error Robust H.264 Video Transmission Schemes Based on Multi-frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红斌; 余松煜; 王慈

    2004-01-01

    Multi-frame coding is supported by the emerging H. 264. It is important for the enhancement of both coding efficiency and error robustness. In this paper, error resilient schemes for H. 264 based on multi-frame were investigated. Error robust H. 264 video transmission schemes were introduced for the applications with and without a feedback channel. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  5. H.264 SVC/MVC一致性测试工具包

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    H.264 SVC与H.264 MVC是可适性视频传输的新兴标准,借助这类标准,运营商可以传输高性能高清视频内容(1080p60和全高清3D),同时避免同播多重H.264AVC码流,从而节省网络带宽。

  6. H.264 MOTION ESTIMATION ALGORITHM BASED ON VIDEO SEQUENCES ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Motion estimation is an important part of H.264/AVC encoding progress, with high computational complexity. Therefore, it is quite necessary to find a fast motion estimation algorithm for real-time applications. The algorithm proposed in this letter adjudges the macroblocks activity degree first; then classifies different video sequences, and applies different search strategies according to the result. Experiments show that this method obtains almost the same video quality with the Full Search (FS) algorithm but with reduced more than 95% computation cost.

  7. OLSR Protocol Behavior Based on H.264 Multiservice Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amnai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using any fixed infrastructure. As the multiservice traffic compressors used today's grows, we need to verify if the available protocols support their applications. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact of multiservice traffic (MPEG-4, H.264 on the performances of Optimized Link State Protocol (OLSR protocol. The analysis has been done according to End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio performance metrics. We discovered that the traffic type has huge impact on the OLSR performances

  8. Entropy coders of the H.264/AVC standard

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Xiaohua; Lian, Yong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a collection of algorithms and VLSI architectures of entropy (or statistical) codecs of recent video compression standards, with focus on the H.264/AVC standard. For any visual data compression scheme, there exists a combination of two, or all of the following three stages: spatial, temporal, and statistical compression. General readers are first introduced with the various algorithms of the statistical coders. The VLSI implementations are also reviewed and discussed. Readers with limited hardware design background are also introduced with a design methodology starting from

  9. Perceptual importance analysis for H.264/AVC bit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The existing H.264/AVC rate control schemes rarely include the perceptual considerations. As a result, the improvements in visual quality are hardly comparable to those in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In this paper, we propose a perceptual importance analysis scheme to accurately abstract the spatial and temporal perceptual characteristics of video contents. Then we perform bit allocation at macroblock (MB) level by adopting a perceptual mode decision scheme, which adaptively updates the Lagrangian multiplier for mode decision according to the perceptual importance of each MB. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce bit rates without visual quality degradation.

  10. An efficient scheme of IDCT optimization in H.264 decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guoxing

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes an efficient scheme of IDCT in H.264 decoder. Firstly, motion compensation residuals of macro-block get from the bit-stream are classified into four cases: only dc coefficient is non-zero, only first row coefficients are non-zero, only first column coefficients are non-zero and others, and it is obvious that inverse transform processing of previous cases can be optimized, so in the second, we use different processing of IDCT in different cases to reduce their complexity. Compared with traditional IDCT scheme, the proposed scheme achieves an average 51.8% reduction in computation complexity without degradation in visual quality.

  11. H.264视频编码研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 郑志强

    2010-01-01

    本文概述了H.264视频编码标准的关键技术,简要介绍了H.264视频编码软件实现的基本方法,最后对主流H.264视频编码器性能进行测试,得出X264编码器性能最优的结论,为编码器选择提供依据。

  12. H.264视频编码标准学习工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琪

    2013-01-01

    H.264视频编码标准发布后得到的广泛关注,但是由于H.264代码量巨大,给研究者带来了较多困难。本文介绍了四款 H.264视频编码标准的学习工具软件,以方便广大学者对于H.264编码标准的学习。

  13. Transport of H.264 video based on H.323 protocol%基于H.323协议的H.264视频传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐智伟; 石跃祥; 朱珍民; 顾晓光

    2008-01-01

    通过研究H.264标准在Openh323系统中的应用,实现了在IP网络中基于H.323协议的H.264视频传输.给出了H.264在Openh323系统中的传输方案,并与H.261和H.263编码标准的结果进行了比较分析,得到了令人满意的实验结果.

  14. 基于H.264的视频网络传输方法的研究%Study on Video Network Transmission Based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕

    2012-01-01

    主要阐述了H.264编码器和解码器的原理,与以往的视频压缩标准相比,H.264具有更高的压缩比,更好的信道适应性,因此在网络带宽不是很高的情况下,选择H.264视频压缩技术进行多媒体信息网络传输是非常有意义的.

  15. H.264标准介绍及其在IPTV中的应用%Introduction of H.264 Standard and its Application in IPTV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚鹏

    2010-01-01

    H.264是目前被普遍认为是最有影响力的行业标准,同时也是一个面向未来IP和无线环境下的新教字视频压缩编码标准.首先介绍并分析了H.264视频编码标准及其关键技术和优势,然后介绍了IPTV技术,报告了H.264在IPTV方面的发展现状,并分析了其未来前景.

  16. Modeling and validation of AVS and H.264 unified IDCT module%AVS和H.264通用IDCT模块的建模与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓彬; 祝永新; 郭炜

    2008-01-01

    H.264和AVS协议在算法上有一定的相似性,IDCT算法的特性说明它适合被用来硬件加速.使用ARM的ESL工具SoC Designer,对AVS和H.264的算法模块IDCT进行复用建模,设计出一个能同时解码AVS和H.264码流的通用解码器的验证模型.

  17. On H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard%H.264/AVC视频编码标准的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竞

    2004-01-01

    H.264/MPEG-4 AVC是ITU-T的VCG(Video Coding Experts Group)和ISO/IEC的MPEG(MovingPicture Experts Group)最近联合开发的新一代数字视频编码标准.它的应用范围包括可视电话、视频会议、TV、DVD以及硬盘存储、流媒体、数字摄影、数字视频制作等等.和现有的视频编码标准,如MPEG-1、MPEG-2、MPEG-4 ASP相比,H.264/MPEG-4 AVC可以提供至少一倍以上的更加出色的压缩效率.H.264/MPEG-4 AVC的核心技术与之前的标准相同,仍采用基于预测变换的混合编码架构,基本处理没有过大的改变(预测,变换,量化,熵编码),但其通过对每个细节特别处理从而到整体效率的提升,另外NAL概念的标准化使其利于适应各种网络条件下的传输.日前JVT(Joint VideoTeam)已经为标准正式审批提交了最后的草案(2003年三月),关于2003年5月获得批准.

  18. Complexity scalable motion estimation for H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsung; Xin, Jun; Vetro, Anthony; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2006-01-01

    A new complexity-scalable framework for motion estimation is proposed to efficiently reduce the motioncomplexity of encoding process, with focus on long term memory motion-compensated prediction of the H.264 video coding standard in this work. The objective is to provide a complexity scalable scheme for the given motion estimation algorithm such that it reduces the encoding complexity to the desired level with insignificant penalty in rate-distortion performance. In principle, the proposed algorithm adaptively allocates available motion-complexity budget to macroblock based on estimated impact towards overall rate-distortion (RD) performance subject to the given encoding time limit. To estimate macroblock-wise tradeoff between RD coding gain (J) and motion-complexity (C), the correlation of J-C curve between current macroblock and collocated macroblock in previous frame is exploited to predict initial motion-complexity budget of current macroblock. The initial budget is adaptively assigned to each blocksize and block-partition successively and motion-complexity budget is updated at the end of every encoding unit for remaining ones. Based on experiment, proposed J-C slope based allocation is better than uniform motion-complexity allocation scheme in terms of RDC tradeoff. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can reduce the H.264 motion estimation complexity to the desired level with little degradation in the rate distortion performance.

  19. Resynchronization and remultiplexing for transcoding to H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin; XIONG Hong-kai; SONG Li; YU Song-yu

    2006-01-01

    H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard appears highly competitive due to its high efficiency, flexibility and error resilience. In order to maintain universal multimedia access, statistical multiplexing, or adaptive video content delivery, etc., it induces an immense demand for converting a large volume of existing multimedia content from other formats into the H.264/AVC format and vice versa. In this work, we study the remultiplexing and resynchronization issue within system coding after transcoding, aiming to sustain the management and time information destroyed in transcoding and enable synchronized decoding of decoder buffers over a wide range of retrieval or receipt conditions. Given the common intention of multiplexing and synchronization mechanism in system coding of different standards, this paper takes the most widely used MPEG-2 transport stream (TS) as an example, and presents a software system and the key technologies to solve the time stamp mapping and relevant buffer management. The solution reuses previous information contained in the input streams to remultiplex and resynchronize the output information with the regulatory coding and composition structure. Experimental results showed that our solutions efficiently preserve the performance in multimedia presentation.

  20. Performance evaluation of H.264 decoder on different processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.Prasantha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding is the newest video coding standard of the moving video coding experts group. The decoder is standardized by imposing restrictions on the bit stream and syntax, and defining the process of decoding syntax elements such that every decoder conforming to the standard will produce similar output when encoded bit stream is provided as input. It uses state of art coding tools and provides enhanced coding efficiency for a wide range of applications, including video telephony, real-time video conferencing, direct-broadcast TV (television, blue-ray disc, DVB (Digital video broadcast broadcast, streaming video and others. The paper proposes to port the H.264/AVC decoder on the various processors such as TI DSP (Digital signal processor, ARM (Advanced risk machines and P4 (Pentium processors. The paper also proposesto analyze and compare Video Quality Metrics for different encoded video sequences. The paper proposes to investigate the decoder performance on different processors with and without deblocking filter and compare the performance based on different video quality measures.

  1. 支持MBAFF的H.264环路滤波的硬件实现%Realization of H.264 Loop Filter Hardware Supported MBAFF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2012-01-01

      This article focuses on hardware implementation of the H.264 decoder’s loop filter supporting MBAFF. A proposal with 30MHZ system clock is put forward.%  讨论基于H.264并支持MBAFF的环路滤波器的硬件实现,给出了在30MHZ时钟频率下的一种硬件实现方案.

  2. A New Generation of Moving Image Compression Standard: H.264/AVC%新一代运动图像压缩标准H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严德聪; 程赓; 杨宗凯

    2003-01-01

    H.264/AVC是ISO/IEC MPEG与ITU-T VCEG共同制订的新一代图像编码标准,它具有更高的压缩性能.文章介绍H.264/AVC图像编解码系统的实现过程,并对其采用的新技术进行描述.

  3. 基干H.264编码的多屏共享系统研究%Multi-screen sharing system based on H.264/AVC encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰源; 黄全明

    2014-01-01

    H.264/AVC is a high compression video encoder standard proposed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG)and ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group(MPEG). However,the higher computational complexity of H.264/AVC encoder increased the delay time of multi-screen sharing system. The motion estimation algorithms provided in X264 are analyzed in this paper. An optimized algorithm is proposed,which can reduce the unnecessary computation a lot. The multi-screen sharing system with the improved encoder was designed and implemented. Experimental results show that the proposed method has increased the encoding speed and decreased the delay time significantly,while little loss in quality incurred if any.%H.264/AVC是一种由ITU-T视频编码专家组合ISO/IEC JTC1动态图像专家组联合提出的高度压缩视频编码器标准。然而H.264/AVC编码器较高的运算复杂度提高了多屏共享系统的延迟时间。H.264/AVC 由多种开源的实现,其中X264因简单高效而得到广泛的应用。在此对多频共享系统的关键技术进行实现,分析X264编码器提供的运动估计算法并且提出一种优化的算法。实验表明,新的算法提高了编码的速度、减少了系统延迟时间,同时视频质量几乎没有产生损失。

  4. Features of H.264 standard and studies on its improvement%H.264标准的特点及其改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼剑; 陆亮; 虞露; 董洁

    2003-01-01

    首先说明H.264标准中所采用的主要先进技术,然后对H.264标准的性能和复杂度进行分析,提出降低复杂度的方法,最后阐述视频编解码技术研究的方向和前景.

  5. Fast algorithm for H.264 deblocking filter based on Baseline%基于Baseline的H.264去块效应滤波的快速算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈石; 郑建宏

    2011-01-01

    为了解决H.264/AVC的去块效应滤波算法中判断边界强度(boundary strength,BS)计算量大的问题,提出一种快速判定BS的算法.通过详细分析H.264编解码过程的特点,结合Baseline Profile中边界强度值的出现规律,优化了原始的BS判定流程并且减少了计算量.通过Intel VTune试验证明,在不影响主观质量的基础上以较小的PSNR(peak signal to noise ration)损耗获得了大约56%的时间减少量,从而减小去块效应滤波器的复杂度,有助于H.264解码器的硬件实现.%For H. 264/AVC, the complexity of judgment of boundary strength is a big problem in deblocking filter algorithm. The paper proposes a fast algorithm to judge BS. According to the characteristic of H. 264/A VC standard and the rule of boundary strength in Baseline Profile of H. 264, this method is able to reduce the amount of calculation. And it is proved by the experimental simulation of JM8. 6 that there is almost 56% of time consuming in deblcoking filter with a bit loss of PSNR and no influence on picture subject quality. It reduces the complexity of deblocking filter in H. 264, and is good for hardware implementation of H. 264 decoder.

  6. Application of H.264 standard in the video surveillance system%H.264标准在视频监控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宇; 邢春玉

    2010-01-01

    针对H.264的编码特性,选择了编码代价最小的帧间编码模式,通过改变搜索范围来优化多帧运动估计. 实验结果验证,该编码算法可以平均节省H.264编码时间的30%.

  7. 40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or decontaminated unless otherwise specified...

  8. 40 CFR 264.256 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.256 Section 264.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before...

  9. 40 CFR 264.312 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.312 Section 264.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...) is complied with. (b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards...

  10. 40 CFR 264.229 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.229 Section 264.229 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated,...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 12 CFR 264b.6 - Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. 264b.6 Section 264b.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... gifts of more than minimal value. (a) Tangible gifts. Board employees must deposit tangible gifts...

  13. Temporal scalability comparison of the H.264/SVC and distributed video codec

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, E.;

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the multimedia scalable video streaming is a current topic of interest. There exist many methods for scalable video coding. This paper is focused on the scalable extension of H.264/AVC (H.264/SVC) and distributed video coding (DVC). The paper presents an efficiency comparison of SVC...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1033 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... input capacity less than 44 MW, a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. The... control devices. 264.1033 Section 264.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... systems and control devices. (a)(1) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems and control devices used...

  15. H.264视频解码的OpenMP并行优化%OpenMP Parallel Optimization of H.264 Video Decoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮; 郎涛

    2011-01-01

    With the H.264 video format widely used, the efficiency of the H.264 decoding has become increasingly demanding, this paper analyzes the H.264 decoding process in the JM15.1 model using the OpenMP which is industry-standard of shared memory to set parallel zones for decoding process. It sets private variables to prevent data conflicting and regulating load. The efficiency of decoding increases about 10%.%随着H.264视频格式得到广泛应用,对H.264解码的效率要求越来越高,对JM15.1模型中的H.264解码过程进行了分析.采用共享存储编程的工业标准OpenMP对解码过程进行了并行区的设置.设置私有变量防止数据竞争和调整了负载.解码效率提高了10%左右.

  16. H.264视频压缩标准的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君

    2011-01-01

    H.264视频压缩标准是图像通信研究领域的主流问题。H.264通过许多新技术使得编码性能大幅度提高,但同时也成倍增加其复杂度.这使得对H.264的研究上面临着巨大的挑战。本文以H.264的官方模型JM86作为参考对象,给出了一种分析研究H.264视频压缩编码标准的通用方法。文中主要从理论、模型选择、研究方法等几个方面给出了具体的研究过程。

  17. H.264的信道适应性分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许生旺; 李彦东

    2007-01-01

    H.264通过编码端的差错弹性工具,解码端的误码掩盖措施来增强对误码信道的适应性。分析了H.264为增强抗误码性能而采取的主要措施和H.264的校验模型JM对信道误码的处理方法,提出了一种H.264的信道适应性仿真方法,并使用国际上推荐的测试环境进行了仿真,仿真结果表明H.264能够很好地适应有线和无线误码信道。

  18. Efficient PU Mode Decision and Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yi Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applications. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had been finalized in 2013. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion estimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the modes, residuals, and variance of motion vectors (MVs extracted from H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current encoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MVs from H.264/AVC are used to decide the search range of PU during motion estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.

  19. A Fast PU Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Tsair Fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applic ations. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had b een finalized recently. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion e stimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the motion vectors (MVs, resid uals, and modes from each coding block of H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current e ncoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MV variance from H.264/AVC is calculated to decide the search range of PU and also to reduce the prediction mode. Simulation results show that t he proposed method can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.

  20. Improved fast intra prediction algorithm of H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiong; HU Rui-min; ZHU Li; ZHANG Xin-chen; HAN Zhen

    2006-01-01

    With advanced prediction modes of intra prediction, intra coding of H.264/AVC offers significant coding gains compared with previous video coding standards. It uses an important tool called Lagrangian rate-distortion optimization (RDO)technique to decide the best coding mode for a block, but the computational burden is extremely high. In this paper, we proposed an improved fast intra prediction algorithm including block type selection and mode decision algorithm based on analysis of edge feature of a block. Our algorithm filters out unlikely block type and candidate modes to reduce the RDO calculations. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can reduce the computation complexity of intra prediction from 52.90% to 56.31%, with 0.04 dB PSNR degradation and 2% increase of bit rate.

  1. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  2. Improved Algorithm of Sub-pixel Full Search for H.264%一种H.264亚像素全搜索的改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛剑飞; 毛飞飞; 张杰; 王刚

    2013-01-01

    H. 264 is a high-performance video codec technology. It has greatly improved in many ways compared with other standard. Full Search is the most direct block-matching algorithm. Because of its superiority in image quality ,FS often used as a reference to the other algorithm in image quality. Since H. 264 algorithm possibly gets local optimal points, we present an improved algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm searches all possible points, prevent to get local best points and effectively avoid the disadvantage of H. 264 algorithm. Study proves that the improved algorithm can further improve the image quality for more than 0.3db as compared with H. 264 sub-pixel full search algorithm . As this algorithm has better performance than H. 264 sub-pixel full search algorithm in image quality ,it can be used as a reference for other sub-pixel search algorithm and evaluate the merits of other algorithms in image quality.%H.264是一种高性能的视频编解码技术,它较之其他标准在很多方面有了很大提高,全搜索(FS,FullSearch)是块匹配算法最直接的实现方式,由于其在图像质量方面的优越性,常作为其他算法在图像方面的参考,但是由于H.264亚像素全搜索算法得到的点并非是全局最优点,提出一种新的亚像素全搜索算法.该算法搜索所有候选点,防止落入局部最佳点,有效避免了H.264算法的缺点.实验表明,新的算法优于H.264亚像素全搜索算法,能将图像质量提高0.3db左右.鉴于本文算法编码的图像质量胜于H.264亚像素全搜索算法,可将本算法作为其它亚像素搜索算法的参考,并在图像质量方面通过本算法来评测其它算法的优劣.

  3. 45 CFR 264.80 - If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds, what funds must it expend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funds must it expend? 264.80 Section 264.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Levels of the Territories? § 264.80 If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds, what funds must it expend? (a) If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds under section 1108(b) of the Act, it must:...

  4. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 TFs and others Blood RAW 264.7 SRX264595,SRX147...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 Input control Blood RAW 264.7 SRX796814,SRX7968...13,SRX1471833 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

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  7. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 All antigens Blood RAW 264.7 SRX1471835,SRX2645...SRX434625,SRX264581,SRX019779 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 Input control Blood RAW 264.7 SRX1471833,SRX796...814,SRX796813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 Input control Blood RAW 264.7 SRX796813,SRX7968...14,SRX1471833 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 DNase-seq Blood RAW 264.7 SRX434626,SRX434625 h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 TFs and others Blood RAW 264.7 SRX264595,SRX026...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 All antigens Blood RAW 264.7 SRX264590,SRX26459...RX1471833,SRX019779,SRX264581 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  4. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of...

  5. SP/IP Frame Technologies in H.264/AVC%H.264/AVC中的SP/SI帧技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万萍; 陈仁雷; 王海婴

    2004-01-01

    SP/SI帧是最新的视频压缩标准ITU-T H.264(也称ISO/IEC MPEG-4/Part 10-AVC)中定义的两种新类型帧.探讨了SP帧技术的主要特性,即使使用不同的预测参考帧也能解码恢复出相同的SP帧;介绍了一般与SP帧联合使用的SI帧技术;分析了SP帧在流间切换、拼接和随机接入等应用中取代I帧的原理.通过仿真结果表明,在提供相同功能时SP帧的编码效率远远高于I帧.

  6. Video coding system based on fractal and H.264%基于分形和H.264的视频编码系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝世平; 张玲

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the fractal encoding technology with a higher speed, a new H. 264 P frame prediction method and a corresponding fast coding system were proposed to decrease the video compression coding time and bit rate. Firstly, the main ideas of intra —/inter —prediction in H. 264 and their advantages and disadvantages in P frame encoding were analyzed. Then, the new video compression method based on the fractal video compression and its characteristics were discussed. Furthermore, by combining the advantages of new standard H. 264 with fractal video compression method, the P frame in H. 264 was predicted by proposed method. Finally, the fractal coefficients coding and residual coding generated from fractal prediction encoding were given. Experimental results show that the proposed coding system has reduced the bit rate and the encoding time to 65% and 19% respectively comparing to those of the H. 264 reference software JM15. 1, while the Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) can be ignored (average reduce 0. 09 dB). These results can satisfy the requirements of variable motion video sequences and can improve the overall performance of the H. 264 video coding system.%基于具有快速编解码速度的分形编码技术,提出了新的H.264中P帧预测方法,用于减少视频压缩编码时间并降低码流输出.首先,分析了H.264的帧内预测算法、帧间预测算法和P帧预测算法的优缺点,介绍了本文提出的基于分形编码的新型视频压缩编码方法,讨论了该方法的优缺点.然后,结合H.264和分形的优点,用分形预测的方式对H.264中的P帧进行预测.最后,给出了在H.264中用分形预测改进P帧编码所产生的分形系数的编码和残差的编码.实验结果表明:与目前国际视频压缩标准H.264的标准测试模型JM15.1相比,在忽略峰值信噪比的情况下(平均降低0.09 dB),改进的P帧预测方法的码流和压缩时间分别降低为JM15.1的65%和19%,并且能够适应

  7. H.264视频编码的DCT技术与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亮

    2006-01-01

    重点介绍H.264视频编解码的主要过程,离散余弦变换(DCT)以及DCT实践的一些改进的想法.结合X264_20061024版本的代码对H.264编码的流程和DCT技术的实现加以分析,同时对DCT的设计方法做了一些改进的想法.

  8. H.264/AVC视频编码器的DSP实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇坚; 王亚丽; 王洪君

    2006-01-01

    H.264/AVC与以往视频编码标准相比,编码效率和编码性能大幅提高,但计算复杂度也明显增加。H.264“baseline”编码器DSP移植及优化后.H.264编码器效率获得了很大提高,达到实时编码的要求,同时能获得较好的视频图像质量。

  9. H.264的视频压缩技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政

    2013-01-01

      随着多媒体技术和宽带技术的不断进步,数字视频越来越受到人们的关注。本文简要介绍视H.264技术优势,描述了 H.264在视频压缩方面的关键技术,分析了 H.264编码标准及其采用的主要编码技术。

  10. 基于Android和H.264的高清解码系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋巍; 孙伟强

    2013-01-01

    本文将开源的FFmpeg提供的H.264解码器进行裁剪优化,从中提取H.264解码的核心部分,并移植到Android平台,完成了一种Android平台下的H.264解码方案的设计,并在真机下进行了测试取得了较好的解码播放效果。

  11. H.264视频编解码标准及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易巍; 赵子涵

    2010-01-01

    对H.264视频编解码技术标准的发展、技术特色、关键技术作了简要介绍,并介绍了H.264标准的新发展与其在网络、广播电视领域的应用.H.264视频编解码标准是一种低码率、高压缩率、高适应性的视频技术,在全球具有非常广阔的发展和应用前景.

  12. 基于H.264的容错技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旗; 姜秀华

    2011-01-01

    H.264编码标准的提出极大地推动了视频网络的传输和应用。其在保留以往视频编码标准的基础上引入了很多新技术,这些特点为H.264错误隐藏提出了新的挑战。本文重点介绍H.264/AVC提供的新的差错控制方法及错误隐藏技术。

  13. QL303:全高清H.264编解码器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    通过支持Baseline、Main和在QVGA(320×240)到全高清(1920×1080)分辨率的H.264 High Profile标准,QL303提供了业界最广泛的H.264性能集合。通过以低于275mW提供HD H.264编码及灵活的外围接口集合使QL303适用于各类便携没备,如数码相机、便携式摄像机和智能手机等。

  14. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  15. Scalable Fast Rate-Distortion Optimization for H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest H.264/AVC video coding standard aims at significantly improving compression performance compared to all existing video coding standards. In order to achieve this, variable block-size inter- and intra-coding, with block sizes as large as and as small as , is used to enable very precise depiction of motion and texture details. The Lagrangian rate-distortion optimization (RDO can be employed to select the best coding mode. However, exhaustively searching through all coding modes is computationally expensive. This paper proposes a scalable fast RDO algorithm to effectively choose the best coding mode without exhaustively searching through all the coding modes. The statistical properties of MBs are analyzed to determine the order of coding modes in the mode decision priority queue such that the most probable mode will be checked first, followed by the second most probable mode, and so forth. The process will be terminated as soon as the computed rate-distortion (RD cost is below a threshold which is content adaptive and is also dependent on the RD cost of the previous MBs. By adjusting the threshold we can choose a good tradeoff between timesaving and peak signal-to-noise (PSNR ratio. Experimental results show that the proposed fast RDO algorithm can drastically reduce the encoding time up to 50% with negligible loss of coding efficiency.

  16. Mode decision for H.264 down-scaling video transcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the coding modes of H. 264 coded video would be changed by the transcoding process of spatial resolution reduction, there exists good correlation in prediction modes and prediction directions between input and output video. In this paper, we first introduce a new spatial resolution reduction transcoding architecture of intra coded frames where the distortion can be calculated directly in compression domain. We then propose a fast mode decision algorithm in which only a small part of rate distortion optimization (RDO) calculation is needed for mode decision. For 4 × 4 luma block, the proposed scheme has average 21.3% computation saving, compared to the cascaded pixel-domain transcoding scheme with the fast intra mode decision algorithm proposed in JVT-G013[11] . For 16 × 16 luma block, RDO calculation is completely avoided in our scheme while the scheme in JVT-G013 needs 2 RDO calculations. Experimental results show that our scheme outperforms that of JVT-G013 in terms of significantly computation savings with negligible loss of PSNR.

  17. Design of Dual-mode Variable Length Decoder for AVS and H.264%AVS及H.264双模可变长解码器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小龙; 王祖强; 魏先政

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirement that video decoder chips should be compatible with both AVS and H.264 video coding standard, a dual-mode variable length decoder is proposed. The reuse of barrel shifter and Exp-colomb decoder is adopted, and it uses combinational logic to look up table, optimizes and rebuilds code tables of AVS and H.264. The design is simulated and tested in ModelSim, synthesized and validated on the Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) chip. Result indicates that it can be applied to both AVS and H.264 standard, reduce the circuit size and complexity, and improve the efficiency of looking up table.%为使视频解码芯片能同时兼容AVS及H.264这2种视频编码标准,设计一种双模可变长解码器.该设计复用码流缓冲移位和指数哥伦布解码模块,采用组合逻辑电路查找码表,对AVS和H.264码表进行优化与重组.在ModelSim环境下完成仿真测试,并通过FPGA芯片进行综合验证.结果表明,该设计能有效支持AVS和H.264 2种标准,减小电路资源消耗和面积,并提高查找表的查找效率.

  18. Transplantation of H.264 Decoder Based on FFmpeg on Symbian Platform%Symbian平台下基于FFmpeg的H.264解码器的移植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 王华

    2011-01-01

    由于无线网络具有数据传输速率低、带宽不稳定、误码率高等缺点,所以如果想在无线网络上传输清晰流畅的视频流数据,必须有先进的视频压缩技术和高效健壮的传输协议的支持.H.264作为首选的视频压缩标准,但在手机视频的实际应用中,还存在诸多手机的播放器本身并不支持H.264编码格式的视频播放.以此为据,阐述了将开源H.264解码器移植到Symbian手机中的实现过程以及需要注意的几个实际问题,对其他手机平台提供了可借鉴的经验.%Because of the low data transmission speed, unstable bandwidth, and high data bit error rate of wireless networks , it is necessary to get the support of the advanced video compressed technology and efficient transmission protocal if the clear and fluent transmission of video streaming data is needed. Although H. 264 is the first recommended video compressing standard, many media players in smrat phone don't support the H. 264 coding mode in the actual video application of cellphones. The process to realize the transplantation of H. 264 decoder into Symbian smart phones and the practical problems to which people should pay more attention are elaborated.

  19. 新一代视频压缩标准H.264%Overview of the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万帅; 王新岱

    2003-01-01

    JVT(Joint Video Team)开发的新一代的低比特率视频标准H.264具有出色的编码效率和压缩性能.其基本框架和已有的视频编码标准类似,但它包含许多特有的重要的技术特征,系统介绍这些特征及其性能,H.264对于研究多媒体通信和新一代的网络业务有着重要的意义.

  20. 基于H.264的视频会议加密系统%A video-conference encryption system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华桢

    2008-01-01

    讨论了基于H.264的视频加密问题,提出了一种将高级加密标准(Advanced Encryption Standard,AES)、混沌加密技术与H.264相结合的视频会议加密系统设计方案,解决了视频会议中用户身份认证、密钥产生、密钥分发以及视频数据保密等问题,并对改进加密方案进行了实验.

  1. The advanced video coding standard H.264/AVC%新一代视频压缩标准H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫冬; 庞潼川; 王建国

    2003-01-01

    H.264是国际上最新的视频编解码标准,其编码效率可比现有MPEG-4提高50%,是未来几年内视频编码技术研究的主要方向.本文简述了H.264的发展历程,列出其具有的新技术特征和基本原理结构框图,针对主要技术、新标准的技术优势进行描述.

  2. Research on the Advancement of the H.264 Video Coding Standard%浅谈H.264视频编解码标准的先进性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玢; 孟开元; 田泽

    2010-01-01

    H.264是新一代视频编解码标准,其采用了一系列新的数据压缩、成像和网络传输技术,使编码效率、图像质量与传输效果得到同步提升,体现了视频编解码技术的最新成果和流行趋势.文章从发展历程、技术创新、应用前景等方面论证了H.264的先进性和实用性.

  3. The Effect of Diphtheria Toxin on Nitric Oxide Induction From RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Aybay, Cemalettin

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effect of diphtheria toxin (DT) on nitric oxide (NO) production from RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was investigated. Griess reagent was used to determine NO production by measuring nitrite levels in the culture supernatants. Corynebacterium diphtheriae G12/6 strain-produced DT (Limes flocculation activity and immunodiffusion assays were positive) demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on RAW 264.7 macrophages to induce NO production. L-NAME, an L-arginine analogue, ...

  4. MPEG-2到H.264的转码中的MV重用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官升; 于鸿洋

    2006-01-01

    介绍了H.264标准和转码技术,并提出了一种基于MV重用的MPEG-2到H.264的转码,用源码jm82进行了试验,结果显示能在只有0.1dB左右的PSNR下降的情况下提高15%左右的转码速度.

  5. Effect of radiation on the expression of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Fei-Yue; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cancer radiation therapy can cause skeletal complications, such as osteopenia and osteoporosis. To understand the mechanism responsible for the skeletal complications, the expression profiles of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells were observed. Osteoclast formation was established by RAW264.7 cells that were treated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and detected using immunochemistry and morphological observations. Quantitative real-time polymerase ch...

  6. Mapping of H.264 decoding on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, Erik B.; Jaspers, Egbert G.; Gelderblom, Rob H.

    2003-05-01

    Due to the increasing significance of development costs in the competitive domain of high-volume consumer electronics, generic solutions are required to enable reuse of the design effort and to increase the potential market volume. As a result from this, Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) contain a growing amount of fully programmable media processing devices as opposed to application-specific systems, which offered the most attractive solutions due to a high performance density. The following motivates this trend. First, SoCs are increasingly dominated by their communication infrastructure and embedded memory, thereby making the cost of the functional units less significant. Moreover, the continuously growing design costs require generic solutions that can be applied over a broad product range. Hence, powerful programmable SoCs are becoming increasingly attractive. However, to enable power-efficient designs, that are also scalable over the advancing VLSI technology, parallelism should be fully exploited. Both task-level and instruction-level parallelism can be provided by means of e.g. a VLIW multiprocessor architecture. To provide the above-mentioned scalability, we propose to partition the data over the processors, instead of traditional functional partitioning. An advantage of this approach is the inherent locality of data, which is extremely important for communication-efficient software implementations. Consequently, a software implementation is discussed, enabling e.g. SD resolution H.264 decoding with a two-processor architecture, whereas High-Definition (HD) decoding can be achieved with an eight-processor system, executing the same software. Experimental results show that the data communication considerably reduces up to 65% directly improving the overall performance. Apart from considerable improvement in memory bandwidth, this novel concept of partitioning offers a natural approach for optimally balancing the load of all processors, thereby further improving the

  7. H.264/AVC中整数DCT变换量化模块的Verilog设计%Verilog Design of Integer DCT and Quantization Module in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈劲桐; 张卫

    2013-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准采用了4×4整数DCT变换和量化方法,避免了数据失配并提高了精度,具有较高的编码效率.本文分析H.264整数DCT变换和量化算法,将DCT变换转换为两次快速蝶形运算,减少了计算量,并用Verilog硬件描述语言编程实现整数DCT变换和量化功能,利用QuartusⅡ进行综合和仿真,得到正确的结果.本设计具有54.54MHz的时钟频率、较低的资源消耗和功耗.%The video compression standard H. 264/AVC uses 4×4 integer DCT and quantization methods, which avoid data mismatch and improve data accuracy, thus has high compression efficiency. This paper analyzes the algorithm of integer DCT and quantization in H.264. By transforming DCT into two quick butterfly computations, it reduces algorithm complexity and makes it easer to realize. The synthesis and simulation by QuartusⅡ show the correct results. The design is of 54.54MHz high clock frequency , low resource usage and low power dissipation.

  8. Research on data segmentation technology based on H.264%基于H.264的数据分割技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2015-01-01

    H.264 video encoding standard as a new generation of video compression algorithm on the basis of maintaining the advantages of the previous encoding scheme, the video compression performance and error resilience has been greatly improved. In this paper, we study and compare the data segmentation methods and some typical data segmentation methods of H.264, analyze the characteristics of encoding and encoding, and compare them with the experimental simulation.%H.264视频编码标准作为新一代视频压缩算法在保持了以往编码方案优点的基础上,在视频压缩性能以及抗误码性上得到了很大的提高。对H.264的数据分割方法和几种典型的数据分割策略进行研究,分析其编码方法和编码特性,通过实验仿真比较其所具有的特性,对数据分割技术进行研究并提出一种改进方案。

  9. H.264与AVS在插值算法上的比较%The comparison on interpolation between H.264 and AVS standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炜; 刘佩林; 周大江

    2008-01-01

    通过对H.264和AVS的插值算法进行研究和分析,分别从运算复杂度和性能两个方面进行了比较.在复杂度的分析中引入了复杂度分析模型,该模型从硬件设计的角度合理地量化了两种插值算法的复杂度.在比较两种插值算法的性能上,根据插值的运算特性给出了性能的评估指标.用上述复杂度模型和性能指标对H.264和AVS的插值算法进行分析和比较,实验结果表明H.264具有较好的性能,而AVS的性能开销比略好于H.264.

  10. 基于Android系统的H.264视频压缩技术实现%Design of H.264 Video Compressing Based on Android System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光耀; 郭永清; 陈炀

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technical design of H.264 Video Compression based on Android platform.The terminal design of this scheme is based on the hardware platform of S3C6410 processor and software platform Android version 2.3.Through the graft of webcam USB driven on the terminal platform,the video images H.264 standard compression and Socket network programming,the Real-time display of network video monitor is realized.%提出了基于Android平台的H.264视频压缩技术设计方案,该方案终端设计是基于S3C6410处理器的硬件和Android 2.3版本的软件平台,通过终端USB摄像头的驱动移植、视频图像的H.264标准压缩以及Socket网络编程,实现网络视频监控的实时显示。

  11. H.264/AVC基本档次编码器时域可伸缩编码的实现%Implementation of Temporal Scalable Coding in H.264/Avc Baseline Profile Encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嘉亮; 张杰

    2012-01-01

    提出一种在H.264/AVC基本档次编码器中实现时域可伸缩编码的方案,该方案通过H.264/AVC标准所提供的多参考帧和内存管理控制操作机制来实现.对于现有的H.264/AVC解码器,不需任何修改,即可直接解码由本方案生成的时域可伸缩码流.%A scheme to implement temporal scalability in the H. 264/AVC baseline encoder is proposed. It is achieved by means of the multiple reference frames and memory management control operation mechanism which provided by H. 264/AVC standard. All existing H. 264/AVC decoder can directly decode the temporal scalable compressed stream produced by the proposed scheme, without any modification. [Key word

  12. Analysis of the key Issues of the Scalable Video Coding Extension of H.264/AVC%H.264/AVC分级视频编码扩展关键技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯清江; 祁新安

    2010-01-01

    H.264/AVC分级视频编码扩展是当前最新的分级视频编码标准,此标准在实现典型的时域、空域和质量分级的同时,保持了与现在广泛应用的H.264/AVC的兼容.描述了H.264/AVC分级扩展的总体设计,阐明了此标准的典型编码器及其产生的码流的结构,详细讨论了把H.264/AVC扩展到可分级标准的基本概念,最后用实验表明了H.264/AVC分级扩展与H.264/AVC的单层编码相比的编码效率.

  13. 下一代视频标准H.264中的图象的变换和量化%Transform And Quantization in the Next Generation Video Standard H. 264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向坡; 刘新

    2003-01-01

    H.264是ITU-T和ISO共同制定的下一代视频标准.简单介绍了下一代视频压缩标准-H.264,并对H.264标准中变换和量化过程加以具体解释,最后通过例子来演示变换和量化的过程.

  14. 从H.264向H.265的数字视频压缩技术升级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国梁

    2011-01-01

    H.264虽然是一个划时代的数字视频压缩标准,但是随着数字视频产业链的高速发展,H.264的局限性逐步显现,并且由于H.264标准核心压缩算法的完全固化,并不能够通过调整或扩充来更好地满足当前高清数字视频应用.通过描述H.264的关键技术,重点分析H.264的优缺点,并指出H.264向H.265数字视频压缩技术升级带来的变化和技术提升.

  15. H.264高清解码器帧率控制显示系统的SOC实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    H.264视频压缩技术是压缩比很高的技术,且在同等压缩比下有较高的质量,H.264解码器的应用也越来越广泛,而显示控制系统在H.264解码器中是一个关键单元,本文讨论在H.264解码器中通过应用程序设定帧率,从而控制解码器解码速度的显示控制系统。

  16. Direct Effects of Activin A on the Activation of Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyan Ge; Yinan Wang; Ye Feng; Haiyan Liu; Xueling Cui; Fangfang Chen; Guixiang Tai; Zhonghui Liu

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune and acquired immune via secreting pro-inflammatory mediators, phagocytosing microorganisms and presenting antigens. Activin A, a member of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, is produced by macrophages and microglia cells. In this study, we reported a direct effect of activin A as a pro-inflammatory factor on mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. Our data revealed that activin A could not only increase IL-1v and IL-6 production from RAW264.7 cells, but also promote pinocytic and phagocytic activities of RAW264.7 cells. In addition, activin A obviously up-regulated MHC Ⅱ expression on the surface of RAW264.7 cells, whereas did not influence MHC I expression. Activin A also enhanced CD80 expression, which is a marker of activated macrophages, but did not influence RAW264.7 cell proliferation. These data suggest that activin A may regulate primary macrophage-mediated innate and acquired immune response via promoting the activation of rest macrophages. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  17. H.264的视频压缩技术的研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩霞; 赵刚; 刘三民

    2009-01-01

    随着宽带技术的普及和多媒体技术的不断发展,人们对数字视频业务产生了越来越浓厚的兴趣。本文简要介绍视频编码标准的发展历程,描述了H.264在视频压缩方面的关键技术,分析了H.264编码标准及其采用的主要编码技术。探讨了H.264在视频、广电等领域的应用前景。

  18. H.264/AVC视频编码的重要价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕厚杰

    2005-01-01

    MPEG(Moving Picture Experts Group)和VCEG(Video Coding Experts Group)已经联合开发了一个比早期研发的MPEG和H.263性能更好的视频压缩编码标准,这就是被命名为AVC(Advanced Video Coding)的,也被称为ITU—TH.264建议和MPEG-4的第10部分的标准,在这里,就简称它为H.264/AVC或H.264。这个标准已于2003年3月被ITU—T通过并在国际上正式颁布。

  19. A New Error Robustness Scheme Based on UEP for H.264 Streaming over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHua; YANGSongan; YUSongyu

    2005-01-01

    Due to the H.264 features in data partitioning and packing schemes-when the H.264 video stream is transmitted over packet-switched networks, intracoded macroblocks are much more susceptible to packet loss than inter-coded macroblocks and the loss of intra-coded macroblocks causes serious error propagation. In order to im-prove the robustness of intra-coded macroblocks, a new algorithm combined with unequal error protection for packets over Internet channel is proposed here. In this algorithm, according to an appropriate judgment scheme, some intra-coded macroblocks in the encoder are allowed to include motion vectors so as to substantially enhance the performance of temporal error concealments in the decoder. The simulation results demonstrate that this proposed method substantially improves the H.264’s packetloss resilience.

  20. Performance Analysis of H.264/AVC with In-Loop Deblocking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Nigam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The H.264/AVC standard defines an optional in-loop deblocking filter. When the image is partitioned into blocks, it results in blocking artifacts due to lack of inter-correlation between blocks. This paper compares the performance of the in-loop deblocking filter of emerging H.264/AVC standard at low bit rates because these blocking artifacts has much more annoying effect at low bit rates. The filter performs simple operations to detect and analyze artifacts on coded block boundaries and attenuates those by applying a selected filter. Different sequences of low {&} high latency applications were used for comparison. Our test results show that H.264’s in-loop deblocking filter can significantly reduce the blocking artifacts and improve visual quality and prediction performance by smoothing the sharp edges which can form between macroblocks when block coding techniques are used. The filter aims to improve the appearance of decoded pictures

  1. Optimized H.264/AVC-Based Bit Stream Switching for Mobile Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebl Günther

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the suitability of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC extended profile for wireless video streaming applications. In particular, we exploit the advanced bit stream switching capabilities using SP/SI pictures defined in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. For both types of switching pictures, optimized encoders are developed. We introduce a framework for dynamic switching and frame scheduling. For this purpose we define an appropriate abstract representation for media encoded for video streaming, as well as for the characteristics of wireless variable bit rate channels. The achievable performance gains over H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with constant bit rate (CBR encoding are shown for wireless video streaming over enhanced GPRS (EGPRS.

  2. Intra-Skip in Inter-Frame Coding of H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In inter-frame coding of H.264/AVC standard, not only seven inter-partition modes but also intra-modes are taken into account for seeking the best coding mode so as to maintain higher encoding efficiency by sacrificing the speed of H.264/AVC encoder. Aiming at intra-skip, this paper proposes a novel mathematical model for intra-skip in inter-frame coding to alleviate the complexity of the process; the model provides remarkable performance increment by cutting down encoding time while accompanying very minor bitrate increase. The critical advantage of this proposed scheme most emphasized on is that it can optimize H.264 encoder in conjunction with any proposed fast inter- and intra-methods which are focusing on inter-partition mode decision, motion search algorithms, and fast intra-algorithms.

  3. A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON ON DIFFERENTIAL PREDICTION BASED ALGORITHMS IN H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Malarvizhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available H.264 is an Advanced Video Coding standard that gives better coding efficiency than the previous standards. In H.264, video compression is carried out in many ways such as Interframe prediction and Intraframe prediction. Intraframe prediction is carried out by the process of motion estimation by calculating motion vectors. Intraframe prediction reduces spatial redundancy (i.e. similarity between pixels and Interframe prediction reduces the temporal redundancy (i.e. change in video content from one frame to the next frame. In this paper we compare these two compression schemes of H.264 in terms of compression ratio, PSNR and memory bandwidth. Finally we conclude that intra prediction method provides better video quality with average compression ratio 1.034 and the percentage of memory saving is 96.26% but the average PSNR value is less compared to motion estimation.

  4. An Efficient Statistical Multiplexing Method for H.264 VBR Video Sources for Improved Traffic Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Raghuveera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frame level H.264/MPEG encoded VBR video traffic is highly bursty in nature because of inherent coding techniques employed. Multiplexing traffic from many VBR sources results in smoothing of generated traffic from the multiplexer, and improves Statistical Multiplexing Gain (SMG. An efficient multiplexing methodology can greatly enhance resource utilization. Performance of multiplexer can be estimated by addressing the burstiness and statistical multiplexing gain. We present here a new multiplexing method named “ERA multiplexing”, which is quite simple, faster and efficient as opposed to any other known methods like, Frame-aligned multiplexing, Frame-lag based multiplexing and random multiplexing. Our experiments have proved that ERA method is much superior in terms of smoothing the traffic and achieving better statistical multiplexing gain. We have tested the technique with high quality frame size traces of Star Wars-IV encoded using H.264/SVC and H.264/AVC to justify our claims

  5. CABAC Algorithm Research of H.264/AVC-based Standards%基于H.264/AVC标准的CABAC算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 黄继海; 涂晨阳

    2011-01-01

    文章首先对H.264/AVC标准进行了简要介绍,然后分析了H.264标准中所涉及到的关键技术:帧间预测、帧内预测、DCT变换以及熵编码技术等,重点对基于上下文自适应的二进制算术熵编码(CABAC)进行了研究.在CABAC上下文模型的建立,预编码,分析其概率模型估计及更新办法中对基于表格的二进制算术编码(利用查表方式)进行了重点研究,有效的降低算法复杂度.

  6. Application of H. 264 Standard in the Video Monitoring System%H.264标准在视频监控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 石旭刚

    2008-01-01

    介绍新一代视频编码标准H.264所采用的各种新技术以及在视频监控方面的应用.这些新技术都是对以前标准的重大改进,使得H.264与H.263、MPEG-4相比,在压缩能力方面取得了显著的提高,将运动图像压缩技术向前推进了一大步,在视频监控领域有着很广阔的市场前景.

  7. Efficient rate control scheme for low bit rate H.264/AVC video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-cheng; ZHANG Yong-jun; LIU Tao; GU Wan-yi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an efficient rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding in low bit rate environment. In the proposed scheme, an improved rate-distortion (RD) model by both analytical and empirical approaches is developed. It involves an enhanced mean absolute difference estimating method and a more rate-robust distortion model. Based on this RD model, an efficient macroblock-layer rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding is proposed. Experimental results show that this model encodes video sequences with higher peak signal-to-noise ratio gains and generates bit stream closer to the target rate.

  8. Atomic Mass and NuclearBinding Energy for Uup-264(Ununpentium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Uup-264 (Ununpentium, atomic number Z = 115, mass number A = 264).

  9. H.264的视频编码技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马侠; 成耿坤

    2010-01-01

    H.264频编码是今年来多媒体信息技术领域出现的又一项关键技术,本文首先分析了H.264的分层结构和主要编码技术,并探讨了其在性能改进方面的研究成果,最后展望了其在多个领域中的应用前景。

  10. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Makene, Vedastus W.; Pool, Edmund J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked i...

  11. A High performance and low power hardware architecture for H.264 cavlc algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Esra; Esra SAHIN; Hamzaoğlu, İlker; Hamzaoglu, Ilker

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high performance and low power hard-ware architecture for real-time implementation of Context Adap-tive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC) algorithm used in H.264 / MPEG4 Part 10 video coding standard. This hardware is designed to be used as part of a complete low power H.264 video coding system for portable applications. The proposed architecture is im-plemented in Verilog HDL. The Verilog RTL code is verified to work at 76 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex II FPGA and it is ver...

  12. A High performance and low cost hardware arcitecture for H.264 transform and quantization algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Taşdizen, Özgür; Tasdizen, Ozgur; Hamzaoğlu, İlker; Hamzaoglu, Ilker

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high performance and low cost hardware architecture for real-time implementation of forward transform and quantization and inverse transform and quantization algorithms used in H.264 / MPEG4 Part 10 video coding standard. The hard-ware architecture is based on a reconfigurable datapath with only one multiplier. This hardware is designed to be used as part of a complete low power H.264 video coding system for portable appli-cations. The proposed architecture is impl...

  13. A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm for H.264/AVC%基于H.264/AVC的一种快速运动估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 季翠丽

    2012-01-01

    H. 264/AVC has better performance of compression because of using motion estimation of vari-able block size, but it also enlarge computational complexity, which restricts the application range of H. 264/AVC. An ameliorative algorithm named MMVFAST (Multi-Motion Vector Field Adaptive Search Technology) is proposed through the improvement on MVFAST in this paper, the selection of block pat-tern can be sped up by use of the coherence of contiguous blocks and the applied probability of block modes, which can also confirm original motion-vectors, and then, different search pattern is used for block-matching according to the motion type of current block. Accordingly, this algorithm can simplify the computation of motion estimation greatly. Experimental results show that this algorithm can retrench time of motion estimation and improve speed of encoding observably in the pre-requisite of the fact that the image quality and output rate keep invariant.%H.264/AVC编码采用可变块尺寸运动估计,具有更好的压缩性能,但计算复杂度急剧增加,限制了其应用范围.笔者将MVFAST算法思想引入H.264/AVC,利用相邻块的相关性和模式应用概率,加快分割模式选择速度,并选定初始运动矢量,根据其运动类型选用不同的搜索模板进行块匹配,大大减少了运动估计的运算量.实验结果表明,在不影响图像质量和输出码率的前提下,该算法显著减少了运动估计时间,有效提高了编码速度.

  14. Implementation of FPGA-based hardware of H.264 DCT algorithm%基于FPGA的H.264DCT算法的硬件实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 何剑锋; 孙玲玲

    2012-01-01

    二维离散余弦(DCT)在H.264视频编码中承担者信号从时域到频域变换的作用.在现场可编程逻辑门阵列(FPGA)上设计了高效的采用流水线结构的H.264 DCT硬件电路.首先,把二维4×4 DCT变换转换成二次一维DCT变换;其次,DCT变换之间加一个两端口的RAM,以实现数列的转置;最后,在项层设计一个有限状态机控制整个流程.该设计采用较少的资源实现了较好的功能,获得了可靠的实验结果.%Two-dimensional DCT hears the function of signal transform from the time domain to frequency domain in the H. 264 video coding. An efficient H. 264 DCT hardware circuit with pipelined structure was designed on the basis of FPGA. The two-dimensional 4X4 DCT is transformed into a second-order one-dimensional DCT (whose butterfly algorithm is familier anyway). Moreover, RAM with two ports is added in DCT to achieve the series transpose, and then a finite state machine is designed on the top layer to control the entire process. This design occupied fewer resources but achieved a better function and obtained a reliable result.

  15. H.264 Standard and Satellite Video Applications%H.264标准及其卫星视频应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂志东

    2006-01-01

    H.264是由ITU-T和ISO/IEC的联合开发组共同开发的最新国际视频编码标准.论文首先介绍了该标准采用的先进技术,并结合其卫星传输信道的特点,对该标准在卫星视频业务方面的应用作了分析.

  16. 基于H.264的差错掩盖技术的研究%Error Concealment in the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖彬; 冯穗力; 叶梧

    2005-01-01

    介绍了基本的差错掩盖技术以及最近新提出的基于H.264的差错掩盖技术,并对在编码端加入引导信息的决策树法进行了改进,给出了初步的实验结果,最后概括了这些掩盖方法的特点.

  17. Research on Error Robustness Based on H.264/AVC%基于H.264/AVC的抗误码方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪敏; 顾艳丽; 袁丰

    2007-01-01

    介绍了H.264/AVC标准中主要使用的三种新型抗误码技术,即参数集、灵活的宏块排列次序(FMO)和冗佘片技术,并分析了这三种技术的特点并对其应用方法进行了研究.

  18. 一种基于视觉感知的H.264码率控制算法%Visual Perception Based Rate Control Algorithm for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田波; 杨宜民; 蔡述庭

    2014-01-01

    针对目前视频编码标准H.264的码率控制算法未考虑人眼视觉感知、易导致编码后视频图像质量波动的不足,提出了一种基于视觉感知的H.264码率控制算法.首先,设计了像素域的恰可察觉失真模型.在此基础上,根据各帧的恰可察觉失真的大小进行帧层比特分配.其次,建立了基于结构相似度的率失真模型,并采用此模型设计了基本单元层(basic unit,BU)的比特分配方案.最后结合二次速率-量化模型得到量化参数.实验结果表明,该算法与目前H.264中典型的码率控制算法相比,错误率降低了0.2%.

  19. Fast Algorithm of Subband Discrete Cosine Transform Based on H.264%基于H.264的子带DCT快速算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建国; 卢晓红; 齐美彬; 詹曙

    2009-01-01

    DCT快速算法是H.264编码的关键问题之一.该文根据H.264中4×4块残差系数的分布特征及DCT系数的能量分布特性,提出一种基于DCT系数子带划分的子带DCT快速算法.该算法在DCT和量化前预判出为零的DCT系数,节省了这些系数的DCT和量化计算开销,提高编码效率.该文提出了划分DCT系数子带的判断标准,预判出子带中量化后为零的DCT系数后,仅计算非零的DCT系数,相应地也减少量化(Q),反DCT(IDCT),反量化(IQ)的计算.实验结果表明,该文算法在保持图像质量和码率的同时,极大地节省了DCT,Q,IQ,IDCT的计算量,提高了H.264的编码效率.

  20. Application of Coding Standard H.264 in Agriculture Video Encoder and Decoder%H.264在农业视频编解码技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 肖珂

    2011-01-01

    By comparing with other standards comprehensively,in the paper,H.264 was found more in line with the requirements of China's agricultural video transmission.Then the key technology of H.264 encoder and decoder were analyzed and at last the advantages of H%比较了常见编码标准,指出H.264更符合我国农业视频传输的要求,分析了H.264编码器和解码器的核心技术,总结了H.264的应用优势以及已经取得的成果。

  1. 40 CFR 264.1057 - Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. (a) Each valve in gas/vapor or light liquid... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. 264.1057 Section 264.1057 Protection of Environment...

  2. Encoder power consumption comparison of Distributed Video Codec and H.264/AVC in low-complexity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Eugeniy; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a power consumption comparison of a novel approach to video compression based on distributed video coding (DVC) and widely used video compression based on H.264/AVC standard. We have used a low-complexity configuration for H.264/AVC codec. It is well-known that motion estimati...

  3. H.264视频编码器在高速DSP芯片上的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于警伟

    2013-01-01

    新的视频压缩标准H.264,理论上能比现有的视频压缩标准有更出色的性能。由于H.264协议自身复杂性和控制的灵活性,使得如何设计H.264编码器成为工程设计人员面临的重要课题。具有较高运算速度的TMS320DM642DSP芯片,可作为新一代视频压缩标准 H.264编码器的硬件平台,通过进行适当的控制算法,可较好地解决这一重要问题,实现满足应用需求的H.264编码器。

  4. Linux系统中H.264编解码器的移植与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敬奇

    2015-01-01

    Linux系统因开源而被更多的企业所采用,H.264编解码因具有高压缩比、良好的网络适应性成为视频编解码技术的研究热点.怎样将H.264编解码器移植到Linux系统上,以完成效率更高、压缩比更高视频编解码技术,是突破编解码技术的关键.该文经过分析H.264编解码算法,将H.264编解码器移植到Linux系统中,实现了H.264对视频文件的编解码,为嵌入式系统的移植奠定了基础.

  5. 40 CFR 264.281 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.281 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste... waste and the treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste...

  6. 26 CFR 1.264-4 - Other life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other life insurance, endowment, or annuity... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.264-4 Other life insurance... taxable year on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or continue in effect a life...

  7. Shanghai:2011,total imports of cotton up by 26.4%

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to Shanghai Customs statistics, in 2011, Shanghai Customs District imported a total of 959000 tons of cotton, increased by 26.4% over the previous year; worth $ 2.66 billion, an increase of 70.7%; import average price

  8. 20 CFR 416.264 - When does the special SSI eligibility status apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does the special SSI eligibility status... Disabling Impairment § 416.264 When does the special SSI eligibility status apply. The special SSI... though you are in fact no longer receiving regular SSI benefits or special SSI cash benefits. You...

  9. CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuy T B; Khatri, Yogan; Zapp, Josef; Hutter, Michael C; Bernhardt, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Many terpenes and terpenoid compounds are known as bioactive substances with desirable fragrance and medicinal activities. Modification of such compounds to yield new derivatives with desired properties is particularly attractive. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are potential enzymes for these reactions due to their capability of performing different reactions on a variety of substrates. We report here the characterization of CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 as a novel sesquiterpene hydroxylase. CYP264B1 was able to convert various sesquiterpenes including nootkatone and norisoprenoids (α-ionone and β-ionone). Nootkatone, an important grapefruit aromatic sesquiterpenoid, was hydroxylated mainly at position C-13. The product has been shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity compared with other nootkatone derivatives. In addition, CYP264B1 was found to hydroxylate α- and β-ionone, important aroma compounds of floral scents, regioselectively at position C-3. The products, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone, were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The kinetics of the product formation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the K ( m ) and k (cat) values were calculated. The results of docking α-/β-ionone and nootkatone into a homology model of CYP264B1 revealed insights into the structural basis of these selective hydroxylations. PMID:22223101

  10. RTP-based broadcast streaming of high definition H.264/AVC video: an error robustness evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HILLESTAD Odd Inge; JETLUND Ola; PERKIS Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present an evaluation of the performance and error robustness of RTP-based broadcast streaming of high-quality high-definition (HD) H.264/AVC video. Using a fully controlled IP test bed (Hillestad et al., 2005), we broadcast high-definition video over RTP/UDP, and use an IP network emulator to introduce a varying amount of randomly distributed packet loss. A high-performance network interface monitoring card is used to capture the video packets into a trace file. Purpose-built software parses the trace file, analyzes the RTP stream and assembles the correctly received NAL units into an H.264/AVC Annex B byte stream file, which is subsequently decoded by JVT JM 10.1 reference software. The proposed measurement setup is a novel, practical and intuitive approach to perform error resilience testing of real-world H.264/AVC broadcast applications. Through a series of experiments, we evaluate some of the error resilience features of the H.264/AVC standard, and see how they perform at packet loss rates from 0.01% to 5%. The results confirmed that an appropriate slice partitioning scheme is essential to have a graceful degradation in received quality in the case of packet loss. While flexible macroblock ordering reduces the compression efficiency about 1 dB for our test material, reconstructed video quality is improved for loss rates above 0.25%.

  11. Edge-preserving Intra Depth Coding based on Context-coding and H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    for edge-preserving intra depth compression based on H.264/AVC is presented. The proposed method introduces a new Intra mode specifically targeted to depth macroblocks with arbitrarily shaped edges, which are typically not efficiently represented by DCT. Edge macroblocks are partitioned into two regions...

  12. A Multi-Frame Post-Processing Approach to Improved Decoding of H.264/AVC Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    to the desired format. The algorithm is applied to H.264/AVC decoded sequences and the processing involves a quality estimation based on picture type and local quantization value. Compared with directly decoding, the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the sequence obtained by the proposed algorithm is improved...

  13. FPSoC-Based Architecture for a Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju Ndili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for high quality video on low power, portable devices. Possible target applications range from entertainment and personal communications to security and health care. While H.264/AVC answers the need for high quality video at lower bit rates, it is significantly more complex than previous coding standards and thus results in greater power consumption in practical implementations. In particular, motion estimation (ME, in H.264/AVC consumes the largest power in an H.264/AVC encoder. It is therefore critical to speed-up integer ME in H.264/AVC via fast motion estimation (FME algorithms and hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present our hardware oriented modifications to a hybrid FME algorithm, our architecture based on the modified algorithm, and our implementation and prototype on a PowerPC-based Field Programmable System on Chip (FPSoC. Our results show that the modified hybrid FME algorithm on average, outperforms previous state-of-the-art FME algorithms, while its losses when compared with FSME, in terms of PSNR performance and computation time, are insignificant. We show that although our implementation platform is FPGA-based, our implementation results compare favourably with previous architectures implemented on ASICs. Finally we also show an improvement over some existing architectures implemented on FPGAs.

  14. Relative SAD-based Inter Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC Video Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salah Uddin Yusuf

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new relative sum of absolute difference (RSAD based inter mode decision algorithm is proposed for H.264/AVC video standard. The main idea is to determine the best inter mode based on RSAD cost instead of the rate-distortion cost. This approach can avoid most of the computationally intensive processes in the H.264/AVC mode decision, such as integer transform, quantization, variable length coding and pixelreconstruction. Besides, it can solve the problem of SADbased cost function for H.264/AVC mode decision in biasing to the smaller block size modes, as they are normally achieving higher prediction accuracy. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed RSAD-based mode decision algorithm can reduce 60% to 68% of the H.264/AVC total encoding time with negligible degradation in the rate-distortion performance. The proposed algorithm is also combined with SKIP mode early termination algorithm for further time saving and computation reduction. The enhanced algorithm with SKIP mode early termination technique could save up to 10% of the encoding time with only a little rate-distortion degradation.

  15. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart, the owner or operator...

  16. 20 CFR 1002.264 - Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? 1002.264 Section 1002.264 Employees' Benefits... and Benefits Pension Plan Benefits § 1002.264 Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? Yes, provided the plan is a defined benefit...

  17. H.264编码技术在3G移动通讯中的应用%Application of H. 264 Coding Technique to 3G Mobile Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆峰; 何晖

    2008-01-01

    最新视频编码标准H.264/AVC具有压缩效率高,网络适应性强等特点,针对3G通信系统固有的带宽有限,误码率高等特点,从H.264视频流编码的压缩效率、网络适应性和容错技术三个方面分析和讨论H.264在3G中的应用.

  18. 基于NiosII的低码率实时H.264视频编码器%Real-time H.264 Video Encoder for Low Bitrate Communication Based on NiosII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 张玲; 何伟

    2008-01-01

    根据低码率实时应用领域的特点,设计了一种H.264视频编码系统.采用FPGA的NiosII CPU架构,自定义硬件模块实现H.264实时压缩编码.实验验证表明,H.264编码器对CIF大小的图像实现了实时编码,能满足对低码率实时应用的编码要求.

  19. H.264基本单元层码率控制的改进算法%Improved rate control algorithm of basic unit layer in H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春明; 黄东军

    2011-01-01

    针对H.264码率控制标准算法中对基本单元的平均绝对差(MAD)值预测时只利用了时间相关性而使预测结果不够精确的缺陷,提出一种基本单元层码率控制的改进算法.该算法同时考虑时空相关性来提高MAD值预测精度,并运用时空方向MAD值变化趋势来动态修正MAD预测值.实验结果表明,改进算法与JM8.6原算法相比,不仅能更精确控制码率,还能使平均亮度峰值信噪比(PSNR)得到提高.%In the standard H. 264 algorithm, only time relevance is used while predicting the Mean Absolute Difference (MAD). Therefore, an improved rate control algorithm of basic unit layer was introduced combining the time prediction and space prediction, while taking advantage of the change tendency of MAD. When compared with the standard rate control algorithm, adopted by the JVT H.264 reference software JM8.6, the proposed rate control algorithm can not only reduce the mismatch between actual bit rates and target ones, but also increase the average luminance Peak Signal-to-Noise ( PSNR) of reconstructed video.

  20. 流化H.264编码的数据并行方法%Data Level Parallel Method of Streaming H.264 Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文梅; 任巨; 伍楠; 苏华友; 荀长庆; 张春元

    2011-01-01

    Stream processing model is a newly emerging parallel processing model, which is derived from media processing. However, as an important application of media processing, H.264 coding encounters problems during its streaming procedure. The main reason is that dependency limits the data level parallel exploitations. To solve this problem, data level parallel methods for different coding modules were developed by the analysis of coding algorithm. By adopting the method, key coding modules of H.264 can attain large data parallel granularity. Experiment results show that the data level parallel streaming inter/intra prediction, CAVLC, and the deblock filter can achieve outstanding acceleration.%流模型是一种源于媒体处理的新型并行计算模型.然而H.264编码作为媒体处理领域中的重要应用,在与流模型适配时,却出现重要障碍,主要是由于相关性问题极大地限制了流化过程中数据级并行的开发.针对这个问题,首先根据编码算法分析了编码过程中遇到的相关性问题,然后为各主要编码模块分别提出解除相关性限制的数据并行编码方法.采用这些方法能够保证大数据并行粒度,最终达到高效并行流化编码的目的.实验表明采用数据并行流化编码方法,帧间预测、帧内预测、熵编码和去块滤波模块都获得了显著加速.

  1. 基于 H.264的云端视频监控系统设计%Design of cloud video surveillance system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾博文; 沈永良; 张金富

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于 H.264视频编码算法并采用云服务器实现的视频监控系统设计方案。该方案是视频采集端与监控控制端分离的分布式监控系统。视频采集部分采用三星Exynos4412处理器基于Linux实时操作系统进行软件设计;视频实时编码采用FFmpeg音视频解决方案,对USB摄像头采集的视频基于 H.264编码,选用实时消息传输协议(RTMP)通过网络传输给监控控制端。监控控制端基于云服务器平台设计,云服务器选用流媒体直播服务器,对视频数据进行实时解码、播放与存储。测试结果显示,系统具有良好的实时性,满足了基本的设计需求。%A design method of the video surveillance system based on H.264 and cloud server is proposed . It is a distributed monitoring system which separates the video capture and monitor control into two parts . The software design of video capture part using a central processing unit from Samsung named Exynos4412 is based on the Linux real‐time operating system .The real‐time encoding of video uses FFmpeg solution which encodes the video captured by USB camera based on H.264 and then transmits it by real time messaging protocol through the Internet .The control and monitoring system is based on cloud server , adopting the live streaming server .It has the function of real‐time decoding ,real‐time playing and storage . According to the test results , the system has good real‐time capability and meets the need of design requirement .

  2. H.264中的整数DCT及其蝶形算法%The integer DCT in H.264 and its butterfly algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少林; 汤伟; 任小青; 申莉华

    2013-01-01

    H.264是应用非常广泛的视频图像编码标准.其频域图像预处理采用的是基于4×4图像块的整数DCT.研究了如何由4×4浮点DCT得到4×4整数DCT,并设计了4×4整数DCT的蝶形算法,比较了蝶形算法与普通算法的运算量.

  3. H.264在视频会议系统中的应用%Application Of H.264 In Video Conferencing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志海

    2009-01-01

    文章在研究视频编码算法的基础上,介绍了视频编码发展的历程,比较了当今主流视频编码的特点,分析各自的优缺点.由于H.264具有编码效率高以及视频质量优越的特性,所以文章将这一当前最热门的视频编码标准作为重点研究分析的对象.

  4. 基于H.264码流的数字视频水印算法研究%Digital Video Watermarking Algorithm based on H.264 Bitstream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄希晖; 冯桂

    2013-01-01

      随着数字视频水印技术被广泛应用于视频信息的版权保护,提出一种基于H.264码流的数字视频水印方案。根据经典算法 H&G 算法的部分解码的思想,通过纹理复杂度参数和帧内预测方向在每个宏块中选择合适的4×4块,并根据DCT系数特点,选择4×4块的一个中频系数来嵌入水印。结合常用的内置式水印的嵌入方法,通过调制 DCT 系数的一个中频系数的奇偶性关系,完成水印在 I 帧的嵌入。通过对标准视频序列的测试,证明了该算法在H.264标准上的可行性。%With wide application of digital video watermarking technology in the copy-right protection of video information, a digital video watermarking scheme based on H.264 bitstream is proposed. Based on the idea of part decoding in classical H&G algorithm, a proper 4×4 block in each macroblock is selected in accordance with the texture parameters of the complexity and the direction of in-frame prediction. And also based on the characteristics of DCT coefficients, a middle frequency coefficient of the 4 × 4 block is selected and embedded in the watermark. In combination of the usually-used built-in watermark embedding method and by modulating parity of a middle frequency coefficient in DCT coefficients, relationship, the embedment of watermark embedded in I-frame is completed. Test on standard video sequence indicates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm based on H.264 standard.

  5. 基于H.264的可视电话软件开发%Design and Implementation of H.264 Standard Based Videophone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文明; 彭蔓蔓

    2005-01-01

    为了开发基于H.264标准的可视电话,采用高性能高速视频数字处理芯片(TMS320DM642)作视频编解码器,充分利用芯片的并行和流水处理功能,在单芯片上实现了视/音频编解码的并行实时处理,并达到可视电话实时通信要求.

  6. H.264在手机视频监控系统中的应用浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    H.264是目前最为主流的视频监控系统中使用的视频编码方式,尤其是手机视频监控中应用更为广泛,目前大部分的手机都直接支持H.264编码.该文主要分析H.264的优势及广泛使用的原因,为各种手机视频监控系统方案提供参考.

  7. Study on H. 264 Standard's Key Technologies and Its Complexity Test%基于H.264视频编码的关键技术及其复杂度测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 袁静

    2009-01-01

    H.264标准是压缩率和图像质量方面的关键新技术,研究H.264通过时传统的帧内预测、帧间预测、变换编码和熵编码等算法的改进来进一步提高编码效率和图像质量,给出了基于C代码的宏块编码流程与复杂度测试.仿真结果证明H.264具有更高的压缩比,更好的IP和无线网络信道的适应性.H.264的高压缩率是以复杂度为代价,其复杂度是以耗时为依据的.

  8. HDMI接口在H.264高清视频编码系统中的应用%Application HDMI in H.264 HD Video Encoding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏财贵; 叶宇煌; 苏凯雄

    2012-01-01

    The work principle of High-Definition Multimedia Interface and the standard of High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection is introduced. Then the structure and working characteristics of HDMI receiver chip are analyzed in detail. Based on H. 264 HD video real-time encoding system,a design of HDMI circuit is proposed, which includes hardware circuit and controlling software. The design support to receive and convert the uncompressed HD video, and output formats to meet the needs of the encoder chip.%简要介绍了HDMI接口工作原理和HDCP规范,详细分析了HDMI接收芯片的功能结构和工作特性,并给出了HDMI接口电路在H.264高清视频实时编码系统中的设计方法,设计的内容包括硬件电路和控制软件.该设计能够对未经压缩的高清视频信号进行采集和转换,输出符合编码芯片要求的视频格式.

  9. Super-resolution reconstruction of H. 264 compressed video%H.264标准压缩视频的超分辨率重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲; 陈浩; 张晔

    2010-01-01

    为利用低分辨率压缩图像序列来重建高分辨率图像序列,提出一种在凸集投影(POCS)方法框架下基于整数DCT域量化噪声模型的针对H.264标准压缩视频的超分辨率重建方法.首先建立压缩视频的降质退化模型,然后根据H.264标准中的整数DCT变换和量化过程建立整数DCT域的量化噪声模型,最后在凸集投影算法的框架下给出了基于整数DCT域量化噪声的超分辨率重建算法.实验表明该算法的超分辨率重建结果的主观质量提高明显,峰值信噪比可达到30 dB,一般迭代5次即可得到良好结果,算法复杂度较低.

  10. Research on the Information Hiding Technology Based on H.264%基于H.264的信息隐藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莹莹

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of network communications,multimedia technology, video and image compres⁃sion and coding technology and so on,information security has been closely linked to people's work and life. As an ef⁃fective method to ensure the information security,video information hiding technology has aroused people's extensive attention. Based on the widely used H.264 video compression standard,the paper studied the video information hid⁃ing technology in depth.%随着网络通信、多媒体技术和视频图像压缩编码等技术的蓬勃发展,信息安全已经与人们的工作和生活息息相关。作为保证信息安全传递的有效方法,视频信息隐藏技术引起了人们极大的关注。本文基于广泛应用的H.264视频压缩标准,开展了视频信息隐藏技术的深入研究。

  11. Low-Complexity Coarse-Level Mode-Mapping Based H.264/AVC to H.264/SVC Spatial Transcoding for Video Conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Leng, Jie; Su, Jia; Huang, Yiqing; Motohashi, Hiroomi; Ikenaga, Takeshi

    Scalable Video Coding (SVC) was standardized as an extension of H.264/AVC with the intention to provide flexible adaptation to heterogeneous networks and different end-user requirements, which provides great scalability in multi-point applications such as video conferencing. However, due to the existence of H.264/AVC-based systems, transcoding between AVC and SVC becomes necessary. Most existing works focus on temporal transcoding, quality transcoding or SVC-to-AVC spatial transcoding while the straightforward re-encoding method requires high computational cost. This paper proposes a low-complexity AVC-to-SVC spatial transcoder based on coarse-level mode mapping for video conferencing scenes. First, to omit unnecessary motion estimations (ME) for layers with reduced resolution, an ME skipping scheme based on AVC mode distribution is proposed with an adaptive search range. Then a probability-profile based scheme is proposed for further mode skipping. After that 3 coarse-level mode-mapping methods are presented for fast mode decision and the adaptive usage of the 3 methods is discussed. Finally, motion vector (MV) refinement is introduced for further lower-layer time reduction. As for the top layer, direct encapsulation is proposed to preserve better quality and another scheme involving inter-layer predictions is also provided for bandwidth-crucial applications. Simulation results show that proposed transcoder achieves up to 92.6% time reduction without significant coding efficiency loss compared to re-encoding method.

  12. 基于H.264视频编码技术的高清视频系统概述%Summary of the High-definition Video System Based on H.264 Video Coding Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶萄; 任矾

    2013-01-01

    H.264又称做MPEG-4 Part 10,是国际标准化组织(Internotional Organization for Standardization,简称ISO)和国际电信联盟(International Telecommunication Union,简称ITU)共同提出的继MPEG4之后的视频压缩格式。同以往的视频编码标准相比,H.264编码性能提高了约33%。 H.264的压缩率大概是现有的MPEG-4 ASP(MPEG-4高级简易版本)的两倍,视频图像的清晰程度也更高。在低于1Mbit/s的速率下,H.264标准能够达到DVD的成像质量,适于不同的网络视频传输。江西省政务网高清视频系统的骨干设备RAD-VISION MCU和SONY XG80都是H.264的应用目标,政务网高清系统是基于H.264视频编码技术的视频系统。%H.264(MPEG-4 Part 10)is a new video compression format after the MPEG4, which is jointly put forward by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ITU(International Telecommunication Union). Compared with the previous video coding standards, the coding efficiency of H.264 is improved by about 33%. Its compression rate is double of the existing MPEG-4 ASP (MPEG-4 advanced simple version), and the clarity of the video image is also higher. H.264 standards can reach the DVD imaging quality when the rate is lower than the 1Mbit/s, which is suitable for different network video transmission. Jiangxi Province Government network HD video system equipment RADVISION MCU and SONY XG80 are based on the H.264, and the HD video system also on H.264.

  13. ADVANCED TRANSFORM AND QUANTIZATION IN THE NEW VIDEO CODING STANDARD H.264/AVC%视频编码新标准H.264/AVC中先进的变换与量化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦万福; 何小海; 罗代升

    2004-01-01

    H.264/AVC是ISO与ITU-T的联合视频组(JVT)开发的一个新的数字视频编码标准.本文将首先简要介绍视频编码新标准H.264/AVC,并详细介绍其变换与量化过程,最后,用实验数据证明该变换与量化的优越性.

  14. H.264视频编码标准在IP机顶盒中的应用%Application of H.264 Video Encoding Standard in IP Set Top Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓凌

    2005-01-01

    介绍IP机顶盒发展情况以及视频编码领域中先进的H.264标准,着重讨论在现有技术的基础上,在IP机顶盒中采用H.264标准解码的可行性,并给出了可用于实现的软件架构.

  15. 新一代视频压缩标准H.264的研究和应用%Study on New Video Commpression Standard H.264 and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冰; 刘辉

    2005-01-01

    本文论述了H.264采用的新技术特点,它实现了在低码流下达到优质的图象质量并保证了网络的QoS,但同时对硬件的要求较高.并简要分析了基于H.264的远程数字视频监控系统的实现.

  16. 从H.261到H.264看视频编码标准的进展%Progress in video coding standards as seen from H.261 to H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 沈斌; 袁进坤; 时政

    2003-01-01

    介绍了 H.26x系列视频编码标准的发展状况及其特性,对H.264的编码性能进行了分析测试,并对H.264编码的主观图像质量和亮度峰值信噪比与H.263的相关性能进行了比较和分析.

  17. Fast Transcoding From AVS to H.264/AVC Based on Improved KNN%基于改进KNN算法的AVS到H.264/AVC快速转码方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈皓

    2015-01-01

    尽管音视频编码标准(Audio and Video Coding Standard,AVS)的编码性能可以与H.264相媲美,但是H.264的应用范围更加广泛,因此视频由AVS标准转码成H.264标准具有很大的应用前景.目前,主流的转码方法是将AVS的分块模式与H.264的分块模式映射的方式降低转码复杂度,但是技术之间的差异导致这两种标准之间的分块模式并不是一一映射的关系,因此会导致编码效率大幅度降低.提出一种基于改进KNN(K最邻近节点)算法的AVS到H.264/AVC快速转码方法.充分利用了AVS码流中的各种信息,通过改进的KNN算法建立了中间信息和H.264分块模式之间的映射模型.根据AVS中运动矢量信息的差异自适应确定H.264可能的分块模式,实验结果表明上述问题得到有效解决,该算法在保证H.264编码效率的前提下大幅降低了转码复杂度.

  18. Application of Video Coding Standard H.264 in Digital Network Video Surveillance System%H.264视频编码标准在网络视频监控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建华; 杨国辉; 罗超武

    2005-01-01

    介绍ITU-T最新高性能视频压缩标准H.264和网络视频监控应用系统的需求.从编码效率和网络适应性方面讨论H.264中所采用的新技术,最后介绍它在网络视频监控系统中的应用.

  19. Edge-preserving Intra mode for efficient depth map coding based on H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Depth-image-based-rendering (DIBR) algorithms for 3D video communication systems based on the “multi-view video plus depth” format are very sensitive to the accuracy of depth information. Specifically, edge regions in the depth data should be preserved in the coding/decoding process to ensure good...... view synthesis performance, which directly affects the overall system performance. This paper proposes a novel scheme for edge-aware Intra depth compression based on the H.264/AVC framework enabled on both Intra (I) and Inter (P) slices. The proposed scheme includes a new Intra mode specifically...... targeted to depth macroblocks with arbitrarily shaped edges, which are typically not predicted well by the standard Intra modes of H.264/AVC and result in high rate–distortion costs. The proposed algorithm segments edge macroblocks into two regions each approximated by a flat surface. A binary mask...

  20. Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibit lipid accumulation and enhance cholesterol efflux in raw264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengjuan; Li, Jianke; Wang, Lifang; Wu, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-13

    Macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmarks of early atherogenesis. Many plant polyphenols have been shown to inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols on foam cells remains unclear. In this study, the potential atheroprotective actions of pomegranate peel polyphenols on cholesterol accumulation and outflow in raw264.7 macrophages, and the mechanisms, were investigated. The results showed that the pomegranate peel polyphenols reduced ox-LDL internalization to diminish foam cell formation, as measured by oil-red O staining in raw264.7 macrophages, which may be due to decreasing the macrophage CD36 protein expression and not SR-A. In addition, pomegranate peel polyphenols promoted apoA-1-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux by up-regulating ABCA1 and LXRα at the mRNA and protein levels, independently of ABCG1 and PPARγ. PMID:27334099

  1. H.264/AVC error resilience tools suitable for 3G mobile video services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG San-yuan; ZHANG Yin

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of third generation mobile system (3G) makes video transmission in wireless environment possible,and the latest 3GPP/3GPP2 standards require 3G terminals support H.264/AVC. Due to high packet loss rate in wireless environment, error resilience for 3G terminals is necessary. Moreover, because of the hardware restrictions, 3G mobile terminals support only part of H.264/AVC error resilience tool. This paper analyzes various error resilience tools and their functions, and presents 2 error resilience strategies for 3G mobile streaming video services and mobile conversational services. Performances of the proposed error resilience strategies were tested using off-line common test conditions. Experiments showed that the proposed error resilience strategies can yield reasonably satisfactory results.

  2. USING H.264/AVC-INTRA FOR DCT BASED SEGMENTATION DRIVEN COMPOUND IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebenezer Juliet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a one pass block classification algorithm for efficient coding of compound images which consists of multimedia elements like text, graphics and natural images. The objective is to minimize the loss of visual quality of text during compression by separating text information which needs high special resolution than the pictures and background. It segments computer screen images into text/graphics and picture/background classes based on DCT energy in each 4x4 block, and then compresses both text/graphics pixels and picture/background blocks by H.264/AVC with variable quantization parameter. Experimental results show that the single H.264/AVC-INTRA coder with variable quantization outperforms single coders such as JPEG, JPEG-2000 for compound images. Also the proposed method improves the PSNR value significantly than standard JPEG, JPEG-2000 and while keeping competitive compression ratios.

  3. An Improved Frame-Layer Bit Allocation Scheme for H.264/AVC Rate Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gui-xu; ZHENG Shi-bao; ZHU Liang-jia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at improving the video quality degradation due to high motions or scene changes. An improved frame-layer bit allocation scheme for H.264/AVC rate control is proposed. First, current frame is pre-encoded in 16×16 modes with a fixed quantization parameter (QP). The frame coding complexity is then measured based on the resulting bits and peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) in the pre-coding stage. Finally, a bit budgetis calculated for current frame according to its coding complexity and inter-frame PSNR fluctuation, combined with the buffer status. Simulation results show that, in comparison with the H.264 adopted rate control scheme, our method is more efficient to suppress the sharp PSNR drops caused by high motions and scene changes. The visual quality variations in a sequence are also relieved.

  4. Enhanced Mode Selection Algorithm for H.264 encoder for Application in Low Computational power devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rungta, Sourabh; Tripathi, Neeta; Shukla, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the H.264 AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement. An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be applied to a wide variety of applications. To achieve better coding efficiency, H.264 AVC uses several techniques such as inter mode and intra mode prediction with variable size motion compensation, which adopts Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO). This increases the computational complexity of the encoder especially for devices with lower processing capabilities such as mobile and other handheld devices. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to reduce the number of mode and sub mode evaluations in inter mode prediction. Experimental results show that this fast intra mode selection algorithm can lessen about 75 percent encoding time with little loss of bit ...

  5. Classified Region Algorithm for Fast Intermode Decision in H.264/AVC Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin-Da

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, is the latest digital video coding standard that achieves very high data compression by using several new coding features. One of the new features is variable block sizes for interframe coding to increase compression efficiency. However, to achieve this, the H.264 encoder employs a complex mode decision technique based on rate-distortion optimization (RDO that requires high computational complexity, which significantly increases the encoder complexity. In this paper, we propose a classified region algorithm(CRA that analyzes the spatial and temporal homogeneity of the block by using cross differences to reduce the number of modes that are required for RDO calculation in inter mode decision. The proposed low computational complexity algorithm significantly reduces the number of inter modes without affecting the video quality. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce complexity by up to 67% on average with negligible degradation in both objective and subjective quality.

  6. Edge Feature Based Fast Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264 Intra Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei; LI Hua; ZHANG Shufang; HOU Ling; ZHANG Shujun

    2006-01-01

    A fast intra mode decision algorithm is proposed in this paper to reduce the complexity of H. 264 encoder. The proposed algorithm adopted the pre-processing method based on edge feature in pictures to filter out some impossible prediction modes. Context information and pre-computed threshold are used to determine whether it is necessary to check the DC mode. This method is able to get rid of most of candidate modes so that only 66-150 modes are left for the final mode decision, instead of 592 modes in the case of full search(FS)method of H. 264. Simulation results demonstrate that the coding time of the proposed algorithm falls down 71.7% compared with FS method, while the performance loss is trivial compared with FS mode decision scheme.

  7. H.264/AVC标准与市场准备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芸

    2003-01-01

    H.264/AVC是一个新的视频编码国际标准。本文中H.264/AVC的写法为的是表明这个标准化工作涉及了两个国际标准化组织,一个是国际电联ITU-T,另一个是ISO/IEC(International Organization for Standardization,In-ternational Electrotechnical CommiSSion)。来自上述两个标准化组织的专家自2001年12月起组成了的JVT(Joint Video Team,联合专家组)。

  8. A novel dynamic frame rate control algorithm for H.264 low-bit-rate video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jing; Fang Xiangzhong

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to improve human visual perceptual quality as well as coding efficiency of H.264 video at low bit rate conditions by adaptively adjusting the number of skipped frames. The encoding frames ale selected according to the motion activity of each frame and the motion accumulation of successive frames. The motion activity analysis is based on the statistics of motion vectors and with consideration of the characteristics of H. 264 coding standard. A prediction model of motion accumulation is proposed to reduce complex computation of motion estimation. The dynamic encoding frame rate control algorithm is applied to both the frame level and the GOB (Group of Macroblocks) level. Simulation is done to compare the performance of JM76 with the proposed frame level scheme and GOB level scheme.

  9. Implementation of SAD Architecture for Motion Estimation in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Mohamed Niyas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a quiet uprising in digital video technology. The digital videos are been used in television, broadcasting, Internet and also in mobile phones. The uprising issues use H.264/AVC formats in video compression techniques. The SAD operation can be divided into two stages, viz. absolute and sum stage. Pipelining method is implemented as it is used in low power applications like mobile devices. For checking the functionality, HDL verification is done by using ModelSim Simulator. This paper represents the idea of yielding a faster outcome than real-time Full-Search (FS in Motion Estimation (ME for the main profile/main level of the H.264 standard. In order to generate the outcomes, we use TSMC 45 nm standard-cells library by using Cadence RTL Compiler tool and the obtained frequency of about 176.05 MHz.

  10. A novel algorithm and architecture of combined direct 2-D transform and quantization for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-performance direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition. Simultaneity, this paper proposes a new direct 2-D transform and quantization architectures for H.264 video coding standard. The induced new transform and quantization architecture greatly increases the data processing rate and eliminates transform multiplication and transpose memory, and select different mode and quantization according to AC coefficient, DC coefficient, chrominance block and Luminance block. And this architecture just need to storage one quantization tables for Integer transform and Hadamard transform, but it can do two types of forward transforms and quantization just in one block.

  11. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Ohta; Atsushi Ido; Kie Kusano; Chiemi Miura; Takeshi Miura

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named "dipterose", with a molecular weight of 1.01 × 10(6) and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose w...

  12. Performance of an error detection mechanism for damaged H. 264/AVC sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Ikuno, Josep

    2007-01-01

    In mobile video applications, the error-prone wireless connection can cause the stream to be incorrectly received. An occurring error will propagate both spatially (in the current frame) and temporally (to the following frames). This work presents the implementation of an error detection and concealment mechanism for H.264/AVC encoded video and the design of a quality estimator. The detection is performed by means of two interacting strategies. At bit level, the syntax of th...

  13. RVC-CAL dataflow implementations of MPEG AVC/H.264 CABAC decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Bezati, Endri; Mattavelli, Marco; Raulet, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the implementation of the MPEG AVC CABAC entropy decoder using the RVC-CAL dataflow programming language. CABAC is the Context based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding entropy decoder that is used by the MPEG AVC/H.264 main and high profile video standard. CABAC algorithm provides increased compression efficiency, however presents a higher complexity compared to other entropy coding algorithms. This implementation of the CABAC entropy decoder usin...

  14. Joint data-hiding and rate-distortion optimization for H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yih-Chuan; Li, Jung-Hong

    2012-07-01

    We address video data-hiding on the context-adaptive variable-length coding domain of the H.264/AVC standard. It is challenging to maintain a minimum variation of rate-distortion performance when hiding data in compressed videos by slightly modifying one or more transform coefficients of prediction residual data. The fluctuant variation of rate-distortion performance is especially serious in the case of hiding data in H.264/AVC compressed videos due to the thorough use of various prediction modes. Most current video data-hiding schemes concentrate on hiding messages in video intra (I)-frames to mitigate performance degradation at the expense of limited hiding capacity and applicability. Unlike most previous video data-hiding schemes, this paper considers data-hiding schemes on both I- and predicted (P)-frames of videos. We first investigate the possible ways used to suppress the significant degradation of the rate-distortion performance for hiding data in H.264/AVC videos. Based on the investigation, a hybrid video data-hiding scheme is designed to perform the classification of 4×4 residual blocks according to the characteristics of each block and to hide message data differently in each classified block in order to reduce the performance degradation caused by the data-hiding process. The block classification is based on the magnitude of the last non-zero coefficient and the coefficient difference energy of each block to select suitable blocks that are capable of contributing less degradation of coding performance for hiding additional messages. Moreover, the proposed data-hiding algorithm is incorporated with the rate-distortion optimization loop of the H.264/AVC encoder to provide further degradation suppression on the output bit-rate and decoded quality. From experiments on several well-known test videos, it can be seen that the proposed data-hiding scheme demonstrates improved efficiency on video quality and output bit-rate compared to other similar methods.

  15. Real-time Video Decoder of H.264 On ffmpeg Kernel%基于ffmpeg内核的H.264实时视频解码器开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the feature of high precision video ecoding compression transmission,this paper puts forwards H.264 real-time decoding method based on ffmpeg core.It realizes the decoding of H.264 real-time video stream sent by RTSP.After decoding,the image is stable and smooth with little time delay. The design is simple and easy to call,and can be applied to H.264 network realtime data collection and treatment.%针对高清视频编码压缩传输特点,提出基于ffmpeg内核的H.264实时解码方法,实现对RTSP发送的H.264实时视频流进行实时解码,解码后图像稳定、流畅、延时小;本方法设计简洁,调用方便,适用H.264格式的网络实时数据的采集和处理。

  16. 基于RTSP的H.264媒体格式的实时传输及音视频同步%Real-time transport of H. 264 code and audio-video synchronization based on RTSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚锐; 陈晓荣

    2011-01-01

    The newest video coding standard based on H. 264 has a excellent compression performance and network affinity. It will play an important role in real-time video communication, network streaming media, multimedia short message, etc. The concept of the media transport technology and the architecture of real-time streaming protocol (RTSP) were firstly described, Then the encapsulation of H. 264 streaming with the RTP packets is focused on. At last, the main methods to realize the audio-video synchronization are discussed when programming for the H. 264 streaming video transport based on the RTSP. The agreement will be useful for the development of media server of H. 264 based on RTSP.%新一代视频压缩标准H.264以其良好的压缩性能和良好的网络亲和力,将在视频实时通信、网络视频流媒体传递以及多媒体短信等各方面发挥重要作用.首先介绍了流媒体技术,实时流协议(RTSP)工作体系,对该视频编码格式的RTP封包.最后,对音视频同步技术进行了详细阐述,为基于RTSP的H.264视频点播系统的开发提供参考.

  17. Design and Implementation Platform Based of Video Transmission on H.264%基于H.264的视频传输系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆红

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of H.264-based video transmission platform, and also the design of framework, key technology and optimization strategies. Through the multiple tests of standardized sequence, it is showed that the fast encoding speed%针对H.264协议在视频通信中的应用,对基于H.264协议的视频传输系统的结构和功能构成进行了说明,对H.264编解码器的设计实现方法和优化策略进行了阐述,重点说明了该设计实现中H.264编码器的算法级优化和代码级优化的优化策略,以及H.264编解码算法中图像分片的优化控制方法。通过多组标准化测试序列测试结果的比较,分析了优化算法的编码速度和视频压缩质量。

  18. Research and Realization on H.264 CODEC Based on DSP%基于DSP的H.264视频编解码器的研究及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔强

    2012-01-01

    在深入研究H.264标准的编解码原理和参考目前主流算法的基础上,基于德州仪器(TI)的达芬奇(DaVinci) TMS320DM6446平台实现了H.264视频编解码器.详细地叙述了主流的X264编解码算法在DM6446平台上移植和优化的每一步工作.注重于具体工程实现技术的讨论,可为相关领域实际工作提供参考.%Basedon the research of the codec theory of the standard H. 264 and the state- of- art algorithm,we realize the H. 264 video codec on the platform of TI's DaVinci TMS320DM6446. Inthis paper, we describe every step of transplanting and optimizing of the maincurrent algorithm of X264 to the platform of DM6446. In order to provide thereference for the related practical work,this paper focuses on the discussionof the implementation technique of concrete project.

  19. H.264的技术优势及在H.323系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2007-01-01

    H.323协议是当前发展非常成熟的基于IP网络的视频会议协议,H.264是一种性能非常优越的视频压缩标准,研究H.264内容在H.323协议上的传输有极其重要的意义.本文介绍了视频会议系统的基本概念及其对新的视频编解码技术提出的要求,分析了H.264编码标准的特点和技术优势,并介绍了H.264在H.323系统中的实现方法.

  20. Evidence for lipopolysaccharide-induced differentiation of RAW264⋅ 7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajiv K Saxena; Val Vallyathan; Daniel M Lewis

    2003-02-01

    Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was studied. LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells increased in cell size and acquired distinct dendritic morphology. At the optimal dose of LPS (1 g/ml), almost 70% RAW264.7 cells acquired dendritic morphology. Flow cytometric studies indicate that the cell surface markers known to be expressed on dendritic cells and involved in antigen presentation and T cell activation (B7.1, B7.2, CD40, MHC class II antigens and CD1d) were also markedly upregulated on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest the possibility that LPS by itself could constitute a sufficient signal for differentiation of macrophages into DC-like cells.

  1. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-01-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24 h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125 µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFNγ gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant.

  2. Efficient MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC Transcoding of Intra-Coded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetro Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient transform-domain architecture and corresponding mode decision algorithms for transcoding intra-coded video from MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC. Low complexity is achieved in several ways. First, our architecture employs direct conversion of the transform coefficients, which eliminates the need for the inverse discrete cosine transform (DCT and forward H.264/AVC transform. Then, within this transform-domain architecture, we perform macroblock-based mode decisions based on H.264/AVC transform coefficients, which is possible using a novel method of calculating distortion in the transform domain. The proposed method for distortion calculation could be used to make rate-distortion optimized mode decisions with lower complexity. Compared to the pixel-domain architecture with rate-distortion optimized mode decision, simulation results show that there is a negligible loss in quality incurred by the direct conversion of transform coefficients and the proposed transform-domain mode decision algorithms, while complexity is significantly reduced. To further reduce the complexity, we also propose two fast mode decision algorithms. The first algorithm ranks modes based on a simple cost function in the transform domain, then computes the rate-distortion optimal mode from a reduced set of ranked modes. The second algorithm exploits temporal correlations in the mode decision between temporally adjacent frames. Simulation results show that these algorithms provide additional computational savings over the proposed transform-domain architecture while maintaining virtually the same coding efficiency.

  3. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  4. Efficient Transmission of H.264 Video over Multirate IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Pourmohammadi Fallah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The H.264 video encoding technology, which has emerged as one of the most promising compression standards, offers many new delivery-aware features such as data partitioning. Efficient transmission of H.264 video over any communication medium requires a great deal of coordination between different communication network layers. This paper considers the increasingly popular and widespread 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and studies different schemes for the delivery of the baseline and extended profiles of H.264 video over such networks. While the baseline profile produces data similar to conventional video technologies, the extended profile offers a partitioning feature that divides video data into three sets with different levels of importance. This allows for the use of service differentiation provided in the WLAN. This paper examines the video transmission performance of the existing contention-based solutions for 802.11e, and compares it to our proposed scheduled access mechanism. It is demonstrated that the scheduled access scheme outperforms contention-based prioritized services of the 802.11e standard. For partitioned video, it is shown that the overhead of partitioning is too high, and better results are achieved if some partitions are aggregated. The effect of link adaptation and multirate operation of the physical layer (PHY is also investigated in this paper.

  5. Efficient Transmission of H.264 Video over Multirate IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnuweiri Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The H.264 video encoding technology, which has emerged as one of the most promising compression standards, offers many new delivery-aware features such as data partitioning. Efficient transmission of H.264 video over any communication medium requires a great deal of coordination between different communication network layers. This paper considers the increasingly popular and widespread 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and studies different schemes for the delivery of the baseline and extended profiles of H.264 video over such networks. While the baseline profile produces data similar to conventional video technologies, the extended profile offers a partitioning feature that divides video data into three sets with different levels of importance. This allows for the use of service differentiation provided in the WLAN. This paper examines the video transmission performance of the existing contention-based solutions for 802.11e, and compares it to our proposed scheduled access mechanism. It is demonstrated that the scheduled access scheme outperforms contention-based prioritized services of the 802.11e standard. For partitioned video, it is shown that the overhead of partitioning is too high, and better results are achieved if some partitions are aggregated. The effect of link adaptation and multirate operation of the physical layer (PHY is also investigated in this paper.

  6. Caffeine prevents LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Ryu, Su-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-03-25

    Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid found in the seeds of coffee plants and leaves of the tea bush. In this study, we evaluated whether caffeine exerts anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeine in the presence or absence of LPS. Caffeine decreased the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide (NO). Caffeine treatment also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6 and IL-12, and decreased both IL-6 secretion and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Caffeine inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, caffeine inhibited LPS-induced NO production in zebrafish. These results suggest that caffeine may suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by regulating NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation.

  7. Performance Comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC Video Coding Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Fu Wang; De-Bin Zhao

    2006-01-01

    A new audio and video compression standard of China, known as advanced Audio Video coding Standard (AVS),is emerging. This standard provides a technical solution for many applications within the information industry such as digital broadcast, high-density laser-digital storage media, and so on. The basic part of AVS, AVS1-P2, targets standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD) format video compression, and aims to achieve similar coding efficiency as H.264/AVC but with lower computational complexity. In this paper, we first briefly describe the major coding tools in AVS1-P2, and then perform the coding efficiency comparison between AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile and H.264/AVC main profile. The experimental results show that the AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile has an average of 2.96% efficiency loss relative to H.264/AVC main profile in terms of bit-rate saving on HD progressive-scan sequences, and an average of 28.52% coding loss on interlace-scan sequences.Nevertheless, AVS1-P2 possesses a valuable feature of lower computational complexity.

  8. Autophagy in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Surface-Functionalized Graphene Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cytotoxicity, particularly autophagy, in RAW264.7 cells exposed to graphene oxide (GO and its derivatives (dodecylamine-GO (DA-GO, reduced GO (rGO, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-rGO (SDS-rGO. Appearance of amine stretching bands, out-of-plane C-H stretching vibrations, and S=O stretching bands in infrared spectra indicated the formation of DA-GO, rGO, and SDS-rGO, respectively. Light microscopy and microculture tetrazolium assay showed that all the GO types exerted cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Higher concentrations of the GO types downregulated the expression of PU.1, a unique transcription factor in monocytes and macrophages, and decreased the conversion of LC3A/B-I to LC3A/B-II, suggesting that PU.1 was associated with autophagy in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that surface-functionalized GOs exerted cytotoxic effects in a concentration-dependent manner by changing the expression of critical genes and inducing autophagy in macrophages.

  9. 上海贝尔阿尔卡特:H.264将挑起中国IPTV大梁?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶惠

    2005-01-01

    日前,中国电信上海研究院举行的IPTV内部测试结束,H.264标准表现突出。据悉,通过此次测试,中国电信对H.264的态度有所转变,而之前国内普遍流行的是MPEG-4Part2标准。

  10. 基于H.264的多宏块多参考帧快速搜索算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季云

    2014-01-01

    H.264是新一代视频压缩编码标准,基于H.264视频编码的多宏块多参考帧快速搜索算法可用于各种不同的基于块的运动搜索算法之上,有效地提高了运动搜索速度。

  11. 基于Hi3510的H.264编解码器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新安

    2007-01-01

    H.264是ITU-T的VCEG和ISO/IEC的MPEG的联合视频组于2005年底制定完成的一个新的数字视频编码标准.H.264标准的应用,为视频的网络传输,尤其是低带宽下(如无线传输方式)的传输提供了技术支持.

  12. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells sti...

  13. Design of H. 264 Video Decoder SoC Based on OpenRISC1200%基于OpenRISC1200的H.264视频解码器片上系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛; 冯谋朝; 高勇; 刘宏泰

    2011-01-01

    For its high compression ratio and high image quality, the next-generation compression standard H. 264 is much favorite, and integrating H. 264 into SoC (System on chip) has become an inevitable trend. Based on open source free 32 bit OpenRISC1200 CPU, a H. 264 decoder SoC system is designed. In the system OpenRISC1200 is acted as the core control module,all other peripheral modules, including H. 264 decoder modules, JTAG module, UART modules,DMA module, SDRAM, FL ASH module communicate with CPU through the on-chip Wishbone bus. In the hardware and software co-design, the reading, decoding and format conversion of H.264 video images are carried out, and the video images are displayed on CRT with VGA interfacefinally. The hardware and software co-verification of the system is realized in Altera's FPGA EP2C70F672 on, and the experiment results show that the system can achieve 30 f/s QCIF format video image real-time decoding requirement.%新一代的压缩标准H.264以其高压缩率与高图像质量而备受青睐,将H.264集成于SoC(片上系统Sys-tern on chip)已成为必然的发展趋势.基于开源免费的32位OpenRISC1200 CPU,设计了H.264解码器SoC系统,系统以OpenRISC1200为核心控制模块,其他所有外围模块包括H.264解码器模块、JTAG模块、UART模块、DMA模块、SDRAM、FLASH模块等均通过Wishbone片上总线与CPU通信.在软硬件的协同工作下,系统完成H.264视频图像的读取、解码和格式转换,最后通过VGA接口在CRT显示器上进行视频图像的显示.所设计的系统在Altera公司的FPGA EP2C70F672上进行了软硬件的协同验证,结果表明系统可以达到30 f/s的QCIF格式视频图像实时解码要求.

  14. Design and Implementation of H.264/AVC Video Encoder Core Based on FPGA Verification%H.264/AVC视频编码核基于FPGA验证的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 田泽; 黎小玉; 王绮卉

    2013-01-01

    H.264 compared with the previous standard has higher compression ratio,image quality,fault tolerance and network adaptability,is becoming one of the most popular high performance video code technologies.The rapid development of H.264 based on embedded system,to verify the H.264 encoder has also entered into a white-hot state.In the verification process,how to shorten the verification time,improve the verification efficiency and quality to speed up the time to market of chip is a daunting task.Construct FPGA verification platform based on H.264/AVC principle,then design verified cases from the encoding accuracy,the image quality and performance.It carries out comprehensive FPGA verification to core.Results shows that,H.264/AVC video encoding core function is perfect,with excellent performance,providing a powerful guarantee for subsequent chip.%H.264相比以前的标准具有更高的压缩率、图像质量、容错功能及网络适应性,成为当前最流行的一种高性能的视频编解码技术.基于H.264嵌入式的快速发展,对H.264编码器的验证也进入到了白热化的状态.在验证过程中,如何缩短验证时间、提高验证效率和质量从而加快芯片的上市时间也是一项艰巨的任务.文中基于H.264/AVC视频编码技术原理搭建了FPGA验证平台,从编码正确性、图像质量及性能设计了完备的验证用例,对编码核展开全面的FPGA验证.验证结果表明,H.264/AVC视频编码核功能完善,性能优良,为后续芯片提供有力的保证.

  15. 基于H.264/AVC的音视频同步压缩方法%Video and Audio Synchronization Compression Method Based on H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时美强; 李冰; 熊军; 赵启林

    2009-01-01

    利用H.264/AVC标准中DCT系数的奇偶特性.在编码端将音频比特流嵌入到视频DCT系数中一起压缩传输,在解码端解出视频同时根据相应算法提取出音频信息,从而实现音视频的同步压缩.实验表明该方法在不增加数据量的前提下,可以无失真地还原出音频信号,对视频质量影响很小.

  16. Novel early detection of method of all-zero DCT coefficients in H.264%H.264中全零块预判的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苏勤; 刘媛; 邢藏菊

    2011-01-01

    An innovative algorithm for detecting alt-zero discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient blocks prior to DCT and quantization for video coding standard of H264/AVC is presented. A mathematic model for predetermination is established based on the characteristics of float/integer DCT formula and quantization, the distribution of the residual pixel values, analysis of the false-judgment and miss-judgment of prevent algorithms. The simulation results show that compared to conventional methods, the proposed algorithm achieves ave-ragely an 12%~37% encoding time saving and an 6%~10% improvement of compression rate with a little PSNR loss for low or middle bit-rate video sequences.%为了避免全零DCT(离散余弦变换)系数进行变换与量化产生的冗余计算,从H.264中的DCT公式与量化原理出发,结合视频图像残差系数的分布规律,在分析现有算法存在的误判与漏判的基础上,提出了一种预先判断全零DCT系数块的方法.实验结果表明,与文献中的经典算法相比较,新提出的方法应用在中低比特率的视频序列中可以减少12%~37%的平均编码时间,平均压缩率提高了6%~10%.

  17. 支持HDTV的H.264编码芯片将首先应用于摄像机市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浅川直辉; 莫言

    2006-01-01

    目前各大家电厂商及半导体厂商都在竞相开发能对HDTV视频进行实时编码的芯片。主要使用的编码方式是MPEG-4 AVC/H.264(以下简称为H.264)。H.264编码的运算量高达MPEG.2编码的6~10倍,因此,以往H.264编码芯片的种类非常少。2004年~2005年,PSP和iPod等便携式设备中开始使用H.264编码,这为H.264编码芯片的发展带来了转机。以此为契机,

  18. 双DSP实现MPEG-2到H.264转码硬件系统的研究%Studies on the hardware,transcoding system from MPEG-2 to H.264 based-on dual-DSP structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国彬

    2010-01-01

    现阶段在视频通信领域存在多种视频编码标准,这些标准在码流格式、压缩效率、输出码率、分辨率等方面不尽相同,分别适用于不同的领域.H.264和MPEG-2是当前较为通用的两种数字视频压缩格式.该文就MPEG-2编码概述及应用、H.264技术特点及应用优势、MPEG-2转码H.264常用算法、MPEG-2转码H.264系统的搭建等几个方面详细阐述了双DSP实现MPEG-2到H.264码流的转换技术.

  19. Diamagnetic levitation promotes osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Yin, Chong; Li, Di-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-03-01

    The superconducting magnet with a high magnetic force field can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study, a specially designed superconducting magnet with large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF), which provides three apparent gravity levels (μg, 1 g, and 2 g), was used to study its influence on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from preosteoclast cell line RAW264.7. The effects of LGHMF on the viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, morphology in RAW264.7 cells were detected by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the Griess method, and the immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The changes induced by LGHMF in osteoclast formation, mRNA expression, and bone resorption were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, semiquantity PCR, and bone resorption test, respectively. The results showed that: 1) LGHMF had no lethal effect on osteoclast precursors but attenuated NO release in RAW264.7 cells. 2) Diamagnetic levitation (μg) enhanced both the formation and bone resorption capacity of osteoclast. Moreover, diamagnetic levitation up-regulated mRNA expression of RANK, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, and NFATc1, while down-regulated RunX2 in comparison with controls. Furthermore, diamagnetic levitation induced obvious morphological alterations in osteoclast, including active cytoplasmic peripheral pseudopodial expansion, formation of pedosome belt, and aggregation of actin ring. 3) Magnetic field produced by LGHMF attenuated osteoclast resorption activity. Collectively, LGHMF with combined effects has multiple effects on osteoclast, which attenuated osteoclast resorption with magnetic field, whereas promoted osteoclast differentiation with diamagnetic levitation. Therefore, these findings indicate that diamagnetic levitation could be used as a novel ground-based microgravity simulator, which facilitates bone cell research of weightlessness condition.

  20. Diamagnetic levitation promotes osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Yin, Chong; Li, Di-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-03-01

    The superconducting magnet with a high magnetic force field can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study, a specially designed superconducting magnet with large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF), which provides three apparent gravity levels (μg, 1 g, and 2 g), was used to study its influence on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from preosteoclast cell line RAW264.7. The effects of LGHMF on the viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, morphology in RAW264.7 cells were detected by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the Griess method, and the immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The changes induced by LGHMF in osteoclast formation, mRNA expression, and bone resorption were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, semiquantity PCR, and bone resorption test, respectively. The results showed that: 1) LGHMF had no lethal effect on osteoclast precursors but attenuated NO release in RAW264.7 cells. 2) Diamagnetic levitation (μg) enhanced both the formation and bone resorption capacity of osteoclast. Moreover, diamagnetic levitation up-regulated mRNA expression of RANK, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, and NFATc1, while down-regulated RunX2 in comparison with controls. Furthermore, diamagnetic levitation induced obvious morphological alterations in osteoclast, including active cytoplasmic peripheral pseudopodial expansion, formation of pedosome belt, and aggregation of actin ring. 3) Magnetic field produced by LGHMF attenuated osteoclast resorption activity. Collectively, LGHMF with combined effects has multiple effects on osteoclast, which attenuated osteoclast resorption with magnetic field, whereas promoted osteoclast differentiation with diamagnetic levitation. Therefore, these findings indicate that diamagnetic levitation could be used as a novel ground-based microgravity simulator, which facilitates bone cell research of weightlessness condition

  1. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  2. An Improved Rate Control Method Based on Modification at Scene Change for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RU Guobao; GAO Wenli; FU Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an improved rate control method for H.264. First, the scene changes are detected by the average absolute difference of the brightness histograms between the adja cent frames. Then, the bit allocation and quantization parameters are adjusted, using a certain threshold. In addition, the calculation of the mean absolute difference (MAD) is modified in an alternative way, which makes the rate distortion optimization (RDO)more accurate. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed method, compared with G012, can improve the average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and moderate the image quality.

  3. Inhibition of Inflammatory Response by Artepillin C in Activated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Szliszka; Anna Mertas; Zenon P. Czuba; Wojciech Król

    2013-01-01

    Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is the main bioactive component of Brazilian green propolis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of artepillin C on LPS + IFN- γ - or PMA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The...

  4. The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Jana; Pekarová, Michaela; Drábiková, Katarína; Jančinová, Viera; Nosáľ, Radomír; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    As reported in our previous studies, dithiaden (an antagonist of histamine H1-receptor, used clinically as an anti-allergic or anti-emetic drug) in a concentration range of 5×10−5–10−4 M decreased the production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of dithiaden on nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The cell viability in the presence of 10−4–5×10−5 M dithiaden was evaluated by an ATP-test. RAW 264.7 cells (2.5×106/well) ...

  5. Hardware-Software Co-implementation of H.264 Decoder in SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-hong; ZHANG Wen-jun; XIONG Lian-xue; RAO Zhen-ning

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing demand for flexible and efficient implementation of image and video processing algorithms, there should be a good tradeoff between hardware and software design method. This paper utilized the HW-SW codesign method to implement the H. 264 decoder in an SoC with an ARM core, a multimedia processor and a deblocking filter coprocessor. For the parallel processing features of the multimedia processor, clock cycles of decoding process can be dramatically reduced. And the hardware dedicated deblocking filter coprocessor can improve the efficiency a lot. With maximum clock frequency of 150 MHz, the whole system can achieve real time processing speed and flexibility.

  6. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  7. A Format-Compliant Selective Encryption Scheme for Real-Time Video Streaming of the H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SBIAA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264 video coding standard is one of the most promising techniques for the future video communications. In fact, it supports a broad range of applications. Accordingly, with the continuous promotion of multimedia services, H.264 has been widely used in real-world applications. A major concern in the design of H.264 encryption algorithms is how to achieve a sufficiently high security level, while maintaining the efficiency of the underlying compression process. In this paper a new selective encryption scheme for the H.264 standard is presented. The aim of this work is to study the security of the H.264 standard in order to propose the appropriate design of a hardware crypto-processor based on a stream cipher algorithm. Since the proposed cryptosystem is mainly dedicated to the multimedia applications, it provides multiple security levels in order to satisfy the requirements of various applications for different purposes while ensuring higher coding efficiency. Different performance analyses were made in order to evaluate the new encryption system. The experimental results showed the reliability and the robustness of the proposed technique.

  8. Video Traffic Characteristics of Modern Encoding Standards: H.264/AVC with SVC and MVC Extensions and H.265/HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Seeling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as 3D video coding further advance video coding for multimedia communications. This paper first gives an overview of these new video coding standards and then examines their implications for multimedia communications by studying the traffic characteristics of long videos encoded with the new coding standards. We review video coding advances from MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 to H.264/AVC and its SVC and MVC extensions as well as H.265/HEVC. For single-layer (nonscalable video, we compare H.265/HEVC and H.264/AVC in terms of video traffic and statistical multiplexing characteristics. Our study is the first to examine the H.265/HEVC traffic variability for long videos. We also illustrate the video traffic characteristics and statistical multiplexing of scalable video encoded with the SVC extension of H.264/AVC as well as 3D video encoded with the MVC extension of H.264/AVC.

  9. 新一代视频编码标准H.264/AVC的关键技术研究%Key Technology of New Video Codec Standard for H. 264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠; 张学武; 张卓

    2009-01-01

    H.264/AVC是继H.263之后的新一代视频编码新标准,它采用了大量的新技术,适合各种媒体的传输和存储,可以面向交互式和非交互式应用.这里主要介绍了它的关键技术,通过仿真实验研究了H.264/AVC的优越性.实验结果表明,H.264/AVC在改善编码性能和提高编码效率以及传输鲁棒性方面与现有的任何标准相比,在同样保真度的条件下,可节省码率50%以上.

  10. H.264视频码流中运动物体的提取%The detection of moving objects in the compressed video streams based on H.264 video coding standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉新; 刘冀伟; 李擎

    2006-01-01

    H.264是新一代视频编码标准,具有广泛的应用前景.本文主要讨论了基于H.264视频流中运动物体检测的问题.首先简要介绍了H.264视频编码标准,然后分析了各种编码图像帧的编码过程,从而得出根据运动矢量来检测运动物体的方法,并分析了因摄像机运动而对检测方法造成的影响及相应的处理方法.从实验结果可以看出,检测效果还是比较令人满意的.

  11. H.264/AVC帧内预测模式的快速选择算法%Fast Mode Decision Algorithm for Intra Prediction in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁道林; 张玲华

    2012-01-01

    The intra prediction technology of H. 264/AVC selects the best prediction mode by rate-distortion optimization strategy, which improves the encoding efficiency of the I-frames. However, the computational complexity of encoding process is increased at the same time. A fast mode decision algorithm for inlra prediction is proposed in this paper. This fast algorithm based on the directional features of current luminance block could get the best intra luminance prediction mode by rate-distortion cost calculation among a few of more probable prediction modes which could be obtained by a little simple computation. And the computation of SATD instead of the rate-distortion cost are used to selects the best intra chrominance prediction mode, fliis fast algorithm could reduce the computational complexity and improves the speed of the encoding process. Experimental results show that with the similar image quality, this fast algorithm can efficiently reduce the encoding time about 48% with little increase of bit rate averagely.%H.264/AVC帧内预测技术采用率失真优化策略进行最优化编码模式选择,提高了Ⅰ帧的编码效率,但同时也提高了计算复杂度.提出了一种帧内预测模式的快速选择算法,基于亮度块的方向特性,通过一些复杂度不大的计算,选择少数几个可能性较大的预测模式进行率失真代价计算,得到最佳亮度预测模式,并以SATD计算代替率失真代价计算选择最佳色度预测模式,降低了计算复杂度,提高了编码速度.实验结果表明,提出的算法在保证图像质量的同时,编码时间平均降低了48%,而码率增加很小.

  12. 基于H.264/SVC的数字水印方案设计%DESIGN OF A DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON H.264/SVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛志强; 郭捷; 陈克非

    2012-01-01

    Scalable video coding and watermarking technology is the research focus of multimedia applications and copyright protection at present. The paper proposes a video watermarking scheme based on DCT coefficients in combination with key control in light of H. 264SVC scalable video compression coding, the joining of key enhances the security. After pre-processing, the watermark bits are embedded into DCT coefficients, of which the proper positions are selected on the basis of HVS theory in conjunction with keys. The watermarks are embedded while the video is coding, and the detection is blind. Moreover, the multi-layer structure of spatial resolution of SVC video is made-use to enlarge the embedding capacity and strengthen the robustness. Experimental result shows that the scheme reaches good effect in both imperceptibility and robustness and is also able to resist some noises and attacks.%可伸缩视频技术以及数字水印技术是当前多媒体应用和版权保护研究中的一个热点.针对H.264SVC可伸缩视频压缩编码,提出基于DCT系数结合密钥控制的视频水印方案,加入密钥更提高了安全性.数字水印经过预处理嵌入DCT系数,基于HVS理论结合密钥选择合适的嵌入位置.水印在视频编码的同时完成嵌入,可盲检测,并利用SVC视频的空间上分辨率多层结构增大嵌入容量和鲁棒性.实验结果显示,在不可感知性和鲁棒性方面达到了不错的效果,能抵抗一些噪声和攻击.

  13. 一种改进的H.264基本单元码率控制算法%An Improved H.264 Basic Unit Rate Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁久涛; 李明齐; 宋荣方

    2013-01-01

    In view of the limitation caused by considering time correlation only in Mean Absolute Difference(MAD) prediction and MAD factor only in bit allocation of basic unit in Rate Control(RC) algorithm for H.264, this paper proposes an improved algorithm in which the predicted MAD is calculated by a combination of linear prediction model and the space-time weighted prediction model, and corrected according to the prediction error of the previous basic unit. Besides, the basic unit complexity is estimated by a combined Peak Signal Noise Ratio(PSNR)-based and MAD-based method, based on which bit allocation is done. Simulation results show that compared with JM8.6, the proposed algorithm not only can make the output bit rate more accurate, but also can improve the average PSNR by 0.1 dB.%在H.264码率控制算法中,预测基本单元平均绝对差值(MAD)时只考虑时间陒关性,分配基本单元比特数时仅考虑MAD因素。针对该问题,提出采用时间陑性预测模型与时空加权预测模型陒结合的方法,进行基本单元 MAD 预测,并根据前一基本单元的MAD预测误差,对当前基本单元MAD预测值进行修正。同时,采用峰值信噪比(PSNR)与MAD陒结合的方法,估计基本单元复杂度,进而分配基本单元目标比特数。仿真结果表明,与JM8.6模型陒比,改进算法在提高码率控制精度的同时,PSNR平均可提高0.1 dB。

  14. Investigation and analysis the vision health of 264 teenagers%264名青少年学生视觉健康调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓悦; 姜永东

    2011-01-01

    Objective Understand the teenagers knowledge and practice of vision health, analysis the influence factor, to provide evidence to help prevent vision loss in teenagers.Methods Use self-made questionnaire to investigate 288 teenagers in Qianwei county.Results On 264 person, the myopia rate is 65.5% , the one who have the good knowledge of vision health only take 19.7% ,74.2% person have the consciousness of vision health but lack of correct health knowledge,6.1% person don't have any knowledge about the vision protect.Conclusion The lack of correct health knowledge widespread exist in teenagers, we should build specialize agency to the vision protect with teenagers, build the system of myopia prevention, strengthen the education of vision health, in order to control the growing of myopia in teenagers.%目的 了解目前青少年对视力保护的认识与实践,分析影响因素,为预防青少年视力下降提供依据.方法 应用自制问卷对犍为县288例青少年学生进行调查.结果 264例中近视率为65.5%,而具备良好的视力保护意识和知识的人仅占19.7%,74.2%的人具有视力保护意识但缺乏正确的保健知识,6.1%完全不具备视力保护的有关知识.结论 目前青少年普遍缺乏正确的视觉健康知识,应建立青少年视力保护专门机构,形成预防近视的体系,加强视觉健康的教育并进行有效的干预,以控制日益严重的青少年近视问题.

  15. 用于H.264/AVC帧间预测的搜索算法%Search algorithm for H.264/AVC inter frame prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小冲; 席志红

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problems existed in the process of the coding under H.264/AVC standard, multi-step search method (MSSM) occupies a large number of search resources and leads to considerable search points, while the accuracy of diamond search method (DSM) occupies less search resources, but the relatively is low. This article proposes an improved multi-step search method (MSSM+). The MSSM+is improved on the basis of MSSM, in which its first search step is halved as its own first search step, gradually the search step is halved through the center point match until the search step is one, and finally the matching block is found. Simulation results show that the predictive accuracy of MSSM+is close to MSSM, while the points of search are significantly reduced, which significantly improves search efficiency, and MSSM+obtains favorable predictive accuracy by increasing a few number of search points compared with DSM.%H.264/AVC标准编码过程中多步搜索(multi-step search method, MSSM)搜索点数多、占用的搜索资源大,而钻石搜索法(DSM, diamond search method)虽然占用的搜索资源少,其在预测准确性却有些欠缺.在此提出了改进的多步搜索算法(MSSM+). MSSM+是在MSSM的基础上改进的,将其第1步搜索步长减半作为自己的第1步搜索步长,通过中心点匹配逐步减半搜索步长,直至搜索步长为1,并找到最终的匹配块.仿真结果表明,MSSM+在预测准确性方面接近MSSM,而在搜索点数方面却有显著降低,提高了搜索效率,相对于DSM算法,在增加不多的搜索点数情况下取得了良好的预测准确性.

  16. Design of USB Download Port within the H.264 Decoder FPGA Realization%H.264解码器FPGA实现中的USB下载接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛斗; 吴蓬勃; 王朝阳; 王明江

    2006-01-01

    本文介绍了如何利用USB接口为H.264解码器FPGA验证平台提供文件下载功能,并根据H.264解码器的特点分别从硬件设计、FPGA固件设计、USB驱动程序设计和USB应用程序设计四个方面对该系统的结构和功能进行了阐述.

  17. H.264视频编码标准及其在移动通信中的应用%H.264 Video Coding Standard and Its Applications in Mobile Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻晓园; 酆勇

    2003-01-01

    H.264是ITU-T的视频编码专家组(VCEG)和ISO/IEC的活动图像专家组(MPEG)联合制定的视频编码新标准,其目的是为了获得很好的图像压缩效果并能适应不同的网络环境.从编码效率和网络适应性方面讨论了H.264中所采用的新技术,最后介绍了它在移动通信中的应用.

  18. Optimized Design of H.264 Real-time Encoder Based on H.263 Coding Standard%基于H.263编码标准的H.264实时编码器的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁权; 胡栋

    2008-01-01

    从实时应用角度出发,参考H.263编码标准,对H.264视频编码器进行精简,并对耗时较大的算法进行改进.仿真结果表明,简化后的H.264编码器编码速度达到20f/s(帧/秒),达到实时编码要求,且编码性能优于H.263编码标准的编码器.

  19. A new hardware implementation of DCT based on H.264 standard%基于H.264标准的一种新颖的DCT硬件实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晨; 王琴; 毛志刚

    2010-01-01

    H.264是新一代视频编码标准,具有很好的视频压缩性能.H.264的DCT变换是一种4×4的整数变换,适用于专用集成电路的硬件实现.采用一种新颖的实现方法,利用4-2压缩器和超前进位加法器来代替传统的加法,提高了运算速度.

  20. The H.264 Standard and Its Applications in Video Conference System%H.264标准及其在视频会议系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 刘晓红; 史德年

    2005-01-01

    随着我国通信网络设施的快速发展,视频业务也迅速发展起来,ITU-T也制定了多种相关标准,本文主要介绍了视频会议系统的基本概念及其对新的视频编解码技术提出的要求,分析了H.264编码标准的特点和技术优势,并介绍了H.264在H.323系统中的实现方法.

  1. Main Technological Characteristics of Video Coding Standard H.264 and Its Application Expectation%视频编码标准H.264的主要技术特点及其应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦岭; 王煜坚; 李东新; 吴镇扬

    2004-01-01

    简要介绍了视频编码标准的发展历史与现状,阐述了H.264的主要技术特点并重点讨论了其较之于先前视频编码标准的优点,包括先进的帧内帧间预测编码、类DCT整型变换、增强的熵编码等.最后探讨了H.264的广泛应用前景.

  2. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  3. Subjective Quality Assessment of H.264/AVC Video Streaming with Packet Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccari Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.

  4. A hybrid table look-up method for H.264/AVC coeff_token decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Zhang, Yixiong; Lu, Min; Tang, Biyu

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid table look-up method for H.264 Coeff_Token Decoding is presented. In the proposed method the probabilities of the codewords with various lengths are analyzed, and based on the statistics a hybrid look-up table is constructed. In the coeff_token decoding process, firstly, a few bits are read from the bit-stream, if a matched codeword is found in the first look-up table, the further look-up steps will be skipped. Otherwise, more bits need to be read and looked up in the second table, which is built upon the number of leading 0's before the first number one. Experimental results on the RTSM Emulation Baseboard ARM926 of RealView show that the proposed method speeds up CAVLD of H.264 by about 8% with more efficient memory utilization, when compared to the prefix-based decoding method. And compared with the pattern-search method based on hashing algorithms adopted in the newest version of FFMPEG, the proposed method reduces memory space by about 77%.

  5. H.264/AVC intra-only coding (iAVC) techniques for video over wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Trifas, Monica; Xiong, Guolun; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-02-01

    The requirement to transmit video data over unreliable wireless networks (with the possibility of packet loss) is anticipated in the foreseeable future. Significant compression ratio and error resilience are both needed for complex applications including tele-operated robotics, vehicle-mounted cameras, sensor network, etc. Block-matching based inter-frame coding techniques, including MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC, do not perform well in these scenarios due to error propagation between frames. Many wireless applications often use intra-only coding technologies such as Motion-JPEG, which exhibit better recovery from network data loss at the price of higher data rates. In order to address these research issues, an intra-only coding scheme of H.264/AVC (iAVC) is proposed. In this approach, each frame is coded independently as an I-frame. Frame copy is applied to compensate for packet loss. This approach is a good balance between compression performance and error resilience. It achieves compression performance comparable to Motion- JPEG2000 (MJ2), with lower complexity. Error resilience similar to Motion-JPEG (MJ) will also be accomplished. Since the intra-frame prediction with iAVC is strictly confined within the range of a slice, memory usage is also extremely low. Low computational complexity and memory usage are very crucial to mobile stations and devices in wireless network.

  6. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  8. Design of real-time video watermarking based on Integer DCT for H.264 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit M.; Mishra, Vivekanand; Patrikar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of technology, video has become a prominent entity that is shared over networks. With easy availability of various editing tools, data integrity and ownership issues have caused great concern worldwide. Video watermarking is an evolving field that may be used to address such issues. Till date, most of the algorithms have been developed for uncompressed domain watermarking and implemented on software platforms. They provide flexibility and simplicity, but at the same time, they are not suited for real-time applications. They work offline where videos are captured and then watermark is embedded in the video. In the present work, a hardware-based implementation of video watermarking is proposed that overcomes the limitation of software watermarking methods and can be readily adapted to the H.264 standard. This paper focuses on an invisible and robust video watermarking scheme, which can be easily implemented as an integral part of the standard H.264 encoder. The proposed watermarking algorithm involves Integer DCT-based watermark embedding method, wherein Integer DCT is calculated with a fully parallel approach resulting in better speed. The proposed video watermarking is designed with pipelining and parallel architecture for real-time implementation. Here, scene change detection technique is used to improve the performance. Different planes of the watermark are embedded in different frames of a particular scene in order to achieve robustness against various temporal attacks.

  9. A Novel Steganography Technique for SDTV-H.264/AVC Encoded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Di Laura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, eavesdropping is becoming a common issue in the rapidly growing digital network and has foreseen the need for secret communication channels embedded in digital media. In this paper, a novel steganography technique designed for Standard Definition Digital Television (SDTV H.264/AVC encoded video sequences is presented. The algorithm introduced here makes use of the compression properties of the Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC entropy encoder to achieve a low complexity and real-time inserting method. The chosen scheme hides the private message directly in the H.264/AVC bit stream by modifying the AC frequency quantized residual luminance coefficients of intrapredicted I-frames. In order to avoid error propagation in adjacent blocks, an interlaced embedding strategy is applied. Likewise, the steganography technique proposed allows self-detection of the hidden message at the target destination. The code source was implemented by mixing MATLAB 2010 b and Java development environments. Finally, experimental results have been assessed through objective and subjective quality measures and reveal that less visible artifacts are produced with the technique proposed by reaching PSNR values above 40.0 dB and an embedding bit rate average per secret communication channel of 425 bits/sec. This exemplifies that steganography is affordable in digital television.

  10. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  11. Dominant edge direction based fast intra mode decision in the H.264/AVC encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byeongdu LA; Minyoung EOM; Yoonsik CHOE

    2009-01-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard uses an intra prediction mode with 4×4 and 16×16 blocks for luma and 8×8 blocks for chroma. This standard uses the rate distortion optimization (RDO) method to determine the best coding mode based on the compression performance and video quality. This method offers a large improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards, but the computational complexity is greater due to the various intra prediction modes. This paper proposes a fast intra mode decision algorithm for real-time encoding of H.264/AVC based on the dominant edge direction (DED). The DED is extracted using pixel value summation and subtraction in the horizontal and vertical directions. By using the DED, three modes instead of nine are chosen for RDO calculation to decide on the best mode in the 4×4 luma block. For the 16×16 luma and the 8×8 chroma, only two modes are chosen instead of four. Experimental results show that the entire encoding time saving of the proposed algorithm is about 67% compared to the full intra search method with negligible loss of quality.

  12. Optimal Rate Control in H.264 Video Coding Based on Video Quality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find a method for providing better visual quality across the complete video sequence in H.264 video coding standard. H.264 video coding standard with its significantly improved coding efficiency finds important applications in various digital video streaming, storage and broadcast. To achieve comparable quality across the complete video sequence with the constrains on bandwidth availability and buffer fullness, it is important to allocate more bits to frames with high complexity or a scene change and fewer bits to other less complex frames. A frame layer bit allocation scheme is proposed based on the perceptual quality metric as indicator of the frame complexity. The proposed model computes the Quality Index ratio (QIr of the predicted quality index of the current frame to the average quality index of all the previous frames in the group of pictures which is used for bit allocation to the current frame along with bits computed based on buffer availability. The standard deviation of the perceptual quality indicator MOS computed for the proposed model is significantly less which means the quality of the video sequence is identical throughout the full video sequence. Thus the experiment results shows that the proposed model effectively handles the scene changes and scenes with high motion for better visual quality.

  13. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  14. An error resilient scheme for H.264 video coding based on distortion estimated mode decision and nearest neighbor error concealment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Tien-hsu; WANG Jong-tzy; CHEN Jhih-bin; CHANG Pao-chi

    2006-01-01

    Although H.264 video coding standard provides several error resilience tools, the damage caused by error propagation may still be tremendous. This work is aimed at developing a robust and standard-compliant error resilient coding scheme for H.264and uses techniques of mode decision, data hiding, and error concealment to reduce the damage from error propagation. This paper proposes a system with two error resilience techniques that can improve the robustness of H.264 in noisy channels. The first technique is Nearest Neighbor motion compensated Error Concealment (NNEC) that chooses the nearest neighbors in the reference frames for error concealment. The second technique is Distortion Estimated Mode Decision (DEMD) that selects an optimal mode based on stochastically distorted frames. Observed simulation results showed that the rate-distortion performances of the proposed algorithms are better than those of the compared algorithms.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  16. A video watermarking scheme robust to H.264 compression%抗H.264压缩的鲁棒视频水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡溪; 王宏霞; 黄安安

    2014-01-01

    本文提出了一种基于分块离散余弦变换(DCT)、奇异值分解(SVD)和粒子群优化算法(PSO)的鲁棒视频水印方案.在其嵌入方案中,利用DC系数和奇异值的稳定性,首先将帧内所有块的DC系数置乱,并进行4×4奇异值分解,调制第3大奇异值实现水印的嵌入,由粒子群优化算法得到合适的水印嵌入强度.实验结果表明,相对于固定的嵌入强度,采用粒子群优化算法可以在保持原有视频序列视觉质量的基础上,提高水印自身的鲁棒性.同时算法能够有效抵抗H.264压缩.

  17. New basic unit rate control method for H.264%一种新的H.264基本单元码率控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石迎波; 吴成柯; 王养利; 肖嵩

    2006-01-01

    通过对H.264 码率控制原理的分析,提出一种基于峰值信噪比(peak signal noise ratio,PSNR)的图像复杂度估计方法,与平均绝对差值(mean absolute difference,MAD)联合估计基本单元编码复杂度,使基本单元目标比特分配更精确.考虑到MAD 线性预测模型计算复杂度高的缺点,利用图像的空间和时间相关性,提出一种加权预测模型的基本单元MAD预测方法,省略参数更新过程以减少计算量.仿真结果表明,提出的加权模型与线性模型预测精度基本相当;所提方法在精确分配目标比特和控制码率的同时,与JM9.6 相比,可以令PSNR 更为平滑,且平均性能提高0.2 dB.

  18. Android多核平台下X264多线程编码的优化与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志伟; 张祥新

    2015-01-01

    本文分析的是在arm芯片的android平台下,一种通用的H264视频压缩算法应用。该算法的特点是,多核arm芯片,android平台优化。而H264本来就是比较先进的视频编码算法,具有速度快,压缩倍数大的特点,具有很好的通用性。充分利用Cortex-A9芯片的neon功能提高指令集的优化。

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  20. 视频编码新标准H.264的帧内帧间预测处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧玲

    2004-01-01

    H.264标准是由ITU-T视频编码专家组(VCEG)和ISO/IEC运动图像专家组(MPEG)成员组成的联合视频专家组(JVT)研发的一套新一代数字视频编码标准,命名为“高级视频编码(Advanced Video Coding)”。它既是ITU-T的H.264,又是ISO/IEC的MPEG-4第10

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  2. 40 CFR 264.1062 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. 264.1062 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1062 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. (a) An owner or operator subject...

  3. 40 CFR 264.1061 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of valves allowed to leak. 264.1061 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1061 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of valves allowed to leak. (a) An owner or operator subject...

  4. Parallel processing architecture for H.264 deblocking filter on multi-core platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Durga P.; Sonachalam, Sekar; Kunchamwar, Mangesh K.; Gunupudi, Nageswara Rao

    2012-03-01

    Massively parallel computing (multi-core) chips offer outstanding new solutions that satisfy the increasing demand for high resolution and high quality video compression technologies such as H.264. Such solutions not only provide exceptional quality but also efficiency, low power, and low latency, previously unattainable in software based designs. While custom hardware and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technologies may achieve lowlatency, low power, and real-time performance in some consumer devices, many applications require a flexible and scalable software-defined solution. The deblocking filter in H.264 encoder/decoder poses difficult implementation challenges because of heavy data dependencies and the conditional nature of the computations. Deblocking filter implementations tend to be fixed and difficult to reconfigure for different needs. The ability to scale up for higher quality requirements such as 10-bit pixel depth or a 4:2:2 chroma format often reduces the throughput of a parallel architecture designed for lower feature set. A scalable architecture for deblocking filtering, created with a massively parallel processor based solution, means that the same encoder or decoder will be deployed in a variety of applications, at different video resolutions, for different power requirements, and at higher bit-depths and better color sub sampling patterns like YUV, 4:2:2, or 4:4:4 formats. Low power, software-defined encoders/decoders may be implemented using a massively parallel processor array, like that found in HyperX technology, with 100 or more cores and distributed memory. The large number of processor elements allows the silicon device to operate more efficiently than conventional DSP or CPU technology. This software programing model for massively parallel processors offers a flexible implementation and a power efficiency close to that of ASIC solutions. This work describes a scalable parallel architecture for an H.264 compliant deblocking

  5. Application of H.264 Video Technology in Expressway Monitoring System%H.264视频技术在高速公路监控中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荔; 王建平

    2011-01-01

    高速公路视频监控系统需要采集公路全线大量的监控视频,其所面临的最大挑战就是传输带宽和存储设备的容量限制问题,而由于H.264视频压缩标准比之前的视频压缩标准增加了帧内预测、整数变换、去块效应滤波等新技术,因而使得H.264标准拥有了优异的压缩性能和良好的网络亲和性,也因此在视频监控方面得到了广泛应用。文章针对高速公路视频监控的特点,给出了H.264视频压缩标准在高速公路监控中的应用方法。%The video monitoring system for expressway needs collecting the whole-line monitoring image, so the restriction in transmission bandwidth and storage capacity is the greatest technical challenge. H.264 video compression standard can solve this problem eff

  6. Jabber协议与H.264标准在农业远程诊断中的应用研究%Study on the Application of Jabber Protocol and H.264 Standard in Agricultural Remote Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 张峻峰; 于峰; 栾汝朋; 于金莹

    2012-01-01

    阐述了将Jabber协议与H.264标准应用于农业远程诊断的工作原理和各级系统框架,设计并实现农民与专家远程音频、文字、白板等即时通信.系统测试表明,基于Jabber协议与H.264标准的农业远程诊断技术能够实现专家和农户间的双向视频沟通,能帮助农户远程诊断农业病虫害,而且系统在运行过程中消耗网络带宽较少,运行稳定.%The working principle of Jabber protocol and H. 264 standard applied in agricultural remote diagnosis and the framework of each system were reviewed, and the instant messaging between farmers and specialists with the forms of long-distance voice frequency, literals and white board was designed and realized. System testing shows that agricultural remote diagnosis technology based on Jabber protocol and H. 264 standard can realize two-way video communication between farmers and specialists, and can help farmers to diagnose agricultural pest remotely. Moreover, the system consumes lower network bandwidth in the process of operation and working stably.

  7. An Error Recovery Approach for H.264 Video Transmission Based on Data Hiding%基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输抗误码方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海波; 董育宁

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of H. 264 video transmission,this paper proposed an I frame error recovery approach for H. 264 video transmission based on data hiding. At the encoder, for an H. 264 intra-coded I frame, the important data for each macroblock (MB ) are extracted adaptively and hidden into the RTP header of the next frame by the proposed data hiding mehod. At the decoder,if the important data for a corrupted MB can be correctly extracted, the extracted important data will be used for error recovery ; Otherwise,a simple algorithm is used to recover the corrupted MB. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed approach is better than existing approaches.%针对如何改善H.264无线视频传输抗误码性能,提出了一种基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输Ⅰ帧误码恢复方法.该方法在编码端自适应地提取Ⅰ帧宏块的重要数据,并将提取的重要数据隐藏到下一帧RTP报文的扩展头部,然后在解码端提取重要数据并采用空时自适应算法对Ⅰ帧进行误码恢复.实验结果表明,该方法相比于同类方法显著提高了Ⅰ帧的误码恢复效果.

  8. Fast intra prediction mode selection algorithm of H.264/AVC based on all-zero blocks detection%基于全零模块检测的H.264/AVC快速帧内模式选择算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欣; 段哲民; 周巍

    2011-01-01

    The newly proposed video coding standard H. 264/AVC can achieve much higher efficiency than previous standards with intra-frame prediction. Unfortunately this comes at a cost in greatly increased complexity at the encoder mainly due to motion estimation and intra prediction block mode decision. This paper proposed a fast intra prediction mode selection algorithm of H. 264/AVC based on the all-zero blocks detection to optimize intra block mode decision to significantly improve the time efficiency of the encoder in H. 264/AVC. Experimental results show that without considerable performance degradation and bit-rate increase,the coding speeds up greatly with the proposed algorithm.%H.264/AVC采用多方向、多划分的帧内预测模式,与其他视频编码标准相比具有更高的编码效率,但同时也使计算复杂度明显提升.通过分析各编码模式的特点和最佳模式分布规律,提出了基于全零模块检测的快速帧内模式选择算法,略过不可能进一步降低率失真代价的帧内预测模式,以降低编码过程的计算复杂度.实验结果表明,在保证编码性能的前提下,可以有效地降低H.264/AVC的计算复杂度.

  9. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... numbers of video streams on a single server. The focus of the work is on using the information in coded video streams to reduce the computational complexity and memory requirements, which translates into reduced hardware requirements and costs. The devised algorithm detects and segments activity based...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...

  10. A Robust H.264/AVC Video Watermarking Scheme with Drift Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  11. Design and implementation of H.264 based embedded video coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Jinming; Zhang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an embedded system for remote online video monitoring was designed and developed to capture and record the real-time circumstances in elevator. For the purpose of improving the efficiency of video acquisition and processing, the system selected Samsung S5PV210 chip as the core processor which Integrated graphics processing unit. And the video was encoded with H.264 format for storage and transmission efficiently. Based on S5PV210 chip, the hardware video coding technology was researched, which was more efficient than software coding. After running test, it had been proved that the hardware video coding technology could obviously reduce the cost of system and obtain the more smooth video display. It can be widely applied for the security supervision [1].

  12. Basic Unit Layer Rate Control Algorithm for H.264 Based on Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of the video coding, special attention should be paid to the subjective quality of the image. In the JVT-G012 algorithm for H.264, the influence of the human visual characteristic in basic unit layer rate control was not taken into account. This paper takes the influence of the human visual characteristic into the full consideration and offers ways to improve the subjective quality of the image. The visual characteristic factor, which is constituted by the motion feature and edge feature, is used to reasonably allocate the target bits, and then its quantization parameter is adjusted by encoded frame information. The experimental results show that, in comparison to the original algorithm, the proposed algorithm can not only control the bit rate more accurately but also make the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR stable, so as to improve the stationarity of the video image. The subjective quality of the reconstructed video is more satisfying.

  13. Integrated Joint Source-Channel Decoding for H.264 Video Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; CHEN Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated joint source-channel decoder (I-JSCD) using Max-Log-MAP method for sources encoded with exp-Golomb codes and convolutional codes, and proposes a system applying this method to decoding the VLC data,e.g. motion vector differences (MVDs), of H.264 across an AWGN channel. This method combines the source code state-space and the channel code state-space together to construct a joint state-space, develops a 3-D trellis and a maximum a-posterior(MAP) algorithm to estimate the source sequence symbol by symbol, and then uses max-log approximation to simplify the algorithm. Experiments indicate that the proposed system gives significant improvements on peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)(maximum about 15 dB) than a separate scheme. This also leads to a higher visual quality of video stream over a highly noisy channel.

  14. Temporal Scalability through Adaptive -Band Filter Banks for Robust H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different structures that use adaptive -band hierarchical filter banks for temporal scalability. Open-loop and closed-loop configurations are introduced and illustrated using existing video codecs. In particular, it is shown that the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec allows us to introduce scalability by frame shuffling operations, thus keeping backward compatibility with the standard. The large set of shuffling patterns introduced here can be exploited to adapt the encoding process to the video content features, as well as to the user equipment and transmission channel characteristics. Furthermore, simulation results show that this scalability is obtained with no degradation in terms of subjective and objective quality in error-free environments, while in error-prone channels the scalable versions provide increased robustness.

  15. An Optimized Dynamic Scene Change Detection Algorithm for H.264/AVC Encoded Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Rascioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scene change detection plays an important role in a number of video applications, including video indexing, semantic features extraction, and, in general, pre- and post-processing operations. This paper deals with the design and performance evaluation of a dynamic scene change detector optimized for H.264/AVC encoded video sequences. The detector is based on a dynamic threshold that adaptively tracks different features of the video sequence, to increase the whole scheme accuracy in correctly locating true scene changes. The solution has been tested on suitable video sequences resembling real-world videos thanks to a number of different motion features, and has provided good performance without requiring an increase in decoder complexity. This is a valuable issue, considering the possible application of the proposed algorithm in post-processing operations, such as error concealment for video decoding in typical error prone video transmission environments, such as wireless networks.

  16. A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme with drift compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinghao; Sun, Tanfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Wan; Shi, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT) with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs) or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  17. Adaptive Zero-Coefficient Distribution Scan for Inter Block Mode Coding of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Su, Alvin W. Y.

    Scanning quantized transform coefficients is an important tool for video coding. For example, the MPEG-4 video coder adopts three different scans to get better coding efficiency. This paper proposes an adaptive zero-coefficient distribution scan in inter block coding. The proposed method attempts to improve H.264/AVC zero coefficient coding by modifying the scan operation. Since the zero-coefficient distribution is changed by the proposed scan method, new VLC tables for syntax elements used in context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) are also provided. The savings in bit-rate range from 2.2% to 5.1% in the high bit-rate cases, depending on different test sequences.

  18. An Improved Selective Encryption for H.264 Video based on Intra Prediction Mode Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Jiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Video encryption is becoming increasingly important as multimedia applications gain more and more popularity. With a focus on the widely-used H.264 video coding standard, various encryption algorithms based on the intra prediction mode have been developed while suffering limited scrambling space and inadequate security. In this paper, the existing encryption algorithms are first analyzed with respect to the perception performance, plaintext scrambling space and key security. An encryption algorithm is then proposed by taking into account key distribution and synchronization, leading to improved encryption effect. In contrast to the existing algorithms, experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm achieved higher security while less impact on the code length and frame rate. In addition, the computational complexity is reduced which facilitates real-time video applications.

  19. A Fast Mode Selection Algorithm Using Texture Analysis for H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Rungta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC, the newest international video coding standard achieves higher compression efficiency as compared to all other existing coding standard such as MPEG-4 and H.263. However this efficiency comes with a dramatic increase in computational complexity due to several advanced techniques, such as inter mode and intra mode prediction with variable size motion compensation. It adopts rate distortion optimization (RDO, while maximizing visual quality and minimizing the required bit rate. In this paper, we propose a fast inter mode selection algorithm. The aim is to reduce the number of modes in intra and inter mode prediction. Experimental results show that this algorithm reduces the total encoding time with little loss of bit rate and visual quality.

  20. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  1. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the water consumption flow rate of commercial prerinse spray valves. (b) Testing and Calculations. The test procedure to determine the water consumption flow rate for prerinse spray valves, expressed in... Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for...

  2. WebM een alternatief voor H.264? : Onderzoek naar het gebruik van open source software en open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, M. van; Prins, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    WebM is een nieuw videoformaat en wordt gepositioneerd als een open en vrij te gebruiken alternatief voor de videostandaard H.264. Deze standaard wordt op dit moment het meest gebruikt onder andere voor Uitzending Gemist. Deze formaten zijn regelmatig met elkaar vergeleken, waar veelal wordt gefocus

  3. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  4. Fast Intra and Inter Prediction Mode Decision of H.264/AVC for Medical Image Compression Based on Region of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at applying H.264 in medical video compression applications and improving the H.264 Compression performance with better perceptual quality and low coding complexity. In order to achieve higher compression of medical video, while maintaining high image quality in the region of interest, with low coding complexity, here we propose a new model using H.264/AVC that uses lossless compression in the region of interest, and very high rate, lossy compression in other regions. This paper proposes a new method to achieve fast intra and inter prediction mode decision that is based on coarse macroblocks for intra and inter prediction mode decision of the background region and finer macroblocks for region of interest. Also the macroblocks of the background region are encoded with the maximum quantization parameter allowed by H.264/AVC in order to maximize the number of null coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a higher compression rate on medical videos with a higher quality of region of interest with low coding complexity when compared to our previous algorithm and other standard algorithms reported in the literature.

  5. Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Avijit; Ju, Hee; Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-03-01

    With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide induces multinuclear cell from RAW264.7 line with increased phagocytosis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Yano, Shio; Matsumoto, Naomi; Futai, Masamitsu [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells are formed through cell-cell fusion in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells do not express osteoclast-specific enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They internalized more and larger beads than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. -- Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, induces strong proinflammatory responses, including the release of cytokines and nitric oxide from macrophage. In this study, we found that a murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, became multinuclear through cell-cell fusion after incubation with highly purified LPS or synthetic lipid A in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The same cell line is known to differentiate into multinuclear osteoclast, which expresses a specific proton pumping ATPase together with osteoclast markers on stimulation by the extracellular domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (Toyomura, T., Murata, Y., Yamamoto, A., Oka, T., Sun-Wada, G.-H., Wada, Y. and Futai, M., 2003). The LPS-induced multinuclear cells did not express osteoclast-specific enzymes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. During multinuclear cell formation, the cells internalized more and larger polystyrene beads (diameter 6-15 {mu}m) than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. The internalized beads were located in lysosome-marker positive organelles, which were probably phagolysosomes. The LPS-induced multinuclear cell could be a good model system to study phagocytosis of large foreign bodies.

  7. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by semiconducting polymer dots in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangmao; White, Collin C.; Jin, Yuhui; Hu, Xiaoge; Hayden, Sarah; Zhang, Xuanjun; Gao, Xiaohu; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    The rapid development and acceptance of PDots for biological applications depends on an in depth understanding of their cytotoxicity. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive study of PDot cytotoxicity at both the gross cell effect level (such as cell viability, proliferation and necrosis) and more subtle effects (such as redox stress) on RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line with high relevance to in vivo nanoparticle disposition. The redox stress measurements assessed were inner mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation (nonyl-acridine orange, NAO), total thiol level (monobromobimane, MBB), and pyridine nucleotide redox status (NAD(P)H autofluorescence). Because of the extensive work already performed with QDots on nanotoxicity and also because of their comparable size, QDots were chosen as a comparison/reference nanoparticle for this study. The results showed that PDots exhibit cytotoxic effects to a much lesser degree than their inorganic analogue (QDots) and are much brighter, allowing for much lower concentrations to be used in various biological applications. In addition, at lower dose levels (2.5 nM to 10 nM) PDot treatment resulted in higher total thiol level than those found with QDots. At higher dose levels (20 nM to 40 nM) QDots caused significantly higher thiol levels in RAW264.7 cells, than was seen with PDots, suggesting that QDots elicit compensation to oxidative stress by upregulating GSH synthesis. At the higher concentrations of QDots, NAD(P)H levels showed an initial depletion, then repletion to a level that was greater than vehicle controls. PDots showed a similar trend but this was not statistically significant. Because PDots elicit less oxidative stress and cytotoxicity at low concentrations than QDots, and because they exhibit superior fluorescence at these low concentrations, PDots are predicted to have enhanced utility in biomedical applications.

  8. Algorithm Optimization of UMHexagonS in H.264JM Model%H.264JM模型中UMHexagonS算法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩炜; 韩文波; 田苗

    2014-01-01

    JM模型是JVT (joint video team)发布的H.264标准测试模型,对运动搜索算法的学习和研究有着重要的意义。本文结合JM10.1的源代码对UMHexagonS算法的提前终止策略进行了深入研究,对搜索模板进行象限分割来减少算法的搜索点数,在基本上保持了原有图象质量的情况下有效的节省了编码时间和运动估计时间。通过对5种测试序列的测试结果进行分析,优化后的UMHexagonS算法可以在图像信噪比和码率基本不变的情况下,编码时间节省8.87%,运动估计时间平均节省11.46%,有效的提高了编码的实时性。%JM is the standard test model published by joint video team (JVT),which has great significance in learn-ing and research of motion search algorithm. In this paper,Combining with JM10.1 source code ,the early termination strategy of UMHexagonS algorithm (the Unsymmetrical-cross Multi-hexagon-grid Search algorithm) is optimized and the search points are reduced by the search template quadrant method of segmentation algorithm ,which could maintain the original image quality under the condition of saving the encoding time and motion estimation time. Through analyz-ing the test results of five kinds of test sequences, compared with the original algorithm, the optimized UMHexagonS algorithm saved 8.87% encoding time and an average of 11.46% motion estimation time under the condition of the im-age signal to noise ratio (SNR) and bit rate basically unchanged which effectively improve the real-time performance of the code.

  9. Characterization of CYP264B1 and a terpene cyclase of a terpene biosynthesis gene cluster from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Thuy Thi Bich

    2011-01-01

    In the work presented here, CYP264B1 and the terpene cyclase GeoA of Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 have been characterized. CYP264B1 is able to convert norisoprenoids (a-ionone and b-ionone) and diverse sesquiterpene compounds, including nootkatone. Three products, 3-hydroxy-a-ionone, 3-hydroxy-b-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone were characterized using HPLC and 1H and 13C NMR. CYP264B1 is the first enzyme reported to be capable to hydroxylate regioselectively both norisoprenoids at the positi...

  10. H.264与MPEG-2标准的比较及其在广播电视领域的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 陈鹏

    2006-01-01

    本文论述了MPEG-2和H.264视频压缩技术的原理及其特点,通过比较可以得出结论,H.264标准在视频压缩效率等各方面都要优于MPEG-2标准,在广播电视系统中H.264也将会得到更加广泛的应用.

  11. 基于TMS320DM642 DSP的H.264编码算法的移植与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒

    2010-01-01

    H.264是最新的视频压缩标准,本文将H.264的开源代码X264移植到TMS320DM642 DSP中,并根据DM642的结构,采用多种优化策略对移植后的算法进行了优化。实验结果表明,优化后的编码速度有了显著提高。

  12. 基于H.264/AVC视频压缩编码的第三代移动通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 狄卫国; 刘颖娜; 赵晓博

    2009-01-01

    第三代移动通信系统的出现使在无线网络中提供各种视频业务成为可能。H.264/AVC自由的技术优势使得视频的压缩效率有了很大的提高。本文介绍了移动通信中H.264/AVC的应用现状以及应用于第三代移动通信的H.264/AVC主要技术目标和编解码原理。

  13. Research and Implementation of Hard Decoding H.264 Technology Based on DXVA and OpenCL%基于DXVA和OpenCL的硬解码H.264技术的研究和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐咏

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we researched the hardware-decoding based on DXVA and OpenCL which using a encoded image in H.264 as an example. We designed a hardware decoding process using DXVA2 and the OpenCL API, and we got the testing data to verify the possible solutions.%该文以H.264编码的图像为例,研究了基于DXVA和OpenCL的硬解码方案;利用DXVA2以及OpenCL的API,设计了一套硬解码流程,并利用该流程测试出数据,验证了方案的可行性。

  14. 支持H.264高清编解码器的片上系统MG3500%High definition H.264 encoder/decoder SoC MG3500

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉智; 熊建设; 高振成

    2009-01-01

    MG3500 SoC是支持H.264高清编解码器的片上系统,内部集成一个嵌入式ARM926处理器,支持高清H.264编解码、MPEG-2解码和JPEG编解码.介绍了MG3500 SoC的主要性能特点、引脚排列、主要接口功能及在DVR上的应用,以及MG3500 SoC及其周围器件的硬件设计,提出了在设计中应注意的问题.

  15. H.264嵌入式实时视频编码器设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Embedded Realtime Video Encoder for H.264 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴君钦

    2009-01-01

    基于高速定点DSP处理器TMS320DM642,设计并实现了一款嵌入式实时H.264视频编码器,提出了局部自适应预测运动估计算法.采用C64x CPU的软件优化技术,解决了视频编码的实时性问题.实验结果表明,H.264编码器对分辨率为320x288YUV格式视频信号的编码速率达到每秒13帧以上,且具有极低的码流速率和较高的图像编码质量.

  16. Improvement on Rate-Distortion Optimized Coding Algorithm in H.264 Standard%H.264标准率失真优化编码算法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虓江

    2004-01-01

    要提高编码视频流在丢包信道中对误码的鲁棒性,基于率失真理论的帧内刷新优化编码算法是一种较为有效的解决办法.在分析了H.264标准采用的率失真优化编码算法的技术特点和不足的基础上,提出了一种改进算法.仿真实验表明,提出的算法可以有效降低H.264标准算法中存在的计算冗余,提高编码效率.

  17. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin Yang; Ji-Young Moon; Sang Suk Kim; Kyong-Wol Yang; Wook Jae Lee; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Results:Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, andG. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G.filicina. Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for

  18. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin; Yang; Ji-Young; Moon; Sang; Suk; Kim; Kyong—Wol; Yang; Wook; Jae; Lee; Nam; Ho; Lee; Chang-Gu; Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide(LPS)stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds,Dictyopteris divaricata(D.divaricata),Dictyopteris prolifera(D.prolifefa),Prioutis cornea(P.comea,Grateloupia laceolata(G,lanceolate,and Cralcloupia filicina(G.filicina)They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide(NO),prostaglandin E,,tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a),and interleukin-6(11.-6).Results:Our results revealed that D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G.lanceolata,and G.filicina potently inhibited I.PS-stimulaled NO production(IC50,values were 18.0,38.36,38.43,32.81 and 37.14μg/mL,respectively).Consistent with these findings,D.divtricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,and G.fdicina also reduced the IPS-induced and prostaglandin E,production in a concentration-dependent manner.Expectedly,they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW264.7 cells,as detennined by western blotting.In addition,the levels of TNF-a and IL-6,released into the medium,were also reduced by D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G,lanceolata,and G.fdicina in a dose-dependent manner(IC50values for TNF-a were 16.11,28.21,84.27,45.52 and74.75μg/mL,respectively;IC50,values for IL-6 were 37.35,80.08,103.28,62.53 and 84.28μg/mL,respectively).The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents.The content was 92.0μg/mg for D.divaricata,151.8μg/mg for D.prolifera,57.2μg/mg for P.cornea,53.0 pg/mg for G.lanceolata,and 40.2μg/mg for G.fdicina.Conclusions:Thus,these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for inflammatory responses.

  19. 一种在H.264/AVC压缩域中检测镜头边界的方法%Shot Boundary Detection Based on H.264/AVC Compressed Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏定元; 谢惠琳

    2009-01-01

    针对像素域和MPEG压缩域镜头边界检测方法的不足,充分利用H.264/AVC视频编码标准的新特性,提出一种从H.264/AVC压缩码流中直接检测镜头边界的方法.首先,对图像帧做4×4块划分,然后,统计相邻帧对应块的帧内预测模式差异或帧间预测模式差异,最后,通过自适应阈值判决,实现对不同类型的视频镜头边界检测.实验结果表明,该方法具有良好的查全率和查准率.%Aiming at some defect in pixel domain and the MPEG compressed domain for shot boundary detection, making full use of new characteristics of the H. 264/AVC video coding standard, in this paper, we present a shot boundary detection method based on the H. 264/AVC compressed domain. Firstly, the frame should be decomposed into 4×4 blocks, and then the difference information between the corresponding blocks in the intra-prediction mode or the inter-prediction mode is counted up. At last, the shot boundary detection is accomplished for different types of video by using adaptive threshold decision. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves satisfactory performance of recall and precision.

  20. Implementation and optimization of H.264 video encoder based on DM6437%H.264视频编码器在DM6437上的优化实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苏勤; 刘静; 邢藏菊

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the real-time performance of H.264 video encoder based on DSP,a series of optimization methods has been presented.First of all,with TMS320DM6437's hardware features,it is described X264 platform code porting to the TMS320DM6437 and optimization methods,focusing on linear assembly preparation and assembly-level optimization of integer DCT transform and quantization integer.Experimental results show that,it accomplishes the real time encoding of cif format video,the Dl format video encoding speed achieves18fps,to basicly meet the needs of the encoder in video monitoring system.%为了实现基于DSP的H.264视频编码器的实时性能,提出了一系列优化实现方法。首先结合TMS320DM6437硬件特点,描述了X264代码向TMS320DM6437平台的移植过程和优化方法,重点介绍了整数DCT变换和量化的线性汇编编写及汇编级优化。实验结果表明,本编码器实现了cif格式视频的实时编码,Dl格式视频的编码速率也达到了18 fps,基本满足视频监控系统中编码器的需求。

  1. 一种抗H.264压缩的低比特率视频水印算法%Watermark Algorithm of Low Bit-rate Video Rubost to H.264 Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小军; 莫玮; 范科峰; 王美华

    2008-01-01

    为了解决H 264压缩视频版权保护问题,提出一种新的低比特率视频水印算法.根据H.264中DCT系数分布特点,通过系数的符号编码,水印信息被嵌入到I帧DCT量化系数中.引入量化失真补偿的办法,降低了水印嵌入时引起的视频失真.水印检测时采用了符号相关检测思想,不需要原视频作参考,实现了盲检测功能.实验结果显示,新算法在保证较小视频失真的同时,能够很好地抵制H.264压缩攻击.

  2. On the Core Technology of a New Standard H.264 and its Application Prospect%新标准H.264的核心技术与应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祥平; 王嵩

    2004-01-01

    围绕视频传输要求高效、可靠和网络友好的三个焦点问题,深入研究H.264标准编码层压缩性能的提升、网络适配层的无缝集成和编/解码器的容错性能;以基于包交换的IP视频信息包为例,重点分析H.264对因特网RTP/UDP/IP协议的映射过程;阐述H.264在视频移动通信、视频流服务、数字电视广播与存储领域的典型应用特点;指出H.264对视频源压缩、信道有效利用、缓解视频传输瓶颈的影响和发展前景.

  3. Neural network-based brain tissue segmentation in MR images using extracted features from intraframe coding in H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Kasaei, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is a crucial task in diagnosis and treatment of medical images. This paper presents a new algorithm to segment different brain tissues, such as white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), background (BKG), and tumor tissues. The proposed technique uses the modified intraframe coding yielded from H.264/(AVC), for feature extraction. Extracted features are then imposed to an artificial back propagation neural network (BPN) classifier to assign each block to its appropriate class. Since the newest coding standard, H.264/AVC, has the highest compression ratio, it decreases the dimension of extracted features and thus yields to a more accurate classifier with low computational complexity. The performance of the BPN classifier is evaluated using the classification accuracy and computational complexity terms. The results show that the proposed technique is more robust and effective with low computational complexity compared to other recent works.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Soyeum Pharmacopuncture (SPP on LPS-induced Inflammation Related Cytokine Expressions of RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Mi-Young

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study was done to investigate whether SPP has inhibitory effects on the activation of RAW 264.7 cells. Method : In tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a/ interleukin-1b (IL-1b and IL-6, the mRNA expression of molecular indicators related to inflammatory changes of the Reumatoid Arthritis (RA were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results : The treatment of SPP significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 compared with the control. The expression of NOS-II was considerably reduced, which was accompanied by a reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO. It also reduced the expression of TNF-αin serum of Balb/c mice compared with control group. Conclusion : SPP is an effective herbal material for suppressing the inflammation related cytokines of RAW 264.7 cells.

  5. Structure of the absorption spectra of the quasars Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of shock-wave model of numerous Ly α absorption lines in spectra of remote quasars, which relate their origin to absorbing areas in the shells of metagalactic shock waves, the recently obtained quasars spectra Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264 have been analyzed. It is shown that more than 50% of narrow Ly α absorption lines are in ''doublets''-pairs of close (adjacent in the spectrum, as a rule) lines with similar equivalent widths. The fact agrees well with the predictions of the shock-wave model. Line distribution over H I densities in the eyesight ray expected for the model is calculated and agrees with the distribution found by Atwood et al. by the sampling of Ly α unblended lines in the Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264 spectra

  6. An adaptive FEC to protect RoHC and UDP-Lite H.264 video critical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kui

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how to use an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) algorithm to efficiently protect the critical data areas of compressed headers and UDP-Lite packets for data transport in a radio link layer of a wireless connection.Augmented with RoHC and UDP-Lite, for H.264 video transmissions over wireless channels in a heterogeneous wired-wireless environment, the erroneous packet payloads can be useful and better able to cope with lost packets (native UDP case), by adopting some of the erasure and error resilient modes in H.264. The context transfer during inter/intra handover is also discussed. Simulations demonstrated that the proposed scenario significantly improves the PSNR performance and video quality.

  7. Lanthanum Chloride Inhibiting Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in RAW264.7 Macrophages Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Fei; Lou Yuanlei; Wang Yang; Xie An; Li Guohui

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its reaction products were key players in the pathophysiology of sepsis and shock. The present study was designed to explore the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, at both gene and protein levels, in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and western blot were employed to measure iNOS gene expression, localization, and protein expression respectively. NO production in culture supernatants was detected by the nitrate reductase method. The results showed that LaCl3 significantly attenuated the iNOS gene and protein expression, as well as NO production in RAW264.7cells induced by LPS.

  8. RAW264.7 Cell Activating Glucomannans Extracted from Rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelithao, Khamphone; Surayot, Utoomporn; Lee, Ju Hun; You, SangGuan

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography were investigated to determine their structure and immunostimulating activity. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) consisted of carbohydrates (85.1~88.3%) with proteins (4.51~11.9%) and uronic acid (1.79~7.47%), and included different levels of mannose (62.3~76.3%), glucose (15.2~20.3%), galactose (4.35~15.3%), and arabinose (4.00~7.65%). The crude contained two peaks with molecular weights (Mw) of 151×103 and 31.8×103, but F1 and F2 exhibited one major peak with Mw of 103×103 and 628×103, respectively. Little immunostimulatory activity was observed by the crude; however, F1 and F2 significantly activated RAW264.7 cells to release nitric oxide and various cytokines, suggesting they were potent immunostimulators. The backbone of the most immunostimulating fraction (F1) was (1→4)-manno- and (1→4)-gluco-pyranosyl residues with galactose and glucose attached to O-6 of manno-pyranoside. PMID:27752501

  9. Cross-Layer Approach to Multiuser H.264 Video Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel cross-layer approach to multiuser H.264/AVC video stream transmission over wireless networks. We consider the joint optimization of three layers of the protocol stacks: the application (APP layer, the media access control (MAC layer and the physical (PHY layer. At the APP layer, the contribution of each packet to the perceptual video quality is evaluated by distortion effect of the packet loss, which is estimated by a Packet Relative Importance Index (PRII. At the MAC layer and the PHY layer, the Gilbert-Elliott (GE model is employed to describe the time-varying nature of the wireless networks. An objective function for cross-layer optimization is developed based on the layered abstracted parameters from the APP layer, the MAC layer and the PHY layer. Our goal is to maximize the perceptual quality of the video transmitted through the wireless network with constraint of the limited resources. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs significantly than the conventional scheduling schemes for video transmission.

  10. Network-aware perceptual error concealment method for H.264 video with side information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Han-jie; CHEN Yao-wu

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the video quality of transmission with data loss,a spatial and temporal error concealment method was proposed,which considered both the state information of the network and the perceptual weight of the video content.The proposed method dynamically changed the reliability weight of the neighboring macroblock,which was used to conceal the lost macroblocks according to the packet loss rate of the current channel state.The perceptual weight map was utilized as side information to do weighted pixel interpolation and side-match based motion compensation for spatial and temporal error concealment,respectively.And the perceptual weight of the neighboring macroblocks was adaptively modified according to the perceptual weight of the lost macroblocks.Compared with the method used in H.264 joint model,experiment results show that the proposed method performs well both in subjective video quality and objective video quality,and increases the average peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR)of the whole frame by about 0.4 dB when the video bitstreams are transmitted with packets loss.

  11. Inductive Effect of Palmatine on Apoptosis in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shintaro; Tamaki, Misako; Ogawa, Yui; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Zhang, Meng; Sunagawa, Masataka; Hisamitsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem characterized by low bone density and deterioration of the bone microarchitecture. Current treatment options target either osteoclast resorption or osteoblast formation. It has been reported that berberine, a close structural analog of palmatine, inhibited bone loss in an osteoporosis model. In this study, osseous metabolism was observed in vitro with osteoclast bone resorbing cells. We proved that mouse preosteoclastic cell line (RAW 264.7) has a higher sensitivity to palmatine than mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1); the cell survival rates significantly decreased at 40 μM palmatine. The NO2− level, a metabolic product of nitric monoxide (NO), and iNOS mRNA expression, an osteoclast with NO induced enzyme, also increased with higher dosage of palmatine. Furthermore, it was recognized that the cell viability decrease from palmatine was caused by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Additionally, osteoclast apoptosis from palmatine did not occur when iNOS was inhibited with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (pan NOS inhibitor). These results indicate that palmatine plays an important role in osteoclast apoptosis via the NOS system. Hence, palmatine could be considered as a viable pharmaceutical candidate for osteoporosis bone resorption inhibitor. PMID:27340419

  12. Traffic and Quality Characterization of the H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van der Auwera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent scalable video coding (SVC extension to the H.264/AVC video coding standard has unprecedented compression efficiency while supporting a wide range of scalability modes, including temporal, spatial, and quality (SNR scalability, as well as combined spatiotemporal SNR scalability. The traffic characteristics, especially the bit rate variabilities, of the individual layer streams critically affect their network transport. We study the SVC traffic statistics, including the bit rate distortion and bit rate variability distortion, with long CIF resolution video sequences and compare them with the corresponding MPEG-4 Part 2 traffic statistics. We consider (i temporal scalability with three temporal layers, (ii spatial scalability with a QCIF base layer and a CIF enhancement layer, as well as (iii quality scalability modes FGS and MGS. We find that the significant improvement in RD efficiency of SVC is accompanied by substantially higher traffic variabilities as compared to the equivalent MPEG-4 Part 2 streams. We find that separately analyzing the traffic of temporal-scalability only encodings gives reasonable estimates of the traffic statistics of the temporal layers embedded in combined spatiotemporal encodings and in the base layer of combined FGS-temporal encodings. Overall, we find that SVC achieves significantly higher compression ratios than MPEG-4 Part 2, but produces unprecedented levels of traffic variability, thus presenting new challenges for the network transport of scalable video.

  13. Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Suk; Oh, O-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Youngleem; Park, Hyen Joo; Nam Han, Yong; Lee, Sang Kook

    2003-06-01

    Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) has been implicated in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Thus, the potential COX-2 inhibitors have been considered as anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, the methanolic extract of the cortex of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae) was found to potently inhibit the prostaglandin E(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells (98.3% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 microg/ml). Further, hexane-soluble layer was the most active partition compared to ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble parts. By bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane-soluble partition, eugenol was isolated and exhibited a significant inhibition of PGE(2) production (IC(50) = 0.37 microM). In addition, eugenol suppressed the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. On the line of COX-2 playing an important role in colon carcinogenesis further study was designed to investigate the effect of eugenol on the growth and COX-2 expression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Eugenol inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells and the mRNA expression of COX-2, but not COX-1. This result suggests that eugenol might be a plausible lead candidate for further developing the COX-2 inhibitor as an anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agent.

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum L67 glycoprotein protects against cadmium chloride toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sooyeon; Oh, Sejong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-03-01

    The food and water we consume may be contaminated with a range of chemicals and heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and mercury by accumulation through the food chain. Cadmium is known to be one of the major components in cigarette smoke and can cause lesions in many organs. Some lactobacilli can bind and remove heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. However, the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and inhibition by probiotics are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that glycoprotein (18 kDa) isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 protected RAW 264.7 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (100 µM). Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of cadmium using the MTT assay and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, and assessed activities of activator protein kinase C (PKC-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases using immunoblot. Our results indicated that glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It also significantly suppressed inflammatory factors such as AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our findings suggest that the 24-kDa glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 might be used as a food component for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion.

  15. Subtoxic Doses of Cadmium Modulate Inflammatory Properties of Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Riemschneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic heavy metal that exhibits various adverse effects in the human and animal organism. Its resemblance to essential metals such as calcium, iron, and zinc leads to an unintended uptake in cells after intake through inhalation and ingestion. In this study we investigated the toxicity and the immunomodulatory potential of Cd in nonactivated and activated murine macrophages (i.e., cell line RAW 264.7. Cadmium alone caused a dose-dependent decreased viability of exposed cells. Subtoxic Cd concentrations delayed cell death in macrophages, resulting from cytotoxic storm, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO, in response to their stimulation by bacterial antigens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. In addition, production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, the chemokine CXCL1 (KC, and NO was determined. We observed that proinflammatory IL-1β and also CXCL1 were highly upregulated whereas anti-inflammatory or regulatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed by 10 µM Cd. Also production of antibacterial NO was significantly reduced through exposure to 10 µM Cd, maybe explaining better survival of macrophages. Additionally, we could show by analysis via ICP-MS that different effects of Cd in nonactivated and activated macrophages definitely did not result from different Cd uptake rates.

  16. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Egami

    Full Text Available Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  17. Macropinocytosis contributes to the macrophage foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqi Yao; Ke Li; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    The key event in the atherosclerosis development is the lipids uptake by macrophage and the formation of foam cell in subendothelial arterial space. Besides the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis, macrophages possess constitutive macropinocytosis, which is capable of taking up a large quantity of solute. Macrophage foam cell formation could be induced in RAW264.7 cells by increasing the serum concentration in the culture medium. Foam cell formation induced by serum could be blocked by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibi-tor, LY294002 or wortmannin, which inhibited macro-pinocytosis but not receptor-mediated endocytosis. Further analysis indicated that macropinocytosis took place at the gangliosides-enriched membrane area. Cholesterol depletion by β-methylcyclodextrin-blocked macropinocytosis without affecting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis of modified LDLs. These results suggested that macropinocytosis might be one of the important mechanisms for lipid uptake in macrophage. And it made significant contribution to the lipid accumulation and foam cell formation.

  18. Graceful Degradation in 3GPP MBMS Mobile TV Services Using H.264/AVC Temporal Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, there is an increasing interest in Mobile TV broadcast services shown by customers as well as service providers. One general problem of Mobile TV broadcast services is to maximize the coverage of users receiving an acceptable service quality, which is mainly influenced by the user's position and mobility within the cell. In this paper, graceful degradation is considered as an approach for improved service availability and coverage. We present a layered transmission approach for 3GPP's Release 6 Multimedia and Broadcast Service (MBMS based on temporal scalability using H.264/AVC Baseline Profile. A differentiation in robustness between temporal quality layers is achieved by unequal error protection approach based on either application layer Forward Error Correction (FEC or unequal transmit power for the layers or even a combination of both. We discuss the corresponding MBMS service as well as network settings and define measures allowing for evaluating the amount of users reached with a certain mobile terminal play-out quality while considering the network cell capacity usage. Using simulated 3GPP Rel. 6 network conditions, we show that if the service and network settings are chosen carefully, a noticeable extension of the coverage of the MBMS service can be achieved.

  19. Measuring Video Quality on Full Scalability of H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheon Seog; Jin, Sung Ho; Seo, Doug Jun; Ro, Yong Man

    In heterogeneous network environments, it is mandatory to measure the grade of the video quality in order to guarantee the optimal quality of the video streaming service. Quality of Service (QoS) has become a key issue for service acceptability and user satisfaction. Although there have been many recent works regarding video quality, most of them have been limited to measuring quality within temporal and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) scalability. H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding (SVC) has emerged and has been developed to support full scalability. This includes spatial, temporal, and SNR scalability, each of which shows different visual effects. The aim of this paper is to define and develop a novel video quality metric allowing full scalability. It focuses on the effect of frame rate, SNR, the change of spatial resolution, and motion characteristics using subjective quality assessment. Experimental results show the proposed quality metric has a high correlation to subjective quality and that it is useful in determining the video quality of SVC.

  20. Low Power Architecture Design of De-Blocking Filter and Hardware Implementations in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. T. Priyadarsini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive in-loop de-blocking filter (DF is standardized in H.264/AVC to reduce blocking artifacts and improve compression efficiency. This paper proposes a low power DF architecture with hybrid and intelligent edge skip filtering order. We further adopt a four-stage pipeline to boost the speed of DF process and the proposed Horizontal Edge Skip Processing Architecture (HESPA offers an edge skip aware mechanism for filtering the horizontal edges that not only reduces power consumption but also reduces the filtering processes down to 100 clock cycles per macro block (MB. In addition, the architecture utilizes the buffers efficiently to store the temporary data without affecting the standard defined data dependency by a reasonable strategy of edge filtering order to enhance the reusability of the intermediate data. The system throughput can then be improved and the power consumption can also be reduced. Simulation results show that more than 34% of logic power measured in FPGA can be saved when the proposed HESPA is enabled. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is implemented on a 0.18μm standard cell library, which consumes 19.8K gates at a clock frequency of 200 MHz, which compares competitively with other state-of-the-art works in terms of hardware cost

  1. WATERLOPP V2/64: A highly parallel machine for numerical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Neil S.

    1985-07-01

    Current technological trends suggest that the high performance scientific machines of the future are very likely to consist of a large number (greater than 1024) of processors connected and communicating with each other in some as yet undetermined manner. Such an assembly of processors should behave as a single machine in obtaining numerical solutions to scientific problems. However, the appropriate way of organizing both the hardware and software of such an assembly of processors is an unsolved and active area of research. It is particularly important to minimize the organizational overhead of interprocessor comunication, global synchronization, and contention for shared resources if the performance of a large number ( n) of processors is to be anything like the desirable n times the performance of a single processor. In many situations, adding a processor actually decreases the performance of the overall system since the extra organizational overhead is larger than the extra processing power added. The systolic loop architecture is a new multiple processor architecture which attemps at a solution to the problem of how to organize a large number of asynchronous processors into an effective computational system while minimizing the organizational overhead. This paper gives a brief overview of the basic systolic loop architecture, systolic loop algorithms for numerical computation, and a 64-processor implementation of the architecture, WATERLOOP V2/64, that is being used as a testbed for exploring the hardware, software, and algorithmic aspects of the architecture.

  2. Cepharanthine inhibits in vitro VSMC proliferation and migration and vascular inflammatory responses mediated by RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-08-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation followed by an inflammation mediated by activated macrophages in the tunica intima of blood vessels. Cepharanthine (CEP) belongs to bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in the plant Stephania cepharantha, which has been used for various diseases like cancer, alopecia areata, venomous snakebites, and malaria. In this study, we investigated whether CEP suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inhibits inflammatory mediator production in macrophage (RAW264.7). Our results showed that CEP possessed significant DPPH scavenging and metal chelating activities. It also markedly inhibited lipid peroxidation. Similarly, CEP suppressed the nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the level of prostaglandin E2 was also suppressed and the formation of macrophage derived foam cell was attenuated in RAW264.7 cells. Likewise, NO production in isolated peritoneal macrophage and VSMC migration in response to LPS stimulated RAW264.7 was also halted by CEP treatment. Also, VSMC migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) was inhibited by CEP dose dependently. The anti-migratory effect of CEP on VSMCs was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, preventing the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) component. Furthermore, CEP suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by down-regulation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling molecules. CEP also inhibited the translocation of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus. Thus, our results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-atherosclerotic effect through attenuation of inflammation, lipid peroxidation and VSMC migration and proliferation. PMID:27021874

  3. Inhibition of RAW264.7 Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokines Release by Small Haparin RNAi Targeting TLR4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; ZHANG Jinxiang; WU Heshui; JIANG Chunfang; ZHENG Qichang; LI Zhuoya

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct an expression vector carrying small hairpin (sh) RNA (shRNA) for toll-like receptor 4 mRNA and a reporter gene of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and study the inhibition of cytokine release by RAW264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulation through transfection and expression of shRNA targeting TLR4 gene via the RNAi mechanism, the reporter gene plasmid pEGFP-C1 (4.7 kb) and psiRNA-hHlneo (2979 bp) were used. The H1 promotor and double Bbs Ⅰ restrict endoenzyme site were cloned from plasmid psiRNA-hHlneo and reconstructed them into plasmid pEGFP-C1 in the Mlu Ⅰ restrict endoenzymic site, forming plasmid pEGFP-H1/siRNA, which contained Bbs site and reporter EGFP gene. Then an oligonuclear hairpin sequence targeting TLR4 gene was designed by internet tool and inserted into the plasmid pEGFP-H 1/siRNA forming plasmid pEGFP-H 1/TLR4-siRNA. After transfection of pEGFP-H1/TLR4-siRNA into RAW264.7 cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release by the cells after stimulation by LPS was detected. The results showed that the constructed pEGFP-H1/TLR4-siRNA carrying hairpin RNA for TLR4 gene and reporter EGFP gene were proven to be right by restriction endonuclease analysis. The expression of EGFP gene was (50.37±8.23) %and after transfection of the plasmid pEGFP-H1/ TLR4-siRNA the level of TNF-α released by RAW264.7 cell was down regulated. It was concluded that shRNA targeting TLR4 gene could inhibit the TNF-α release by RAW264.7 cells evoked by LPS.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Mohamed; Simon, Gaëlle; Leschiera, Raphael; Misery, Laurent; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Ruta chalepensis L. is used in the traditional herbal treatment of various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of different extracts of R. chalepensis L. on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expressions and their antioxidant capacity on murine RAW 264.7 macrophage challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In fact, this study shows that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. chalepensis L. considerably decreased the nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Thus, the treatment with both extracts significantly suppressed the levels of iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions through the inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The preincubation of RAW 264.7 cells with various concentrations of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts decreased the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in LPS-stimulated macrophages, compared to those in the cells treated only with LPS. Besides, the (1)H NMR spectra of both extracts have demonstrated the presence of aromatic signals, thus confirming the existence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols. So, the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. chalepensis L. have been shown to possess enough antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to prevent LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  5. Composition and anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from Sargassum horneri in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zheng-Shun; Xiang, Xing-Wei; Jin, Huo-Xi; Guo, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Li-Jia; Huang, Yan-Na; OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Qu, You-Le

    2016-07-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown marine algae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. We assessed the potential activity of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum horneri (SP) and its isolated two major components (fraction-1 (F1) and fraction-2 (F2)), on anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present study, analysis of polysaccharide chemical composition found that the constituent ratios of sulfate ester and fucose in SP and F1 were 4.95% vs 7.6%, and 4.48% vs 55.9%, respectively, suggesting that F1 may be a major sulfated polysaccharide containing fucose. Meanwhile, our findings demonstrated that TNF-α secretion levels were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by SP and F1 treatments in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner under the preventive and repair experimental models. Pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokines secretion ratios by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by SP and F1 treatments, particularly by F1 (at high dose, 200μg/ml). Moreover, NO release and iNOS activity were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by F1. Collectively, the present study suggested that purified component, F1 from SP, had strong anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in the preventive and repair manner through inhibiting TNF-α secretion levels and NO release. PMID:26879911

  6. Wedelolactone inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammation via NF-kappaB Pathway in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Fang; Chen, Jie; Sun, Ping-Ping; Guan, Su; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Wedelolactone (WEL), a major coumestan ingredient in Wedelia chinensis, has been used to treat septic shock, hepatitis and venom poisoning in traditional Chinese medicines. The objective of the study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of WEL with a cellular model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results To study the role of WEL in pro-inflammation, we measured key inflammation mediators and end products including nitric oxide (NO), pros...

  7. Complexity Control of Fast Motion Estimation in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with Rate-Distortion-Complexity optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the past...... statistics and a control scheme. The algorithm also works well for scene change condition. Test results for coding interlaced video (720x576 PAL) are reported....

  8. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    OpenAIRE

    Teeratad Sudsai; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1), kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), rhamnazin (3), pinostrobin (4), together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5), curcumin (6), demethoxycurcumin (7) and bisdem...

  9. 采用H.264的编解码方式,确保IPTV成功运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海贝尔阿尔卡特股份有限公司

    2006-01-01

    上海贝尔阿尔卡特认为采用H.264标准的编解码方式,能确保IPTV成功运营,对于电信运营商而言从成本的节省、业务的开展及用户体验、周边产业链的保证都有积极的影响.

  10. 相关协议和标准的最新发展(H.264/H.239)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KanjiMihara

    2003-01-01

    一、H.264和H.239协议的概况。H.239是一种附加媒体通道:H.264是由ITU最新确立的,也叫做MPEG-4,不同的名字实际上标准是一样的(众所周知ITU与MPEG为不同标准组织)。最近,视频联合组(JVT)正在研究标准问题,JVT的目标非常简单,即要节省50%的资源。与MPEG-4相比,H.264能够节省5%的资源,比如通常使用的标准需要380K,用H.264标准只需要192K。

  11. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  12. 一种基于视觉感知的H.264码率控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田波; 杨宜民; 蔡述庭

    2014-01-01

    针对目前视频编码标准H.264的码率控制算法未考虑人眼视觉感知、易导致编码后视频图像质量波动的不足,提出了一种基于视觉感知的H.264码率控制算法.首先,设计了像素域的恰可察觉失真模型.在此基础上,根据各帧的恰可察觉失真的大小进行帧层比特分配.其次,建立了基于结构相似度的率失真模型,并采用此模型设计了基本单元层(basic unit,BU)的比特分配方案.最后结合二次速率-量化模型得到量化参数.实验结果表明,该算法与目前H.264中典型的码率控制算法相比,错误率降低了0.2%.

  13. Molecular Gas in the Powerful Radio Galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264 Major or Minor Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, J; Combes, F

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of $^{12}$CO~($1 \\to 0$) and $^{12}$CO~($2 \\to 1$) emission from the central regions ($\\lesssim 5$--$10 {\\rm kpc}$) of the two powerful radio galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264. Their individual CO emission exhibits a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of both galaxies. For a CO to H$_2$ conversion factor similar to that of our Galaxy, the corresponding total mass in molecular hydrogen gas is $(1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~31 and $(0.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~264. Despite their relatively large molecular-gas masses and other peculiarities, both 3C~31 and 3C~264, as well as many other powerful radio galaxies in the (revised) 3C catalog, are known to lie within the fundamental plane of normal...

  14. The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2015-05-01

    A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified and characterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages.

  15. 一种适宜于H.264/AVC的帧间快速编码算法%A fast inter-frame prediction algorithm applied in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄源源; 汪大勇; 李建平

    2013-01-01

    针对新一代视频编码技术H.264/AVC编码计算复杂度较高,为提高其编码速度,提出了一种新的适宜于H.264/AVC的帧间快速编码算法.首先利用运动和纹理预测可能的编码模式,排除可能性较小的模式;然后利用时间和空间相关性预测各种编码模式的可能性大小和编码顺序,并结合相关性和量化参数利用率失真和残差系数提前终止.实验结果表明,本文算法编码速度能提高72%左右,同时对编码效率影响很小.%H. 264/AVC achieves higher compression efficiency than previous video coding standards. Howerer,this performance gain comes at the cost of an increased computational complexity due to the use of variable block-size motion estimation and multiple reference frames. Thus,it is very important for H. 264/AVC to improve the coding speed,therefore this paper proposes a fast inter-frame coding algorithm applied in the H. 264/AVC video coding standard. Firstly,the candidate modes of current MB are predicted based on moving and texture,excluding the coding modes with low probability to be selected by current MB;Secondly,the mode possibilty orders are estimated based on inter-layer and spatial correlations, then the modes are sorted into sequential list according to the possibility orders from high to low; Thirdly,the relationship between mode distribution and variation of quantization parameter,temporal and spatial correlation are estimated, then the rate-distortion early termination is proposed combining with the relationship;Finally,the modes are checked sequentially with the rate-distortion early termination. When the rate-distortion early termination condition is satisfied,the encoding procedure is terminated to improve the coding speed. The experimental results show that the encoding speed for the proposed algorithm can be improved by 72% with negligible coding loss.

  16. Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Sik Jeong; Jong-Won Lee; Soon-Gi Hong; Min-Ji Bak

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO) in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necr...

  17. Effects of Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and Its Processed Products on Nitric Oxide Production in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liao

    2015-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and its processed products, such as Ganjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma), Paojiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Preparatum), and Jiangtan (Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata), exert distinct efficacy clinically. This research tried to study the effects of extracts from Shengjiang and its processed products in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. After incubation of the different ginger types in RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h, an aliquot of the culture was mixed with a...

  18. Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramachi, Junpei [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Ryoko; Doi, Yoshiaki [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Hirashima, Kanji [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Haneji, Tatsuji, E-mail: tat-hane@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in antiviral defence of the host cells. PKR is also involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We previously reported that PKR is required for differentiation and calcification of osteoblasts. However, it is unknown about the role of PKR in osteoclast differentiation. A dominant-negative PKR mutant cDNA, in which the amino acid lysine at 296 was replaced with arginine, was transfected into RAW264.7 cells. We have established the cell line that stably expresses the PKR mutant gene (PKR-K/R). Phosphorylation of PKR and {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 was not stimulated by polyinosic-polycytidylic acid in the PKR-K/R cells. RANKL stimulated the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in RAW264.7 cells. However, TRAP-positive multinuclear cells were not formed in the PKR-K/R cells even when the cells were stimulated with higher doses of RANKL. A specific inhibitor of PKR, 2-aminopurine, also suppressed the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of macrophage fusion receptor and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein significantly decreased in the PKR-K/R cells by real time PCR analysis. The results of RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast markers (cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor) was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and RAW264.7 cells treated with 2-aminopurine. Expression of NF-{kappa}B protein was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and 2-aminopurine-treated RAW264.7 cells. The level of STAT1 protein expression was elevated in the PKR-K/R cells compared with that of the wild-type cells. Immunohistochemical study showed that PKR was localized in osteoclasts of metatarsal bone of newborn mouse. The finding that the PKR-positive multinuclear cells should be osteoclasts was confirmed by TRAP-staining. Our present study indicates that PKR plays important

  19. Direct and indirect effects of single walled carbon nanotubes on RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E; Tyurina, Y Y; Tyurin, V A; Konduru, N V; Potapovich, A I; Osipov, A N; Kisin, E R; Schwegler-Berry, D; Mercer, R; Castranova, V; Shvedova, A A

    2006-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), nano-cylinders with an extremely small diameter (1-2 nm) and high aspect ratio, have unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties and may exhibit unusual interactions with cells and tissues, thus necessitating studies of their toxicity and health effects. Manufactured SWCNT usually contain significant amounts of iron that may act as a catalyst of oxidative stress. Because macrophages are the primary responders to different particles that initiate and propagate inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress, we utilized two types of SWCNT: (1) iron-rich (non-purified) SWCNT (26 wt.% of iron) and (2) iron-stripped (purified) SWCNT (0.23 wt.% of iron) to study their interactions with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ultrasonication resulted in predominantly well-dispersed and separated SWCNT strands as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Neither purified nor non-purified SWCNT were able to generate intracellular production of superoxide radicals or nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages as documented by flow-cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. SWCNT with different iron content displayed different redox activity in a cell-free model system as revealed by EPR-detectable formation of ascorbate radicals resulting from ascorbate oxidation. In the presence of zymosan-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, non-purified iron-rich SWCNT were more effective in generating hydroxyl radicals (documented by EPR spin-trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, DMPO) than purified SWCNT. Similarly, EPR spin-trapping experiments in the presence of zymosan-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages showed that non-purified SWCNT more effectively converted superoxide radicals generated by xanthine oxidase/xanthine into hydroxyl radicals as compared to purified SWCNT. Iron-rich SWCNT caused significant loss of intracellular low molecular weight thiols (GSH) and accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides in both zymosan-and PMA-stimulated RAW 264

  20. Stimulative Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture Solution Combined with Zinc-oxide Nanoparticles on RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tae-Keun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine whether Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture solution (HPPS combined with zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP activates RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: We soaked ZnO nanoparticles in the Hominis Placenta pharmacopuncture solution, thereby making a combined form (ZnO NP HPPS. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on NF-κ B was measured by using a luciferase assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the cytokine expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The cellular uptake of ZnO NP HPPS was measured by using a flow cytometric analysis, and cellular structural alterations were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: Neither the HPPS nor the ZnO NPs induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells. Neither of the materials activated NF-κ B or it’s dependent genes, such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. However, ZnO NP HPPS, the combined form of ZnO NPs and HPPS, did induce the intracellular ROS production, as well as prominently activating NF-κ B and it’s dependent genes. Also, compared to ZnO NPs, it effectively increa-sed the uptake by RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, cellular structural alterations were observed in groups treated with ZnO NP HPPS. Conclusions: Neither ZnO NP nor HPPS activated RAW 264.7 cells, which is likely due to a low cellular uptake. The ZnO NP HPPS, however, significantly activated NF-κ B and up-regulated its dependent genes such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. ZnO NP HPPS was also more easily taken into the RAW 264.7 cells than either ZnO NP or HPPS.

  1. C60 fullerene localization and membrane interactions in RAW 264.7 immortalized mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, K. A.; Elvati, P.; Parsonage, T. L.; Dews, A.; Jarvis, J. A.; Ray, M.; Schneider, B.; Smith, P. J. S.; Williamson, P. T. F.; Violi, A.; Philbert, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    There continues to be a significant increase in the number and complexity of hydrophobic nanomaterials that are engineered for a variety of commercial purposes making human exposure a significant health concern. This study uses a combination of biophysical, biochemical and computational methods to probe potential mechanisms for uptake of C60 nanoparticles into various compartments of living immune cells. Cultures of RAW 264.7 immortalized murine macrophage were used as a canonical model of immune-competent cells that are likely to provide the first line of defense following inhalation. Modes of entry studied were endocytosis/pinocytosis and passive permeation of cellular membranes. The evidence suggests marginal uptake of C60 clusters is achieved through endocytosis/pinocytosis, and that passive diffusion into membranes provides a significant source of biologically-available nanomaterial. Computational modeling of both a single molecule and a small cluster of fullerenes predicts that low concentrations of fullerenes enter the membrane individually and produce limited perturbation; however, at higher concentrations the clusters in the membrane causes deformation of the membrane. These findings are bolstered by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of model membranes that reveal deformation of the cell membrane upon exposure to high concentrations of fullerenes. The atomistic and NMR models fail to explain escape of the particle out of biological membranes, but are limited to idealized systems that do not completely recapitulate the complexity of cell membranes. The surprising contribution of passive modes of cellular entry provides new avenues for toxicological research that go beyond the pharmacological inhibition of bulk transport systems such as pinocytosis.There continues to be a significant increase in the number and complexity of hydrophobic nanomaterials that are engineered for a variety of commercial purposes making human exposure a significant health concern

  2. A Multiple-Window Video Embedding Transcoder Based on H.264/AVC Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihao Chiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a low-complexity multiple-window video embedding transcoder (MW-VET based on H.264/AVC standard for various applications that require video embedding services including picture-in-picture (PIP, multichannel mosaic, screen-split, pay-per-view, channel browsing, commercials and logo insertion, and other visual information embedding services. The MW-VET embeds multiple foreground pictures at macroblock-aligned positions. It improves the transcoding speed with three block level adaptive techniques including slice group based transcoding (SGT, reduced frame memory transcoder (RFMT, and syntax level bypassing (SLB. The SGT utilizes prediction from the slice-aligned data partitions in the original bitstreams such that the transcoder simply merges the bitstreams by parsing. When the prediction comes from the newly covered area without slice-group data partitions, the pixels at the affected macroblocks are transcoded with the RFMT based on the concept of partial reencoding to minimize the number of refined blocks. The RFMT employs motion vector remapping (MVR and intra mode switching (IMS to handle intercoded blocks and intracoded blocks, respectively. The pixels outside the macroblocks that are affected by newly covered reference frame are transcoded by the SLB. Experimental results show that, as compared to the cascaded pixel domain transcoder (CPDT with the highest complexity, our MW-VET can significantly reduce the processing complexity by 25 times and retain the rate-distortion performance close to the CPDT. At certain bit rates, the MW-VET can achieve up to 1.5 dB quality improvement in peak signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR.

  3. Oxidized phospholipids induce ceramide accumulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of ceramide synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaraju M Halasiddappa

    Full Text Available Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs, including 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC and 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC are among several biologically active derivatives that are generated during oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs. These OxPLs are factors contributing to pro-atherogenic effects of oxidized LDLs (OxLDLs, including inflammation, proliferation and death of vascular cells. OxLDL also elicits formation of the lipid messenger ceramide (Cer which plays a pivotal role in apoptotic signaling pathways. Here we report that both PGPC and POVPC are cytotoxic to cultured macrophages and induce apoptosis in these cells which is associated with increased cellular ceramide levels after several hours. In addition, exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to POVPC and PGPC under the same conditions resulted in a significant increase in ceramide synthase activity, whereas, acid or neutral sphingomyelinase activities were not affected. PGPC is not only more toxic than POVPC, but also a more potent inducer of ceramide formation by activating a limited subset of CerS isoforms. The stimulated CerS activities are in line with the C16-, C22-, and C24:0-Cer species that are generated under the influence of the OxPL. Fumonisin B1, a specific inhibitor of CerS, suppressed OxPL-induced ceramide generation, demonstrating that OxPL-induced CerS activity in macrophages is responsible for the accumulation of ceramide. OxLDL elicits the same cellular ceramide and CerS effects. Thus, it is concluded that PGPC and POVPC are active components that contribute to the capacity of this lipoprotein to elevate ceramide levels in macrophages.

  4. HSF1抑制热应激所致RAW264.7巨噬细胞凋亡%HSF1 inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in Raw264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂顺梅; 肖卫民; 王慷慨; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 刘可; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)对热应激所致Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡的影响.方法:采用热应激(42.5 ℃±0.5 ℃)处理稳定表达小鼠HSF1基因的Raw264.7巨噬细胞1 h,37 ℃分别恢复6,9,12,24 h,采用流式细胞术,hoechst33258染色和DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.结果:流式细胞术结果显示,热应激后对照组(转空载体)细胞凋亡核百分率较热应激前明显升高,9 h达峰值(约为60%),此时荧光染色可见30%的细胞出现核固缩,凋亡小体等典型的凋亡形态学改变;并于热应激后6,9,12 h均能检测到清晰的DNA梯状条带.与转空载体对照组相比,HSF1过表达能显著降低热应激所致凋亡及明显抑制DNA的断裂.结论:HSF1可以抑制热应激所致的Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡.

  5. Improved Error Concealment Algorithm for H.264 Wireless Networks%基于无线网络的H.264误码掩盖算法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳艳

    2011-01-01

    The compressed video stream will be corrupted because of the serious wireless network packet loss, which may degrade the reconstructed image quality. In this paper, an adaptive selection MB mode for the lost MB is presented based on the temporal and spatial neighboring motion vectors, and an improved boundary match error function is adopted to estimate lost MB motion vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields better video quality for a variety of video sequences and different MB loss rate in the wireless transmission environment. The peak signal to noise ratio is improved 0.08~ 1.13 dB over the traditional H.264 algorithm when MB loss rate is 10%.%视频压缩码流在无线网络传输过程中受无线网络环境的影响丢包现象严重,重构图像质量下降.在H.264时域误码掩盖算法的基础上,根据时域和空域相邻宏块的运动矢量对丢失宏块的分割模式进行自适应选择,采用改进的边界匹配误差函数,估计丢失宏块的运动矢量.在无线网络环境下对多种视频序列和宏块丢失率进行仿真,图像质量有一定的提高.在宏块丢失率为10%情况下,峰值信噪比相对H.264标准算法提高0.08~1.13 dB.

  6. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation

  7. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiu-Li [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ding, Fan [Office of Scientific R& D, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Xiao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Ji-Min, E-mail: caojimin@126.com [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Gao, Xue, E-mail: longlongnose@163.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  8. Design of Desktop Video Conferencing System Based on H.264%基于H.264标准的桌面视频会议系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊青; 王兴国

    2005-01-01

    阐述了基于先进视频编码技术--H.264标准的桌面纯软件视频会议系统的设计方案及实现过程.在用户只需有一台多媒体电脑的条件下,本系统可实现实时通信,并得到比以往桌面视频会议系统更高质量的视频效果.

  9. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/- mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bee-Piao; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Ching; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2014-08-01

    Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy. mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and quantitative (q) RT‑PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS‑induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS‑induced mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS. PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression and protein production of pro‑inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF‑κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. PMID:24898576

  11. On Optimizing H. 264/AVC Rate Control by Improving R-D Model and Incorporating HVS Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gangyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art JVT-G012 rate control algorithm of H.264 is improved from two aspects. First, the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D model is modified based on both empirical observations and theoretical analysis. Second, based on the existing physiological and psychological research findings of human vision, the rate control algorithm is optimized by incorporating the main characteristics of the human visual system (HVS such as contrast sensitivity, multichannel theory, and masking effect. Experiments are conducted, and experimental results show that the improved algorithm can simultaneously enhance the overall subjective visual quality and improve the rate control precision effectively.

  12. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Roine, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Chinain, M. (Mireille); Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, S

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was qu...

  13. Citrus unshiu flower inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 via MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, CUF-EA suppressed LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. To elucidate its anti-inflammatory mechanisms, CUF-EA was investigated as an inhibitor of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As expected, the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was suppressed by CUF-EA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of CUF-EA might results from inhibition of NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-α expressions through the down-regulation of phosphorylation of MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  14. Inhibition of andrographolide in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage osteoclastogenesis by downregulating the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y Q; Zhou, Y B

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of andrographolide (AGP) on osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The effects of AGP on cell viability were determined in RAW 264.7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of AGP on osteoclast formation were tested by osteoclast staining with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The effects of AGP on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL)-induced, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in RAW 264.7 cells were assessed using luciferase reporter assays. The results demonstrated that the viability of osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells was not affected by AGP treatment at a concentration of 0.4 to 10 μM. Additionally, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts was significantly reduced by the same concentrations of AGP treatment. AGP also inhibited RANKL-induced NF-kappaB activation in a dose-dependent fashion as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays. In summary, this study demonstrates that AGP inhibits osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells through downregulation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID:26662387

  15. 过表达热休克因子1突变体对RAW264.7细胞的影响%The effects of HSF1 mutant over-expression on RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秋娟; 张华莉; 张玲俐; 涂自智

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立稳定转染热休克因子1(HSF1)显性正性和显性负性突变体的细胞株,并探讨HSF1突变体过表达对细胞生长的影响.方法 用脂质体将真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1+和pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1-分别转染RAW264.7细胞株,G418筛选阳性单克隆,Western blot鉴定高表达的克隆,流式细胞术检测稳定转染HSF1突变体的细胞与转空载体细胞的生长及凋亡情况.结果 建立了稳定表达HSF1显性正性或显性负性突变体的细胞株,并发现转染HSF1突变体细胞能影响正常细胞增殖,但不引起细胞凋亡.结论 HSF1突变体能影响RAW264.7细胞正常生长周期.

  16. 一种基于H.264标准的快速帧内预测算法设计%A Fast Intra Frame Prediction Algorithm Based on H.264 Video Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江卫; 史国川; 陈冠宇

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure image quality and encoding bit rate is roughly, according to the statistical characteristics about the image characteristics and prediction models, combining with the 4×4 pixel brightness mode probability of selection priorities and direction, a fast intra frame prediction algorithm based on H. 264 video coding standard is designed. The experimental results show that this algorithm is very low computational complexity.%论文在保证图像质量和编码比特率不变的前提下,根据图像的自身特征和预测模式的统计特征,并结合4×4像素亮度块9种模式概率选择的优次性与方向性,设计了一种基于H.264标准的快速帧内预测算法.实验结果表明,该算法计算复杂度很低.

  17. Hardware design of intra prediction in H.264 video decoder%H.264视频解码器中帧内预测模块的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健; 王祖强; 秦盼

    2011-01-01

    提出一种能实时处理的H.264/AVC帧内预测硬件结构.通过对H.264/AVC各个预测模式的分析,设计了一个通用运算单元,提高了硬件资源的可重用性.采用4个并行运算单元计算预测值,对运算比较复杂的plane模式预处理,并设计模式预测器,加快了系统处理速度.硬件电路结构已通过RTL级仿真及综合,并在Altera公司的CycloneⅡFPGA平台上进行了验证和测试.%A hardware architecture for real-time implementation of intra prediction is proposed. According to analyzing all intra prediction modes, this paper designs a processing element, the processing element improves the reusability of hardware resources. In order to improve the processing speed, four parallel processing elements are employed, plane mode precomputation and mode predictor are adopted. Ttie intra prediction decoder has pass RTL level emulation and synthesis; it has verification and test on cyclone II FPGA platform.

  18. A Video Watermarking DRM Metho d Based on H.264 Compressed Domain with Low Bit-Rate Increasement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhaofeng; HUANG Jianqing; JIANG Ming; NIU Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    It gets more and more important for video copyright protection, it is necessary to provide efficient H.264 compression domain watermarking for video Digital rights management(DRM). A new watermarking method based on H.264 compressed domain is proposed for video DRM, in which the embedding and extracting procedure are performed using the syntactic elements of the com-pressed bit stream. In this way, complete decoding is un-necessary in both embedding and extracting processes. Based on the analysis of the time and space, some appro-priate sub-blocks are selected for embedding watermarks, increasing watermark robustness while reducing the dec-lination of the visual quality. In order to avoid bit-rate increasing and strengthen the security of the proposed video watermarking scheme, only a set of nonzero coeffi-cients quantized in different parts of macroblocks is chosen for inserting watermark. The experiment results show the proposed scheme can achieve excellent robustness against some common attacks, the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for video content DRM protection.

  19. Glycyrrhizic acid nanoparticles inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in 264.7 mouse macrophages compared with unprocessed glycyrrhizic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1–3 Meng Luo,1–3 Yujie Fu,1–3 Song Wang,1–3 Thomas Efferth,4 Yuangang Zu1–3 1Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, 2Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-Preparation, 3State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Abstract: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the main component of radix glycyrrhizae, has a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, suspensions of GA nanoparticles with the average particle size about 200nm were prepared by a supercritical antisolvent (SAS process. Comparative studies were undertaken using lipopolysaccardide(LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 as in vitro inflammatory model. Several important inflammation mediators such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 were examined. These markers were highly stimulated by LPS and were inhibited both by nano-GA and unprocessed GA in a dose-dependent manner, especially PGE2 and TNF-α. However nano-GA and unprocessed GA inhibited NO only at a high concentration. In general, we found that GA nanoparticle suspensions exhibited much better anti-inflammatory activities compared to unprocessed GA. Keywords: glycyrrhizic acid, nanoparticle, mouse macrophages RAW 264.7, inflammatory cytokines

  20. The Effects of Bee Venom on PLA2 and Calcium Concentration in Raw 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Il Yun

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Bee Venom on the lipopolysaccharide, sodium nitroprusside and hydrogen peroxide induced expression phospholipase A2 and calcium concentration in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Methods : The expression of phospholipase A2 was determined by western blotting with corresponding antibodies, and the generation of intracellular calcium concentration was investigated by delta scan system in RAW 264.7 cells. Results : 1. Compared with control, expressions of lipopolysaccharide-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significantly by 1 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and decreased by 0.5, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 2. Compared with control, expressions of sodium nitroprusside-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significantly by 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom but increased by 0.5, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 3. Compared with control, expressions of hydrogen peroxide-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significaltly by 1 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and decreased by 0.5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom but increased by 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 4. Compared with control, lipopolysaccharide, sodium nitroprusside and hydrogen peroxide- induced intracellular calcium concentrations were decreased by 0.5, 1, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and by indomethacin

  1. Anti‐Inflammatory Effect of Quercetin on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages Induced with Polyinosinic‐Polycytidylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young‐Jin Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,6‐pentahydroxyflavone is a well‐known antioxidant and a flavonol found in many fruits, leaves, and vegetables. Quercetin also has known anti‐inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide‐induced macrophages. However, the effects of quercetin on virus‐induced macrophages have not been fully reported. In this study, the anti‐inflammatory effect of quercetin on double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA‐induced macrophages was examined. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL‐6, MCP‐1, IP‐10, RANTES, GM‐CSF, G‐CSF, TNF‐α, LIF, LIX, and VEGF as well as calcium release in dsRNA (50 μg/mL of polyinosinic‐polycytidylic acid‐induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages (p < 0.05. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM also significantly inhibited mRNA expression of signal transducer and activated transcription 1 (STAT1 and STAT3 in dsRNA‐induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05. In conclusion, quercetin had alleviating effects on viral inflammation based on inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA‐induced macrophages via the calcium‐STAT pathway.

  2. Rate Control for H.264 with Two-Step Quantization Parameter Determination but Single-Pass Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Nam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient rate control strategy for H.264 in order to maximize the video quality by appropriately determining the quantization parameter (QP for each macroblock. To break the chicken-and-egg dilemma resulting from QP-dependent rate-distortion optimization (RDO in H.264, a preanalysis phase is conducted to gain the necessary source information, and then the coarse QP is decided for rate-distortion (RD estimation. After motion estimation, we further refine the QP of each mode using the obtained actual standard deviation of motion-compensated residues. In the encoding process, RDO only performs once for each macroblock, thus one-pass, while QP determination is conducted twice. Therefore, the increase of computational complexity is small compared to that of the JM 9.3 software. Experimental results indicate that our rate control scheme with two-step QP determination but single-pass encoding not only effectively improves the average PSNR but also controls the target bit rates well.

  3. Algorithm and Hardware Design of a Fast Intra Frame Mode Decision Module for H.264/AVC Encoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palomino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rate-distortion optimization (RDO, the process of choosing the best prediction mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the whole encoding process, increasing significantly the encoder computational complexity. Considering H.264/AVC intra frame prediction, there are several modes to encode a macroblock (MB. This work proposes an algorithm and the hardware design for a fast intra frame mode decision module for H.264/AVC encoders. The application of the proposed algorithm reduces in more than 10 times the number of encoding iterations for choosing the best intramode when compared with RDO-based decision. The architecture was synthesized to FPGA and achieved an operation frequency of 98 MHz processing more than 300 HD1080p frames per second. With this approach, we achieved one order-of-magnitude performance improvement compared with RDO-based approaches, which is very important not only from the performance but also from the energy consumption perspective for battery-operated devices. In order to compare the architecture with previously published works, we also synthesized it to standard cells. Compared with the best previous results reported, the implemented architecture achieves a complexity reduction of five times, a processing capability increase of 14 times, and a reduction in the number of clock cycles per MB of 11 times.

  4. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; YAMAGUCHI, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    We found that CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The NO production was inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but was not by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B. In the presence of 0.1-M GalNAc, increased NO production by CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells was observed rather than the inhibition. Bovine serum albu...

  5. Human visual system-based rate control algorithm for H. 264/AVC%一种结合人眼视觉特性的H.264/AVC码率控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑巧燕; 郁梅; 彭宗举; 邵枫; 李福翠; 蒋刚毅

    2011-01-01

    针对应用于H.264/AVC视频编码中的码率控制算法G012的不足,提出了一种结合人眼视觉特性的H.264的码率控制算法.首先基于当前帧与前一帧的帧差比值来表示各帧图像的相对复杂程度,以此分配帧级的目标比特数;通过分析图像中的运动信息和纹理特征,给出了一种简单有效的度量宏块视觉敏感度的方法,并在基本单元层利用此视觉敏感度因子进行比特分配.实验结果表明,所提出方法能更加接近目标码率,PSNR波动小,并获得了较好的主观质量.%To improve the performance of rate control algorithm G012 for H. 264/AVC,a human visual system-based rate control algorithm is proposed in this paper. The frame difference ratio of current frame to its previous frame was utilized to represent the motion complexity of the frame,and to be the guidance for bit allocation at frame level. Moreover,simple and effective scheme for measuring visual sensitivity of macroblock via analyzing the motion information and texture characteristics of the frames was introduced,and the bit allocation at basic unit was based on the measured visual sensitivity. The experimental results show that the rate output by the proposed algorithm is more close to the target rate,and PSNR fluctuation is lower compared with that of G012 algorithm,So the subjective quality of the reconstructed video signals is more satisfying.

  6. Design of Integer DCT and Inverse DCT of AVC/H.264%AVC/H.264整数离散余弦变换及反变换的结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利风

    2008-01-01

    根据AVC/H.264标准中提出的整数离散余弦变换(DCT)及其反变换(iDCT)算法,旨在给出一种能够同时实现4×4,8×8 DCT/IdCT和Hadamard变换的设计方法.设计中充分利用DCT和iDCT的相似性和算法对称性,用高度并行结构来加快处理速度.采用一维DCT/iDCT单元复用的方式实现二维DCT/iDCT运算,同时提出实现设计的全定制实现方法,对全定制实现此设计进行初步布局规划.

  7. 基于H.264的E1标准下的视频传输技术改进研究%Improvement Research of Video Transmission Technology Based on H.264 under E1 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 孟凡荣; 孙洋

    2012-01-01

    目前,无线视频传输大多在E1标准下进行,但由于采用了较早的H.261编解码标准,一直存在误码率较高,图像较模糊等问题,影响了指挥机关对现场态势的判断。文章基于先进的H.264编解码标准,采用以TMS320DM6467T高清视频双核媒体处理器作为CPU的SEED-VPM6467独立开发平台,在卫星通信系统中,对无线视频传输技术进行了改进性研究,由过去的CIF(352×288)格式,提升到D1(4CIF)视频格式的传输,对无线视频传输系统,提供了技术依据。%By now,wireless video transmission carried out under E1 standard,but because of the earlier H.263 code and encode standard,there has always been some problems,such as high bit-error rates,pattern blurring,which have affeced the judgement by the military commands according to the situation.This paper puts forward an improvement research of video transmission technology based on advanced H.264 standard,using SEED-VPM6467 as platform,under satelite communications,which could increase the video format from CIF to D1(4CIF).This research provides technical support for wireless video transmission systerm.

  8. 基于H .264/AVC解码芯片的静态时序分析约束设计%Research on Timing Constraint of Static Timing Analysis Based on H. 264/AVC Decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁宁; 田泽; 郭蒙

    2014-01-01

    As an important method of timing analysis and check,Static Timing Analysis ( STA) has been used more and more widely in Nano-scale process. A proper constraint is a necessary condition of precise STA report to be given. In this paper,based on introducing the basic principle of STA,analyze the timing structure and other temporal information of decoder,a critical timing constraints are introduced in detail with the H. 264/AVC as the instance,such as clock definition and port signal,and the clock latency of PLL is stressed. The result of PT and cross-verification with post-sim shows that the constraint design is integrated and correct.%作为分析和验证电路时序行为的重要手段,静态时序分析( STA)技术在深亚微米级ASIC设计中得到了广泛的应用,而正确的时序约束输入是时序分析工具给出正确结果的必要条件之一。文中在介绍 STA 原理的基础上,以一款H.264/AVC解码芯片为例,分析了解码芯片的时钟结构等时序信息,详细介绍了时钟定义、端口信号等关键时序约束,并重点介绍了PLL时钟偏差的约束设计。时序分析工具PT分析及与动态仿真的交叉验证的结果表明,解码芯片时序约束设计完整、正确。

  9. H.264高清视频解码实时错误掩盖算法%Real-time Error Concealment Algorithm for H.264 High Definition Video Decoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 李志华; 黄轶伦

    2011-01-01

    针对IP网络丢包条件下的H.264高清视频实时解码问题,分析高清视频码流的特点,提出一种实时错误掩盖算法.该算法利用丢失片的边缘宏块信息,以垂直距离为权值加权平均预测得到错误宏块的运动矢量,进而完成错误掩盖.实验表明,与Joint模型中的错误掩盖算法相比,该算法提升了重建图像的主观质量和客观质量,计算复杂度较低,错误掩盖效果较好,适用于高清实时解码.%Aiming at real-time decode H.264 video on IP network with packet losses, an effective error concealment algonthm is proposed depending on the analysis of high definition video streams.By use of the edge macro-blocks information of the lost slice.the motion vector of corrupted macro-block is predicted, and the error concealment is completed.Experimental results show that.compared with the error concealment of Joint Model(JM), the proposed algorithm improves the objective quality and subjective quality of reconstructed images.The algorithm does not increase the complexity of the decoding, but achieves better recovery results.It is ideal for real-time decoding for high definition video.

  10. New Sesquiterpene Oxidations with CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, Alexander; Litzenburger, Martin; Ringle, Michael; Ly, Thuy T B; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Sesquiterpenes are natural products derived from the common precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) but are highly diverse in structure and function. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) exhibit the unique ability to introduce molecular oxygen into non-activated C-H bonds. In plant biosynthetic pathways, P450s commonly derivatize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. However, the potential of bacterial P450s for terpene derivatization is still underinvestigated. This work compares the substrate specificities and regioselectivities of the sesquiterpene hydroxylases CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Four tested substrate classes (eremophilanes, humulanes, caryophyllanes, and cedranes) were converted by both P450s. The achievable variety of oxidations is demonstrated on the model substrates (+)-nootkatone and zerumbone. Increasing the number of functionally investigated P450s, this study represents a step towards the selective derivatization of sesquiterpenes. PMID:26449371

  11. Effect of radiation on CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the changes of the Notch signaling pathway in osteoclast after radiation the mechanism radiation-induced bone loss, the gene expression of CBFα1, the important signal molecular in Notch signaling pathway was measured by real-time PCR, respectively. The osteoclast was obtained by RANKL-dependent differentiation in the RAW264.7 cell line. It was found that the 2 Gy 137Cs γ-rays enhanced the CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the higher expression of CBFα1 might reinforce the effect of promoting osteoclastogenesis by Notch signaling pathway, increase both of the number and activity of osteoclasts while the bone loss, osteoporosis and fracture occur. (authors)

  12. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-08-01

    We found that CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The NO production was inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but was not by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B. In the presence of 0.1-M GalNAc, increased NO production by CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells was observed rather than the inhibition. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly inhibited the CEL-I-induced NO production as well as the binding of FITC-labelled CEL-I on RAW264.7 cells. Three MAP kinase inhibitors (specific to extra-cellular regulated kinase, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and p38 MAP kinase) inhibited CEL-I-induced NO production with different extents. Heat-treatment of CEL-I resulted in a decreased activity of CEL-I depending on the temperature. These results suggest that CEL-I induces NO production in RAW264.7 cells through the protein-cell interaction rather than the binding to the specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface. PMID:19351706

  13. Aspirin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in RANKL-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Ping; Yang, Chao; Li, Yuan; Fan, Yong; Yang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Bin; Sang, Hong-Xun

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin is a commonly used medicine as an effective antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. Previous studies have demonstrated its potential effects of anti-postmenopausal osteoporosis, while the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of aspirin on receptor‑activator of nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) ligand (RANKL)‑induced osteoclasts were investigated in RAW264.7 cells in the current study. Using tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, it was observed that aspirin inhibited the differentiation of RANKL‑induced RAW264.7 cells. The mRNA expression of osteoclastic marker genes, including cathepsin K, TRAP, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calcitonin receptor, were suppressed by aspirin as identified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The immunofluorescence assay indicated that aspirin markedly inhibited NF‑κB p65 translocation to the nucleus in RANKL‑induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, aspirin also suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), observed by western blot analysis. Taken together, these data identified that aspirin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the activation of NF‑κB and MAPKs in RANKL‑induced RAW264.7 cells, implying that aspirin may possess therapeutic potential for use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27430169

  14. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  15. 40 CFR 264.259 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.259 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26... with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 264.283 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.283 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... facilities managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce...

  17. 40 CFR 264.317 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.317 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26... design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for landfills managing hazardous wastes...

  18. 40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.231 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... surface impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to...

  19. Determining Effects of Elaidic Acid on PPAR- Gamma Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doosti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several dietary factors are involved in cardiovascular coronary heart diseases, including trans fatty acids, which are generally formed during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that causes conversion of liquid oils into semisolid fats. Nowadays, it is well-known that trans fatty acids form a major risk factor in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been identified that some nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, are involved and play important roles in lipid homeostasis and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the effect of elaidic acid on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ.Methods: Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated by 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid for 6 h. The control group was treated by 50% ethanol (as solvent, equivalent to the amount of ethanol used in 2 mM concentration of elaidic acid. Later, the total RNA was extracted and its cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the quantity of PPARγ gene expression was measured by real-time PCR.Results: Overall, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid decreased PPARγ gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line by -1.36, -1.68, and -3.24 folds compared with the control group, respectively.Conclusion: By decreasing the expression of nuclear receptor PPARγ, elaidic acid causes, intensifies or accelerates the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. This finding shows the importance of reducing the consumption of elaidic acid containing foods.

  20. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization are derived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closed form expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of the unicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-user scalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is hence amenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider a framework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases in broadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal bandwidth and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  1. Resveratrol inhibits LPS-induced MAPKs activation via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that has cardioprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect RAW 264.7 cells from inflammatory insults and explored mechanisms underlying inhibitory effects of resveratrol on RAW 264.7 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Murine RAW 264.7 cells were treated with resveratrol (1, 5, and 10 µM and/or LPS (5 µg/ml. Nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were measured by Griess reagent and ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines were analysed by ELISA, RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs cascades, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and expression of SIRT1(Silent information regulator T1 were measured by western blot. Wortmannin (1 µM, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor, was used to determine if PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway might be involved in resveratrol's action on RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol significantly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol increased Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor, blocked the effects of resveratrol on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells activation. In addition, PI3-K inhibition partially abolished the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs cascades. Meanwhile, PI3-K is essential for resveratrol-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK and expression of SIRT1. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This investigation

  2. Flavonoids Identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling by Suppressing Activation of NF-κB and MAPK in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Eun Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used as traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, tumors, and diarrhea in Asia. Hence, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and determined the molecular mechanism of action of flavonoids isolated from Korean S. baicalensis G. in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to examine cytotoxicity of the flavonoids at various concentrations of 10, 40, 70, and 100 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells at these concentrations. Furthermore, the flavonoids decreased production of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, to identify the differentially expressed proteins in RAW 264.7 cells of the control, LPS-treated, and flavonoid-treated groups, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were conducted. The identified proteins were involved in the inflammatory response and included PRKA anchor protein and heat shock protein 70 kD. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from S. baicalensis G. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway via the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hyun Sook, E-mail: wazzup@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. {yields} We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe{sup 2+}), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  4. 姜黄素促进 RAW264.7源性 M1巨噬细胞向替代激活 M2表型极化%Curcumin induces M1 phenotype derived from murine RAW264.7 macrophages polarization to alternatively activated M2 phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方圆; 袁祖贻; 周娟; 王欢; 薛丽; 郭宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察姜黄素对 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)极化的影响及机制。方法不同浓度姜黄素(6.25、12.5、25μmol/L)干预 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨 噬 细 胞 (M1)12 h,同时再加入20μmol/L GW9662与25μmol/L 姜黄素共同干预 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨 噬 细 胞(M1)12 h,采用 Real-time PCR、ELISA 及 Western blot 方法检测 IL-1β、IL-6和 M2表型标志分子 KLF4、FIZZ1、MGL1、PPARγ的表达,及阻断PPARγ后 KLF4和 FIZZ1的表达。结果不同浓度姜黄素均能上调 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)的 M2标志分子的表达,并且抑制炎症因子 IL-1β和 IL-6的分泌;阻断 PPARγ后,RAW264.7巨噬细胞源性 M1表型巨噬细胞表达 M2标志分子下调。结论姜黄素通过活化 PPARγ促进 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)向 M2表型极化。%ABSTRACT:Objective To observe the effect of curcumin on RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)and the mechanisms involved.Methods Curcumin of different concentrations (6.25 μmol/L,12.5μmol/L and 25 μmol/L)was used to treat RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)for 12 h,and RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)were incubated with 20μmol/L GW9662 and 25 μmol/L curcumin for 12 h.Using Real-time PCR,ELISA and Western blotting analysis,we examined the expressions of IL-1β,IL-6,PPARγand phenotype markers M2 (KLF4,FIZZ1,and MGL1 )and the expressions of KLF4 and FIZZ1 when PPARγwas inhibited.Results Curcumin of different concentrations all could inhibit the expressions of IL-1βand IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1).Curcumin of different concentra-tions could upregulate the expression of M2 markers (KLF4,FIZZ1 and MGL1)and PPARγin RAW264.7 macro-phages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1).When M1 macrophages were incubated with curcumin and GW9662,the expression of the M2 phenotype markers was reduced.Conclusion Curcumin polarized the M

  5. A Content Level Watermarking Scheme for H.264/AVC Video Authentication in VLC Domain%基于VLC域的H.264/AVC视频流内容级认证水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志高; 孙锬锋; 蒋兴浩

    2011-01-01

    针对低比特率的H.264/AVC(Advanced Video Coding)视频流,提出一种新颖的基于VLC(Variable-Length Coding)域的内容级的半脆弱水印认证算法.利用视频VLC域中I宏块的预测方式、CBP(Coded Block Pattern)块编码模式,自适应选取提取特征码的宏块,并根据子宏块上量化后系数的低频能量之间的关系,构建基于宏块级别的内容特征码;鉴于子宏块中拖尾系数的特点,通过修改拖尾系数的编码方式实现半脆弱认证水印的嵌入.实验证明,该算法能保持特征码嵌入前后视频良好的不可感知性以及视频流码率的基本恒定;能有效提高视频水印嵌入容量;可有效实现针对视频内容篡改的宏块级别的检测和定位.该算法可应用于视频内容鉴定,版权保护等领域.%For low bit-rate H.264/AVC video,this paper proposed a semi-fragile content authentication algorithm in VLC domain.Utilizing the intra prediction mode and coded block pattern in VLC domain,the algorithm chooses those macro-blocks.The signature is extracted according to the relationship between the energies of quantized low-frequency coefficients of sub-macroblocks from these macro-blocks,embedded by modifying the trailing coefficients.The experimental results show that this algorithm performs well in visual quality impact,keeps the bit-rate basically unchanged and enhances the watermark capacity.By verifying the extracted signature,the algorithm can efficiently detect and locate the tampering on the video with high real-time.

  6. 氩激光治疗糖尿病视网膜病变264例观察%Observation on Photocoagulation with Arqon for Treatment of 264 Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包欣; 林菁; 谢田华; 朱靖; 史惠琴; 袁松涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察氩激光光凝治疗不同分期糖尿病视网膜病变(diabetic retinopathy,DR)的疗效.方法:对264例513眼DR患者按病变不同分期分别行黄斑格栅样光凝、次全视网膜光凝(sPRP)和全视网膜光凝(PRP).随访3月-5年,观察患者视力、眼底及荧光血管造影情况.结果:总计有24.0%(123/513)的患眼视力得以上升,49.7 %(255/513)视力保持不变,26.3 %(135/513)视力下降.非增殖性DR激光治疗有效率为87.5%,增殖性DR有效率58.4 %(P<0.05).1型DM有效率43.5%,2型DM有效率81.4%(P<0.05).结论:氩激光能有效控制DR,减缓DR患者视力的丧失,非增殖性DR疗效明显优于增殖性DR,2型DM疗效优于1型DM.%Objective: To observe curative effect of photocoagulation with arqon on background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: We classified 513 eyes with 264 patients as background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or not with cystoid macular edema. They were treated with grid patten photocoagulation, secondary panretinal photocoagulation (sPRP) and panretinal photocoagulation respectively. Followed up with visual acuity, ophthalmic fundus characteristics and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) for 3 months to 5 years. Results: Mean preoperative visual acuities and ophthalmic fundus characteristics were compared across groups. In all patients, visual acuity improved in 123 eyes (24 %); was unchanged in 255 eyes (49.7 %); and decreased in 135 eyes (26.3 %). The effective rate of photocoagulation on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy is 87.5 % compared with 58.4 % on proliferative diabetic retinopathy(P<0.05), 43.5 % on type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with 81.4 % on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclutions: Photocoagulation with arqon can effectively restrain the decrease of visual acuity especially in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Relationship between loneliness and family function among 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake%264例汶川地震丧亲者孤独感与其家庭功能的相关关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 许卢万珍; 王世平; 李小麟; 豆欣蔓; 朱世超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between loneliness and family function among the bereaved people. Methods Totally 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake were investigated with Family APGAR Index and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Results The average score of loneliness was 42.06±9.96, and over 50% of the bereaved showed moderate level of loneliness. The scores of loneliness varied with age,economic condition,marital status and family structure (P0.05). There was a negative correlation between the score of loneliness and family function(P<0.01). Conclusion Loneliness is a general psychological problem in the bereaved and they have moderate level of loneliness. Family function affects loneliness of the bereaved from different aspects,and good family function may be helpful to relieve loneliness.%目的 探讨丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能相关关系.方法 采用便利抽样,使用家庭关怀度问卷(APGAR)和UCLA孤独量表,对264名汶川地震丧亲者的孤独感和家庭功能进行问卷调查.结果丧亲者孤独感均分( 42.06±9.96)分,50%以上丧亲者体验到中等水平的孤独感;孤独感在性别方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),在年龄、经济状况、婚姻状态和家庭结构方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能呈负相关(P<0.01).结论孤独感是丧亲者普遍存在的心理问题且处于中等水平;丧亲者的家庭功能从不同侧面对其孤独感产生影响,良好的家庭功能有助于减轻孤独感.

  8. 264例阿洛西林钠不良反应的文献分析%Literature Analysis of 264 Cases of Adverse Drug Reactions Induced by Azlocillin Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 冯亚楠; 李永辉; 郭瑞锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿洛西林钠不良反应的一般规律特点,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法检索中国期刊全文数据库,对2014年之前国内公开发表有关注射用阿洛西林钠264例病例文献报道进行回顾性分析。结果儿童患者发生率高,累及系统-器官主要为皮肤及其附件损害(48.43%)、全身性损害(20.24%)、胃肠系统损害(13.01%),严重全身性系统损害以过敏性休克、过敏样反应为主。结论阿洛西林钠安全使用亟待加强,临床应重视阿洛西林钠的不良反应,加强用药监测,确保安全使用。%Objective To probe into thes tatus,characterstics and influencing factors of ADR cases induced by azlocillin sodium, so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods Datas were collected from domestic published literatures from China Journal Full-text Database before 2014, and 264 case reports of adverse drug reactions induced by azlocillin sodium were analyzed retrospectively. Results Younger patients appeared to be with a high rate of ADR, which mainly involved skin and its appendages (48.43%), systemic damage (20.24), gastrointestinal system (13.01%), and the serious ones showed anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction.Conclusion Azlocillin sodium should be used reasonably, and the monitoring of clinical use should be strengthened to ensure the safety of medication.

  9. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization arederived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closedform expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of theunicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-userscalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is henceamenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider aframework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases inbroadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal band width and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  10. 一种量化误差补偿的压缩域H.264/AVC视频水印算法%A Compressed-Domain Video Watermarking Algorithm for H.264 AVC with Quantization Error Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小静; 杨高波; 刘争艳; 杜青松

    2009-01-01

    提出一种基于H.264的压缩域视频水印方法.根据块编码模式参数CBP和非零DCT系数个数,对DCT块分类,选取非零DCT系数较多的块作为嵌入区域.为了保持嵌入前后视频流码率基本恒定,水印只嵌入到非零DCT系数.此外,提出了一种量化误差补偿机制,它对不同的DCT系数定义了一个误差准则函数,根据该函数的值动态地选择水印的嵌入位置,并根据视频的修改程度,自适应地嵌入不同强度的水印.仿真实验结果表明,该算法能快速地嵌入和提取水印信息,水印嵌入容量较大,且嵌入补偿机制有效降低了量化和水印引起的误差.

  11. Implementation and Application of H.264 Video Encoder Virtual Simulation Platform based on PowerPC%基于PowerPC的H.264编码核虚拟仿真平台的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玢

    2013-01-01

      This paper describes the design of a SoC hardware/software co-verification platform, which is based on the layered approach. The platform can obtain both high accuracy and simulation speed by supporting Fast and Slow models in a uniform architecture. In order to improve the verification efficiency, the platform provides the basic development framework and toolset to support verification process automation.%  构建了基于PowerPC440处理器的H.264编码核软硬件协同验证平台。该平台设计方法,在统一平台架构下支持Fast和Slow两种模式的虚拟原型仿真,兼顾了仿真速度和精度的要求。平台中提供了完整的开发工具和基础架构,支持以C语言测试程序作为输入的验证流程自动化,可有效地提高验证效率。

  12. Motion estimation-based basic unit level rate control for H.264/AVC%基于运动估计的H.264/AVC BU层码率控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 唐昆; 崔慧娟

    2008-01-01

    为解决H.264/AVC视频编码标准中码率预测不准确的问题,基于JM80提出了一种改进的BU层码率控制算法.该算法假设编码复杂度均匀分布在图像宏块的每个点上,根据宏块运动矢量预测出下一帧的编码复杂度,进而预测出宏块的量化步长和输出比特数的关系,因而比JM80采用的模型更直接和准确.该算法同时采用基于Lagrange乘子法的率失真最优准则的比特分配策略.仿真结果显示出经该算法控制后的输出码率非常接近目标码率,且和JM80中方法相比,对所有测试序列都有明显的峰值信噪比(PSNR)增益.

  13. MRSA 对巨噬细胞系 RAW264.7自噬的影响%Effect of MRSA on the autophagy of RAW264.7 macrophage cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 吴本权; 杨洋; 朱家馨; 张天托

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection upon the autophagy of macrophages.Methods Mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was used.In the experimental groups,RAW264.7 cells were infected with Gram-positive MRSA for different time points including 0,30,60,90,1 20,1 50 and 1 80 min.In the control group,the cells were left untreat-ed.After MRSA infection,the expression of ATG5,ATG7 and ATG1 2 was measured by fluorescence quantita-tive PCR,and the expression levels of autophagy-related protein (Beclin1 )and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)were measured by Western blot.Results At 3 h after MRSA infection,the expression levels of ATG5,ATG7 and ATG1 2 mRNA in the experimental group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (all P 0.05).The relative expression levels of ATG7,ATG1 2 mRNA,LC3 and Beclin1 proteins peaked at 1 80 min following MRSA infection,and the level of ATG5 mRNA achieved the peak at 1 50 min after MRSA infection.Conclusions MRSA could induce autophagy in macrophages.The au-tophagy genes were activated in a certain sequence.Autophagy probably acted as an alternative immune process of phagocytosis of MRSA by macrophages.%目的:探讨耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染对于巨噬细胞自噬的影响。方法以小鼠单核巨噬细胞系 RAW264.7为研究对象,以革兰阳性菌 MRSA 感染3 h 组作为实验组,设立空白对照组(对照组),另设 MRSA 感染0、30、60、120、150、180 min 组。以 MRSA 感染细胞后,荧光定量 PCR 检测自噬相关基因5(ATG5)、ATG7、ATG12的表达情况,蛋白免疫印迹法检测自噬相关蛋白 Beclin1及微管相关蛋白轻链3(LC3)的表达情况。结果感染 MRSA 3 h 后,实验组RAW264.7细胞中 ATG5、ATG7、ATG12的 mRNA 表达水平均高于对照组(P 均<0.01),LC3蛋白相对表达量也比对照组增加(P <0.01),2

  14. Etiological analysis of 264 cases with chronic kidney disease stage 2 to 5 in children%慢性肾脏病2~5期患儿264例病因构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪千帆; 沈茜; 徐虹; 孙利; 汤小山; 方晓燕; 刘海梅; 翟亦晖; 毕允力

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and summarize the etiology of children patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 to 5 seen in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013.Method By complying with the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines,we collected data of 264 cases of children patients with CKD stage 2-5 from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013 in the medical record system of Children's Hospital of Fudan University.And we retrospectively analyzed their age and CKD stage at first diagnosis,primary diseases,complications,etc.Result In the collected 264 cases,52 cases (19.7%) were diagnosed at stage 2,67 (25.4%) at stage 3,52 (19.7%) at stage 4 and 93 (35.2%) at stage 5.For disease causes,116 cases (43.9%) had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT),61 cases (23.1%) had glomerular disease,15 (5.7%) had hereditary kidney disease,14 (5.3%) had other diseases and in 58 cases (22.0%) the causes of disease were unknown.In the group with age between 0 and 3.0 and 3.1 and 6.0 years,57.1% (24 cases) and 60.0% (30 cases) had primary disease with CAKUT.In the group with age older than 10 years,49.2% (30 cases) had primary disease with glomerular disease and 32.0% (32 cases) with unknown causes.Conclusion The major cause of CKD stage 2-5 in children in our hospital during the last ten years was CAKUT (43.9%),followed by glomerular disease (23.1%).The primary diseases of CKD were significantly different between the 2 age groups.CAKUT was more common in infants and preschool children while for adolescents,glomerular disease was the major cause.%目的 总结10年来复旦大学附属儿科医院慢性肾脏病(CKD) 2~5期患儿的病因构成情况.方法 应用复旦大学附属儿科医院住院病历检索系统,检索并收集2004年1月-2013年12月期间复旦大学附属儿科医院住院的符合诊断标准的CKD 2 ~5期患儿264例,统计其首次诊断时年龄、分期,原发病诊断等信息,进行回顾性分析.结果 264

  15. Effect of Berberine on Mice RAW264.7 Macrophages Polarization%小檗碱对小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞极化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞丽; 吴阳阳; 罗进芳; 易浪; 董燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of berberine on the polarization of mice RAW264.7 macrophages induced separately by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Methods Mice RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured in vitro were divided into model group, medication group, and blank control group. Both model group and medication group were given either LPS (in final dose of 100 ng/mL) or IL-4 (in final dose of 10 ng/mL). Additionally, the medication group was treated with berberine in final dose of 20 μmol/L. The blank control group was given the same volume of phosphate buffered saline ( PBS). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS) , suppressor of cytokine signaling2 ( SOCS2) and SOCS3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the contents of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10. Results The content of TNF-αand the mRNA expression levels of iNOS and SOCS3 in macrophages induced by LPS were increased, and then were down-regulated by berberine (P0.05). Conclusion Berberine has an effect on inhibiting the M1 and M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro, suggesting that berberine may play a regulatory role in the dynamic balance of M1/M2.%目的观察小檗碱对脂多糖(LPS)、白细胞介素-4(IL-4)诱导的小鼠RAW264.7细胞极化的影响。方法体外培养小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7,模型组和给药组分别加入LPS (终浓度100 ng/mL)或IL-4(终浓度10 ng/mL),给药组用终浓度20μmol/L的小檗碱分别进行干预,同时空白对照组给予等体积磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)。采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应检测精氨酸酶-1( Arg-1)、一氧化氮合酶( iNOS)、细胞因子信号传导抑制蛋白2( SOCS2)、细胞因子信号传导抑制蛋白3(SOCS3)的mRNA表达水平,采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测

  16. Protective effects of Se-containing protein hydrolysates from Se-enriched rice against Pb(2+)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi; Fang, Yong; Chen, Yue; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Hu, Qiuhui; Qiu, Weifen

    2016-07-01

    The protective capacity of Se-containing protein hydrolysates with molecular weight below 1kDa (SPHs-3), against Pb(2+)-induced damage in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells, was investigated in this study. The cell viability, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in cell were analyzed. Results showed that 100μg/ml of SPHs-3 pretreatment could significantly increase cell viability by 24.9% and 23.0% in Pb(2+)-treated PC12 and RAW264.7 cells, respectively (Price may be a feasible candidate to improve health standard of the Pb(2+)-pollution population. PMID:26920310

  17. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,and SDF1-3′A) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3′A,mutant in a ligand gene,can delay AIDS pathogenesis.The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China.No CCR5-Δ32 was observed.CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China,with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively.Relative hazard was evaluated.Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  18. Sesquiterpenes from an Egyptian herbal medicine, Pulicaria undulate, with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yabe, Mikuko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The methylene chloride-methanol (1 : 1) extract from the air-dried aerial parts of wild Pulicaria undulata collected in North Sinia, Egypt, showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages. From the extract, three new sesquiterpenes named 5α-hydroperoxyivalin, 8-epi-xanthanol, and 8-epi-isoxanthanol were isolated together with four known sesquiterpenes. The structure of each new sesquiterpenes was determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, all the sesquiterpenoids significantly inhibited the production of NO. Ivalin (IC50=2.0 μM) and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone (1.8 μM) showed particularly strong inhibitory effects, but had strong cytotoxic effects as well. Furthermore, ivalin and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone concentration-dependently reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein levels in RAW264.7 cells.

  19. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  20. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. Effects of Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 mimics on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Guo, Xiaola; He, Wei; Shao, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xueyong; Yang, Jing; Shen, Yujuan; Luo, Xuenong; Cao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory non-coding RNA that contributes to the activation of host-pathogen cross-talk during infection. In helminthes, miR-71 is highly conserved and it has recently been detected in nematode exosomes, as well as in the sera and/or fluids of infected humans and mice. However, the role of miR-71 during infection remains poorly characterized. Herein, we show that Ago1 and Ago4, which encode key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), were up-regulated in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells transfected by Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 (emu-miR-71) mimics. Using a miRNA PCR array, none of the 84 miRNAs involved in inflammation or autoimmunity were significantly up- or down-regulated in the transfected cells (p>0.05). Although it did not influence IL-10 production by the treated cells (p>0.05), the mimics significantly repressed the production of NO 12 h after treatment with LPS and IFN-γ (p<0.01), identifying another potential mechanism whereby parasites can carefully regulate host levels of NO. These findings indicate that the release of parasite-derived miR-71 into hosts can affect the functions of macrophages, and possibly represents an exciting direction for studies of the interplay between parasites and hosts. PMID:26995025

  2. The Impact of Serum Amyloid P-Component on Gene Expression in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid P-component (SAP contributes to host defense and prevents fibrosis. Macrophages are the most abundant inflammatory cell type in atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, using 3H-cholesterol-labeled counting radioactivity assay, we demonstrated that the apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages was increased by SAP treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We analyzed global gene expression changes upon SAP treatment using RNA sequencing. As a result, a total of 175 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 134 genes were downregulated and 41 genes were upregulated in SAP treated cells compared to control cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed decreased expression of 5 genes and an increase in expression of 1 gene upon SAP treatment. Gene ontology analysis showed that genes involved in response to stimulus were significantly enriched in differentially expressed genes. Beyond protein-coding genes, we also identified 8 differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs. Our study may provide new insights into mechanisms underlying the functional role of SAP in macrophages.

  3. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeratad Sudsai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1, kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2, rhamnazin (3, pinostrobin (4, together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5, curcumin (6, demethoxycurcumin (7 and bisdemethoxycurcumin (8, as well as one sterol, -sitosterol-D-glucoside (9. Compound 6 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against NO release with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM, followed by 7 (IC50 = 11.7 μM, 8 (IC50 = 15.7 μM, 5 (IC50 = 23.0 μM and 1 (IC50 = 23.5 μM, respectively. This study demonstrated that diarylheptanoids and some methoxyflavonoidsfound in B. longiflora are responsible for anti-inflammatory activity and this is the first report the safety, chemicalconstituents and biological activity of this plant.

  4. Heat shock response down-regulates IL-18 expression in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock response is a self-defense mechanism for protection of cells and organisms from a wide range of harmful stressors. Recent studies revealed that it is involved in the regulation of cytokines expression. IL-18 is an important cytokine in mediating immune response. We studied LPS-induced IL-18 expression in heat shock treated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Our results show that the heat shock response significantly inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Further research on the down-regulation mechanism shows that this inhibitory effect is correlated to the great suppression of the binding activity of AP-1, which is a transcription factor binding to the promoter of IL-18 (-1120 to -1083) and regulates the transcription of IL-18. Meanwhile, we observed that the phosphorylation of JNK, which is AP-1 upstream kinase, was greatly decreased. These results confirmed that the down-regulation effect on IL-18 production in heat shock response is related to the suppression of the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway.

  5. Inhibitory effects of 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Michiko; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Miyashita, Miki; Okumura, Mayu; Yamamoto, Norio; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ashida, Hitoshi; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2014-01-15

    The Japanese herb, Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei Koidzumi), contains two prenylated chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, which are considered to be the major active compounds of Ashitaba. However, their effects on inflammatory responses are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264 mouse macrophages. LPS-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) was markedly reduced by 4-hydroxyderricin (10 μM) and xanthoangelol (5 μM) compared with their parent compound, chalcone (25 μM). They also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Although chalcone decreased the DNA-binding activity of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol suppressed only AP-1 and had no effect on NF-κB. On the other hand, all of the tested chalcones reduced the phosphorylation (at serine 536) level of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. 4-Hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol may be promising for the prevention of inflammatory diseases.

  6. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Quercetin on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages Induced with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone) is a well-known antioxidant and a flavonol found in many fruits, leaves, and vegetables. Quercetin also has known anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. However, the effects of quercetin on virus-induced macrophages have not been fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced macrophages was examined. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-6, MCP-1, IP-10, RANTES, GM-CSF, G-CSF, TNF-α, LIF, LIX, and VEGF as well as calcium release in dsRNA (50 μg/mL of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages (p cells (p < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin had alleviating effects on viral inflammation based on inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA-induced macrophages via the calcium-STAT pathway. PMID:27049378

  9. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect. PMID:27374584

  10. High density lipoprotein 3 inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis via promoting cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei JIANG; Peng-ke YAN; Jian-xiong CHEN; Bing-yang ZHU; Xiao-yong LEI; Wei-dong YIN; Duan-fang LIAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) on oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.Methods: RAW264.7 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L ox-LDL for various durations up to 48 h, and apoptosis was detected using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis. Total cholesterol levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography, cholesterol efflux was determined by Tritium labeling, and the cellular lipid droplets were assayed by oil red O staining. Results: Treatment with 50 mg/L ox-LDL for 12, 24, and 48 h increased the apoptotic rate of RAW264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. The peak apoptotic rate (47.7%) was observed after 48 h incubation. HDL3 at various concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200mg/L) inhibited the ox-LDL (50 mg/L for 48 h)-mediated apoptosis that was accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular cholesterol efflux, and decreased total cholesterol levels in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Blockage of cholesterol efflux by brefeldin decreased the protective effect of HDL3 on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Increase of the cholesterol efflux effected by another cholesterol acceptor, β-cyclodextrin, led to a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate of cells. Conclusion: HDL3 antagonizes ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7cells, through reducing the accumulation of toxic cholesterol.

  11. Zinc Carnosine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κb Activation in Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Independent of the MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in the anti-inflammatory effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to the addition of LPS (1 μg/ml). Following 24 h of treatment, ZnC was found not to be cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to the concentration of 100 μM. Our current findings showed that ZnC did not protect RAW 264.7 cells from LPS-induced "respiratory burst". Significant increment in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration can only be observed in cell pretreated with high doses of ZnC only (50 and 100 μM for GSH and 100 μM only for TBARS). On the other hand, pretreatment of cells with ZnC was able to inhibit LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression significantly. Furthermore, results from immunoblotting showed that ZnC was able to suppress nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, and highest suppression can be observed at 100 μM of ZnC pretreatment. However, pretreatment of ZnC did not inhibit the early activation of MAPKs. In conclusion, pretreatment with ZnC was able to inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, mainly via suppression of NF-κB activation, and is independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:26749414

  12. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Woan Sean Tan; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Govindarajan Karthivashan; Sharida Fakurazi

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethyl...

  13. SM905, an artemisinin derivative, inhibited NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by suppressing MAPK and NF-κB pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Hou, Li-fei; Yang, Yang; Tang, Wei; Ying LI; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory potentials and underlying mechanisms of SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: Nitric oxide (NO) generation, cytokine production, and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined using a Griess assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blotting assay, respectively. The mRNA expre...

  14. Interactions between Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to complex mixtures of bacteria and fungi in moisture-damaged buildings is a potential cause of inflammatory related symptoms among occupants. The present study assessed interactions between two characteristic moldy house microbes Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum. Differences in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse (RAW264.7) macrophages were studied after exposure to the spores of co-cultivated microbes, the mixture of separately cultivated spores, and the spores of either of these microbes cultivated alone. The RAW264.7 cells were exposed to six doses (1 x 104 to 3 x 106 spores/ml) for 24 h, and the time course of the induced responses was evaluated after 4, 8, 16, and 24 h of exposure (1 x 106 spores/ml). The cytotoxic potential of the spores was characterized by the MTT test, DNA content analysis, and enzyme assay for caspase-3 activity. The production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and MIP2) was measured immunochemically and nitric oxide by the Griess method. Co-cultivation increased the ability of the spores to cause apoptosis by more than 4-fold and the proportion of RAW264.7 cells at the G2/M stage increased nearly 2-fold when compared to the response induced by the mixture of spores. In contrast, co-cultivation decreased significantly the ability of the spores to trigger the production of NO and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that co-culture of S. californicus and S. chartarum can result in microbial interactions that significantly potentiate the ability of the spores to cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells

  15. Beclin 1 Is Required for Starvation-Enhanced, but Not Rapamycin-Enhanced, LC3-Associated Phagocytosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in RAW 264.7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuelei; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; John D Boyce; Rodney J. Devenish

    2013-01-01

    LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) of Burkholderia pseudomallei by murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells is an intracellular innate defense mechanism. Beclin 1, a protein with several roles in autophagic processes, is known to be recruited to phagosomal membranes as a very early event in LAP. We sought to determine whether knockdown of Beclin 1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) would affect recruitment of LC3 and subsequent LAP of infecting B. pseudomallei. Both starvation and rapamycin treatment...

  16. The effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perečko, T; Kassab, R B; Vašíček, O; Pekarová, M; Jančinová, V; Lojek, A

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine, an antimalarial drug, can also be used in the regulation of the immune system, e.g. it is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative on nitric oxide (NO) production in two different cell types: (i) immortalized mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and (ii) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). The cells were treated with different concentrations (1-100 μM) of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24 h to induce NO production. Measurement of nitrites by the Griess reaction was used to evaluate the production of NO. Expression of inducible NO synthase was evaluated with Western blot and ATPcytotoxicity test was used to measure the viability of the cells. Our results showed that both chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative inhibited NO production in both cell types. However, based on the results of LD50 these inhibitory effects of both derivatives were due to their cytotoxicity. The LD50 values for chloroquine were 24.77 μM (RAW 264.7) and 24.86 μM (BMDM), the LD50 for hydroxychloroquine were 13.28 μM (RAW 264.7) and 13.98 μM (BMDM). In conclusion, hydroxychloroquine was more cytotoxic than its parent molecule. Comparing the two cell types tested, our data suggest that there are no differences in cytotoxicity of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for primary cells (BMDM) or immortalized cell line (RAW 264.7). PMID:25369339

  17. Effect of artemisinins and other endoperoxides on nitric oxide-related signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkimalla, V Badireenath; Blunder, Martina; Korn, Bernhard; Soomro, Shahid A; Jansen, Herwig; Chang, Wonsuk; Posner, Gary H; Bauer, Rudolf; Efferth, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Artemisinin is the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. In addition to its anti-malarial activity, artemisinin and its derivatives have been shown to exert profound anti-cancer activity. The endoperoxide moiety in the chemical structure of artemisinin is thought to be responsible for the bioactivity. Here, we analyzed the cytotoxicity and the ability of artemisinin, five of its derivatives, and two other endoperoxides to inhibit generation of nitric oxide (NO). In the RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line, the well-established model cell line to analyze NO generation, artesunate revealed the highest ability to inhibit NO production among all compounds tested. In cytotoxicity assays (XTT assay), the IC(50) value of RAW 264.7 cells for artesunate was determined to be 3.1+/-0.7 microM. In order to associate the cytotoxic effects with specific alteration in gene expression related to NO metabolism and signaling, whole genome mRNA microarray analyses were conducted. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with artesunate using DMSO as vehicle control followed by microarray analysis. A total of 36 genes related to NO metabolism and signaling were found to be differentially expressed upon exposure to artesunate. Apart from NO-related genes, the expression of genes associated with other functional groups was also analyzed. Out of 24 functional groups, differential expression was most prominent in genes involved in cell-to-cell signaling and interactions. Further refinement of this analysis showed that the pathways for cAMP-mediated signaling and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling were most closely related to changes in mRNA expression. In conclusion, NO generation and signaling play a role in exhibiting cytotoxic activity of artesunate. In addition, other signaling pathways also contribute to the inhibitory effect of artesunate towards RAW 264.7 cells pointing to a multi-factorial mode of action of artesunate. PMID:18472018

  18. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2011-05-21 to 2011-05-24 (NODC Accession 0117418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117418 includes biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of...

  19. Effect of Nucleolin Antisense Oligonucleotides on Proliferation and Apoptosis in RAW264.7 Cells%核仁素反义寡核苷酸对RAW264.7细胞增殖与凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹江; 王慷慨; 刘可; 易宇欣; 鄂顺梅; 张玲莉; 肖献忠

    2005-01-01

    [目的]探讨核仁素反义寡核苷酸对RAW264.7细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.[方法]采用反义寡核苷酸技术以抑制RAW264.7细胞中核仁素的表达后,用MTT法检测细胞增殖状况,流式细胞术及DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.[结果]免疫印迹结果显示,反义寡核苷酸导入细胞后24 h,核仁素的表达被显著抑制,同时反义寡核苷酸处理组细胞的增殖能力明显受到抑制,细胞凋亡百分率显著升高,并能检测到清晰的"梯状条带".而正义及随机寡核苷酸导入细胞后不能降低核仁素的表达,对细胞增殖及凋亡均无明显影响.[结论]核仁素表达下调能抑制RAW264.7细胞增殖并能触发RAW264.7细胞凋亡.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of the Zingiber officinale roscoe constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Ah; Song, Chang Woo; Koh, Woo Suk; Yon, Gyu Hwan; Kim, Young Sup; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kwon, Hoon Jeong; Lee, Kyu Hong

    2013-08-01

    Ginger has long been used worldwide as a spice, seasoning, and wine and is also used as a traditional medicine. There have been no previous studies of the potential beneficial effects of the ginger constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione (12-DHGD). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of 12-DHGD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of 12-DHGD was measured using the MTT assay, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured using Griess reagent and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO (iNOS) enzymes was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with 12-DHGD significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of NO (at 12-DHGD concentrations of 150 and 200 ng/ml), IL-6 (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 ng/ml), and PGE2 (at 200 ng/ml). Consistent with the effects on NO and PGE2 production, 12-DHGD treatment also inhibited the LPS-stimulated increase in iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels. However, 12-DHGD did not affect production of IL-1β or TNF-α in response to LPS. 12-DHGD, a constituent of ginger, is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediator production in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:23027684