WorldWideScience

Sample records for bohrium 264

  1. Graphs for Isotopes of 107-Bh (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 107-Bh (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107).

  2. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table. PMID:10993071

  3. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, R.; Brüchle, W.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, B.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Gregorich, K. E.; Hoffman, D. C.; Hübener, S.; Jost, D. T.; Kirbach, U. W.; Laue, C. A.; Lavanchy, V. M.; Nitsche, H.; Patin, J. B.; Piguet, D.; Schädel, M.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Strellis, D. A.; Taut, S.; Tobler, L.; Tsyganov, Y. S.; Türler, A.; Vahle, A.; WiIk, P. A.; Yakushev, A. B.

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table.

  4. Chemical separation procedure proposed for studies of bohrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-line and on-line studies have been performed with radioactive tracers of various elements to develop a chemical separation procedure for bohrium (element 107). The proposed procedure is intended for use in the fast solvent extraction system SISAK. The homologs technetium and rhenium were used to model the chemical behavior of bohrium. The results show that high decontamination factors can be obtained for technetium and rhenium with respect to unwanted contaminants like trivalent actinides, polonium and the Group 5 elements. (author)

  5. From bohrium to copernicium and beyond SHE research at SHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-element research with SHIP at GSI is reviewed including the discovery of the chemical elements bohrium to copernicium, experimental developments, cold fusion of heavy ions, and the discovery of a shell region around hassium. Elements bohrium and heavier are located beyond the limit of liquid-drop stability. They exist by shell stabilization. A universal, sensitive, and fast method: in-flight separation and identification of single atomic nuclei has been developed with the velocity filter SHIP and the detector system to measure decay sequences of individual atoms. Research with single atomic nuclei including detection methods, identification, and physics results will be discussed. Experiments with actinide targets as well as prospects with NUSTAR at FAIR will be addressed.

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-318 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-318 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 318).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-356 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-356 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 356).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-322 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-322 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 322).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-351 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-351 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 351).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-310 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-310 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 310).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-336 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-336 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 336).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-299 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-299 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 299).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-288 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-288 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 288).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-359 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-359 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 359).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-343 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-343 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 343).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-304 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-304 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 304).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-280 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-280 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 280).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-349 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-349 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 349).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-325 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-325 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 325).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-332 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-332 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 332).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-306 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-306 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 306).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-324 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-324 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 324).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-293 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-293 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 293).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-327 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-327 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 327).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-350 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-350 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 350).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-308 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-308 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 308).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-358 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-358 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 358).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-321 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-321 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 321).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-345 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-345 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 345).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-286 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-286 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 286).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-307 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-307 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 307).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-303 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-303 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 303).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-312 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-312 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 312).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-294 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-294 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 294).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-326 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-326 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 326).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-273 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-273 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 273).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-284 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-284 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 284).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-315 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-315 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 315).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-328 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-328 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 328).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-311 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-311 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 311).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-353 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-353 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 353).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-348 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-348 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 348).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-360 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-360 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 360).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-347 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-347 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 347).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-277 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-277 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 277).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-309 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-309 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 309).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-340 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-340 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 340).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-285 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-285 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 285).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-341 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-341 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 341).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-283 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-283 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 283).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-305 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-305 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 305).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-331 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-331 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 331).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-342 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-342 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 342).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-300 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-300 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 300).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-330 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-330 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 330).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-296 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-296 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 296).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-338 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-338 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 338).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-270 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-270 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 270).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-320 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-320 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 320).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-346 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-346 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 346).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-274 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-274 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 274).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-357 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-357 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 357).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-319 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-319 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 319).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-337 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-337 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 337).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-329 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-329 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 329).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-276 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-276 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 276).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-335 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-335 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 335).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-314 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-314 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 314).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-281 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-281 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 281).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-282 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-282 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 282).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-339 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-339 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 339).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-275 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-275 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 275).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-289 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-289 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 289).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-316 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-316 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 316).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-354 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-354 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 354).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-355 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-355 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 355).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-295 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-295 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 295).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-272 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-272 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 272).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-334 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-334 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 334).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-279 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-279 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 279).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-323 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-323 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 323).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-352 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-352 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 352).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-298 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-298 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 298).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-317 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-317 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 317).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-344 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-344 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 344).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-302 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-302 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 302).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-292 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-292 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 292).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-287 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-287 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 287).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-301 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-301 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 301).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-291 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-291 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 291).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-278 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-278 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 278).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-290 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-290 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 290).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-333 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-333 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 333).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-268 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-268 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 268).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-313 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-313 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 313).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-271 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-271 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 271).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-269 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-269 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 269).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-297 (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-297 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 297).

  19. Theoretical predictions on the low-lying excitation structure of super-heavy element bohrium (Z=107)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of theoretical and experimental study of fermium (Z=100) enlightened authors to perform further investigation of heavy elements. The authors studied some low-lying absorption spectroscopy and the resonant absorption probability of bohrium (Z=107) by using MCDF method which included the correlation effects and relativistic effects systematically. The authors hope the results will be useful for the further experiments

  20. Theoretical predications on the low-lying excitation structure of super-heavy element bohrium (Z=107)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of theoretical and experimental study of fermium (z=100) enlightened us to perform further investigation of heavy elements. We studied some low-lying absorption spectroscopy and the resonant absorption probability of bohrium (Z=107) by using MCDF method which considered the correlation effects and relativistic effects systematically. We hope our results will be useful for the further experiments. (authors)

  1. 36 CFR 264.4 - Unauthorized use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized use. 264.4 Section 264.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.4 Unauthorized use. Whoever manufactures, sells,...

  2. 40 CFR 264.14 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security. 264.14 Section 264.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR... Standards § 264.14 Security. (a) The owner or operator must prevent the unknowing entry, and minimize...

  3. 40 CFR 264.16 - Personnel training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) regulations 29 CFR 1910.120(p)(8) and 1910.120(q), the facility is not required to provide... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel training. 264.16 Section 264... Facility Standards § 264.16 Personnel training. (a)(1) Facility personnel must successfully complete...

  4. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4..., economic, or racial classification; and (B) Such other information as the Secretaries may jointly...

  5. 40 CFR 264.18 - Location standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location standards. 264.18 Section 264...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 264.18 Location standards. (a) Seismic considerations. (1) Portions of new...

  6. 40 CFR 264.255 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 264.255 Section 264.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.255...

  7. 40 CFR 264.175 - Containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment. 264.175 Section 264.175... Containers § 264.175 Containment. (a) Container storage areas must have a containment system that is designed... paragraph (c) of this section. (b) A containment system must be designed and operated as follows: (1) A...

  8. Appraisal of H.264 Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. R. N. Mandavgane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC, the latest video Codec standard is the most popular among Video professionals owing to its exact and unambiguous guidelines for dealing with the input stream to be transported from one place to another, having minimum loss in the transit and a very good compression ratio, both attributes highly sought after in today’s world of high quality multimedia broadcast and reception. Another parameter is the bit rate with which the data has to be transmitted. This paper is an attempt to show how various input parameters affect the output of the H.264 Codec. The input video file is a .yuv file, which after encoding becomes a .264 file, which is also called a stream file because this file has to be sent as a stream to various locations owing to its small size. At the receiving end, this stream file is decoded back into .yuv file. In the entire process, there is some loss in the quality of the video transmitted. This loss has to be minimum and is indicated by a parameter called PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio. Apart from PSNR, there are some other parameters as well like sequence parameter set, picture parameter set, information about different frames as regards slices and macroblocks, all ensconced in different files. PSNR being an important parameter will be dealt with here. There are three different input profiles namely, baseline profile, main profile and extended profile for H.264. In this work, variation of bit rate versus PSNR is studied in all the three profiles. A higher PSNR for a given constant bit rate is rated as a better performance. Here, the input sequence is a yuv file (foreman_part_qcif.yuv with one reference frame. The quantization parameter for the I, B and P slices has been set at 30. The PSNR is plotted against bit rate and it is observed that they show a striking similarity with each other.

  9. 32 CFR 264.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (22 U.S.C. 1934) (Title 22 CFR, chapter I, subchapter M). (The term “technical data” is used in those... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 264.4 Section 264.4 National Defense... INTERCHANGE OF PATENT RIGHTS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION § 264.4 Policy. It is the policy of the Department...

  10. The H.264 Advanced Video Compression Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Iain E

    2010-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding or MPEG-4 Part 10 is fundamental to a growing range of markets such as high definition broadcasting, internet video sharing, mobile video and digital surveillance. This book reflects the growing importance and implementation of H.264 video technology. Offering a detailed overview of the system, it explains the syntax, tools and features of H.264 and equips readers with practical advice on how to get the most out of the standard.: Packed with clear examples and illustrations to explain H.264 technology in an accessible and practical way.; Covers basic video coding co

  11. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 264.1053... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor.... (b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be: (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 264.11 - Identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification number. 264.11 Section... Facility Standards § 264.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746)....

  13. 40 CFR 264.343 - Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards. 264.343 Section...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.343 Performance standards. An incinerator burning hazardous waste must be...

  14. 40 CFR 264.341 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 264.341 Section 264.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...

  15. 40 CFR 264.270 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264... treat or dispose of hazardous waste in land treatment units, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise....

  16. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.93 Hazardous constituents. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  17. 40 CFR 264.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.250... treat hazardous waste in piles, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (b) The regulations in...

  18. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  19. 37 CFR 2.64 - Final action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 2.64 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.64 Final action. (a) On the first or any subsequent reexamination or reconsideration the refusal of...

  20. Properties of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ Nucleus under the Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lütfüoğlu, B C

    2016-01-01

    The energy eigenvalues and the wave functions of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ nucleus were calculated by solving Schr\\"odinger equation for Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon potential. Using the energy spectrum by excluding and including the quasi-bound eigenvalues, entropy, internal energy, Helmholtz energy, and specific heat, as functions of reduced temperature were calculated. Stability and emission characteristics are interpreted in terms of the wave and thermodynamic functions. The kinetic energy of a decayed $\\alpha$ particle was calculated using the quasi-bound states, which is found close to the experimental value.

  1. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSI264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16289-1 SSI264Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI264Z 714 - - - - Show SSI264 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI264 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI2-C/SSI264Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI26...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI264 (SSI264Q) /CSM/SS/SSI2-C/SSI264Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...rdst*rsil*fnv vrsrry*tmatitkrcrlvirk*shcrv*tyqws*phlscssigtrrl*iyv***fshcl vcsklll*mw*crfhpftq*klg*rfqnfpsrs

  3. 40 CFR 264.91 - Required programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.91 Required programs. (a) Owners and operators subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 264.271 - Treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land... land treatment program that is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment program. 264.271 Section...

  5. 40 CFR 264.1200 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous... to owners or operators who store munitions and explosive hazardous wastes, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (NOTE: Depending on explosive hazards, hazardous waste munitions and explosives may also...

  6. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 264.272 - Treatment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.272 Treatment demonstration. (a) For each waste that will be applied to the treatment zone, the owner or operator must demonstrate, prior to application of the waste, that...

  8. 21 CFR 26.4 - Product coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.4 Product coverage. (a) The provisions of... CFR 101.2, “veterinary immunologicals” are referred to as “veterinary biologicals”) are excluded...

  9. 40 CFR 264.4 - Imminent hazard action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent hazard action. 264.4 Section 264.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... § 264.4 Imminent hazard action. Notwithstanding any other provisions of these regulations,...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery... attached to, or forming an integral part of any machinery shall be removed or made ineffective except...

  11. 42 CFR 422.264 - Calculation of savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of savings. 422.264 Section 422.264 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Plan Approval § 422.264 Calculation of savings. (a) Computation of risk adjusted bids...

  12. 40 CFR 264.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility. 264.150 Section 264.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 264.150 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either...

  13. 50 CFR 648.264 - Gear requirements/restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.264 Gear requirements/restrictions. (a) Limited... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear requirements/restrictions. 648.264 Section 648.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  14. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  15. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must...

  16. 29 CFR 779.264 - Excise taxes separately stated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes separately stated. 779.264 Section 779.264... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.264 Excise taxes separately stated. A tax is separately stated where it clearly... was no invoice or sales slip. In the absence of a sales slip or invoice, the amount of the tax...

  17. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLH264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLH2-C/SLH264Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLH26...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLH264 (SLH264Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-C/SLH264Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...APPERKYSVWIGGSILASLSTFQQ MWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesashtnkyi*mynnnki*lflmvvdlyptik Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames...CDVDIRKDLY GNVVLSGGTTMFPGIADRMNKELTALAPSTMKIKIIAPPERKYSVWIGGSILASLSTFQQ MWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesashtnk...0 m_ : 1.00 36.0 %: nuclear 32.0 %: cytoplasmic 24.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial >> pre

  19. New isotope 264Sg and decay properties of 262-264Sg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorich, K.E.; Gates, J.M.; Duellmann, Ch.E.; Sudowe, R.; Nelson, S.L.; Garcia, M.A.; Dragojevic, I.; Folden, C.M. III.; Neumann,S.H.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nitsche, H.

    2006-06-20

    New isotope, 264Sg, was identified using the38U(30Si,xn)268-xSg reaction and excitation functions for 262-264Sg weremeasured. 264Sg decays by spontaneous fission with a half life of 37+27/-11 ms. The spontaneous fission branch for 0.9-s 263Sg was measuredfor the first time and found to be (13+-8) percent. 262Sg decays byspontaneous fission with a 15 +5/-3 ms half-life. Spontaneous fissionpartial half-life systematics are evaluated for even-even Sg isotopesfrom 258Sg through 266Sg, spanning the transition region between theN=152, Z=100 and N=162, Z=108 deformed shells.

  20. AN EFFICIENT WATERMARKING SCHEME FOR H.264/AVC COMPRESSED VIDEO

    OpenAIRE

    Dawen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Since H.264/AVC is the most widely-deployed video coding standard and has gained dominance, the necessity of copyright protection and authentication that are appropriate for this standard is unquestionable. According to H.264/AVC specific codec architecture, an efficient watermarking scheme for H.264/AVC video is proposed. The watermark information is embedded into quantized residual coefficients by slightly modulating the coefficients with specific symbol encoding, instead of directly adding...

  1. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for closure. 264.142... Financial Requirements § 264.142 Cost estimate for closure. (a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with...

  2. 31 CFR 26.4 - Comments on MDB projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comments on MDB projects. 26.4 Section 26.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF... through the WGMA. (c) Consideration of comments. The WGMA will consider all comments made by the...

  3. 40 CFR 264.35 - Required aisle space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required aisle space. 264.35 Section... Preparedness and Prevention § 264.35 Required aisle space. The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to... Regional Administrator that aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes....

  4. 40 CFR 264.171 - Condition of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 264.171... Use and Management of Containers § 264.171 Condition of containers. If a container holding hazardous... leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container...

  5. 40 CFR 264.173 - Management of containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 264.173... Use and Management of Containers § 264.173 Management of containers. (a) A container holding hazardous... container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture...

  6. 40 CFR 264.99 - Compliance monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance monitoring program. 264.99... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.99 Compliance monitoring program. An owner or...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHF264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHF264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHF264P (Link to Original ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  8. 40 CFR 264.95 - Point of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.95 Point of compliance. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  9. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....92 Section 264.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CFG264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CF (Link to library) CFG264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14176-1 CFG264E (Link to Original ... scsiytr irv*fnttifsttti**sqw*tttttttic*sttrrhck*rt*car **kk*xlcccinyc srl*cwtrrch*stss**rtyxfikt*gws*scqsk ...

  11. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of tax on wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the...

  12. 36 CFR 264.5 - Power to revoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power to revoke. 264.5... MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.5 Power to revoke. All authorities and licenses granted.... The Chief may also revoke any license or authorization when there is a failure to comply with...

  13. The H.264/MPEG4 advanced video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromek, Artur

    2009-06-01

    H.264/MPEG4-AVC is the newest video coding standard recommended by International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Section (ITU-T) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG). The H.264/MPEG4-AVC has recently become leading standard for generic audiovisual services, since deployment for digital television. Nowadays is commonly used in wide range of video application ranging like mobile services, videoconferencing, IPTV, HDTV, video storage and many more. In this article, author briefly describes the technology applied in the H.264/MPEG4-AVC video coding standard, the way of real-time implementation and the way of future development.

  14. Improved Intra-coding Methods for H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Song

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The H.264/AVC design adopts a multidirectional spatial prediction model to reduce spatial redundancy, where neighboring pixels are used as a prediction for the samples in a data block to be encoded. In this paper, a recursive prediction scheme and an enhanced (block-matching algorithm BMA prediction scheme are designed and integrated into the state-of-the-art H.264/AVC framework to provide a new intra coding model. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the coding efficiency can be on average increased by 0.27 dB with comparison to the performance of the conventional H.264 coding model.

  15. Engineering a fully GPU-accelerated H.264 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Deng, Yangdong S.

    2013-07-01

    H.264/AVC is the most popular video coding standard and playing an essential role in today's Internet based content-delivery businesses. H.264's encoding process is highly computationally expensive due to the integration of complex video coding techniques. As a result, transcoding has become a bottleneck of content-hosting services. Recently, general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) is rapidly rising as a popular computing model to expedite time-consuming applications. In this paper, we propose a fully GPU-accelerated H.264 encoder. Experimental results show that a 100% speed-up ratio can be achieved.

  16. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  17. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 264 - Political Jurisdictions 1 in Which Compliance With § 264.18(a) Must Be Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political Jurisdictions 1 in Which Compliance With § 264.18(a) Must Be Demonstrated VI Appendix VI to Part 264 Protection of Environment...—Political Jurisdictions 1 in Which Compliance With § 264.18(a) Must Be Demonstrated Alaska Aleutian...

  19. Efficient video downscaling transcoder from MPEG-2 to H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-wen WANG; Jun SUN; Rong XIE; Song-yu YU

    2008-01-01

    The new H.264 video coding standard achieves significantly higher compression performance than MPEG-2. As the MPEG-2 is popular in digital TV, DVD, etc., bandwidth or memory space can be saved by transcoding those streams into H.264 in these applications. Unfortunately, the huge complexity keeps transcoding from being widely used in practical applications. This paper proposes an efficient transcoding architecture with a smart downscaling decoder and a fast mode decision algorithm. Using the proposed architecture, huge buffering memory space is saved and the transcoding complexity is reduced. Performance of the proposed fast mode decision algorithm is validated by experiments.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSD264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSD264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16249-1 SSD264Z (Link to Original ... 6 chromo... 35 1.4 AB267386_1( AB267386 |pid:none) Nepenthes ... alata NaTLP1c mRNA for t... 34 2.4 AB267385_1( AB2 ... 67385 |pid:none) Nepenthes ... alata NaTLP1b mRNA for t... 34 2.4 protein update ...

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFN264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFN264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - AFN264Z 53 ... 03344 ) Dictyostelium discoideum mRNA for cysteine proteina ... 1041 0.0 1 ( C92839 ) Dictyostelium discoideum ... ts: (bits) Value ( P04989 ) RecName: Full=Cysteine proteina se 2; EC=3.4.22... 347 1e-94 ( P54640 ) RecName: Fu ... ll=Cysteine proteina se 5; EC=3.4.22... 186 3e-46 L36205_1( L36205 |pid: ...

  2. Optimization on H.264 De-blocking Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed, Abdul-Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    H.264/AVC is the state-of-the-art video coding standard which promises to achieve same video quality at about half the bit rate of previous standards (H.263, MPEG-2). This tremendous achievement in compression and perceptual quality is due to the inclusion of various innovative tools. These tools are highly complex and data intensive as a result poses very heavy computational burden on the processors. De-blocking filter is one among them, it is the most time consuming part of the H.264/AVC re...

  3. 40 CFR 264.315 - Special requirements for containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for containers... FACILITIES Landfills § 264.315 Special requirements for containers. Unless they are very small, such as an ampule, containers must be either: (a) At least 90 percent full when placed in the landfill; or...

  4. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of...

  5. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1201 Design and operating standards. (a) Hazardous waste munitions and explosives storage units must be designed and operated with...

  6. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator...

  7. Adaptive deblocking and deringing of H.264/AVC video sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to reduce blocking and ringing artifacts in H.264/AVC video sequences. For deblocking, the proposed method uses a quality measure of a block based coded image to find filtering modes. Based on filtering modes, the images are segmented to three classes and a specific deblocking...

  8. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition, certain... closure plan must include, at least: (1) A description of how each hazardous waste management unit at the....112 Section 264.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  9. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The...

  10. EFFICIENT PU MODE DECISION AND MOTION ESTIMATION FOR H.264/AVC TO HEVC TRANSCODER

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Yi Chen; Jiunn-Tsair Fang; Tsai-Ling Liao; Pao-Chi Chang1

    2014-01-01

    H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applications. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC), had been finalized in 2013. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU) decision and the fast motion estimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the modes, residuals, and variance of motion vectors (MVs) extracted from H.264/AVC can be ...

  11. 45 CFR 264.0 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 264.0 Section 264.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OTHER ACCOUNTABILITY PROVISIONS § 264.0 What...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 264 - Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste V Appendix V to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. V Appendix V to Part 264—Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste...

  13. 40 CFR 264.51 - Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plan. 264.51 Section 264.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan. (a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The...

  14. 40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.114 Disposal or...

  15. 27 CFR 44.264a - To a foreign-trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To a foreign-trade zone. 44.264a Section 44.264a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Warehouses Notice of Removal of Shipment § 44.264a To a foreign-trade zone. Where cigars are withdrawn from...

  16. An embedded Video Transmission System Based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing-min; LAN Ya-zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,an embedded Video Transmission System based on H.264 is proposed.In this system,the latest video compression standards-H.264 is used as video codec algorithm,the i.mx27 is used as the center processors of the system,embedded Linux is used as the operating system and RTP/UDP is used as the network transmission protocol.The paper introduces the design way and the frame of the system.The test results of the system show that the proposed system can support good quality transmission of the video information.The parameters with the transmission are D1,720*480,30fps and 4Mbps.In addition,in order to ensure the security of the video information in the transmission,the system provides the encryption to the information in the process of compressing.

  17. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kulla; Huska, J.

    2007-01-01

    Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatia...

  18. Efficient reversible data hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2014-09-01

    Due to the security and privacy-preserving requirements for cloud data management, it is sometimes desired that video content is accessible in an encrypted form. Reversible data hiding in the encrypted domain is an emerging technology, as it can perform data hiding in encrypted videos without decryption, which preserves the confidentiality of the content. Furthermore, the original cover can be losslessly restored after decryption and data extraction. An efficient reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted H.264/AVC videos is proposed. During H.264/AVC encoding, the intraprediction mode, motion vector difference, and the sign bits of the residue coefficients are encrypted using a standard stream cipher. Then, the data-hider who does not know the original video content, may reversibly embed secret data into the encrypted H.264/AVC video by using a modified version of the histogram shifting technique. A scale factor is utilized for selecting the embedding zone, which is scalable for different capacity requirements. With an encrypted video containing hidden data, data extraction can be carried out either in the encrypted or decrypted domain. In addition, real reversibility is realized so that data extraction and video recovery are free of any error. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  19. Error Robust H.264 Video Transmission Schemes Based on Multi-frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红斌; 余松煜; 王慈

    2004-01-01

    Multi-frame coding is supported by the emerging H. 264. It is important for the enhancement of both coding efficiency and error robustness. In this paper, error resilient schemes for H. 264 based on multi-frame were investigated. Error robust H. 264 video transmission schemes were introduced for the applications with and without a feedback channel. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  20. Dicty_cDB: VFM264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RHTINNGFDQLVPSFLALFKGTN Frame B: yiftqqkikk*nkink*ktnyksniiiiynk*ink*nknkkygs**tncikkshrkwytn fggf*renf*ifn*rikk*rssskirds...( BA000028 |pid:none) Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831... 136 2e-59 CP001022_791( CP001022 |pid:none) Exiguobacterium sibir...D VFM264 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U14685-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.bi...ick*nrynisaigiiplsfgygrins lsrsqrdrrtktr*nhgnqrcsrcsrsigr--- ---kxkvxxl*vx*vxxxr*ntxsmn*vlmsv*itihqlikti*qkq...LSVLGMVGLTA YHGLKEIAEPKQGETMVISAAAGAVGQLVG--- ---nxrxxxcryxrxxxxdkihxr*irf*crcklqftnl*rrysksnskwc*yilgecww c

  1. Perceptual importance analysis for H.264/AVC bit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The existing H.264/AVC rate control schemes rarely include the perceptual considerations. As a result, the improvements in visual quality are hardly comparable to those in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In this paper, we propose a perceptual importance analysis scheme to accurately abstract the spatial and temporal perceptual characteristics of video contents. Then we perform bit allocation at macroblock (MB) level by adopting a perceptual mode decision scheme, which adaptively updates the Lagrangian multiplier for mode decision according to the perceptual importance of each MB. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce bit rates without visual quality degradation.

  2. An efficient scheme of IDCT optimization in H.264 decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guoxing

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes an efficient scheme of IDCT in H.264 decoder. Firstly, motion compensation residuals of macro-block get from the bit-stream are classified into four cases: only dc coefficient is non-zero, only first row coefficients are non-zero, only first column coefficients are non-zero and others, and it is obvious that inverse transform processing of previous cases can be optimized, so in the second, we use different processing of IDCT in different cases to reduce their complexity. Compared with traditional IDCT scheme, the proposed scheme achieves an average 51.8% reduction in computation complexity without degradation in visual quality.

  3. Entropy coders of the H.264/AVC standard

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Xiaohua; Lian, Yong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a collection of algorithms and VLSI architectures of entropy (or statistical) codecs of recent video compression standards, with focus on the H.264/AVC standard. For any visual data compression scheme, there exists a combination of two, or all of the following three stages: spatial, temporal, and statistical compression. General readers are first introduced with the various algorithms of the statistical coders. The VLSI implementations are also reviewed and discussed. Readers with limited hardware design background are also introduced with a design methodology starting from

  4. Statistical analysis of H.264/VAC de blocking filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest video coding standard, H.264/AVC uses in-loop deblocking filter for suppression of blocking artifacts at low bit rates. The deblocking filter can effectively suppress the blocking artifacts due to low bit rate video coding, however it is highly computationally complex. This paper describes statistical analysis of H.264/AVC deblocking filter for various QCIF sequences. The deblocking filtering phenomenon can be divided into two steps: decision to apply filter (no filter/strong filter/normal filter) and application of filter. Number of operations: additions, shifts and comparisons spent in deblocking filter are measured. Moreover, frequency of usage of strong and normal filter for various video sequences is computed. It has been found that 88.49% of average number of operations is spent to take decision about type of filter (no filter/normal filter/strong filter) whereas 11.51% of average number of operations is spent for filtering of samples for various QCIF video sequences. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of H.264 decoder on different processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.Prasantha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding is the newest video coding standard of the moving video coding experts group. The decoder is standardized by imposing restrictions on the bit stream and syntax, and defining the process of decoding syntax elements such that every decoder conforming to the standard will produce similar output when encoded bit stream is provided as input. It uses state of art coding tools and provides enhanced coding efficiency for a wide range of applications, including video telephony, real-time video conferencing, direct-broadcast TV (television, blue-ray disc, DVB (Digital video broadcast broadcast, streaming video and others. The paper proposes to port the H.264/AVC decoder on the various processors such as TI DSP (Digital signal processor, ARM (Advanced risk machines and P4 (Pentium processors. The paper also proposesto analyze and compare Video Quality Metrics for different encoded video sequences. The paper proposes to investigate the decoder performance on different processors with and without deblocking filter and compare the performance based on different video quality measures.

  6. 支持MBAFF的H.264环路滤波的硬件实现%Realization of H.264 Loop Filter Hardware Supported MBAFF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2012-01-01

      This article focuses on hardware implementation of the H.264 decoder’s loop filter supporting MBAFF. A proposal with 30MHZ system clock is put forward.%  讨论基于H.264并支持MBAFF的环路滤波器的硬件实现,给出了在30MHZ时钟频率下的一种硬件实现方案.

  7. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each existing drip pad as defined in § 264.570 of this subpart, the owner or operator must evaluate the drip pad...

  8. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator must: (1) Continue all operations (including pH control) necessary to maximize degradation... growth of food-chain crops under § 264.276; (7) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in compliance with § 264.278, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last...

  9. Temporal scalability comparison of the H.264/SVC and distributed video codec

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, E.; Forchhammer, Søren

    The problem of the multimedia scalable video streaming is a current topic of interest. There exist many methods for scalable video coding. This paper is focused on the scalable extension of H.264/AVC (H.264/SVC) and distributed video coding (DVC). The paper presents an efficiency comparison of SVC...

  10. 40 CFR 264.256 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.256 Section 264.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before...

  11. 40 CFR 264.229 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.229 Section 264.229 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated,...

  12. 40 CFR 264.312 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.312 Section 264.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...) is complied with. (b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards...

  13. 40 CFR 264.1033 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sealed (e.g., a welded joint between two sections of hard piping or a bolted and gasketed ducting flange... control devices. 264.1033 Section 264.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... systems and control devices. (a)(1) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems and control devices used...

  14. Efficient PU Mode Decision and Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yi Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applications. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had been finalized in 2013. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion estimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the modes, residuals, and variance of motion vectors (MVs extracted from H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current encoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MVs from H.264/AVC are used to decide the search range of PU during motion estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.

  15. A Fast PU Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Tsair Fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applic ations. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had b een finalized recently. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion e stimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the motion vectors (MVs, resid uals, and modes from each coding block of H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current e ncoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MV variance from H.264/AVC is calculated to decide the search range of PU and also to reduce the prediction mode. Simulation results show that t he proposed method can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.

  16. Design of an H.264/SVC resilient watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Robrecht; Dooms, Ann; Barbarien, Joeri; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rapid dissemination of media technologies has lead to an increase of unauthorized copying and distribution of digital media. Digital watermarking, i.e. embedding information in the multimedia signal in a robust and imperceptible manner, can tackle this problem. Recently, there has been a huge growth in the number of different terminals and connections that can be used to consume multimedia. To tackle the resulting distribution challenges, scalable coding is often employed. Scalable coding allows the adaptation of a single bit-stream to varying terminal and transmission characteristics. As a result of this evolution, watermarking techniques that are robust against scalable compression become essential in order to control illegal copying. In this paper, a watermarking technique resilient against scalable video compression using the state-of-the-art H.264/SVC codec is therefore proposed and evaluated.

  17. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, L; Thyagharajan, K K

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method. PMID:26221623

  18. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient. Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

  19. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, L.; Thyagharajan, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method. PMID:26221623

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy of Q1100 - 264 again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carswell, R.F.; Lanzetta, K.M.; Parnell, H.C.; Webb, J.K. (Cambridge University (England) Oxford University (England) Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge (England))

    1991-04-01

    The results of echelle spectrometry with resolution less than about 9 km/s of the Ly-alpha forest region of Q1100 - 264 are described. The Ly-alpha forest systems show a range of Doppler parameters from 12 km/s to about 80 km/s, with rather large uncertainties for the low H I column density systems particularly. Few of these systems have low Doppler parameters, and there is no significant trend of Doppler parameter with H I column density, in contrast with the results of Pettini et al. from the study of a different quasar. The six heavy element systems with lines in the observed spectral region are all found to have complex velocity structure, on scales ranging from less than about 10 km/s to about 150 km/s. 17 refs.

  1. High-resolution spectroscopy of Q1100 - 264 again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of echelle spectrometry with resolution less than about 9 km/s of the Ly-alpha forest region of Q1100 - 264 are described. The Ly-alpha forest systems show a range of Doppler parameters from 12 km/s to about 80 km/s, with rather large uncertainties for the low H I column density systems particularly. Few of these systems have low Doppler parameters, and there is no significant trend of Doppler parameter with H I column density, in contrast with the results of Pettini et al. from the study of a different quasar. The six heavy element systems with lines in the observed spectral region are all found to have complex velocity structure, on scales ranging from less than about 10 km/s to about 150 km/s. 17 refs

  2. 45 CFR 264.30 - What procedures exist to ensure cooperation with the child support enforcement requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures exist to ensure cooperation with the child support enforcement requirements? 264.30 Section 264.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... for Other Program Penalties? § 264.30 What procedures exist to ensure cooperation with the...

  3. 45 CFR 264.70 - What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provisional payment of contingency funds? 264.70 Section 264.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Contingency Fund? § 264.70 What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds? (a) In order to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds, a State must: (1) Be a...

  4. 45 CFR 264.72 - What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... receives contingency funds? 264.72 Section 264.72 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Contingency Fund? § 264.72 What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds? (a)(1) A State must meet a Contingency Fund MOE level of 100 percent of historic State expenditures for FY...

  5. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of...

  6. pB264, a small, mobilizable, temperature sensitive plasmid from Rhodococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Devin H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus have shown an extraordinary capacity for metabolizing recalcitrant organic compounds. One hindrance to the full exploitation of Rhodococcus is the dearth of genetic tools available for strain manipulation. To address this issue, we sought to develop a plasmid-based system for genetic manipulation of a variety of Rhodococcus strains. Results We isolated and sequenced pB264, a 4,970 bp cryptic plasmid from Rhodococcus sp. B264-1 with features of a theta-type replication mechanism. pB264 was nearly identical to pKA22, a previously sequenced but uncharacterized cryptic plasmid. Derivatives of pB264 replicate in a diverse range of Rhodococcus species, showing that this plasmid does not bear the same host range restrictions that have been exhibited by other theta replicating plasmids. Replication or maintenance of pB264 is inhibited at 37°C, making pB264 useful as a suicide vector for genetic manipulation of Rhodococcus. A series of deletions revealed that ca. 1.3 kb from pB264 was sufficient to support replication and stable inheritance of the plasmid. This region includes two open reading frames that encode functions (RepAB that can support replication of pB264 derivatives in trans. Rhodococcus sp. B264-1 will mobilize pB264 into other Rhodococcus species via conjugation, making it possible to genetically modify bacterial strains that are otherwise difficult to transform. The cis-acting element (oriT required for conjugal transfer of pB264 resides within a ca. 0.7 kb region that is distinct from the regions responsible for replication. Conclusion Shuttle vectors derived from pB264 will be useful for genetic studies and strain improvement in Rhodococcus, and will also be useful for studying the processes of theta replication and conjugal transfer among actinomycetes.

  7. A simplified rate control algorithm for H.264/SVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Y.; Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2011-06-01

    The objective of scalable video coding is to enable the generation of a unique bitstream that can adapt to various bitrates, transmission channels and display capabilities. The scalability is categorised in terms of temporal, spatial, and quality. Effective Rate Control (RC) has important ramifications for coding efficiency, and also channel bandwidth and buffer constraints in real-time communication. The main target of RC is to reduce the disparity between the actual and target bit-rates. In order to meet the target bitrate, a predicted Mean of Absolute Difference (MAD) between frames is used in a rate-quantisation model to obtain the Quantisation Parameter (QP) for encoding the current frame. The encoding process exploits the interdependencies between video frames; therefore the MAD does not change abruptly unless the scene changes significantly. After the scene change, the MAD will maintain a stable slow increase or decrease. Based on this observation, we developed a simplified RC algorithm. The scheme is divided in two steps; firstly, we predict scene changes, secondly, in order to suppress the visual quality, we limit the change in QP value between two frames to an adaptive range. This limits the need to use the rate-quantisation model to those situations where the scene changes significantly. To assess the proposed algorithm, comprehensive experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces encoding time whilst maintaining similar rate distortion performance, compared to both the H.264/SVC reference software and recently reported work.

  8. Mode decision for H.264 down-scaling video transcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the coding modes of H. 264 coded video would be changed by the transcoding process of spatial resolution reduction, there exists good correlation in prediction modes and prediction directions between input and output video. In this paper, we first introduce a new spatial resolution reduction transcoding architecture of intra coded frames where the distortion can be calculated directly in compression domain. We then propose a fast mode decision algorithm in which only a small part of rate distortion optimization (RDO) calculation is needed for mode decision. For 4 × 4 luma block, the proposed scheme has average 21.3% computation saving, compared to the cascaded pixel-domain transcoding scheme with the fast intra mode decision algorithm proposed in JVT-G013[11] . For 16 × 16 luma block, RDO calculation is completely avoided in our scheme while the scheme in JVT-G013 needs 2 RDO calculations. Experimental results show that our scheme outperforms that of JVT-G013 in terms of significantly computation savings with negligible loss of PSNR.

  9. The Presenilin 1 P264L mutation presenting as non-fluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, C. J.; Downey, L. E.; Beck, J; Liang, Y; Mead, S; Perry, R. J.; Warren, J D

    2013-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) represents a diverse group of language-led dementias most often due to frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We report clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data in the case of a 47-year-old woman presenting with non-fluent PPA due to a genetically confirmed pathogenic Presenilin 1 P264L mutation. This case highlights an unusual clinical presentation of familial Alzheimer's disease and a novel presentation of the P264L mutation. The case adds to accumul...

  10. Spread Spectrum-Based Watermarking for Tardos Code-Based Fingerprinting for H.264/AVC Video

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Zafar; Chaumont, Marc; Puech, William

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for active finger-printing of state of the art video codec H.264/AVC. Tardos probabilistic fingerprinting code is embedded in H.264/AVC video signals using spread spectrum watermarking technique. Different linear and non-linear collusion attacks have been performed in the pixel domain to show the robustness of the proposed approach. The embedding has been performed in the non-zero quantized transformed coefficients (QTCs) while taking into account th...

  11. Edge-preserving Intra Depth Coding based on Context-coding and H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren; Ortega, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    for edge-preserving intra depth compression based on H.264/AVC is presented. The proposed method introduces a new Intra mode specifically targeted to depth macroblocks with arbitrarily shaped edges, which are typically not efficiently represented by DCT. Edge macroblocks are partitioned into two...... performance. Experiments show that the proposed Intra mode can improve view synthesis performance: average Bjøntegaard bit rate savings of 25% have been reported over a standard H.264/AVC Intra coder....

  12. Robust Transmission of H.264/AVC Video Using Adaptive Slice Grouping and Unequal Error Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Argyropoulos, Savvas; Nikolaos V. Boulgouris; Michael G. Strintzis

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for the transmission of H.264/AVC video streams over lossy packet networks. The proposed scheme exploits the error resilient features of H.264/AVC codec and employs Reed-Solomon codes to protect effectively the streams. The optimal classification of macroblocks into slice groups and the optimal channel rate allocation are achieved by iterating two interdependent steps. Simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over other recent algorithms...

  13. Complexity adaptation in H.264/AVC video coder for static cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chanyul; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2009-01-01

    H.264/AVC uses variable block size motion estimation (VBSME) to improve coding gain. However, its complexity is significant and fixed regardless of the required quality or of the scene characteristics. In this paper, we propose an adaptive complexity algorithm based on using the Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT). VBS automatic partition and skip mode detection algorithms also are proposed. Experimental results show that 70% - 5% of the computation of H.264/AVC is required ...

  14. An Efficient Implementation of the Entire Transforms in the H.264/AVC Encoder using VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Rad; Ali Broumandnia

    2014-01-01

    The H.264/AVC standard achieves remarkable higher compression performance than the previous MPEG and H.26X standards. One of the computationally intensive units in the MPEG and H.26X video coding families is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). In this paper, we propose an efficient implementation of the DCT, inverse DCTs and the Hadamard transforms in the H.264/AVC encoder using VHDL. The synthesis results indicate that our implementation of the entire transforms achieves lower power, delay ...

  15. Effect of radiation on the expression of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Fei-Yue; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cancer radiation therapy can cause skeletal complications, such as osteopenia and osteoporosis. To understand the mechanism responsible for the skeletal complications, the expression profiles of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells were observed. Osteoclast formation was established by RAW264.7 cells that were treated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and detected using immunochemistry and morphological observations. Quantitative real-time polymerase ch...

  16. The Effect of Diphtheria Toxin on Nitric Oxide Induction From RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Aybay, Cemalettin

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effect of diphtheria toxin (DT) on nitric oxide (NO) production from RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was investigated. Griess reagent was used to determine NO production by measuring nitrite levels in the culture supernatants. Corynebacterium diphtheriae G12/6 strain-produced DT (Limes flocculation activity and immunodiffusion assays were positive) demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on RAW 264.7 macrophages to induce NO production. L-NAME, an L-arginine analogue, ...

  17. 基于Android系统的H.264视频压缩技术实现%Design of H.264 Video Compressing Based on Android System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光耀; 郭永清; 陈炀

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technical design of H.264 Video Compression based on Android platform.The terminal design of this scheme is based on the hardware platform of S3C6410 processor and software platform Android version 2.3.Through the graft of webcam USB driven on the terminal platform,the video images H.264 standard compression and Socket network programming,the Real-time display of network video monitor is realized.%提出了基于Android平台的H.264视频压缩技术设计方案,该方案终端设计是基于S3C6410处理器的硬件和Android 2.3版本的软件平台,通过终端USB摄像头的驱动移植、视频图像的H.264标准压缩以及Socket网络编程,实现网络视频监控的实时显示。

  18. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  19. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Makene, Vedastus W.; Pool, Edmund J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked i...

  20. Edge-preserving Intra mode for efficient depth map coding based on H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    view synthesis performance, which directly affects the overall system performance. This paper proposes a novel scheme for edge-aware Intra depth compression based on the H.264/AVC framework enabled on both Intra (I) and Inter (P) slices. The proposed scheme includes a new Intra mode specifically...... targeted to depth macroblocks with arbitrarily shaped edges, which are typically not predicted well by the standard Intra modes of H.264/AVC and result in high rate–distortion costs. The proposed algorithm segments edge macroblocks into two regions each approximated by a flat surface. A binary mask...

  1. Atomic Mass and NuclearBinding Energy for Uup-264(Ununpentium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Uup-264 (Ununpentium, atomic number Z = 115, mass number A = 264).

  2. A High performance and low power hardware architecture for H.264 cavlc algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Esra; Esra SAHIN; Hamzaoğlu, İlker; Hamzaoglu, Ilker

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high performance and low power hard-ware architecture for real-time implementation of Context Adap-tive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC) algorithm used in H.264 / MPEG4 Part 10 video coding standard. This hardware is designed to be used as part of a complete low power H.264 video coding system for portable applications. The proposed architecture is im-plemented in Verilog HDL. The Verilog RTL code is verified to work at 76 MHz in a Xilinx Virtex II FPGA and it is ver...

  3. A High performance and low cost hardware arcitecture for H.264 transform and quantization algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Taşdizen, Özgür; Tasdizen, Ozgur; Hamzaoğlu, İlker; Hamzaoglu, Ilker

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high performance and low cost hardware architecture for real-time implementation of forward transform and quantization and inverse transform and quantization algorithms used in H.264 / MPEG4 Part 10 video coding standard. The hard-ware architecture is based on a reconfigurable datapath with only one multiplier. This hardware is designed to be used as part of a complete low power H.264 video coding system for portable appli-cations. The proposed architecture is impl...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of brain penetrant prodrug of neuroprotective D-264: Potential therapeutic application in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholkawala, Fahd; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Dutta, Aloke K

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major debilitating neurodegenerative disorders affecting millions of people worldwide. Progressive loss of dopamine neurons resulting in development of motor dysfunction and other related non-motor symptoms is the hallmark of PD. Previously, we have reported on the neuroprotective property of a potent D3 preferring agonist D-264. In our goal to increase the bioavailability of D-264 in the brain, we have synthesized a modified cysteine based prodrug of D-264 and evaluated its potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel modified cysteine conjugated prodrug of potent neuroprotective D3 preferring agonist D-264 and systematic evaluation of the hydrolysis pattern of the prodrug to yield D-264 at different time intervals in rat plasma and brain homogenates using HPLC analysis. Furthermore, we have also performed in vivo experiments with the prodrug to evaluate its enhanced brain penetration ability. PMID:26994936

  5. Study on the mechanism of radiation-induced MCP-1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression mechanism of MCP-1 in gamma-irradiated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. MCP-1 plays an important role in attracting monocyte to injured site at the early inflammation stage. However the production mechanism of MCP-1 by gamma-irradiation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was almost undiscovered. We found that MCP-1 was produced in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by irradiation with 5 Gy. And these increases were attenuated by specific inhibitors treatment, such as NF-KB, JNK, ERK, JAK2, and Pyk2. These results indicate that radiation-induced MCP-1 production is mediated by MyD88-and TRIF-dependent pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However this induction level was reduced before MCP-1 and IFN-β production

  6. 40 CFR 264.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for post-closure care... FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 264.144 Cost estimate for post-closure care. (a) The owner or operator of.... (1) The post-closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner or operator of hiring...

  7. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent bone resorbing factor. The effect of LPS on osteoclast formation was examined by using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LPS-induced the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in RAW 264.7 cells 3 days after the exposure. MGCs were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Further, MGC formed resorption pits on calcium-phosphate thin film that is a substrate for osteoclasts. Therefore, LPS was suggested to induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced osteoclast formation was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody, but not antibodies to macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). TNF-α might play a critical role in LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB and stress activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) prevented the LPS-induced osteoclast formation. The detailed mechanism of LPS-induced osteoclast formation is discussed

  8. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Eybye, Peder Tanderup

    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...

  9. FPSoC-Based Architecture for a Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju Ndili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for high quality video on low power, portable devices. Possible target applications range from entertainment and personal communications to security and health care. While H.264/AVC answers the need for high quality video at lower bit rates, it is significantly more complex than previous coding standards and thus results in greater power consumption in practical implementations. In particular, motion estimation (ME, in H.264/AVC consumes the largest power in an H.264/AVC encoder. It is therefore critical to speed-up integer ME in H.264/AVC via fast motion estimation (FME algorithms and hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present our hardware oriented modifications to a hybrid FME algorithm, our architecture based on the modified algorithm, and our implementation and prototype on a PowerPC-based Field Programmable System on Chip (FPSoC. Our results show that the modified hybrid FME algorithm on average, outperforms previous state-of-the-art FME algorithms, while its losses when compared with FSME, in terms of PSNR performance and computation time, are insignificant. We show that although our implementation platform is FPGA-based, our implementation results compare favourably with previous architectures implemented on ASICs. Finally we also show an improvement over some existing architectures implemented on FPGAs.

  10. Optimal complexity scalable H.264/AVC video decoding scheme for portable multimedia devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Younghyeon; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2013-07-01

    Limited computing resources in portable multimedia devices are an obstacle in real-time video decoding of high resolution and/or high quality video contents. Ordinary H.264/AVC video decoders cannot decode video contents that exceed the limits set by their processing resources. However, in many real applications especially on portable devices, a simplified decoding with some acceptable degradation may be desirable instead of just refusing to decode such contents. For this purpose, a complexity-scalable H.264/AVC video decoding scheme is investigated in this paper. First, several simplified methods of decoding tools that have different characteristics are investigated to reduce decoding complexity and consequential degradation of reconstructed video. Then a complexity scalable H.264/AVC decoding scheme is designed by selectively combining effective simplified methods to achieve the minimum degradation. Experimental results with the H.264/AVC main profile bitstream show that its decoding complexity can be scalably controlled, and reduced by up to 44% without subjective quality loss.

  11. RTP-based broadcast streaming of high definition H.264/AVC video: an error robustness evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HILLESTAD Odd Inge; JETLUND Ola; PERKIS Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present an evaluation of the performance and error robustness of RTP-based broadcast streaming of high-quality high-definition (HD) H.264/AVC video. Using a fully controlled IP test bed (Hillestad et al., 2005), we broadcast high-definition video over RTP/UDP, and use an IP network emulator to introduce a varying amount of randomly distributed packet loss. A high-performance network interface monitoring card is used to capture the video packets into a trace file. Purpose-built software parses the trace file, analyzes the RTP stream and assembles the correctly received NAL units into an H.264/AVC Annex B byte stream file, which is subsequently decoded by JVT JM 10.1 reference software. The proposed measurement setup is a novel, practical and intuitive approach to perform error resilience testing of real-world H.264/AVC broadcast applications. Through a series of experiments, we evaluate some of the error resilience features of the H.264/AVC standard, and see how they perform at packet loss rates from 0.01% to 5%. The results confirmed that an appropriate slice partitioning scheme is essential to have a graceful degradation in received quality in the case of packet loss. While flexible macroblock ordering reduces the compression efficiency about 1 dB for our test material, reconstructed video quality is improved for loss rates above 0.25%.

  12. 20 CFR 416.264 - When does the special SSI eligibility status apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does the special SSI eligibility status... Disabling Impairment § 416.264 When does the special SSI eligibility status apply. The special SSI... though you are in fact no longer receiving regular SSI benefits or special SSI cash benefits. You...

  13. CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuy T B; Khatri, Yogan; Zapp, Josef; Hutter, Michael C; Bernhardt, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Many terpenes and terpenoid compounds are known as bioactive substances with desirable fragrance and medicinal activities. Modification of such compounds to yield new derivatives with desired properties is particularly attractive. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are potential enzymes for these reactions due to their capability of performing different reactions on a variety of substrates. We report here the characterization of CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 as a novel sesquiterpene hydroxylase. CYP264B1 was able to convert various sesquiterpenes including nootkatone and norisoprenoids (α-ionone and β-ionone). Nootkatone, an important grapefruit aromatic sesquiterpenoid, was hydroxylated mainly at position C-13. The product has been shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity compared with other nootkatone derivatives. In addition, CYP264B1 was found to hydroxylate α- and β-ionone, important aroma compounds of floral scents, regioselectively at position C-3. The products, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone, were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The kinetics of the product formation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the K ( m ) and k (cat) values were calculated. The results of docking α-/β-ionone and nootkatone into a homology model of CYP264B1 revealed insights into the structural basis of these selective hydroxylations. PMID:22223101

  14. 40 CFR 264.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Landfills § 264.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of any cell, the owner or operator must cover the landfill or cell with a final cover designed and constructed to: (1) Provide long-term minimization of migration of liquids through the closed landfill;...

  15. 40 CFR 264.281 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste and the treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.281 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive...

  16. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart, the owner or operator...

  17. 20 CFR 1002.264 - Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? 1002.264 Section 1002.264 Employees' Benefits... and Benefits Pension Plan Benefits § 1002.264 Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? Yes, provided the plan is a defined benefit...

  18. 流化H.264编码的数据并行方法%Data Level Parallel Method of Streaming H.264 Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文梅; 任巨; 伍楠; 苏华友; 荀长庆; 张春元

    2011-01-01

    Stream processing model is a newly emerging parallel processing model, which is derived from media processing. However, as an important application of media processing, H.264 coding encounters problems during its streaming procedure. The main reason is that dependency limits the data level parallel exploitations. To solve this problem, data level parallel methods for different coding modules were developed by the analysis of coding algorithm. By adopting the method, key coding modules of H.264 can attain large data parallel granularity. Experiment results show that the data level parallel streaming inter/intra prediction, CAVLC, and the deblock filter can achieve outstanding acceleration.%流模型是一种源于媒体处理的新型并行计算模型.然而H.264编码作为媒体处理领域中的重要应用,在与流模型适配时,却出现重要障碍,主要是由于相关性问题极大地限制了流化过程中数据级并行的开发.针对这个问题,首先根据编码算法分析了编码过程中遇到的相关性问题,然后为各主要编码模块分别提出解除相关性限制的数据并行编码方法.采用这些方法能够保证大数据并行粒度,最终达到高效并行流化编码的目的.实验表明采用数据并行流化编码方法,帧间预测、帧内预测、熵编码和去块滤波模块都获得了显著加速.

  19. 基于 H.264的云端视频监控系统设计%Design of cloud video surveillance system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾博文; 沈永良; 张金富

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于 H.264视频编码算法并采用云服务器实现的视频监控系统设计方案。该方案是视频采集端与监控控制端分离的分布式监控系统。视频采集部分采用三星Exynos4412处理器基于Linux实时操作系统进行软件设计;视频实时编码采用FFmpeg音视频解决方案,对USB摄像头采集的视频基于 H.264编码,选用实时消息传输协议(RTMP)通过网络传输给监控控制端。监控控制端基于云服务器平台设计,云服务器选用流媒体直播服务器,对视频数据进行实时解码、播放与存储。测试结果显示,系统具有良好的实时性,满足了基本的设计需求。%A design method of the video surveillance system based on H.264 and cloud server is proposed . It is a distributed monitoring system which separates the video capture and monitor control into two parts . The software design of video capture part using a central processing unit from Samsung named Exynos4412 is based on the Linux real‐time operating system .The real‐time encoding of video uses FFmpeg solution which encodes the video captured by USB camera based on H.264 and then transmits it by real time messaging protocol through the Internet .The control and monitoring system is based on cloud server , adopting the live streaming server .It has the function of real‐time decoding ,real‐time playing and storage . According to the test results , the system has good real‐time capability and meets the need of design requirement .

  20. HDMI接口在H.264高清视频编码系统中的应用%Application HDMI in H.264 HD Video Encoding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏财贵; 叶宇煌; 苏凯雄

    2012-01-01

    The work principle of High-Definition Multimedia Interface and the standard of High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection is introduced. Then the structure and working characteristics of HDMI receiver chip are analyzed in detail. Based on H. 264 HD video real-time encoding system,a design of HDMI circuit is proposed, which includes hardware circuit and controlling software. The design support to receive and convert the uncompressed HD video, and output formats to meet the needs of the encoder chip.%简要介绍了HDMI接口工作原理和HDCP规范,详细分析了HDMI接收芯片的功能结构和工作特性,并给出了HDMI接口电路在H.264高清视频实时编码系统中的设计方法,设计的内容包括硬件电路和控制软件.该设计能够对未经压缩的高清视频信号进行采集和转换,输出符合编码芯片要求的视频格式.

  1. Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibit lipid accumulation and enhance cholesterol efflux in raw264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengjuan; Li, Jianke; Wang, Lifang; Wu, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-13

    Macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmarks of early atherogenesis. Many plant polyphenols have been shown to inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols on foam cells remains unclear. In this study, the potential atheroprotective actions of pomegranate peel polyphenols on cholesterol accumulation and outflow in raw264.7 macrophages, and the mechanisms, were investigated. The results showed that the pomegranate peel polyphenols reduced ox-LDL internalization to diminish foam cell formation, as measured by oil-red O staining in raw264.7 macrophages, which may be due to decreasing the macrophage CD36 protein expression and not SR-A. In addition, pomegranate peel polyphenols promoted apoA-1-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux by up-regulating ABCA1 and LXRα at the mRNA and protein levels, independently of ABCG1 and PPARγ. PMID:27334099

  2. A fast inter mode decision algorithm in H.264/AVC for IPTV broadcasting services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun-Yong; Yoon, Bin-Yeong; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2007-01-01

    The new video coding standard H.264/AVC employs the rate-distortion optimization (RDO) method for choosing the best coding mode. However, since it increases the encoder complexity tremendously, it is not suitable for real-time applications, such as IPTV broadcasting services. Therefore we need a fast mode decision algorithm to reduce its encoding time. In this paper, we propose a fast mode decision algorithm considering quantization parameter (QP) because we have noticed that the frequency of best modes depends on QP. In order to consider these characteristics, we use the coded block pattern (CBP) that has "0" value when all quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients are zero. We also use both the early SKIP mode and early 16x16 mode decisions. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the encoding time by 74.6% for the baseline profile and 72.8% for the main profile, compared to the H.264/AVC reference software.

  3. An Improved Frame-Layer Bit Allocation Scheme for H.264/AVC Rate Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gui-xu; ZHENG Shi-bao; ZHU Liang-jia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at improving the video quality degradation due to high motions or scene changes. An improved frame-layer bit allocation scheme for H.264/AVC rate control is proposed. First, current frame is pre-encoded in 16×16 modes with a fixed quantization parameter (QP). The frame coding complexity is then measured based on the resulting bits and peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) in the pre-coding stage. Finally, a bit budgetis calculated for current frame according to its coding complexity and inter-frame PSNR fluctuation, combined with the buffer status. Simulation results show that, in comparison with the H.264 adopted rate control scheme, our method is more efficient to suppress the sharp PSNR drops caused by high motions and scene changes. The visual quality variations in a sequence are also relieved.

  4. Low-complexity transcoding algorithm from H.264/AVC to SVC using data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Cantos, Rosario; De Cock, Jan; Martínez, Jose Luis; Van Leuven, Sebastian; Cuenca, Pedro; Garrido, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, networks and terminals with diverse characteristics of bandwidth and capabilities coexist. To ensure a good quality of experience, this diverse environment demands adaptability of the video stream. In general, video contents are compressed to save storage capacity and to reduce the bandwidth required for its transmission. Therefore, if these compressed video streams were compressed using scalable video coding schemes, they would be able to adapt to those heterogeneous networks and a wide range of terminals. Since the majority of the multimedia contents are compressed using H.264/AVC, they cannot benefit from that scalability. This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm to convert an H.264/AVC bitstream without scalability to scalable bitstreams with temporal scalability in baseline and main profiles by accelerating the mode decision task of the scalable video coding encoding stage using machine learning tools. The results show that when our technique is applied, the complexity is reduced by 87% while maintaining coding efficiency.

  5. Systematic lossy error protection of video based on H.264/AVC redundant slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Shantanu; Girod, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    We propose the use of H.264 redundant slices for Systematic Lossy Error Protection (SLEP) of a video signal transmitted over an error-prone channel. In SLEP, the video signal is transmitted to the decoder without channel coding. Additionally, a Wyner-Ziv encoded version of the video signal is transmitted in order to provide error-resilience. In the event of channel errors, the Wyner-Ziv description is decoded as a substitute for the error-prone portions of the primary video signal. Since the Wyner-Ziv description is typically coarser than the primary video signal, SLEP is a lossy error protection technique which trades-off residual quantization distortion for improved error-resilience properties, such as graceful degradation of decoder picture quality. We describe how H.264 redundant slices can be used to generate the Wyner-Ziv description, and present simulation results to demonstrate the advantages of this method over traditional methods such as FEC.

  6. A novel algorithm and architecture of combined direct 2-D transform and quantization for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-performance direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition. Simultaneity, this paper proposes a new direct 2-D transform and quantization architectures for H.264 video coding standard. The induced new transform and quantization architecture greatly increases the data processing rate and eliminates transform multiplication and transpose memory, and select different mode and quantization according to AC coefficient, DC coefficient, chrominance block and Luminance block. And this architecture just need to storage one quantization tables for Integer transform and Hadamard transform, but it can do two types of forward transforms and quantization just in one block.

  7. A novel dynamic frame rate control algorithm for H.264 low-bit-rate video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jing; Fang Xiangzhong

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to improve human visual perceptual quality as well as coding efficiency of H.264 video at low bit rate conditions by adaptively adjusting the number of skipped frames. The encoding frames ale selected according to the motion activity of each frame and the motion accumulation of successive frames. The motion activity analysis is based on the statistics of motion vectors and with consideration of the characteristics of H. 264 coding standard. A prediction model of motion accumulation is proposed to reduce complex computation of motion estimation. The dynamic encoding frame rate control algorithm is applied to both the frame level and the GOB (Group of Macroblocks) level. Simulation is done to compare the performance of JM76 with the proposed frame level scheme and GOB level scheme.

  8. USING H.264/AVC-INTRA FOR DCT BASED SEGMENTATION DRIVEN COMPOUND IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebenezer Juliet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a one pass block classification algorithm for efficient coding of compound images which consists of multimedia elements like text, graphics and natural images. The objective is to minimize the loss of visual quality of text during compression by separating text information which needs high special resolution than the pictures and background. It segments computer screen images into text/graphics and picture/background classes based on DCT energy in each 4x4 block, and then compresses both text/graphics pixels and picture/background blocks by H.264/AVC with variable quantization parameter. Experimental results show that the single H.264/AVC-INTRA coder with variable quantization outperforms single coders such as JPEG, JPEG-2000 for compound images. Also the proposed method improves the PSNR value significantly than standard JPEG, JPEG-2000 and while keeping competitive compression ratios.

  9. Enhanced Mode Selection Algorithm for H.264 encoder for Application in Low Computational power devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rungta, Sourabh; Tripathi, Neeta; Shukla, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the H.264 AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement. An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be applied to a wide variety of applications. To achieve better coding efficiency, H.264 AVC uses several techniques such as inter mode and intra mode prediction with variable size motion compensation, which adopts Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO). This increases the computational complexity of the encoder especially for devices with lower processing capabilities such as mobile and other handheld devices. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to reduce the number of mode and sub mode evaluations in inter mode prediction. Experimental results show that this fast intra mode selection algorithm can lessen about 75 percent encoding time with little loss of bit ...

  10. H.264/AVC error resilience tools suitable for 3G mobile video services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG San-yuan; ZHANG Yin

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of third generation mobile system (3G) makes video transmission in wireless environment possible,and the latest 3GPP/3GPP2 standards require 3G terminals support H.264/AVC. Due to high packet loss rate in wireless environment, error resilience for 3G terminals is necessary. Moreover, because of the hardware restrictions, 3G mobile terminals support only part of H.264/AVC error resilience tool. This paper analyzes various error resilience tools and their functions, and presents 2 error resilience strategies for 3G mobile streaming video services and mobile conversational services. Performances of the proposed error resilience strategies were tested using off-line common test conditions. Experiments showed that the proposed error resilience strategies can yield reasonably satisfactory results.

  11. Implementation of SAD Architecture for Motion Estimation in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Mohamed Niyas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a quiet uprising in digital video technology. The digital videos are been used in television, broadcasting, Internet and also in mobile phones. The uprising issues use H.264/AVC formats in video compression techniques. The SAD operation can be divided into two stages, viz. absolute and sum stage. Pipelining method is implemented as it is used in low power applications like mobile devices. For checking the functionality, HDL verification is done by using ModelSim Simulator. This paper represents the idea of yielding a faster outcome than real-time Full-Search (FS in Motion Estimation (ME for the main profile/main level of the H.264 standard. In order to generate the outcomes, we use TSMC 45 nm standard-cells library by using Cadence RTL Compiler tool and the obtained frequency of about 176.05 MHz.

  12. The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Jana; Pekarová, Michaela; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Nosál, R.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    Trenčianske Teplice, 2008. s. 82-83. ISSN 1337-6853. [TOXCON 2008, Integration of Toxicological Research Within V4, 13th Interdisciplinary Toxicology Conference. 27.05.2008-30.05.2008, Trenčianske Teplice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : dithiaden * nitric oxide * RAW 264.7 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. RVC-CAL dataflow implementations of MPEG AVC/H.264 CABAC decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Bezati, Endri; Mattavelli, Marco; Raulet, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the implementation of the MPEG AVC CABAC entropy decoder using the RVC-CAL dataflow programming language. CABAC is the Context based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding entropy decoder that is used by the MPEG AVC/H.264 main and high profile video standard. CABAC algorithm provides increased compression efficiency, however presents a higher complexity compared to other entropy coding algorithms. This implementation of the CABAC entropy decoder usin...

  14. A Novel Steganography Technique for SDTV-H.264/AVC Encoded Video

    OpenAIRE

    Di Laura, Christian; Pajuelo, Diego; Kemper, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Today, eavesdropping is becoming a common issue in the rapidly growing digital network and has foreseen the need for secret communication channels embedded in digital media. In this paper, a novel steganography technique designed for Standard Definition Digital Television (SDTV) H.264/AVC encoded video sequences is presented. The algorithm introduced here makes use of the compression properties of the Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC) entropy encoder to achieve a low complexity ...

  15. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Ohta; Atsushi Ido; Kie Kusano; Chiemi Miura; Takeshi Miura

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named "dipterose", with a molecular weight of 1.01 × 10(6) and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose w...

  16. ML264, A Novel Small-Molecule Compound That Potently Inhibits Growth of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Sabando, Ainara; Wang, Chao; He, Yuanjun; García-Barros, Mónica; Kim, Julie; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Bannister, Thomas D; Yang, Vincent W; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Western civilization. Studies have shown that colorectal cancer arises as a consequence of the modification of genes that regulate important cellular functions. Deregulation of the WNT and RAS/MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways has been shown to be important in the early stages of colorectal cancer development and progression. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the proliferating intestinal crypt epithelial cells. Previously, we showed that KLF5 is a mediator of RAS/MAPK and WNT signaling pathways under homeostatic conditions and that it promotes their tumorigenic functions during the development and progression of intestinal adenomas. Recently, using an ultrahigh-throughput screening approach we identified a number of novel small molecules that have the potential to provide therapeutic benefits for colorectal cancer by targeting KLF5 expression. In the current study, we show that an improved analogue of one of these screening hits, ML264, potently inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro through modifications of the cell-cycle profile. Moreover, in an established xenograft mouse model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that ML264 efficiently inhibits growth of the tumor within 5 days of treatment. We show that this effect is caused by a significant reduction in proliferation and that ML264 potently inhibits the expression of KLF5 and EGR1, a transcriptional activator of KLF5. These findings demonstrate that ML264, or an analogue, may hold a promise as a novel therapeutic agent to curb the development and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:26621868

  17. SEPS1 protects RAW264.7 cells from pharmacological ER stress agent-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kee-Hong; Gao, Yuan; Walder, Ken; Collier, Greg R.; Skelton, Joseph; Kissebah, Ahmed H.

    2007-01-01

    Selenoprotein S (SEPS1) is a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and it is known to play an important role in production of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show evidence that SEPS1 is stimulated by pharmacological ER stress agents in RAW264.7 macrophages as well as other cell types. Overexpression studies reveal a protective action of SEPS1 in macrophages against ER stress-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, resulting in promoting cell survival during ER stress. The protective ...

  18. Performance of an error detection mechanism for damaged H. 264/AVC sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Ikuno, Josep

    2007-01-01

    In mobile video applications, the error-prone wireless connection can cause the stream to be incorrectly received. An occurring error will propagate both spatially (in the current frame) and temporally (to the following frames). This work presents the implementation of an error detection and concealment mechanism for H.264/AVC encoded video and the design of a quality estimator. The detection is performed by means of two interacting strategies. At bit level, the syntax of th...

  19. Evidence for lipopolysaccharide-induced differentiation of RAW264⋅ 7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajiv K Saxena; Val Vallyathan; Daniel M Lewis

    2003-02-01

    Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was studied. LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells increased in cell size and acquired distinct dendritic morphology. At the optimal dose of LPS (1 g/ml), almost 70% RAW264.7 cells acquired dendritic morphology. Flow cytometric studies indicate that the cell surface markers known to be expressed on dendritic cells and involved in antigen presentation and T cell activation (B7.1, B7.2, CD40, MHC class II antigens and CD1d) were also markedly upregulated on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest the possibility that LPS by itself could constitute a sufficient signal for differentiation of macrophages into DC-like cells.

  20. Autophagy in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Surface-Functionalized Graphene Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cytotoxicity, particularly autophagy, in RAW264.7 cells exposed to graphene oxide (GO and its derivatives (dodecylamine-GO (DA-GO, reduced GO (rGO, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-rGO (SDS-rGO. Appearance of amine stretching bands, out-of-plane C-H stretching vibrations, and S=O stretching bands in infrared spectra indicated the formation of DA-GO, rGO, and SDS-rGO, respectively. Light microscopy and microculture tetrazolium assay showed that all the GO types exerted cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Higher concentrations of the GO types downregulated the expression of PU.1, a unique transcription factor in monocytes and macrophages, and decreased the conversion of LC3A/B-I to LC3A/B-II, suggesting that PU.1 was associated with autophagy in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that surface-functionalized GOs exerted cytotoxic effects in a concentration-dependent manner by changing the expression of critical genes and inducing autophagy in macrophages.

  1. Efficient MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC Transcoding of Intra-Coded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetro Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient transform-domain architecture and corresponding mode decision algorithms for transcoding intra-coded video from MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC. Low complexity is achieved in several ways. First, our architecture employs direct conversion of the transform coefficients, which eliminates the need for the inverse discrete cosine transform (DCT and forward H.264/AVC transform. Then, within this transform-domain architecture, we perform macroblock-based mode decisions based on H.264/AVC transform coefficients, which is possible using a novel method of calculating distortion in the transform domain. The proposed method for distortion calculation could be used to make rate-distortion optimized mode decisions with lower complexity. Compared to the pixel-domain architecture with rate-distortion optimized mode decision, simulation results show that there is a negligible loss in quality incurred by the direct conversion of transform coefficients and the proposed transform-domain mode decision algorithms, while complexity is significantly reduced. To further reduce the complexity, we also propose two fast mode decision algorithms. The first algorithm ranks modes based on a simple cost function in the transform domain, then computes the rate-distortion optimal mode from a reduced set of ranked modes. The second algorithm exploits temporal correlations in the mode decision between temporally adjacent frames. Simulation results show that these algorithms provide additional computational savings over the proposed transform-domain architecture while maintaining virtually the same coding efficiency.

  2. Moving objects extraction method in H.264/advanced video coding bit stream of a complex scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingsheng, Chen; Mingxin, Qin; Guangming, Liang; Jixiang, Sun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    For the purpose of extracting moving objects from H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) bit stream of a complex scene, an algorithm based on maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MRF) framework to extract moving objects directly from H.264 compressed video is proposed in this paper. It mainly involves encoding information of motion vectors (MVs) and block partition modes in H.264/AVC bit stream and utilizes temporal continuity and spatial consistency of moving object's pieces. First, it retrieves MVs and block partition modes of identical 4×4 pixel blocks in P frames and establishes Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the phase of MVs as a reference background, and then creates MRF model based on MVs, block partition modes, the GMM of the background, spatial, and temporal consistency. The moving objects are retrieved by solving the MRF model. The experimental results show that it can perform robustly in a complex environment and the precision and recall have been improved over the existing algorithm.

  3. Performance Comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC Video Coding Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Fu Wang; De-Bin Zhao

    2006-01-01

    A new audio and video compression standard of China, known as advanced Audio Video coding Standard (AVS),is emerging. This standard provides a technical solution for many applications within the information industry such as digital broadcast, high-density laser-digital storage media, and so on. The basic part of AVS, AVS1-P2, targets standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD) format video compression, and aims to achieve similar coding efficiency as H.264/AVC but with lower computational complexity. In this paper, we first briefly describe the major coding tools in AVS1-P2, and then perform the coding efficiency comparison between AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile and H.264/AVC main profile. The experimental results show that the AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile has an average of 2.96% efficiency loss relative to H.264/AVC main profile in terms of bit-rate saving on HD progressive-scan sequences, and an average of 28.52% coding loss on interlace-scan sequences.Nevertheless, AVS1-P2 possesses a valuable feature of lower computational complexity.

  4. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  5. Bayes-risk minimized intra/inter coding mode prediction for H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsung; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-03-01

    A feature-based coding mode prediction method is proposed to reduce the encoder complexity of the H.264 video coding standard in this work. The current H.264 reference codes employ exhaustive search to find the best mode that optimizes the rate-distortion performance among all possible intra/inter predictive modes. To develop a fast binary intra/inter-mode prediction scheme, we consider the expected risk of choosing the wrong mode in a multi-dimensional feature space. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. First, three features are extracted from the current macroblock. Second, the expected risk is calculated for the corresponding partition in the trained feature vector space, which is used to decide where the feature vector lies in one of the three regions depending on the expected risk, i.e. risk-free, risk-tolerable, and risk-intolerable regions. Finally, depending on the region to which the feature vector belongs, we can apply mechanisms of different complexities for final mode decision. For the likelihood estimation of the risk, parametric and non-parametric density estimation schemes are compared in terms of the rate-distortion-complexity tradeoff. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can save approximately 20-32% of the total encoding time of H.264 (JM7.3a) with little degradation in the rate-distortion performance.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows si...

  7. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells sti...

  8. Diamagnetic levitation promotes osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Yin, Chong; Li, Di-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-03-01

    The superconducting magnet with a high magnetic force field can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study, a specially designed superconducting magnet with large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF), which provides three apparent gravity levels (μg, 1 g, and 2 g), was used to study its influence on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from preosteoclast cell line RAW264.7. The effects of LGHMF on the viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, morphology in RAW264.7 cells were detected by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the Griess method, and the immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The changes induced by LGHMF in osteoclast formation, mRNA expression, and bone resorption were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, semiquantity PCR, and bone resorption test, respectively. The results showed that: 1) LGHMF had no lethal effect on osteoclast precursors but attenuated NO release in RAW264.7 cells. 2) Diamagnetic levitation (μg) enhanced both the formation and bone resorption capacity of osteoclast. Moreover, diamagnetic levitation up-regulated mRNA expression of RANK, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, and NFATc1, while down-regulated RunX2 in comparison with controls. Furthermore, diamagnetic levitation induced obvious morphological alterations in osteoclast, including active cytoplasmic peripheral pseudopodial expansion, formation of pedosome belt, and aggregation of actin ring. 3) Magnetic field produced by LGHMF attenuated osteoclast resorption activity. Collectively, LGHMF with combined effects has multiple effects on osteoclast, which attenuated osteoclast resorption with magnetic field, whereas promoted osteoclast differentiation with diamagnetic levitation. Therefore, these findings indicate that diamagnetic levitation could be used as a novel ground-based microgravity simulator, which facilitates bone cell research of weightlessness condition

  9. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  10. Hardware-Software Co-implementation of H.264 Decoder in SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-hong; ZHANG Wen-jun; XIONG Lian-xue; RAO Zhen-ning

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing demand for flexible and efficient implementation of image and video processing algorithms, there should be a good tradeoff between hardware and software design method. This paper utilized the HW-SW codesign method to implement the H. 264 decoder in an SoC with an ARM core, a multimedia processor and a deblocking filter coprocessor. For the parallel processing features of the multimedia processor, clock cycles of decoding process can be dramatically reduced. And the hardware dedicated deblocking filter coprocessor can improve the efficiency a lot. With maximum clock frequency of 150 MHz, the whole system can achieve real time processing speed and flexibility.

  11. Primerjava standardov video kodiranja H.264 AVC in H.265 HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMEHIĆ, BERIN

    2016-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava tematiko video kodiranja. Opisani so različni video kodirni standardi in postopki zgoščevanja video vsebine. Največ poudarka sem namenil novemu kodirnemu standardu H.265/HEVC ter njegovem predhodniku H.264/AVC. Uvod dela sem začel z osnovnimi tehnikami, ki jih uporabljamo pri zgoščevanju videa, opisal pa sem tudi postopek zgoščevanja statičnih slik. Izpostavil sem najpogostejši standard JPEG. Nadaljeval sem z zgoščevanjem gibljive slike ter opisom standardov M...

  12. Mode decision acceleration for H.264/AVC to SVC temporal video transcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Shih-Tse

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a fast video transcoding architecture that overcomes the complexity of different coding structures between H.264/AVC and SVC. The proposed algorithms simplify the mode decision process in SVC owing to its heavy computations. Two scenarios namely transcoding with the same quantization parameter and bitrate reduction are considered. In the first scenario, SVC's modes are determined by the probability models, including conditional probability, Bayesian theorem, and Markov chain. The second scenario measures MB activity to determine SVC's modes. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm saves significant coding time with negligible PSNR loss over that when using a cascaded pixel-domain transcoder.

  13. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  14. Efficient depth intraprediction method for H.264/AVC-based three-dimensional video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwan-Jung; Oh, Byung Tae

    2015-04-01

    We present an intracoding method that is applicable to depth map coding in multiview plus depth systems. Our approach combines skip prediction and plane segmentation-based prediction. The proposed depth intraskip prediction uses the estimated direction at both the encoder and decoder, and does not need to encode residual data. Our plane segmentation-based intraprediction divides the current block into biregions, and applies a different prediction scheme for each segmented region. This method avoids incorrect estimations across different regions, resulting in higher prediction accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is superior to H.264/advanced video coding intraprediction and has the ability to improve the subjective rendering quality.

  15. A perceptual optimization of H.264/AVC bit allocation at the frame and macroblock levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrarti, M.; Saadane, H.; Larabi, M.-C.; Tamtaoui, A.; Aboutajdine, D.

    2012-01-01

    In H.264/AVC rate control algorithm, the bit allocation process and the QP determination are not optimal. At frame layer, there is an implicit assumption considering that the video sequence is more or less stationary and consequently the neighbouring frames have similar characteristics. So, the target Bit-Rate for each frame is estimated using a straightforward process that allocates an equal bit budget for each frame regardless of its temporal and spatial complexities. This uniform allocation is surely not suited especially for all types of video sequences. The target bits determination at macroblock layer uses the MAD (Mean Absolute Difference) ratio as a complexity measure in order to promote interesting macroblocks, but this measure remains inefficient in handling macroblock characteristics. In a previous work we have proposed Rate-Quantization (R-Q) models for Intra and Inter frames used to deal with the QP determination shortcoming. In this paper, we look to overcome the limitation of the bit allocation process at the frame and the macroblock layers. At the frame level, we enhance the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. Thereby, the target bit determination for P-frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: The first one is a motion ratio determined from actual bits used to encode previous frames. The second measure exploits both the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. At macroblock level, the visual saliency is used in the bit allocation process. The basic idea is to promote salient macroblocks. Hence, a saliency map, based on a Bottom-Up approach, is generated and a macroblock classification is performed. This classification is then used to accurately adjust UBitsH264 which represents the usual bit budget estimated by H.264/AVC bit allocation process. For salient macroblocks the adjustment leads to a bit budget which is always larger than UBitsH264. The extra bits added to

  16. The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Jana; Pekarová, Michaela; Drábiková, Katarína; Jančinová, Viera; Nosáľ, Radomír; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    As reported in our previous studies, dithiaden (an antagonist of histamine H1-receptor, used clinically as an anti-allergic or anti-emetic drug) in a concentration range of 5×10−5–10−4 M decreased the production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of dithiaden on nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The cell viability in the presence of 10−4–5×10−5 M dithiaden was evaluated by an ATP-test. RAW 264.7 cells (2.5×106/well) ...

  17. Inhibition of Inflammatory Response by Artepillin C in Activated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Szliszka; Anna Mertas; Zenon P. Czuba; Wojciech Król

    2013-01-01

    Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is the main bioactive component of Brazilian green propolis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of artepillin C on LPS + IFN- γ - or PMA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assays. The radical scavenging ability was determined using DPPH• and ABTS•+. ROS and RNS generation was analyzed by chemiluminescence. NO concentration was detected by the Griess reaction. The...

  18. A Format-Compliant Selective Encryption Scheme for Real-Time Video Streaming of the H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SBIAA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264 video coding standard is one of the most promising techniques for the future video communications. In fact, it supports a broad range of applications. Accordingly, with the continuous promotion of multimedia services, H.264 has been widely used in real-world applications. A major concern in the design of H.264 encryption algorithms is how to achieve a sufficiently high security level, while maintaining the efficiency of the underlying compression process. In this paper a new selective encryption scheme for the H.264 standard is presented. The aim of this work is to study the security of the H.264 standard in order to propose the appropriate design of a hardware crypto-processor based on a stream cipher algorithm. Since the proposed cryptosystem is mainly dedicated to the multimedia applications, it provides multiple security levels in order to satisfy the requirements of various applications for different purposes while ensuring higher coding efficiency. Different performance analyses were made in order to evaluate the new encryption system. The experimental results showed the reliability and the robustness of the proposed technique.

  19. Design of USB Download Port within the H.264 Decoder FPGA Realization%H.264解码器FPGA实现中的USB下载接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛斗; 吴蓬勃; 王朝阳; 王明江

    2006-01-01

    本文介绍了如何利用USB接口为H.264解码器FPGA验证平台提供文件下载功能,并根据H.264解码器的特点分别从硬件设计、FPGA固件设计、USB驱动程序设计和USB应用程序设计四个方面对该系统的结构和功能进行了阐述.

  20. Efficient Prediction Structures for H.264 Multi View Coding Using Temporal Scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvareddiar, Palanivel; Joseph, Biju K.

    2014-03-01

    Prediction structures with "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding have been proven to be efficient for H.264 multi view coding. Though these prediction structures along with the QP cascading schemes provide superior compression efficiency when compared to the traditional IBBP coding scheme, the temporal scalability requirements of the bit stream could not be met to the fullest. On the other hand, a fully scalable bit stream, obtained by "temporal identifier based" hierarchical coding, provides a number of advantages including bit rate adaptations and improved error resilience, but lacks in compression efficiency when compared to the former scheme. In this paper it is proposed to combine the two approaches such that a fully scalable bit stream could be realized with minimal reduction in compression efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding. Simulation results shows that the proposed method enables full temporal scalability with maximum BDPSNR reduction of only 0.34 dB. A novel method also has been proposed for the identification of temporal identifier for the legacy H.264/AVC base layer packets. Simulation results also show that this enables the scenario where the enhancement views could be extracted at a lower frame rate (1/2nd or 1/4th of base view) with average extraction time for a view component of only 0.38 ms.

  1. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. H.264/AVC intra-only coding (iAVC) techniques for video over wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Trifas, Monica; Xiong, Guolun; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-02-01

    The requirement to transmit video data over unreliable wireless networks (with the possibility of packet loss) is anticipated in the foreseeable future. Significant compression ratio and error resilience are both needed for complex applications including tele-operated robotics, vehicle-mounted cameras, sensor network, etc. Block-matching based inter-frame coding techniques, including MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC, do not perform well in these scenarios due to error propagation between frames. Many wireless applications often use intra-only coding technologies such as Motion-JPEG, which exhibit better recovery from network data loss at the price of higher data rates. In order to address these research issues, an intra-only coding scheme of H.264/AVC (iAVC) is proposed. In this approach, each frame is coded independently as an I-frame. Frame copy is applied to compensate for packet loss. This approach is a good balance between compression performance and error resilience. It achieves compression performance comparable to Motion- JPEG2000 (MJ2), with lower complexity. Error resilience similar to Motion-JPEG (MJ) will also be accomplished. Since the intra-frame prediction with iAVC is strictly confined within the range of a slice, memory usage is also extremely low. Low computational complexity and memory usage are very crucial to mobile stations and devices in wireless network.

  3. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  4. No-reference quality assessment of H.264/AVC encoded video based on natural scene features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kongfeng; Asari, Vijayan; Saupe, Dietmar

    2013-05-01

    H.264/AVC coded video quality is crucial for evaluating the performance of consumer-level video camcorders and mobile phones. In this paper, a DCT-based video quality prediction model (DVQPM) is proposed to blindly predict the quality of compressed natural videos. The model is frame-based and composed of three steps. First, each decoded frame of the video sequence is decomposed into six feature maps based on the DCT coefficients. Then five efficient frame-level features (kurtosis, smoothness, sharpness, mean Jensen Shannon divergence, and blockiness) are extracted to quantify the distortion of natural scenes due to lossy compression. In the last step, each frame-level feature is averaged across all frames (temporal pooling); a trained multilayer neural network takes the five features as inputs and outputs a single number as the predicted video quality. The DVQPM model was trained and tested on the H.264 videos in the LIVE Video Database. Results show that the objective assessment of the proposed model has a strong correlation with the subjective assessment.

  5. Subjective Quality Assessment of H.264/AVC Video Streaming with Packet Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccari Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.

  6. Optimal Rate Control in H.264 Video Coding Based on Video Quality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find a method for providing better visual quality across the complete video sequence in H.264 video coding standard. H.264 video coding standard with its significantly improved coding efficiency finds important applications in various digital video streaming, storage and broadcast. To achieve comparable quality across the complete video sequence with the constrains on bandwidth availability and buffer fullness, it is important to allocate more bits to frames with high complexity or a scene change and fewer bits to other less complex frames. A frame layer bit allocation scheme is proposed based on the perceptual quality metric as indicator of the frame complexity. The proposed model computes the Quality Index ratio (QIr of the predicted quality index of the current frame to the average quality index of all the previous frames in the group of pictures which is used for bit allocation to the current frame along with bits computed based on buffer availability. The standard deviation of the perceptual quality indicator MOS computed for the proposed model is significantly less which means the quality of the video sequence is identical throughout the full video sequence. Thus the experiment results shows that the proposed model effectively handles the scene changes and scenes with high motion for better visual quality.

  7. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  8. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  9. Low-Power Bitstream-Residual Decoder for H.264/AVC Baseline Profile Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the design and VLSI implementation of a novel low-power bitstream-residual decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile. It comprises a syntax parser, a parameter decoder, and an Inverse Quantization Inverse Transform (IQIT decoder. The syntax parser detects and decodes each incoming codeword in the bitstream under the control of a hierarchical Finite State Machine (FSM; the IQIT decoder performs inverse transform and quantization with pipelining and parallelism. Various power reduction techniques, such as data-driven based on statistic results, nonuniform partition, precomputation, guarded evaluation, hierarchical FSM decomposition, TAG method, zero-block skipping, and clock gating , are adopted and integrated throughout the bitstream-residual decoder. With innovative architecture, the proposed design is able to decode QCIF video sequences of 30 fps at a clock rate as low as 1.5 MHz. A prototype H.264/AVC baseline decoding chip utilizing the proposed decoder is fabricated in UMC 0.18  m 1P6M CMOS technology. The proposed design is measured under 1 V 1.8 V supply with 0.1 V step. It dissipates 76  W at 1 V and 253  W at 1.8 V.

  10. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  11. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  12. An error resilient scheme for H.264 video coding based on distortion estimated mode decision and nearest neighbor error concealment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Tien-hsu; WANG Jong-tzy; CHEN Jhih-bin; CHANG Pao-chi

    2006-01-01

    Although H.264 video coding standard provides several error resilience tools, the damage caused by error propagation may still be tremendous. This work is aimed at developing a robust and standard-compliant error resilient coding scheme for H.264and uses techniques of mode decision, data hiding, and error concealment to reduce the damage from error propagation. This paper proposes a system with two error resilience techniques that can improve the robustness of H.264 in noisy channels. The first technique is Nearest Neighbor motion compensated Error Concealment (NNEC) that chooses the nearest neighbors in the reference frames for error concealment. The second technique is Distortion Estimated Mode Decision (DEMD) that selects an optimal mode based on stochastically distorted frames. Observed simulation results showed that the rate-distortion performances of the proposed algorithms are better than those of the compared algorithms.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  14. Real-time detection and tracking of multiple objects with partial decoding in H.264/AVC bitstream domain

    CERN Document Server

    You, Wonsang; Kim, Munchurl; 10.1117/12.805596

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that we can apply probabilistic spatiotemporal macroblock filtering (PSMF) and partial decoding processes to effectively detect and track multiple objects in real time in H.264|AVC bitstreams with stationary background. Our contribution is that our method cannot only show fast processing time but also handle multiple moving objects that are articulated, changing in size or internally have monotonous color, even though they contain a chaotic set of non-homogeneous motion vectors inside. In addition, our partial decoding process for H.264|AVC bitstreams enables to improve the accuracy of object trajectories and overcome long occlusion by using extracted color information.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  16. Encoder power consumption comparison of Distributed Video Codec and H.264/AVC in low-complexity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Eugeniy; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a power consumption comparison of a novel approach to video compression based on distributed video coding (DVC) and widely used video compression based on H.264/AVC standard. We have used a low-complexity configuration for H.264/AVC codec. It is well-known that motion estimati...... stated in this paper show that for current implementations of DVC these statements could be disputed from a power consumption/compression efficiency point of view when comparing to compression algorithms based on differential frame coding (with zero search radius for ME)....

  17. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America.Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose depen...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  19. Design and implementation of H.264 based embedded video coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Jinming; Zhang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an embedded system for remote online video monitoring was designed and developed to capture and record the real-time circumstances in elevator. For the purpose of improving the efficiency of video acquisition and processing, the system selected Samsung S5PV210 chip as the core processor which Integrated graphics processing unit. And the video was encoded with H.264 format for storage and transmission efficiently. Based on S5PV210 chip, the hardware video coding technology was researched, which was more efficient than software coding. After running test, it had been proved that the hardware video coding technology could obviously reduce the cost of system and obtain the more smooth video display. It can be widely applied for the security supervision [1].

  20. Integrated Joint Source-Channel Decoding for H.264 Video Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; CHEN Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated joint source-channel decoder (I-JSCD) using Max-Log-MAP method for sources encoded with exp-Golomb codes and convolutional codes, and proposes a system applying this method to decoding the VLC data,e.g. motion vector differences (MVDs), of H.264 across an AWGN channel. This method combines the source code state-space and the channel code state-space together to construct a joint state-space, develops a 3-D trellis and a maximum a-posterior(MAP) algorithm to estimate the source sequence symbol by symbol, and then uses max-log approximation to simplify the algorithm. Experiments indicate that the proposed system gives significant improvements on peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)(maximum about 15 dB) than a separate scheme. This also leads to a higher visual quality of video stream over a highly noisy channel.

  1. Adaptive search range adjustment and multiframe selection algorithm for motion estimation in H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingzhe; Wang, Jinxiang; Fu, Fangfa

    2013-04-01

    The H.264/AVC video standard adopts a fixed search range (SR) and fixed reference frame (RF) for motion estimation. These fixed settings result in a heavy computational load in the video encoder. We propose a dynamic SR and multiframe selection algorithm to improve the computational efficiency of motion estimation. By exploiting the relationship between the predicted motion vector and the SR size, we develop an adaptive SR adjustment algorithm. We also design a RF selection scheme based on the correlation between the different block sizes of the macroblock. Experimental results show that our algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation compared with the JM15.1 reference software, with a negligible decrease in peak signal-to-noise ratio and a slight increase in bit rate. Our algorithm also outperforms existing methods in terms of its low complexity and high coding quality.

  2. H.264/AVC digital fingerprinting based on spatio-temporal just noticeable distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Saadi, Karima; Bouridane, Ahmed; Guessoum, Abderrezak

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a robust adaptive embedding scheme using a modified Spatio-Temporal noticeable distortion (JND) model that is designed for tracing the distribution of the H.264/AVC video content and protecting them from unauthorized redistribution. The Embedding process is performed during coding process in selected macroblocks type Intra 4x4 within I-Frame. The method uses spread-spectrum technique in order to obtain robustness against collusion attacks and the JND model to dynamically adjust the embedding strength and control the energy of the embedded fingerprints so as to ensure their imperceptibility. Linear and non linear collusion attacks are performed to show the robustness of the proposed technique against collusion attacks while maintaining visual quality unchanged.

  3. An Optimized Dynamic Scene Change Detection Algorithm for H.264/AVC Encoded Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Rascioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scene change detection plays an important role in a number of video applications, including video indexing, semantic features extraction, and, in general, pre- and post-processing operations. This paper deals with the design and performance evaluation of a dynamic scene change detector optimized for H.264/AVC encoded video sequences. The detector is based on a dynamic threshold that adaptively tracks different features of the video sequence, to increase the whole scheme accuracy in correctly locating true scene changes. The solution has been tested on suitable video sequences resembling real-world videos thanks to a number of different motion features, and has provided good performance without requiring an increase in decoder complexity. This is a valuable issue, considering the possible application of the proposed algorithm in post-processing operations, such as error concealment for video decoding in typical error prone video transmission environments, such as wireless networks.

  4. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  5. Temporal Scalability through Adaptive -Band Filter Banks for Robust H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different structures that use adaptive -band hierarchical filter banks for temporal scalability. Open-loop and closed-loop configurations are introduced and illustrated using existing video codecs. In particular, it is shown that the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec allows us to introduce scalability by frame shuffling operations, thus keeping backward compatibility with the standard. The large set of shuffling patterns introduced here can be exploited to adapt the encoding process to the video content features, as well as to the user equipment and transmission channel characteristics. Furthermore, simulation results show that this scalability is obtained with no degradation in terms of subjective and objective quality in error-free environments, while in error-prone channels the scalable versions provide increased robustness.

  6. Complexity Control of Fast Motion Estimation in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with Rate-Distortion-Complexity optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel

    A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the pa...

  7. WebM een alternatief voor H.264? : Onderzoek naar het gebruik van open source software en open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, M. van; Prins, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    WebM is een nieuw videoformaat en wordt gepositioneerd als een open en vrij te gebruiken alternatief voor de videostandaard H.264. Deze standaard wordt op dit moment het meest gebruikt onder andere voor Uitzending Gemist. Deze formaten zijn regelmatig met elkaar vergeleken, waar veelal wordt gefocus

  8. Lipopolysaccharide induces multinuclear cell from RAW264.7 line with increased phagocytosis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Yano, Shio; Matsumoto, Naomi; Futai, Masamitsu [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells are formed through cell-cell fusion in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells do not express osteoclast-specific enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They internalized more and larger beads than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. -- Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, induces strong proinflammatory responses, including the release of cytokines and nitric oxide from macrophage. In this study, we found that a murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, became multinuclear through cell-cell fusion after incubation with highly purified LPS or synthetic lipid A in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The same cell line is known to differentiate into multinuclear osteoclast, which expresses a specific proton pumping ATPase together with osteoclast markers on stimulation by the extracellular domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (Toyomura, T., Murata, Y., Yamamoto, A., Oka, T., Sun-Wada, G.-H., Wada, Y. and Futai, M., 2003). The LPS-induced multinuclear cells did not express osteoclast-specific enzymes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. During multinuclear cell formation, the cells internalized more and larger polystyrene beads (diameter 6-15 {mu}m) than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. The internalized beads were located in lysosome-marker positive organelles, which were probably phagolysosomes. The LPS-induced multinuclear cell could be a good model system to study phagocytosis of large foreign bodies.

  9. Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system mutants exhibit delayed vacuolar escape phenotypes in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J; Nair, Vinod; Warawa, Jonathan M; Woods, Donald E; Gherardini, Frank C

    2008-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of surviving and replicating within eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have shown that B. pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system 3 (T3SS-3) mutants exhibit vacuolar escape and replication defects in J774.2 murine macrophages. In the present study, we characterized the interactions of a B. pseudomallei bsaZ mutant with RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Following uptake, the mutant was found to survive and replicate within infected RAW 264.7 cells over an 18-h period. In addition, high levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and RANTES, but not IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, were detected in culture supernatants harvested from infected monolayers. The subcellular location of B. pseudomallei within infected RAW 264.7 cells was determined, and as expected, the bsaZ mutant demonstrated early-vacuolar-escape defects. Interestingly, however, experiments also indicated that this mutant was capable of delayed vacuolar escape. Consistent with this finding, evidence of actin-based motility and multinucleated giant cell formation were observed between 12 and 18 h postinfection. Further studies demonstrated that a triple mutant defective in all three B. pseudomallei T3SSs exhibited the same phenotype as the bsaZ mutant, indicating that functional T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 did not appear to be responsible for the delayed escape phenotype in RAW 264.7 cells. Based upon these findings, it appears that B. pseudomallei may not require T3SS-1, -2, and -3 to facilitate survival, delayed vacuolar escape, and actin-based motility in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:18443088

  10. Imprinting and evolution of two Kruppel-type zinc-finger genes, ZIM3 and ZNF264, located in the PEG3/USP29 imprinted domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Bergmann, A; Wehri, E; Lu, X; Stubbs, L

    2001-09-01

    We have isolated Kruppel-type (C2H2) zinc-finger genes, ZIM3 (zinc-finger gene 3 from imprinted domain) and ZNF264, located downstream of human and mouse USP29 genes (encoding ubiquitin-specific processing protease 29). In human, both ZIM3 and ZNF264 encode zinc-finger proteins with Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) A and B domains at the amino-terminal regions of the predicted proteins. In contrast, mouse Zim3 and Zfp264 seem to have lost protein-coding capability based on the lack of open reading frames (ORFs) in their cDNA sequences. In particular, the 3' end of the Zim3 transcript overlaps with the coding region of the adjacent gene Usp29 in an antisense orientation, indicating the conversion of mouse Zim3 into an antisense transcript gene for Usp29. The expression patterns of ZIM3 and ZNF264 have been largely conserved between human and mouse, with testis-specific expression of ZIM3 and ubiquitous expression of ZNF264, but high expression levels in adult testes in both species. Our studies also demonstrate that both mouse genes are imprinted with maternal expression of Zim3 in adult testes and paternal expression of Zfp264 in neonatal and adult brain. The reciprocal imprinting of two neighboring mouse genes, Zim3 and Zfp264, is consistent with a pattern observed frequently in other imprinted domains, and suggests that the imprinting of these two genes might be coregulated. PMID:11543637

  11. Characterization of CYP264B1 and a terpene cyclase of a terpene biosynthesis gene cluster from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Thuy Thi Bich

    2011-01-01

    In the work presented here, CYP264B1 and the terpene cyclase GeoA of Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 have been characterized. CYP264B1 is able to convert norisoprenoids (a-ionone and b-ionone) and diverse sesquiterpene compounds, including nootkatone. Three products, 3-hydroxy-a-ionone, 3-hydroxy-b-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone were characterized using HPLC and 1H and 13C NMR. CYP264B1 is the first enzyme reported to be capable to hydroxylate regioselectively both norisoprenoids at the positi...

  12. Research and Implementation of Hard Decoding H.264 Technology Based on DXVA and OpenCL%基于DXVA和OpenCL的硬解码H.264技术的研究和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐咏

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we researched the hardware-decoding based on DXVA and OpenCL which using a encoded image in H.264 as an example. We designed a hardware decoding process using DXVA2 and the OpenCL API, and we got the testing data to verify the possible solutions.%该文以H.264编码的图像为例,研究了基于DXVA和OpenCL的硬解码方案;利用DXVA2以及OpenCL的API,设计了一套硬解码流程,并利用该流程测试出数据,验证了方案的可行性。

  13. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin Yang; Ji-Young Moon; Sang Suk Kim; Kyong-Wol Yang; Wook Jae Lee; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Results:Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, andG. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G.filicina. Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for

  14. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin; Yang; Ji-Young; Moon; Sang; Suk; Kim; Kyong—Wol; Yang; Wook; Jae; Lee; Nam; Ho; Lee; Chang-Gu; Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide(LPS)stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds,Dictyopteris divaricata(D.divaricata),Dictyopteris prolifera(D.prolifefa),Prioutis cornea(P.comea,Grateloupia laceolata(G,lanceolate,and Cralcloupia filicina(G.filicina)They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide(NO),prostaglandin E,,tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a),and interleukin-6(11.-6).Results:Our results revealed that D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G.lanceolata,and G.filicina potently inhibited I.PS-stimulaled NO production(IC50,values were 18.0,38.36,38.43,32.81 and 37.14μg/mL,respectively).Consistent with these findings,D.divtricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,and G.fdicina also reduced the IPS-induced and prostaglandin E,production in a concentration-dependent manner.Expectedly,they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW264.7 cells,as detennined by western blotting.In addition,the levels of TNF-a and IL-6,released into the medium,were also reduced by D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G,lanceolata,and G.fdicina in a dose-dependent manner(IC50values for TNF-a were 16.11,28.21,84.27,45.52 and74.75μg/mL,respectively;IC50,values for IL-6 were 37.35,80.08,103.28,62.53 and 84.28μg/mL,respectively).The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents.The content was 92.0μg/mg for D.divaricata,151.8μg/mg for D.prolifera,57.2μg/mg for P.cornea,53.0 pg/mg for G.lanceolata,and 40.2μg/mg for G.fdicina.Conclusions:Thus,these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for inflammatory responses.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Soyeum Pharmacopuncture (SPP on LPS-induced Inflammation Related Cytokine Expressions of RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Mi-Young

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study was done to investigate whether SPP has inhibitory effects on the activation of RAW 264.7 cells. Method : In tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a/ interleukin-1b (IL-1b and IL-6, the mRNA expression of molecular indicators related to inflammatory changes of the Reumatoid Arthritis (RA were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results : The treatment of SPP significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 compared with the control. The expression of NOS-II was considerably reduced, which was accompanied by a reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO. It also reduced the expression of TNF-αin serum of Balb/c mice compared with control group. Conclusion : SPP is an effective herbal material for suppressing the inflammation related cytokines of RAW 264.7 cells.

  16. Structure of the absorption spectra of the quasars Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of shock-wave model of numerous Ly α absorption lines in spectra of remote quasars, which relate their origin to absorbing areas in the shells of metagalactic shock waves, the recently obtained quasars spectra Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264 have been analyzed. It is shown that more than 50% of narrow Ly α absorption lines are in ''doublets''-pairs of close (adjacent in the spectrum, as a rule) lines with similar equivalent widths. The fact agrees well with the predictions of the shock-wave model. Line distribution over H I densities in the eyesight ray expected for the model is calculated and agrees with the distribution found by Atwood et al. by the sampling of Ly α unblended lines in the Q 0420-388 and Q 1101-264 spectra

  17. Neural network-based brain tissue segmentation in MR images using extracted features from intraframe coding in H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Kasaei, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is a crucial task in diagnosis and treatment of medical images. This paper presents a new algorithm to segment different brain tissues, such as white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), background (BKG), and tumor tissues. The proposed technique uses the modified intraframe coding yielded from H.264/(AVC), for feature extraction. Extracted features are then imposed to an artificial back propagation neural network (BPN) classifier to assign each block to its appropriate class. Since the newest coding standard, H.264/AVC, has the highest compression ratio, it decreases the dimension of extracted features and thus yields to a more accurate classifier with low computational complexity. The performance of the BPN classifier is evaluated using the classification accuracy and computational complexity terms. The results show that the proposed technique is more robust and effective with low computational complexity compared to other recent works.

  18. Network-aware perceptual error concealment method for H.264 video with side information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Han-jie; CHEN Yao-wu

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the video quality of transmission with data loss,a spatial and temporal error concealment method was proposed,which considered both the state information of the network and the perceptual weight of the video content.The proposed method dynamically changed the reliability weight of the neighboring macroblock,which was used to conceal the lost macroblocks according to the packet loss rate of the current channel state.The perceptual weight map was utilized as side information to do weighted pixel interpolation and side-match based motion compensation for spatial and temporal error concealment,respectively.And the perceptual weight of the neighboring macroblocks was adaptively modified according to the perceptual weight of the lost macroblocks.Compared with the method used in H.264 joint model,experiment results show that the proposed method performs well both in subjective video quality and objective video quality,and increases the average peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR)of the whole frame by about 0.4 dB when the video bitstreams are transmitted with packets loss.

  19. Inductive Effect of Palmatine on Apoptosis in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shintaro; Tamaki, Misako; Ogawa, Yui; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Zhang, Meng; Sunagawa, Masataka; Hisamitsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem characterized by low bone density and deterioration of the bone microarchitecture. Current treatment options target either osteoclast resorption or osteoblast formation. It has been reported that berberine, a close structural analog of palmatine, inhibited bone loss in an osteoporosis model. In this study, osseous metabolism was observed in vitro with osteoclast bone resorbing cells. We proved that mouse preosteoclastic cell line (RAW 264.7) has a higher sensitivity to palmatine than mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1); the cell survival rates significantly decreased at 40 μM palmatine. The NO2− level, a metabolic product of nitric monoxide (NO), and iNOS mRNA expression, an osteoclast with NO induced enzyme, also increased with higher dosage of palmatine. Furthermore, it was recognized that the cell viability decrease from palmatine was caused by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Additionally, osteoclast apoptosis from palmatine did not occur when iNOS was inhibited with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (pan NOS inhibitor). These results indicate that palmatine plays an important role in osteoclast apoptosis via the NOS system. Hence, palmatine could be considered as a viable pharmaceutical candidate for osteoporosis bone resorption inhibitor. PMID:27340419

  20. Blunt thoracic trauma - an analysis of 264 patients in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality in blunt thoracic trauma patients in tertiary care hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from March 2008 to February 2012 in surgical wards of public and private sector hospitals in Rawalpindi. A total of 221 patients were included from the Combined Military Hospital during 2008-10, and 43 patients from the Heart's International during 2011-12. The patients reported to emergency department within 48 hours of trauma. All patients were subjected to detailed history and respiratory system examination to ascertain fracture of ribs, flail segment and haemopneumothorax. The diagnosis of chest wall injuries, parenchymal pulmonary injuries and pleural involvement were made on the basis of chest radiographs and computed tomography scan of the chest. The lung contusion was assessed by the number of lobes involved. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 264 patients in the study, 211 (80%) were males and 54 (20%) females. The overall mean age was 44.8+-17.1 years. Over all morbidity was 222 (84.2%); morbidity (minor) was 128 (48.5%), and morbidity (major) was 94 (35.7%). Mortality was 26 (9.8%) and 16 (6%) cases had normal outcome. Conclusion: Early identification and aggressive management of blunt thoracic trauma is essential to reducing significant rates of morbidity and mortality. (author)

  1. Low Power Architecture Design of De-Blocking Filter and Hardware Implementations in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. T. Priyadarsini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive in-loop de-blocking filter (DF is standardized in H.264/AVC to reduce blocking artifacts and improve compression efficiency. This paper proposes a low power DF architecture with hybrid and intelligent edge skip filtering order. We further adopt a four-stage pipeline to boost the speed of DF process and the proposed Horizontal Edge Skip Processing Architecture (HESPA offers an edge skip aware mechanism for filtering the horizontal edges that not only reduces power consumption but also reduces the filtering processes down to 100 clock cycles per macro block (MB. In addition, the architecture utilizes the buffers efficiently to store the temporary data without affecting the standard defined data dependency by a reasonable strategy of edge filtering order to enhance the reusability of the intermediate data. The system throughput can then be improved and the power consumption can also be reduced. Simulation results show that more than 34% of logic power measured in FPGA can be saved when the proposed HESPA is enabled. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is implemented on a 0.18μm standard cell library, which consumes 19.8K gates at a clock frequency of 200 MHz, which compares competitively with other state-of-the-art works in terms of hardware cost

  2. Traffic and Quality Characterization of the H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van der Auwera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent scalable video coding (SVC extension to the H.264/AVC video coding standard has unprecedented compression efficiency while supporting a wide range of scalability modes, including temporal, spatial, and quality (SNR scalability, as well as combined spatiotemporal SNR scalability. The traffic characteristics, especially the bit rate variabilities, of the individual layer streams critically affect their network transport. We study the SVC traffic statistics, including the bit rate distortion and bit rate variability distortion, with long CIF resolution video sequences and compare them with the corresponding MPEG-4 Part 2 traffic statistics. We consider (i temporal scalability with three temporal layers, (ii spatial scalability with a QCIF base layer and a CIF enhancement layer, as well as (iii quality scalability modes FGS and MGS. We find that the significant improvement in RD efficiency of SVC is accompanied by substantially higher traffic variabilities as compared to the equivalent MPEG-4 Part 2 streams. We find that separately analyzing the traffic of temporal-scalability only encodings gives reasonable estimates of the traffic statistics of the temporal layers embedded in combined spatiotemporal encodings and in the base layer of combined FGS-temporal encodings. Overall, we find that SVC achieves significantly higher compression ratios than MPEG-4 Part 2, but produces unprecedented levels of traffic variability, thus presenting new challenges for the network transport of scalable video.

  3. Subtoxic Doses of Cadmium Modulate Inflammatory Properties of Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Riemschneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic heavy metal that exhibits various adverse effects in the human and animal organism. Its resemblance to essential metals such as calcium, iron, and zinc leads to an unintended uptake in cells after intake through inhalation and ingestion. In this study we investigated the toxicity and the immunomodulatory potential of Cd in nonactivated and activated murine macrophages (i.e., cell line RAW 264.7. Cadmium alone caused a dose-dependent decreased viability of exposed cells. Subtoxic Cd concentrations delayed cell death in macrophages, resulting from cytotoxic storm, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO, in response to their stimulation by bacterial antigens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. In addition, production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, the chemokine CXCL1 (KC, and NO was determined. We observed that proinflammatory IL-1β and also CXCL1 were highly upregulated whereas anti-inflammatory or regulatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed by 10 µM Cd. Also production of antibacterial NO was significantly reduced through exposure to 10 µM Cd, maybe explaining better survival of macrophages. Additionally, we could show by analysis via ICP-MS that different effects of Cd in nonactivated and activated macrophages definitely did not result from different Cd uptake rates.

  4. Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Region-of-interest determination and bit-rate conversion for H.264 video transcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Mei-Juan; Tai, Kuang-Han; Li, Mian-Shiuan

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a video bit-rate transcoder for baseline profile in H.264/AVC standard to fit the available channel bandwidth for the client when transmitting video bit-streams via communication channels. To maintain visual quality for low bit-rate video efficiently, this study analyzes the decoded information in the transcoder and proposes a Bayesian theorem-based region-of-interest (ROI) determination algorithm. In addition, a curve fitting scheme is employed to find the models of video bit-rate conversion. The transcoded video will conform to the target bit-rate by re-quantization according to our proposed models. After integrating the ROI detection method and the bit-rate transcoding models, the ROI-based transcoder allocates more coding bits to ROI regions and reduces the complexity of the re-encoding procedure for non-ROI regions. Hence, it not only keeps the coding quality but improves the efficiency of the video transcoding for low target bit-rates and makes the real-time transcoding more practical. Experimental results show that the proposed framework gets significantly better visual quality.

  6. Cross-Layer Approach to Multiuser H.264 Video Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel cross-layer approach to multiuser H.264/AVC video stream transmission over wireless networks. We consider the joint optimization of three layers of the protocol stacks: the application (APP layer, the media access control (MAC layer and the physical (PHY layer. At the APP layer, the contribution of each packet to the perceptual video quality is evaluated by distortion effect of the packet loss, which is estimated by a Packet Relative Importance Index (PRII. At the MAC layer and the PHY layer, the Gilbert-Elliott (GE model is employed to describe the time-varying nature of the wireless networks. An objective function for cross-layer optimization is developed based on the layered abstracted parameters from the APP layer, the MAC layer and the PHY layer. Our goal is to maximize the perceptual quality of the video transmitted through the wireless network with constraint of the limited resources. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs significantly than the conventional scheduling schemes for video transmission.

  7. A CABAC codec of H.264AVC with secure arithmetic coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neji, Nihel; Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an optimized H.264/AVC coding system for HDTV displays based on a typical flow with high coding efficiency and statics adaptivity features. For high quality streaming, the codec uses a Binary Arithmetic Encoding/Decoding algorithm with high complexity and a JVCE (Joint Video compression and encryption) scheme. In fact, particular attention is given to simultaneous compression and encryption applications to gain security without compromising the speed of transactions [1]. The proposed design allows us to encrypt the information using a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). Thus we achieved the two operations (compression and encryption) simultaneously and in a dependent manner which is a novelty in this kind of architecture. Moreover, we investigated the hardware implementation of CABAC (Context-based adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding) codec. The proposed architecture is based on optimized binarizer/de-binarizer to handle significant pixel rates videos with low cost and high performance for most frequent SEs. This was checked using HD video frames. The obtained synthesis results using an FPGA (Xilinx's ISE) show that our design is relevant to code main profile video stream.

  8. Graceful Degradation in 3GPP MBMS Mobile TV Services Using H.264/AVC Temporal Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, there is an increasing interest in Mobile TV broadcast services shown by customers as well as service providers. One general problem of Mobile TV broadcast services is to maximize the coverage of users receiving an acceptable service quality, which is mainly influenced by the user's position and mobility within the cell. In this paper, graceful degradation is considered as an approach for improved service availability and coverage. We present a layered transmission approach for 3GPP's Release 6 Multimedia and Broadcast Service (MBMS based on temporal scalability using H.264/AVC Baseline Profile. A differentiation in robustness between temporal quality layers is achieved by unequal error protection approach based on either application layer Forward Error Correction (FEC or unequal transmit power for the layers or even a combination of both. We discuss the corresponding MBMS service as well as network settings and define measures allowing for evaluating the amount of users reached with a certain mobile terminal play-out quality while considering the network cell capacity usage. Using simulated 3GPP Rel. 6 network conditions, we show that if the service and network settings are chosen carefully, a noticeable extension of the coverage of the MBMS service can be achieved.

  9. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Egami

    Full Text Available Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  10. WATERLOPP V2/64: A highly parallel machine for numerical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Neil S.

    1985-07-01

    Current technological trends suggest that the high performance scientific machines of the future are very likely to consist of a large number (greater than 1024) of processors connected and communicating with each other in some as yet undetermined manner. Such an assembly of processors should behave as a single machine in obtaining numerical solutions to scientific problems. However, the appropriate way of organizing both the hardware and software of such an assembly of processors is an unsolved and active area of research. It is particularly important to minimize the organizational overhead of interprocessor comunication, global synchronization, and contention for shared resources if the performance of a large number ( n) of processors is to be anything like the desirable n times the performance of a single processor. In many situations, adding a processor actually decreases the performance of the overall system since the extra organizational overhead is larger than the extra processing power added. The systolic loop architecture is a new multiple processor architecture which attemps at a solution to the problem of how to organize a large number of asynchronous processors into an effective computational system while minimizing the organizational overhead. This paper gives a brief overview of the basic systolic loop architecture, systolic loop algorithms for numerical computation, and a 64-processor implementation of the architecture, WATERLOOP V2/64, that is being used as a testbed for exploring the hardware, software, and algorithmic aspects of the architecture.

  11. Inhibition of RAW264.7 Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokines Release by Small Haparin RNAi Targeting TLR4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; ZHANG Jinxiang; WU Heshui; JIANG Chunfang; ZHENG Qichang; LI Zhuoya

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct an expression vector carrying small hairpin (sh) RNA (shRNA) for toll-like receptor 4 mRNA and a reporter gene of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and study the inhibition of cytokine release by RAW264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulation through transfection and expression of shRNA targeting TLR4 gene via the RNAi mechanism, the reporter gene plasmid pEGFP-C1 (4.7 kb) and psiRNA-hHlneo (2979 bp) were used. The H1 promotor and double Bbs Ⅰ restrict endoenzyme site were cloned from plasmid psiRNA-hHlneo and reconstructed them into plasmid pEGFP-C1 in the Mlu Ⅰ restrict endoenzymic site, forming plasmid pEGFP-H1/siRNA, which contained Bbs site and reporter EGFP gene. Then an oligonuclear hairpin sequence targeting TLR4 gene was designed by internet tool and inserted into the plasmid pEGFP-H 1/siRNA forming plasmid pEGFP-H 1/TLR4-siRNA. After transfection of pEGFP-H1/TLR4-siRNA into RAW264.7 cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release by the cells after stimulation by LPS was detected. The results showed that the constructed pEGFP-H1/TLR4-siRNA carrying hairpin RNA for TLR4 gene and reporter EGFP gene were proven to be right by restriction endonuclease analysis. The expression of EGFP gene was (50.37±8.23) %and after transfection of the plasmid pEGFP-H1/ TLR4-siRNA the level of TNF-α released by RAW264.7 cell was down regulated. It was concluded that shRNA targeting TLR4 gene could inhibit the TNF-α release by RAW264.7 cells evoked by LPS.

  12. Composition and anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from Sargassum horneri in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zheng-Shun; Xiang, Xing-Wei; Jin, Huo-Xi; Guo, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Li-Jia; Huang, Yan-Na; OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Qu, You-Le

    2016-07-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown marine algae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. We assessed the potential activity of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum horneri (SP) and its isolated two major components (fraction-1 (F1) and fraction-2 (F2)), on anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present study, analysis of polysaccharide chemical composition found that the constituent ratios of sulfate ester and fucose in SP and F1 were 4.95% vs 7.6%, and 4.48% vs 55.9%, respectively, suggesting that F1 may be a major sulfated polysaccharide containing fucose. Meanwhile, our findings demonstrated that TNF-α secretion levels were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by SP and F1 treatments in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner under the preventive and repair experimental models. Pro-/anti-inflammatory (TNF-α/IL-10) cytokines secretion ratios by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by SP and F1 treatments, particularly by F1 (at high dose, 200μg/ml). Moreover, NO release and iNOS activity were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by F1. Collectively, the present study suggested that purified component, F1 from SP, had strong anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in the preventive and repair manner through inhibiting TNF-α secretion levels and NO release. PMID:26879911

  13. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. Material/Methods Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone...

  14. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    OpenAIRE

    Teeratad Sudsai; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1), kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), rhamnazin (3), pinostrobin (4), together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5), curcumin (6), demethoxycurcumin (7) and bisdem...

  15. Wedelolactone inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammation via NF-kappaB Pathway in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Fang; Chen, Jie; Sun, Ping-Ping; Guan, Su; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Wedelolactone (WEL), a major coumestan ingredient in Wedelia chinensis, has been used to treat septic shock, hepatitis and venom poisoning in traditional Chinese medicines. The objective of the study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of WEL with a cellular model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results To study the role of WEL in pro-inflammation, we measured key inflammation mediators and end products including nitric oxide (NO), pros...

  16. Titanium particles activate Toll-like Receptor 4 independently of lipid rafts in RAW264.7 murine macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Andrew S.; Beidelschies, Michelle A.; Huml, Anne; Greenfield, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Adherent PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) act through Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2) and TLR4 to increase the biological activity of orthopaedic wear particles in cell culture and animal models of implant loosening. This study tested whether this is dependent on TLR association with lipid rafts as reported for the response to soluble TLR ligands. For this purpose, RAW264.7 murine macrophages were activated by exposure to titanium particles with adherent PAMPs, soluble lipopolysaccha...

  17. Cepharanthine inhibits in vitro VSMC proliferation and migration and vascular inflammatory responses mediated by RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-08-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation followed by an inflammation mediated by activated macrophages in the tunica intima of blood vessels. Cepharanthine (CEP) belongs to bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in the plant Stephania cepharantha, which has been used for various diseases like cancer, alopecia areata, venomous snakebites, and malaria. In this study, we investigated whether CEP suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inhibits inflammatory mediator production in macrophage (RAW264.7). Our results showed that CEP possessed significant DPPH scavenging and metal chelating activities. It also markedly inhibited lipid peroxidation. Similarly, CEP suppressed the nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the level of prostaglandin E2 was also suppressed and the formation of macrophage derived foam cell was attenuated in RAW264.7 cells. Likewise, NO production in isolated peritoneal macrophage and VSMC migration in response to LPS stimulated RAW264.7 was also halted by CEP treatment. Also, VSMC migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) was inhibited by CEP dose dependently. The anti-migratory effect of CEP on VSMCs was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, preventing the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) component. Furthermore, CEP suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by down-regulation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling molecules. CEP also inhibited the translocation of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus. Thus, our results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-atherosclerotic effect through attenuation of inflammation, lipid peroxidation and VSMC migration and proliferation. PMID:27021874

  18. Micrometam C Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models in Zebrafish and RAW264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Tang; Hui Ge; Zhi-Bin Chen; Xiong-Ming Luo; Feng-Juan Su; Yan-Bing Liang; Zhen-Yu Li; Jing-Guo Wu; Qing Yang; Li-Jin Zeng; Zhong-Fu Ma

    2015-01-01

    Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP) and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in...

  19. Stavroula Leka & Robert R. Sinclair, Eds. 2014. Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology. Global perspectives on research and practice (Volumul 3. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 264 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA ALBULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stavroula Leka & Robert R. Sinclair, Eds. 2014. Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology. Global perspectives on research and practice (Volumul 3. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 264 p.

  20. Molecular Gas in the Powerful Radio Galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264 Major or Minor Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, J; Combes, F

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of $^{12}$CO~($1 \\to 0$) and $^{12}$CO~($2 \\to 1$) emission from the central regions ($\\lesssim 5$--$10 {\\rm kpc}$) of the two powerful radio galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264. Their individual CO emission exhibits a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of both galaxies. For a CO to H$_2$ conversion factor similar to that of our Galaxy, the corresponding total mass in molecular hydrogen gas is $(1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~31 and $(0.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~264. Despite their relatively large molecular-gas masses and other peculiarities, both 3C~31 and 3C~264, as well as many other powerful radio galaxies in the (revised) 3C catalog, are known to lie within the fundamental plane of normal...

  1. Complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC using highly adaptive fast mode decision based on macroblock motion activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Skoudarli; Mokhtar, Nibouche; Amina, Serir

    2015-11-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard is used in a wide range of applications from video conferencing to high-definition television according to its high compression efficiency. This efficiency is mainly acquired from the newly allowed prediction schemes including variable block modes. However, these schemes require a high complexity to select the optimal mode. Consequently, complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC encoder has recently become a very challenging task in the video compression domain, especially when implementing the encoder in real-time applications. Fast mode decision algorithms play an important role in reducing the overall complexity of the encoder. In this paper, we propose an adaptive fast intermode algorithm based on motion activity, temporal stationarity, and spatial homogeneity. This algorithm predicts the motion activity of the current macroblock from its neighboring blocks and identifies temporal stationary regions and spatially homogeneous regions using adaptive threshold values based on content video features. Extensive experimental work has been done in high profile, and results show that the proposed source-coding algorithm effectively reduces the computational complexity by 53.18% on average compared with the reference software encoder, while maintaining the high-coding efficiency of H.264/AVC by incurring only 0.097 dB in total peak signal-to-noise ratio and 0.228% increment on the total bit rate.

  2. An evaluation of the effect of JPEG, JPEG2000, and H.264/AVC on CQR codes decoding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra Melgar, Max E.; Farias, Mylène C. Q.; Zaghetto, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a binarymatrix code based on QR Code (Quick Response Code), denoted as CQR Code (Colored Quick Response Code), and evaluates the effect of JPEG, JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC compression on the decoding process. The proposed CQR Code has three additional colors (red, green and blue), what enables twice as much storage capacity when compared to the traditional black and white QR Code. Using the Reed-Solomon error-correcting code, the CQR Code model has a theoretical correction capability of 38.41%. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect that degradations inserted by common image compression algorithms have on the decoding process. Results show that a successful decoding process can be achieved for compression rates up to 0.3877 bits/pixel, 0.1093 bits/pixel and 0.3808 bits/pixel for JPEG, JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC formats, respectively. The algorithm that presents the best performance is the H.264/AVC, followed by the JPEG2000, and JPEG.

  3. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Lee, Dae-Young; Park, Seung Cheol; Ban, Myeong Soon; Choi, Jehun; Park, Chun Geon; Ahn, Young-Sup; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism. PMID:27058537

  4. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  5. Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Sik Jeong; Jong-Won Lee; Soon-Gi Hong; Min-Ji Bak

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO) in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necr...

  6. Effects of Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and Its Processed Products on Nitric Oxide Production in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liao

    2015-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and its processed products, such as Ganjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma), Paojiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Preparatum), and Jiangtan (Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata), exert distinct efficacy clinically. This research tried to study the effects of extracts from Shengjiang and its processed products in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. After incubation of the different ginger types in RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h, an aliquot of the culture was mixed with a...

  7. Adapting hierarchical bidirectional inter prediction on a GPU-based platform for 2D and 3D H.264 video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Martínez, José Luis; Cock, Jan De; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Pieters, Bart; Sánchez, José L.; Claver, José M.; de Walle, Rik Van

    2013-12-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard introduces some improved tools in order to increase compression efficiency. Moreover, the multi-view extension of H.264/AVC, called H.264/MVC, adopts many of them. Among the new features, variable block-size motion estimation is one which contributes to high coding efficiency. Furthermore, it defines a different prediction structure that includes hierarchical bidirectional pictures, outperforming traditional Group of Pictures patterns in both scenarios: single-view and multi-view. However, these video coding techniques have high computational complexity. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature over the last few years which are aimed at accelerating the inter prediction process, but there are no works focusing on bidirectional prediction or hierarchical prediction. In this article, with the emergence of many-core processors or accelerators, a step forward is taken towards an implementation of an H.264/AVC and H.264/MVC inter prediction algorithm on a graphics processing unit. The results show a negligible rate distortion drop with a time reduction of up to 98% for the complete H.264/AVC encoder.

  8. Direct and indirect effects of single walled carbon nanotubes on RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E; Tyurina, Y Y; Tyurin, V A; Konduru, N V; Potapovich, A I; Osipov, A N; Kisin, E R; Schwegler-Berry, D; Mercer, R; Castranova, V; Shvedova, A A

    2006-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), nano-cylinders with an extremely small diameter (1-2 nm) and high aspect ratio, have unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties and may exhibit unusual interactions with cells and tissues, thus necessitating studies of their toxicity and health effects. Manufactured SWCNT usually contain significant amounts of iron that may act as a catalyst of oxidative stress. Because macrophages are the primary responders to different particles that initiate and propagate inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress, we utilized two types of SWCNT: (1) iron-rich (non-purified) SWCNT (26 wt.% of iron) and (2) iron-stripped (purified) SWCNT (0.23 wt.% of iron) to study their interactions with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ultrasonication resulted in predominantly well-dispersed and separated SWCNT strands as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Neither purified nor non-purified SWCNT were able to generate intracellular production of superoxide radicals or nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages as documented by flow-cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. SWCNT with different iron content displayed different redox activity in a cell-free model system as revealed by EPR-detectable formation of ascorbate radicals resulting from ascorbate oxidation. In the presence of zymosan-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, non-purified iron-rich SWCNT were more effective in generating hydroxyl radicals (documented by EPR spin-trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, DMPO) than purified SWCNT. Similarly, EPR spin-trapping experiments in the presence of zymosan-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages showed that non-purified SWCNT more effectively converted superoxide radicals generated by xanthine oxidase/xanthine into hydroxyl radicals as compared to purified SWCNT. Iron-rich SWCNT caused significant loss of intracellular low molecular weight thiols (GSH) and accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides in both zymosan-and PMA-stimulated RAW 264

  9. Stimulative Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture Solution Combined with Zinc-oxide Nanoparticles on RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tae-Keun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine whether Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture solution (HPPS combined with zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP activates RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: We soaked ZnO nanoparticles in the Hominis Placenta pharmacopuncture solution, thereby making a combined form (ZnO NP HPPS. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on NF-κ B was measured by using a luciferase assay. The effect of ZnO NP HPPS on the cytokine expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The cellular uptake of ZnO NP HPPS was measured by using a flow cytometric analysis, and cellular structural alterations were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: Neither the HPPS nor the ZnO NPs induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells. Neither of the materials activated NF-κ B or it’s dependent genes, such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. However, ZnO NP HPPS, the combined form of ZnO NPs and HPPS, did induce the intracellular ROS production, as well as prominently activating NF-κ B and it’s dependent genes. Also, compared to ZnO NPs, it effectively increa-sed the uptake by RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, cellular structural alterations were observed in groups treated with ZnO NP HPPS. Conclusions: Neither ZnO NP nor HPPS activated RAW 264.7 cells, which is likely due to a low cellular uptake. The ZnO NP HPPS, however, significantly activated NF-κ B and up-regulated its dependent genes such as TNF-α, IL-1, and MCP-1. ZnO NP HPPS was also more easily taken into the RAW 264.7 cells than either ZnO NP or HPPS.

  10. C60 fullerene localization and membrane interactions in RAW 264.7 immortalized mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, K. A.; Elvati, P.; Parsonage, T. L.; Dews, A.; Jarvis, J. A.; Ray, M.; Schneider, B.; Smith, P. J. S.; Williamson, P. T. F.; Violi, A.; Philbert, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    There continues to be a significant increase in the number and complexity of hydrophobic nanomaterials that are engineered for a variety of commercial purposes making human exposure a significant health concern. This study uses a combination of biophysical, biochemical and computational methods to probe potential mechanisms for uptake of C60 nanoparticles into various compartments of living immune cells. Cultures of RAW 264.7 immortalized murine macrophage were used as a canonical model of immune-competent cells that are likely to provide the first line of defense following inhalation. Modes of entry studied were endocytosis/pinocytosis and passive permeation of cellular membranes. The evidence suggests marginal uptake of C60 clusters is achieved through endocytosis/pinocytosis, and that passive diffusion into membranes provides a significant source of biologically-available nanomaterial. Computational modeling of both a single molecule and a small cluster of fullerenes predicts that low concentrations of fullerenes enter the membrane individually and produce limited perturbation; however, at higher concentrations the clusters in the membrane causes deformation of the membrane. These findings are bolstered by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of model membranes that reveal deformation of the cell membrane upon exposure to high concentrations of fullerenes. The atomistic and NMR models fail to explain escape of the particle out of biological membranes, but are limited to idealized systems that do not completely recapitulate the complexity of cell membranes. The surprising contribution of passive modes of cellular entry provides new avenues for toxicological research that go beyond the pharmacological inhibition of bulk transport systems such as pinocytosis.There continues to be a significant increase in the number and complexity of hydrophobic nanomaterials that are engineered for a variety of commercial purposes making human exposure a significant health concern

  11. Oxidized phospholipids induce ceramide accumulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of ceramide synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaraju M Halasiddappa

    Full Text Available Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs, including 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC and 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC are among several biologically active derivatives that are generated during oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs. These OxPLs are factors contributing to pro-atherogenic effects of oxidized LDLs (OxLDLs, including inflammation, proliferation and death of vascular cells. OxLDL also elicits formation of the lipid messenger ceramide (Cer which plays a pivotal role in apoptotic signaling pathways. Here we report that both PGPC and POVPC are cytotoxic to cultured macrophages and induce apoptosis in these cells which is associated with increased cellular ceramide levels after several hours. In addition, exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to POVPC and PGPC under the same conditions resulted in a significant increase in ceramide synthase activity, whereas, acid or neutral sphingomyelinase activities were not affected. PGPC is not only more toxic than POVPC, but also a more potent inducer of ceramide formation by activating a limited subset of CerS isoforms. The stimulated CerS activities are in line with the C16-, C22-, and C24:0-Cer species that are generated under the influence of the OxPL. Fumonisin B1, a specific inhibitor of CerS, suppressed OxPL-induced ceramide generation, demonstrating that OxPL-induced CerS activity in macrophages is responsible for the accumulation of ceramide. OxLDL elicits the same cellular ceramide and CerS effects. Thus, it is concluded that PGPC and POVPC are active components that contribute to the capacity of this lipoprotein to elevate ceramide levels in macrophages.

  12. The impact of transmission errors on progressive 720 lines HDTV coded with H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnström, Kjell; Stålenbring, Daniel; Pettersson, Martin; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-02-01

    TV sent over the networks based on the Internet Protocol i.e IPTV is moving towards high definition (HDTV). There has been quite a lot of work on how the HDTV is affected by different codecs and bitrates, but the impact of transmission errors over IP-networks have been less studied. The study was focusing on H.264 encoded 1280x720 progressive HDTV format and was comparing three different concealment methods for different packet loss rates. One is included in a propriety decoder, one is part of FFMPEG and different length of freezing. The target is to simulate what typically IPTV settop-boxes will do when encountering packet loss. Another aim is to study whether the presentation upscaled on the full HDTV screen or presented pixel mapped in a smaller area in the center of the sceen would have an effect on the quality. The results show that there were differences between the two packet loss concealment methods in FFMPEG and in the propriety codec. Freezing seemed to have similar effect as been reported before. For low rates of transmission errors the coding impairments has impact on the quality, but for higher degree of transmission errors these does not affect the quality, since they become overshadowed by transmission error. An interesting effect where the higher bitrate videos goes from having higher quality for lower degree of packet loss, to having lower quality than the lower bitrate video at higher packet loss, was discovered. The different way of presenting the video i.e. upscaled or not-upscaled was significant on the 95% level, but just about.

  13. Quality optimization of H.264/AVC video transmission over noisy environments using a sparse regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, K.; Tziortziotis, N.; Paluri, S.; Zhang, W.; Blekas, K.; Kondi, L. P.; Kumar, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method in order to predict the Cumulative Mean Squared Error (CMSE), incurred by the loss of individual slices in video transmission. We extract a number of quality-relevant features from the H.264/AVC video sequences, which are given as input to the LASSO. This method has the benefit of not only keeping a subset of the features that have the strongest effects towards video quality, but also produces accurate CMSE predictions. Particularly, we study the LASSO regression through two different architectures; the Global LASSO (G.LASSO) and Local LASSO (L.LASSO). In G.LASSO, a single regression model is trained for all slice types together, while in L.LASSO, motivated by the fact that the values for some features are closely dependent on the considered slice type, each slice type has its own regression model, in an e ort to improve LASSO's prediction capability. Based on the predicted CMSE values, we group the video slices into four priority classes. Additionally, we consider a video transmission scenario over a noisy channel, where Unequal Error Protection (UEP) is applied to all prioritized slices. The provided results demonstrate the efficiency of LASSO in estimating CMSE with high accuracy, using only a few features. les that typically contain high-entropy data, producing a footprint that is far less conspicuous than existing methods. The system uses a local web server to provide a le system, user interface and applications through an web architecture.

  14. HSF1抑制热应激所致RAW264.7巨噬细胞凋亡%HSF1 inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in Raw264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂顺梅; 肖卫民; 王慷慨; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 刘可; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)对热应激所致Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡的影响.方法:采用热应激(42.5 ℃±0.5 ℃)处理稳定表达小鼠HSF1基因的Raw264.7巨噬细胞1 h,37 ℃分别恢复6,9,12,24 h,采用流式细胞术,hoechst33258染色和DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.结果:流式细胞术结果显示,热应激后对照组(转空载体)细胞凋亡核百分率较热应激前明显升高,9 h达峰值(约为60%),此时荧光染色可见30%的细胞出现核固缩,凋亡小体等典型的凋亡形态学改变;并于热应激后6,9,12 h均能检测到清晰的DNA梯状条带.与转空载体对照组相比,HSF1过表达能显著降低热应激所致凋亡及明显抑制DNA的断裂.结论:HSF1可以抑制热应激所致的Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡.

  15. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiu-Li [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ding, Fan [Office of Scientific R& D, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Xiao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Ji-Min, E-mail: caojimin@126.com [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Gao, Xue, E-mail: longlongnose@163.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  16. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation

  17. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/- mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bee-Piao; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Ching; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2014-08-01

    Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy. mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and quantitative (q) RT‑PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS‑induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS‑induced mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS. PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression and protein production of pro‑inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF‑κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. PMID:24898576

  19. On Optimizing H. 264/AVC Rate Control by Improving R-D Model and Incorporating HVS Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gangyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art JVT-G012 rate control algorithm of H.264 is improved from two aspects. First, the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D model is modified based on both empirical observations and theoretical analysis. Second, based on the existing physiological and psychological research findings of human vision, the rate control algorithm is optimized by incorporating the main characteristics of the human visual system (HVS such as contrast sensitivity, multichannel theory, and masking effect. Experiments are conducted, and experimental results show that the improved algorithm can simultaneously enhance the overall subjective visual quality and improve the rate control precision effectively.

  20. Winter urban air particles from Rome (Italy): Effects on the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological data show an association between exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), in particular the fine fraction (<2.5μm in diameter), and an increase in cardiovascular mortality and respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of coarse and fine particulate matter collected with a cascade impactor during winter in an urban area of Rome in relation to their physicochemical characterization (size distribution and chemical composition) as assessed by analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The X-ray microanalysis data of single particles of coarse and fine matter were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the principal component of the two granulometric fractions. The main chemical difference between the two fractions was the greater abundance of carbonaceous particles in the fine fraction. We compared the ability of coarse and fine fractions, carbon black (CB), and residual oil fly ash (ROFA) to induce arachidonic acid release and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line at concentrations of 30 and 120μg/mL. Our results showed that CB and ROFA were consistently less effective than both fractions of urban particles at inducing an inflammatory reaction in RAW 264.7 cells. Both PM fractions dose-dependently increased TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells after 5 and 24h of incubation, and only the TNF-α production induced by coarse particles at 30μg/mL decreased significantly (P<0.01) after 24h of treatment. In our in vitro model the winter fine fraction was more reactive than the winter coarse fraction, in contrast to a previously examined summer sample. In the summer sample, coarse particles produced higher levels of inflammatory mediators than fine particles and the CB was consistently less effective than the urban particles. The different behaviors between summer and winter urban fractions may be due to their different

  1. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  2. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Roine, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Chinain, M. (Mireille); Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, S

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was qu...

  3. Comparative assessment of H.265/MPEG-HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-AVC encoders for low-delay video applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grois, Dan; Marpe, Detlev; Nguyen, Tung; Hadar, Ofer

    2014-09-01

    The popularity of low-delay video applications dramatically increased over the last years due to a rising demand for realtime video content (such as video conferencing or video surveillance), and also due to the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive heterogeneous devices (such as smartphones and tablets). To this end, this work presents a comparative assessment of the two latest video coding standards: H.265/MPEG-HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding), H.264/MPEG-AVC (Advanced Video Coding), and also of the VP9 proprietary video coding scheme. For evaluating H.264/MPEG-AVC, an open-source x264 encoder was selected, which has a multi-pass encoding mode, similarly to VP9. According to experimental results, which were obtained by using similar low-delay configurations for all three examined representative encoders, it was observed that H.265/MPEG-HEVC provides significant average bit-rate savings of 32.5%, and 40.8%, relative to VP9 and x264 for the 1-pass encoding, and average bit-rate savings of 32.6%, and 42.2% for the 2-pass encoding, respectively. On the other hand, compared to the x264 encoder, typical low-delay encoding times of the VP9 encoder, are about 2,000 times higher for the 1-pass encoding, and are about 400 times higher for the 2-pass encoding.

  4. Inhibition of andrographolide in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage osteoclastogenesis by downregulating the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y Q; Zhou, Y B

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of andrographolide (AGP) on osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The effects of AGP on cell viability were determined in RAW 264.7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of AGP on osteoclast formation were tested by osteoclast staining with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The effects of AGP on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL)-induced, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in RAW 264.7 cells were assessed using luciferase reporter assays. The results demonstrated that the viability of osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells was not affected by AGP treatment at a concentration of 0.4 to 10 μM. Additionally, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts was significantly reduced by the same concentrations of AGP treatment. AGP also inhibited RANKL-induced NF-kappaB activation in a dose-dependent fashion as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays. In summary, this study demonstrates that AGP inhibits osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells through downregulation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID:26662387

  5. 过表达热休克因子1突变体对RAW264.7细胞的影响%The effects of HSF1 mutant over-expression on RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秋娟; 张华莉; 张玲俐; 涂自智

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立稳定转染热休克因子1(HSF1)显性正性和显性负性突变体的细胞株,并探讨HSF1突变体过表达对细胞生长的影响.方法 用脂质体将真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1+和pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1-分别转染RAW264.7细胞株,G418筛选阳性单克隆,Western blot鉴定高表达的克隆,流式细胞术检测稳定转染HSF1突变体的细胞与转空载体细胞的生长及凋亡情况.结果 建立了稳定表达HSF1显性正性或显性负性突变体的细胞株,并发现转染HSF1突变体细胞能影响正常细胞增殖,但不引起细胞凋亡.结论 HSF1突变体能影响RAW264.7细胞正常生长周期.

  6. Hardware design of intra prediction in H.264 video decoder%H.264视频解码器中帧内预测模块的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健; 王祖强; 秦盼

    2011-01-01

    提出一种能实时处理的H.264/AVC帧内预测硬件结构.通过对H.264/AVC各个预测模式的分析,设计了一个通用运算单元,提高了硬件资源的可重用性.采用4个并行运算单元计算预测值,对运算比较复杂的plane模式预处理,并设计模式预测器,加快了系统处理速度.硬件电路结构已通过RTL级仿真及综合,并在Altera公司的CycloneⅡFPGA平台上进行了验证和测试.%A hardware architecture for real-time implementation of intra prediction is proposed. According to analyzing all intra prediction modes, this paper designs a processing element, the processing element improves the reusability of hardware resources. In order to improve the processing speed, four parallel processing elements are employed, plane mode precomputation and mode predictor are adopted. Ttie intra prediction decoder has pass RTL level emulation and synthesis; it has verification and test on cyclone II FPGA platform.

  7. The Effects of Bee Venom on PLA2 and Calcium Concentration in Raw 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Il Yun

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Bee Venom on the lipopolysaccharide, sodium nitroprusside and hydrogen peroxide induced expression phospholipase A2 and calcium concentration in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Methods : The expression of phospholipase A2 was determined by western blotting with corresponding antibodies, and the generation of intracellular calcium concentration was investigated by delta scan system in RAW 264.7 cells. Results : 1. Compared with control, expressions of lipopolysaccharide-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significantly by 1 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and decreased by 0.5, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 2. Compared with control, expressions of sodium nitroprusside-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significantly by 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom but increased by 0.5, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 3. Compared with control, expressions of hydrogen peroxide-induced phospholipase A2 were decreased significaltly by 1 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and decreased by 0.5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom but increased by 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom. 4. Compared with control, lipopolysaccharide, sodium nitroprusside and hydrogen peroxide- induced intracellular calcium concentrations were decreased by 0.5, 1, 5 ㎍/㎕ of bee venom and by indomethacin

  8. Algorithm and Hardware Design of a Fast Intra Frame Mode Decision Module for H.264/AVC Encoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palomino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rate-distortion optimization (RDO, the process of choosing the best prediction mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the whole encoding process, increasing significantly the encoder computational complexity. Considering H.264/AVC intra frame prediction, there are several modes to encode a macroblock (MB. This work proposes an algorithm and the hardware design for a fast intra frame mode decision module for H.264/AVC encoders. The application of the proposed algorithm reduces in more than 10 times the number of encoding iterations for choosing the best intramode when compared with RDO-based decision. The architecture was synthesized to FPGA and achieved an operation frequency of 98 MHz processing more than 300 HD1080p frames per second. With this approach, we achieved one order-of-magnitude performance improvement compared with RDO-based approaches, which is very important not only from the performance but also from the energy consumption perspective for battery-operated devices. In order to compare the architecture with previously published works, we also synthesized it to standard cells. Compared with the best previous results reported, the implemented architecture achieves a complexity reduction of five times, a processing capability increase of 14 times, and a reduction in the number of clock cycles per MB of 11 times.

  9. Anti‐Inflammatory Effect of Quercetin on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages Induced with Polyinosinic‐Polycytidylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young‐Jin Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,6‐pentahydroxyflavone is a well‐known antioxidant and a flavonol found in many fruits, leaves, and vegetables. Quercetin also has known anti‐inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide‐induced macrophages. However, the effects of quercetin on virus‐induced macrophages have not been fully reported. In this study, the anti‐inflammatory effect of quercetin on double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA‐induced macrophages was examined. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL‐6, MCP‐1, IP‐10, RANTES, GM‐CSF, G‐CSF, TNF‐α, LIF, LIX, and VEGF as well as calcium release in dsRNA (50 μg/mL of polyinosinic‐polycytidylic acid‐induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages (p < 0.05. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM also significantly inhibited mRNA expression of signal transducer and activated transcription 1 (STAT1 and STAT3 in dsRNA‐induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05. In conclusion, quercetin had alleviating effects on viral inflammation based on inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA‐induced macrophages via the calcium‐STAT pathway.

  10. Synthesis and effects of new caffeic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Liu-Xin; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Bo-Wei; Wang, Rui; Fu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 20 new derivatives of caffeic acid esters were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages were determined. Compounds 3l, 3r, 3s and 3t were found to decrease nitrite levels in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-induced cells and showed potent inhibitory activities against the NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 7.4, 5.9, 3.3 and 2.2 μM, respectively. They could b...

  11. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; YAMAGUCHI, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    We found that CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The NO production was inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but was not by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B. In the presence of 0.1-M GalNAc, increased NO production by CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells was observed rather than the inhibition. Bovine serum albu...

  12. Fast mode decision based on human noticeable luminance difference and rate distortion cost for H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian-Shiuan; Chen, Mei-Juan; Tai, Kuang-Han; Sue, Kuen-Liang

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes a fast mode decision algorithm based on the correlation of the just-noticeable-difference (JND) and the rate distortion cost (RD cost) to reduce the computational complexity of H.264/AVC. First, the relationship between the average RD cost and the number of JND pixels is established by Gaussian distributions. Thus, the RD cost of the Inter 16 × 16 mode is compared with the predicted thresholds from these models for fast mode selection. In addition, we use the image content, the residual data, and JND visual model for horizontal/vertical detection, and then utilize the result to predict the partition in a macroblock. From the experimental results, a greater time saving can be achieved while the proposed algorithm also maintains performance and quality effectively.

  13. New Sesquiterpene Oxidations with CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, Alexander; Litzenburger, Martin; Ringle, Michael; Ly, Thuy T B; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Sesquiterpenes are natural products derived from the common precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) but are highly diverse in structure and function. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) exhibit the unique ability to introduce molecular oxygen into non-activated C-H bonds. In plant biosynthetic pathways, P450s commonly derivatize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. However, the potential of bacterial P450s for terpene derivatization is still underinvestigated. This work compares the substrate specificities and regioselectivities of the sesquiterpene hydroxylases CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Four tested substrate classes (eremophilanes, humulanes, caryophyllanes, and cedranes) were converted by both P450s. The achievable variety of oxidations is demonstrated on the model substrates (+)-nootkatone and zerumbone. Increasing the number of functionally investigated P450s, this study represents a step towards the selective derivatization of sesquiterpenes. PMID:26449371

  14. Effect of radiation on CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the changes of the Notch signaling pathway in osteoclast after radiation the mechanism radiation-induced bone loss, the gene expression of CBFα1, the important signal molecular in Notch signaling pathway was measured by real-time PCR, respectively. The osteoclast was obtained by RANKL-dependent differentiation in the RAW264.7 cell line. It was found that the 2 Gy 137Cs γ-rays enhanced the CBFα1 expression in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the higher expression of CBFα1 might reinforce the effect of promoting osteoclastogenesis by Notch signaling pathway, increase both of the number and activity of osteoclasts while the bone loss, osteoporosis and fracture occur. (authors)

  15. Micrometam C Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models in Zebrafish and RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS in both zebrafish and macrophages. In addition, micrometam C also restored LPS-induced reduction of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The protective effects of micrometam C were in parallel to its inhibition of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa-binding (NF-κB activity. Thus, the present results demonstrate that micrometam C protects against LPS-induced inflammation possibly through its antioxidant property.

  16. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-08-01

    We found that CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The NO production was inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but was not by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B. In the presence of 0.1-M GalNAc, increased NO production by CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells was observed rather than the inhibition. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly inhibited the CEL-I-induced NO production as well as the binding of FITC-labelled CEL-I on RAW264.7 cells. Three MAP kinase inhibitors (specific to extra-cellular regulated kinase, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and p38 MAP kinase) inhibited CEL-I-induced NO production with different extents. Heat-treatment of CEL-I resulted in a decreased activity of CEL-I depending on the temperature. These results suggest that CEL-I induces NO production in RAW264.7 cells through the protein-cell interaction rather than the binding to the specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface. PMID:19351706

  17. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  18. 40 CFR 264.259 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.259 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26... with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 264.283 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.283 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... facilities managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce...

  20. 40 CFR 264.317 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.317 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26... design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for landfills managing hazardous wastes...

  1. 40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.231 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... surface impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to...

  2. Role of protein kinase C δ in apoptotic signaling of oxidized phospholipids in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, F; Humpolícková, J; Amaro, M; Koller, D; Köfeler, H; Zenzmaier, E; Hof, M; Hermetter, A

    2016-04-01

    The oxidized phospholipids (oxPl) 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) are cytotoxic components of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Sustained exposure to oxLDL or isolated oxPl induces apoptotic signaling in vascular cells, which is a hallmark of the late phase of atherosclerosis. Activation of sphingomyelinase, the coordinate formation of ceramide and activation of caspase 3/7 as well as the activation of stress-associated kinases are causally involved in this process. Here, we provide evidence for a role of PKCδ in oxPl cytotoxicity. Silencing of the enzyme by siRNA significantly reduced caspase 3/7 activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages under the influence of oxPl. Concomitantly, PKCδ was phosphorylated as a consequence of cell exposure to PGPC or POVPC. Single molecule fluorescence microscopy provided direct evidence for oxPl-protein interaction. Both oxPl recruited an RFP-tagged PKCδ to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, two color cross-correlation number and brightness (ccN&B) analysis of the molecular motions revealed that fluorescently labeled PGPC or POVPC analogs co-diffuse and are associated with the fluorescent protein kinase in live cells. The underlying lipid-protein interactions may be due to chemical bonding (imine formation between the phospholipid aldehyde POVPC with protein amino groups) and physical association (with POVPC or PGPC). In summary, our data supports the assumption that PKCδ acts as a proapototic kinase in oxPl-included apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages. The direct association of the bioactive lipids with this enzyme seems to be an important step in the early phase of apoptotic signaling. PMID:26707247

  3. Determining Effects of Elaidic Acid on PPAR- Gamma Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doosti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several dietary factors are involved in cardiovascular coronary heart diseases, including trans fatty acids, which are generally formed during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that causes conversion of liquid oils into semisolid fats. Nowadays, it is well-known that trans fatty acids form a major risk factor in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been identified that some nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, are involved and play important roles in lipid homeostasis and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the effect of elaidic acid on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ.Methods: Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated by 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid for 6 h. The control group was treated by 50% ethanol (as solvent, equivalent to the amount of ethanol used in 2 mM concentration of elaidic acid. Later, the total RNA was extracted and its cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the quantity of PPARγ gene expression was measured by real-time PCR.Results: Overall, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid decreased PPARγ gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line by -1.36, -1.68, and -3.24 folds compared with the control group, respectively.Conclusion: By decreasing the expression of nuclear receptor PPARγ, elaidic acid causes, intensifies or accelerates the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. This finding shows the importance of reducing the consumption of elaidic acid containing foods.

  4. Resveratrol inhibits LPS-induced MAPKs activation via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that has cardioprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect RAW 264.7 cells from inflammatory insults and explored mechanisms underlying inhibitory effects of resveratrol on RAW 264.7 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Murine RAW 264.7 cells were treated with resveratrol (1, 5, and 10 µM and/or LPS (5 µg/ml. Nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were measured by Griess reagent and ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines were analysed by ELISA, RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs cascades, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and expression of SIRT1(Silent information regulator T1 were measured by western blot. Wortmannin (1 µM, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor, was used to determine if PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway might be involved in resveratrol's action on RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol significantly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells. Resveratrol increased Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor, blocked the effects of resveratrol on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells activation. In addition, PI3-K inhibition partially abolished the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs cascades. Meanwhile, PI3-K is essential for resveratrol-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK and expression of SIRT1. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This investigation

  5. Flavonoids Identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling by Suppressing Activation of NF-κB and MAPK in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Eun Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used as traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, tumors, and diarrhea in Asia. Hence, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and determined the molecular mechanism of action of flavonoids isolated from Korean S. baicalensis G. in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to examine cytotoxicity of the flavonoids at various concentrations of 10, 40, 70, and 100 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells at these concentrations. Furthermore, the flavonoids decreased production of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, to identify the differentially expressed proteins in RAW 264.7 cells of the control, LPS-treated, and flavonoid-treated groups, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were conducted. The identified proteins were involved in the inflammatory response and included PRKA anchor protein and heat shock protein 70 kD. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from S. baicalensis G. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway via the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hyun Sook, E-mail: wazzup@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. {yields} We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe{sup 2+}), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. → We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. → PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. → PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. → PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe2+), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  8. The inhibitory effect of pterostilbene on inflammatory responses during the interaction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lin, Yu-Jyun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2013-01-23

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies have indicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response due to the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-α-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1β and IL-6 secretion by suppressing phosphorylation of p-IκBα and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration of macrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findings suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory properties of adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:23268743

  9. Fulvic acid promotes extracellular anti-cancer mediators from RAW 264.7 cells, causing to cancer cell death in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jeong, Yong Kee; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-07-01

    Fulvic acid (FA) is known to promote electrochemical balance as a donor or a receptor possessing many biomedical functions. Nevertheless, the effect of FA on the anti-cancer activity has not been elucidated. In the current study, we first isolated FA from humus and investigated whether FA regulates immune-stimulating functions, such as production of nitric oxide (NO), in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data showed that FA slightly enhances cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and secretion of NO from RAW 264.7 cells. It upregulated the protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthesis (iNOS). In addition, FA enhanced the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in RAW 264.7 cells; the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) effectively attenuated the expression of FA-stimulated iNOS, suggesting that FA stimulates NF-κB to promote iNOS and NO production. Finally, FA-stimulated culture media (FA-CM) from RAW 264.7 cells were collected and MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cells were cultured in this media. The FA-CM augmented MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis; however, an NO inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA) slightly inhibited the FA-CM-mediated MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by low levels of NO. In the present study, we found that FA induces the generation of NO and iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells by inducing NF-κB activation; however, NO did not significantly stimulate MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis in the current study. In addition, FA-CM enhanced cell death in various human cancer cells such as Hep3B, LNCaP, and HL60. Taken together, FA most likely stimulates immune-modulating molecules such as NO and induces cancer cell apoptosis. PMID:27177083

  10. 264例阿洛西林钠不良反应的文献分析%Literature Analysis of 264 Cases of Adverse Drug Reactions Induced by Azlocillin Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 冯亚楠; 李永辉; 郭瑞锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿洛西林钠不良反应的一般规律特点,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法检索中国期刊全文数据库,对2014年之前国内公开发表有关注射用阿洛西林钠264例病例文献报道进行回顾性分析。结果儿童患者发生率高,累及系统-器官主要为皮肤及其附件损害(48.43%)、全身性损害(20.24%)、胃肠系统损害(13.01%),严重全身性系统损害以过敏性休克、过敏样反应为主。结论阿洛西林钠安全使用亟待加强,临床应重视阿洛西林钠的不良反应,加强用药监测,确保安全使用。%Objective To probe into thes tatus,characterstics and influencing factors of ADR cases induced by azlocillin sodium, so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods Datas were collected from domestic published literatures from China Journal Full-text Database before 2014, and 264 case reports of adverse drug reactions induced by azlocillin sodium were analyzed retrospectively. Results Younger patients appeared to be with a high rate of ADR, which mainly involved skin and its appendages (48.43%), systemic damage (20.24), gastrointestinal system (13.01%), and the serious ones showed anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction.Conclusion Azlocillin sodium should be used reasonably, and the monitoring of clinical use should be strengthened to ensure the safety of medication.

  11. 氩激光治疗糖尿病视网膜病变264例观察%Observation on Photocoagulation with Arqon for Treatment of 264 Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包欣; 林菁; 谢田华; 朱靖; 史惠琴; 袁松涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察氩激光光凝治疗不同分期糖尿病视网膜病变(diabetic retinopathy,DR)的疗效.方法:对264例513眼DR患者按病变不同分期分别行黄斑格栅样光凝、次全视网膜光凝(sPRP)和全视网膜光凝(PRP).随访3月-5年,观察患者视力、眼底及荧光血管造影情况.结果:总计有24.0%(123/513)的患眼视力得以上升,49.7 %(255/513)视力保持不变,26.3 %(135/513)视力下降.非增殖性DR激光治疗有效率为87.5%,增殖性DR有效率58.4 %(P<0.05).1型DM有效率43.5%,2型DM有效率81.4%(P<0.05).结论:氩激光能有效控制DR,减缓DR患者视力的丧失,非增殖性DR疗效明显优于增殖性DR,2型DM疗效优于1型DM.%Objective: To observe curative effect of photocoagulation with arqon on background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: We classified 513 eyes with 264 patients as background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or not with cystoid macular edema. They were treated with grid patten photocoagulation, secondary panretinal photocoagulation (sPRP) and panretinal photocoagulation respectively. Followed up with visual acuity, ophthalmic fundus characteristics and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) for 3 months to 5 years. Results: Mean preoperative visual acuities and ophthalmic fundus characteristics were compared across groups. In all patients, visual acuity improved in 123 eyes (24 %); was unchanged in 255 eyes (49.7 %); and decreased in 135 eyes (26.3 %). The effective rate of photocoagulation on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy is 87.5 % compared with 58.4 % on proliferative diabetic retinopathy(P<0.05), 43.5 % on type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with 81.4 % on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclutions: Photocoagulation with arqon can effectively restrain the decrease of visual acuity especially in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Etiological analysis of 264 cases with chronic kidney disease stage 2 to 5 in children%慢性肾脏病2~5期患儿264例病因构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪千帆; 沈茜; 徐虹; 孙利; 汤小山; 方晓燕; 刘海梅; 翟亦晖; 毕允力

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and summarize the etiology of children patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 to 5 seen in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013.Method By complying with the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines,we collected data of 264 cases of children patients with CKD stage 2-5 from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013 in the medical record system of Children's Hospital of Fudan University.And we retrospectively analyzed their age and CKD stage at first diagnosis,primary diseases,complications,etc.Result In the collected 264 cases,52 cases (19.7%) were diagnosed at stage 2,67 (25.4%) at stage 3,52 (19.7%) at stage 4 and 93 (35.2%) at stage 5.For disease causes,116 cases (43.9%) had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT),61 cases (23.1%) had glomerular disease,15 (5.7%) had hereditary kidney disease,14 (5.3%) had other diseases and in 58 cases (22.0%) the causes of disease were unknown.In the group with age between 0 and 3.0 and 3.1 and 6.0 years,57.1% (24 cases) and 60.0% (30 cases) had primary disease with CAKUT.In the group with age older than 10 years,49.2% (30 cases) had primary disease with glomerular disease and 32.0% (32 cases) with unknown causes.Conclusion The major cause of CKD stage 2-5 in children in our hospital during the last ten years was CAKUT (43.9%),followed by glomerular disease (23.1%).The primary diseases of CKD were significantly different between the 2 age groups.CAKUT was more common in infants and preschool children while for adolescents,glomerular disease was the major cause.%目的 总结10年来复旦大学附属儿科医院慢性肾脏病(CKD) 2~5期患儿的病因构成情况.方法 应用复旦大学附属儿科医院住院病历检索系统,检索并收集2004年1月-2013年12月期间复旦大学附属儿科医院住院的符合诊断标准的CKD 2 ~5期患儿264例,统计其首次诊断时年龄、分期,原发病诊断等信息,进行回顾性分析.结果 264

  13. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,and SDF1-3′A) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3′A,mutant in a ligand gene,can delay AIDS pathogenesis.The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China.No CCR5-Δ32 was observed.CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China,with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively.Relative hazard was evaluated.Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  14. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  15. Protective effects of Se-containing protein hydrolysates from Se-enriched rice against Pb(2+)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi; Fang, Yong; Chen, Yue; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Hu, Qiuhui; Qiu, Weifen

    2016-07-01

    The protective capacity of Se-containing protein hydrolysates with molecular weight below 1kDa (SPHs-3), against Pb(2+)-induced damage in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells, was investigated in this study. The cell viability, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in cell were analyzed. Results showed that 100μg/ml of SPHs-3 pretreatment could significantly increase cell viability by 24.9% and 23.0% in Pb(2+)-treated PC12 and RAW264.7 cells, respectively (Price may be a feasible candidate to improve health standard of the Pb(2+)-pollution population. PMID:26920310

  16. Heat shock response down-regulates IL-18 expression in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock response is a self-defense mechanism for protection of cells and organisms from a wide range of harmful stressors. Recent studies revealed that it is involved in the regulation of cytokines expression. IL-18 is an important cytokine in mediating immune response. We studied LPS-induced IL-18 expression in heat shock treated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Our results show that the heat shock response significantly inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Further research on the down-regulation mechanism shows that this inhibitory effect is correlated to the great suppression of the binding activity of AP-1, which is a transcription factor binding to the promoter of IL-18 (-1120 to -1083) and regulates the transcription of IL-18. Meanwhile, we observed that the phosphorylation of JNK, which is AP-1 upstream kinase, was greatly decreased. These results confirmed that the down-regulation effect on IL-18 production in heat shock response is related to the suppression of the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway.

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeratad Sudsai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1, kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2, rhamnazin (3, pinostrobin (4, together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5, curcumin (6, demethoxycurcumin (7 and bisdemethoxycurcumin (8, as well as one sterol, -sitosterol-D-glucoside (9. Compound 6 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against NO release with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM, followed by 7 (IC50 = 11.7 μM, 8 (IC50 = 15.7 μM, 5 (IC50 = 23.0 μM and 1 (IC50 = 23.5 μM, respectively. This study demonstrated that diarylheptanoids and some methoxyflavonoidsfound in B. longiflora are responsible for anti-inflammatory activity and this is the first report the safety, chemicalconstituents and biological activity of this plant.

  18. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect. PMID:27374584

  19. A Bandwidth Optimized, 64 Cycles/MB Joint Parameter Decoder Architecture for Ultra High Definition H.264/AVC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinjia; Zhou, Dajiang; He, Xun; Goto, Satoshi

    In this paper, VLSI architecture of a joint parameter decoder is proposed to realize the calculation of motion vector (MV), intra prediction mode (IPM) and boundary strength (BS) for ultra high definition H.264/AVC applications. For this architecture, a 64-cycle-per-MB pipeline with simplified control modes is designed to increase system throughput and reduce hardware cost. Moreover, in order to save memory bandwidth, the data which includes the motion information for the co-located picture and the last decoded line, is pre-processed before being stored to DRAM. A partition based storage format is applied to condense the MB level data, while variable length coding based compression method is utilized to reduce the data size in each partition. Experimental results show our design is capable of real-time 3840×2160@60fps decoding at less than 133MHz, with 37.2k logic gates. Meanwhile, by applying the proposed scheme, 85-98% bandwidth saving is achieved, compared with storing the original information for every 4×4 block to DRAM.

  20. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  2. 660 nm Red LED Induces Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Choi, Baik-Dong; Lee, Hye-Yon; Hwang, Young-Hyoun; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Ick; Yun, Je-Jung; Lee, Byung-Ho; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2015-08-01

    SLPI acts as a modulator of the innate immune responses of macrophages, neutrophils and odontoblasts, and LPS-inducible anti-inflammatory cytokine to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory products by macrophages. Many studies have revealed the effects of light emitting diodes (LEDs) on the tissue repair and inflammatory responses. Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of irradiation with LEDs in gingival fibroblasts are known, the effects of 660 nm red LEDs on the inflammation remain unclear. Moreover, there is no report regarding the molecular mechanism for the relationship between SLPI and biological effects of LEDs. The effects of 660 nm red LEDs on inflammation with SLPI were investigated by examining the effects of 660 nm LED on the SLPI expression of RAW264.7 cells after LPS stimulation. This paper reports that the 660 nm red LED induced SLPI expression or reduced the LPS response, and inhibited NF-κB activation directly, leading to the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, suggesting that it might be a useful wavelength LED for inflammation therapy. PMID:26369126

  3. The Impact of Serum Amyloid P-Component on Gene Expression in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid P-component (SAP contributes to host defense and prevents fibrosis. Macrophages are the most abundant inflammatory cell type in atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, using 3H-cholesterol-labeled counting radioactivity assay, we demonstrated that the apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages was increased by SAP treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We analyzed global gene expression changes upon SAP treatment using RNA sequencing. As a result, a total of 175 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 134 genes were downregulated and 41 genes were upregulated in SAP treated cells compared to control cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed decreased expression of 5 genes and an increase in expression of 1 gene upon SAP treatment. Gene ontology analysis showed that genes involved in response to stimulus were significantly enriched in differentially expressed genes. Beyond protein-coding genes, we also identified 8 differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs. Our study may provide new insights into mechanisms underlying the functional role of SAP in macrophages.

  4. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone marrow. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, NF-κB activation was evaluated using a reporter assay based on secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase. Finally, synthetic antagonists were used to identify the dopamine receptor that mediates the effects of haloperidol. RESULTS Haloperidol inhibited NF-κB activation, and thereby suppressed expression of CD80, as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD80 and IL-6 levels were similarly attenuated by a D2-like receptor antagonist, but not by a D1-like receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS The data strongly suggest that haloperidol inhibits the immune response by suppressing NF-kB signaling via the dopamine D2 receptor. PMID:26842661

  5. Effects of Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 mimics on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Guo, Xiaola; He, Wei; Shao, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xueyong; Yang, Jing; Shen, Yujuan; Luo, Xuenong; Cao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory non-coding RNA that contributes to the activation of host-pathogen cross-talk during infection. In helminthes, miR-71 is highly conserved and it has recently been detected in nematode exosomes, as well as in the sera and/or fluids of infected humans and mice. However, the role of miR-71 during infection remains poorly characterized. Herein, we show that Ago1 and Ago4, which encode key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), were up-regulated in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells transfected by Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 (emu-miR-71) mimics. Using a miRNA PCR array, none of the 84 miRNAs involved in inflammation or autoimmunity were significantly up- or down-regulated in the transfected cells (p>0.05). Although it did not influence IL-10 production by the treated cells (p>0.05), the mimics significantly repressed the production of NO 12h after treatment with LPS and IFN-γ (p<0.01), identifying another potential mechanism whereby parasites can carefully regulate host levels of NO. These findings indicate that the release of parasite-derived miR-71 into hosts can affect the functions of macrophages, and possibly represents an exciting direction for studies of the interplay between parasites and hosts. PMID:26995025

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Chaenomeles sinensis Leaf Extracts on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Ki; Kim, Yon-Suk; Natarajan, Sithranga Boopathy; Kim, Won-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Nam-Joo; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2016-01-01

    The fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis has been traditionally used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various human ailments, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and so on, but the pharmacological applications of the leaf part of the plant have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the various radical scavenging activities and anti-inflammatory effects of different Chaenomeles sinensis leaf (CSL) extracts. The water extract showed a higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. However the ethanolic extracts showed higher NO scavenging activity than water extract, therefore the ethanolic extract of CSL was examined for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The 70% ethanol extract of CSL (CSLE) has higher anti-inflammatory activity and significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, CSLE suppressed LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production, IL-1β and phospho-STAT1 expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of CSLE on the production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of the TRIF-dependent pathways. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of CSLE on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Our results suggest that CSLE attenuates the LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in macrophages through regulating the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional uses in treating various inflammatory diseases. PMID:27043497

  7. IRF3 polymorphisms induce different innate anti-Theiler's virus immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent viral infections can lead to disease such as myocarditis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infects macrophages of SJL/J (H-2s) mice establishing persistent infections leading to demyelinating disease. In contrast macrophages from B10.S (H-2s) mice clear TMEV. Activation of the transcription factor IRF3 induces IFNβ, ISG56, and apoptosis for viral clearance, but also inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL6, which contribute to disease. Here we identify polymorphisms in the IRF3 of SJL/J versus B10.S mice that are located in DNA binding, nuclear localization, and autoinhibitory domains. SJL-IRF3 expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells with or without TMEV infection decreased IL-23p19 promoter activity compared with B10S-IRF3. In contrast SJL-IRF3 increased IL-6, ISG56 and IFNβ in response to TMEV. B10S-IRF3 expression augmented apoptotic caspase activation and decreased viral RNA in TMEV-infected macrophages while SJL-IRF3 increased viral replication with less caspase activation. Therefore IRF3 polymorphisms contribute to viral persistence and altered cytokine expression.

  8. Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Nan; Hauck, Cathy; Yum, Man-Yu; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Widrlechner, Mark P.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Murphy, Patricia A.; Dixon, Philip M.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Birt, Diane F.

    2009-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions were applied to RAW264.7 mouse macrophages and the ethanol extracts significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production at 30 μg/mL wit...

  9. High density lipoprotein 3 inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis via promoting cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei JIANG; Peng-ke YAN; Jian-xiong CHEN; Bing-yang ZHU; Xiao-yong LEI; Wei-dong YIN; Duan-fang LIAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) on oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.Methods: RAW264.7 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L ox-LDL for various durations up to 48 h, and apoptosis was detected using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis. Total cholesterol levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography, cholesterol efflux was determined by Tritium labeling, and the cellular lipid droplets were assayed by oil red O staining. Results: Treatment with 50 mg/L ox-LDL for 12, 24, and 48 h increased the apoptotic rate of RAW264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. The peak apoptotic rate (47.7%) was observed after 48 h incubation. HDL3 at various concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200mg/L) inhibited the ox-LDL (50 mg/L for 48 h)-mediated apoptosis that was accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular cholesterol efflux, and decreased total cholesterol levels in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Blockage of cholesterol efflux by brefeldin decreased the protective effect of HDL3 on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Increase of the cholesterol efflux effected by another cholesterol acceptor, β-cyclodextrin, led to a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate of cells. Conclusion: HDL3 antagonizes ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7cells, through reducing the accumulation of toxic cholesterol.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of chitosan nanoparticles carrying NF-κB/p65 antisense oligonucleotide in RAW264.7 macropghage stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan-An; Gao, Lei; Li, Da-Wei; Shang, Yu-Ru; Yin, Kai; Zhao, Dong-Xu; Cheng, Wen-Feng; Quan, Dong-Qin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this present study is to prepare NF-κB/p65 antisense oligonucleotide loaded chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluate their physicochemical characterization and antisense effects in RAW264.7 macrophages. Condensed nanoparticles with mean particle size of 128±16nm, average Zeta potential of 19.6±6.3mV and high entrapment efficiency (EE) of 98.6±0.11% were formed between NF-κB/p65 antisense gene (NAG) and chitosan by complex coacervation method. Trypan blue staining and MTT tests showed that NAG chitosan NPs had no toxic effect on RAW264.7 macrophages when the dose was no more than 20μg/mL. Confocal microscopy images showed that NAG chitosan NPs were capable to deliver NAG into cytoplasm of RAW264.7 macrophages and finally into nucleus. Real-time PCR tests verified that NAG chitosan NPs could significantly decrease the mRNA expression level of NF-κB/p65 and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-ɑ, IL-1 and IL-6. Accordingly, western blot study showed that NAG NPs uptaken in the cells could efficiently reversed the expression of NF-κB/p65 protein induced by LPS. At last, downstream release level of inflammatory factors including TNF-ɑ, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly decreased after treated by NAG chitosan NPs. It could be concluded that chitosan NPs were excellent delivery vectors to ferry the NAG into the cytoplasm and nucleus of macrophages. The NAG chitosan NPs might be a novel therapeutic apparatus for the treatment of LPS induced sepsis by inhibiting NF-κB-related pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. PMID:26970817

  11. The effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perečko, T; Kassab, R B; Vašíček, O; Pekarová, M; Jančinová, V; Lojek, A

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine, an antimalarial drug, can also be used in the regulation of the immune system, e.g. it is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative on nitric oxide (NO) production in two different cell types: (i) immortalized mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and (ii) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). The cells were treated with different concentrations (1-100 μM) of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24 h to induce NO production. Measurement of nitrites by the Griess reaction was used to evaluate the production of NO. Expression of inducible NO synthase was evaluated with Western blot and ATPcytotoxicity test was used to measure the viability of the cells. Our results showed that both chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative inhibited NO production in both cell types. However, based on the results of LD50 these inhibitory effects of both derivatives were due to their cytotoxicity. The LD50 values for chloroquine were 24.77 μM (RAW 264.7) and 24.86 μM (BMDM), the LD50 for hydroxychloroquine were 13.28 μM (RAW 264.7) and 13.98 μM (BMDM). In conclusion, hydroxychloroquine was more cytotoxic than its parent molecule. Comparing the two cell types tested, our data suggest that there are no differences in cytotoxicity of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for primary cells (BMDM) or immortalized cell line (RAW 264.7). PMID:25369339

  12. Bis(bibenzyls) from liverworts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible NOS in RAW 264.7 cells: a study of structure-activity relationships and molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Quang, Dang Ngoc; Takeshi, Nishizawa; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-12-01

    The inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced NOS by 19 bis(bibenzyls) isolated from liverworts in RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated. The presence of phenolic hydroxyls and saturation at 7,8 and/or 7'/8' are required for inhibition of NO production. Among the compounds tested, marchantin A was the most potent, and its inhibitory activity was consistent with the inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS mRNA. PMID:16378374

  13. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Woan Sean Tan; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Govindarajan Karthivashan; Sharida Fakurazi

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethyl...

  14. SM905, an artemisinin derivative, inhibited NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by suppressing MAPK and NF-κB pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Hou, Li-fei; Yang, Yang; Tang, Wei; Ying LI; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory potentials and underlying mechanisms of SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: Nitric oxide (NO) generation, cytokine production, and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined using a Griess assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blotting assay, respectively. The mRNA expre...

  15. Interactions between Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to complex mixtures of bacteria and fungi in moisture-damaged buildings is a potential cause of inflammatory related symptoms among occupants. The present study assessed interactions between two characteristic moldy house microbes Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum. Differences in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse (RAW264.7) macrophages were studied after exposure to the spores of co-cultivated microbes, the mixture of separately cultivated spores, and the spores of either of these microbes cultivated alone. The RAW264.7 cells were exposed to six doses (1 x 104 to 3 x 106 spores/ml) for 24 h, and the time course of the induced responses was evaluated after 4, 8, 16, and 24 h of exposure (1 x 106 spores/ml). The cytotoxic potential of the spores was characterized by the MTT test, DNA content analysis, and enzyme assay for caspase-3 activity. The production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and MIP2) was measured immunochemically and nitric oxide by the Griess method. Co-cultivation increased the ability of the spores to cause apoptosis by more than 4-fold and the proportion of RAW264.7 cells at the G2/M stage increased nearly 2-fold when compared to the response induced by the mixture of spores. In contrast, co-cultivation decreased significantly the ability of the spores to trigger the production of NO and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that co-culture of S. californicus and S. chartarum can result in microbial interactions that significantly potentiate the ability of the spores to cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells

  16. Inhibitory effect of Jeju endemic seaweeds on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Min-Jin; Kim, Dong Sam; Kim, Chan-Shick; Lee, Wook Jae; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed has been used in traditional cosmetics and as a herbal medicine in treatments for cough, boils, goiters, stomach ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches. Despite the fact that seaweeds are frequently used in the practice of human health, little is known about the role of seaweed in the context of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Jeju endemic seaweed on a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) under t...

  17. Beclin 1 Is Required for Starvation-Enhanced, but Not Rapamycin-Enhanced, LC3-Associated Phagocytosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in RAW 264.7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuelei; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; John D Boyce; Rodney J. Devenish

    2013-01-01

    LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) of Burkholderia pseudomallei by murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells is an intracellular innate defense mechanism. Beclin 1, a protein with several roles in autophagic processes, is known to be recruited to phagosomal membranes as a very early event in LAP. We sought to determine whether knockdown of Beclin 1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) would affect recruitment of LC3 and subsequent LAP of infecting B. pseudomallei. Both starvation and rapamycin treatment...

  18. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko,; Reybier, K; Darius, H.T.; Chinain, M. (Mireille); Pauillac, S.; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1 B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiolo...

  19. Zinc Carnosine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κb Activation in Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Independent of the MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in the anti-inflammatory effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to the addition of LPS (1 μg/ml). Following 24 h of treatment, ZnC was found not to be cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to the concentration of 100 μM. Our current findings showed that ZnC did not protect RAW 264.7 cells from LPS-induced "respiratory burst". Significant increment in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration can only be observed in cell pretreated with high doses of ZnC only (50 and 100 μM for GSH and 100 μM only for TBARS). On the other hand, pretreatment of cells with ZnC was able to inhibit LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression significantly. Furthermore, results from immunoblotting showed that ZnC was able to suppress nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, and highest suppression can be observed at 100 μM of ZnC pretreatment. However, pretreatment of ZnC did not inhibit the early activation of MAPKs. In conclusion, pretreatment with ZnC was able to inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, mainly via suppression of NF-κB activation, and is independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:26749414

  20. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2011-05-21 to 2011-05-24 (NODC Accession 0117418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117418 includes biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of...

  1. Effect of Nucleolin Antisense Oligonucleotides on Proliferation and Apoptosis in RAW264.7 Cells%核仁素反义寡核苷酸对RAW264.7细胞增殖与凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹江; 王慷慨; 刘可; 易宇欣; 鄂顺梅; 张玲莉; 肖献忠

    2005-01-01

    [目的]探讨核仁素反义寡核苷酸对RAW264.7细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.[方法]采用反义寡核苷酸技术以抑制RAW264.7细胞中核仁素的表达后,用MTT法检测细胞增殖状况,流式细胞术及DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.[结果]免疫印迹结果显示,反义寡核苷酸导入细胞后24 h,核仁素的表达被显著抑制,同时反义寡核苷酸处理组细胞的增殖能力明显受到抑制,细胞凋亡百分率显著升高,并能检测到清晰的"梯状条带".而正义及随机寡核苷酸导入细胞后不能降低核仁素的表达,对细胞增殖及凋亡均无明显影响.[结论]核仁素表达下调能抑制RAW264.7细胞增殖并能触发RAW264.7细胞凋亡.

  2. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 7 Promotes an Inflammatory Phenotype in RAW264.7 Macrophages Through the P38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Wang, Kun; Cui, Jiesheng; He, Yiduo; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-06-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 7 (Angptl7) has been extensively studied for decades, but its potential immune functions have not been characterized. Hence, we investigated the relationship between Angptl7 and inflammation by using RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage cells. The expression of genes encoding inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)) decreased after RAW264.7 cells were treated with anti-Angptl7 polyclonal antibody but increased after the cells were transfected with an Angptl7-expressing plasmid. Angptl7 overexpression enhanced phagocytosis and inhibited the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells. In addition, Angptl7 antagonized the anti-inflammatory effects of TGF-β1 and dexamethasone. Pathway analysis showed that Angptl7 promoted the phosphorylation of both p65 and p38, but only the P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway mediated Angptl7-associated inflammatory functions. Additionally, after 1 week of daily intraperitoneal injections of recombinant TNF-α in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, Angptl7 expression increased in the mouse eyes. Thus, Angptl7 is a factor that promotes pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages through the P38 MAPK signaling pathway and represents a potential therapeutic target for treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26973239

  3. Glycine tomentella Hayata inhibits IL-1β and IL-6 production, inhibits MMP-9 activity, and enhances RAW264.7 macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu-Shu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the effects of Glycine tomentella Hayata (GTH, a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of rheumatic diseases on the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and on the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the presence or absence of ethanol extract of GTH. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and transglutaminase 2 (TG2 were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assayed by gelatin zymography. For detecting uptake of apoptotic cells, RAW264.7 cells were cultured with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA-stained apoptotic cells and assayed by flow cytometry. Results The major components of GTH analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatogram were daidzein (42.5%, epicatechin (28.8%, and naringin (9.4%. GTH treatment inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 but did not affect the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. GTH significantly enhanced the expression of TG2 and the clearance of apoptotic cells by RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions GTH inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and MMP-9 activity, enhances apoptotic cell uptake and up-regulates TG2 expression. Our data show that GTH might have beneficial effects on rheumatic diseases.

  4. Koumine Attenuates Lipopolysaccaride-Stimulated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Macrophages, Coincidentally Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihang Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbal plants have been commonly used for intervention of different diseases and health enhancement worldwide. Koumine, an alkaloid monomer found abundantly in Gelsemium plants, can be effectively used as an anti-inflammatory medication. In this study, the mechanisms associated with the preventative effect of koumine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Koumine induced a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein, concomitant reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO and reduction of the levels of interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, koumine decreased the phosphorylation of p65 and inhibited nuclear factor κ Bα (IκBα proteins, resulting in lower production of nuclear factor (NF-κB transactivation. Koumine also induced a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK and p38 in RAW264 cells. In conclusion, these findings reveal that koumine decreases the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators though the suppression of p38 and ERK MAPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells.

  5. Brazilein Suppresses Inflammation through Inactivation of IRAK4-NF-κB Pathway in LPS-Induced Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Jin Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal herbal plant has been commonly used for prevention and intervention of disease and health promotions worldwide. Brazilein is a bioactive compound extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Several studies have showed that brazilein exhibited the immune suppressive effect and anti-oxidative function. However, the molecular targets of brazilein for inflammation prevention have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of brazilein on LPS-induced inflammatory response in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We demonstrated that brazilein decreased the expression of IRAK4 protein led to the suppression of MAPK signaling and IKKβ, and subsequent inactivation of NF-κB and COX2 thus promoting the expression of the downstream target pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, MCP-1, MIP-2, and IL-6 in LPS-induced Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Moreover, we observed that brazilein reduced the production of nitrite compared to the control in LPS-induced Raw264.7. Thus, we suggest that brazilein might be a useful bioactive compound for the prevention of IRAK-NF-κB pathway associated chronic diseases.

  6. AMPK-Activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Ccr2 Expression by Inhibiting the NF-κB Pathway in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumase, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Kimio; Morizane, Yuki; Suzuki, Jun; Matsumoto, Hidetaka; Kataoka, Keiko; Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Maidana, Daniel E.; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2016-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2) is a key pro-inflammatory marker of classic (M1) macrophage activation. Although Ccr2 is known to be expressed both constitutively and inductively, the full regulatory mechanism of its expression remains unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not only a master regulator of energy homeostasis but also a central regulator of inflammation. In this study, we sought to assess AMPK’s role in regulating RAW264.7 macrophage Ccr2 protein levels in resting (M0) or LPS-induced M1 states. In both M0 and M1 RAW264.7 macrophages, knockdown of the AMPKα1 subunit by siRNA led to increased Ccr2 levels whereas pharmacologic (A769662) activation of AMPK, attenuated LPS-induced increases in Ccr2 expression in an AMPK dependent fashion. The increases in Ccr2 levels by AMPK downregulation were partially reversed by NF-κB inhibition whereas TNF-a inhibition had minimal effects. Our results indicate that AMPK is a negative regulator of Ccr2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages, and that the mechanism of action of AMPK inhibition of Ccr2 is mediated, in part, through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26799633

  7. The linear structure of β-glucan from baker's yeast and its activation of macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Hui; Liu, Qingye; Song, Jianhui; Xu, Min; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-09-01

    Yeast β-glucan has many formulations with different chemical structures, water solubility and purity. In particular, the purity of β-glucan in these formulations is variable and relatively low, contributing to different data on its biological activity. In this study, the major polysaccharide component in the crude Baker's yeast polysaccharides coded as BBG with high purity of 99% was obtained, and its chemical structure was determined to be a linear β-(1,3)-glucan. It was found that BBG interacted with complement receptor 3 (CR3) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on the surface of macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, and initiated activation of RAW264.7 cells characterized by significant production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Additionally, activation of the nuclear factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by BBG, were also observed, further confirming the stimulation of RAW264.7 cells by BBG. All these findings provided important scientific evidences for better understanding the molecular mechanism of action for the linear β-(1,3)-glucan in cells. PMID:27185116

  8. A Real-Time H.264/AVC Encoder & Decoder with Vertical Mode for Intra Frame and Three Step Search Algorithm for P-Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Jammas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The video coding standards are being developed to s atisfy the requirements of applications for various purposes, better picture quality, higher co ding efficiency, and more error robustness. The new international video coding standard H.264 / AVC aims at having significant improvements in coding efficiency, and error robust ness in comparison with the previous standards such as MPEG-2, H261, H263,and H264. Vide o stream needs to be processed from several steps in order to encode and decode the vid eo such that it is compressed efficiently with available limited resources of hardware and softwar e. All advantages and disadvantages of available algorithms should be known to implement a codec to accomplish final requirement. The purpose of this project is to implement all bas ic building blocks of H.264 video encoder and decoder. The significance of the project is the inc lusion of all components required to encode and decode a video in MatLab .

  9. Effect of Nodosin on Nitric Oxide and Cytokines Release from RAW264.7 Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide%Nodosin对脂多糖刺激RAW264.7细胞分泌NO及细胞因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋铃; 高幼衡; 张丽媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of nodosin on nitric oxide ( NO) and cytokines release from RAW264. 7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) . Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium ( MTT) assay was used to test the influence of nodosin on the proliferation of in-vitro cultured murine macrophage cell line RAW264. 7. The secretion of cytokines from RAW264. 7 cells was stimulated by LPS, and then was intervened with nodosin at the concentrations of 1. 25 , 2. 5 and 5. 0 mmol/L. After intervention, the level of NO in the culture supernatant was tested by Griess Reagent, and the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) , IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA). Results Nodosin had no effect on proliferation of RAW264. 7 cells within 10 mmol/L, but showed dose-dependent effect on inhibiting the release of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α, and on increasing the production of IL-10 in the LPS-stimulated RAW264. 7 cells. Conclusion The anti-inflammatory action of nodosin is probably related with the inhibition of inflammatory factors of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α , and with the increase of IL-10 expression.%[目的]观察nodosin对脂多糖(LPS)刺激RAW264.7细胞NO和炎症细胞因子的影响.[方法]采用四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法测定nodosin对体外培养的小鼠巨噬细胞株RAW264.7细胞增殖的影响;采用LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞使细胞分泌细胞因子,以不同浓度(1.25、2.5、5 mmol/L) nodosin干预,Griess法检测培养上清液中NO水平,酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、IL-10、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的含量. [结果]Nodosin在10 mmol/L内对RAW264.7细胞增殖无显著影响;可呈一定剂量依赖关系地抑制LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞后NO、IL-6、TNF-α的表达,促进IL-10的表达.[结论]Nodosin的抗炎作用与其能抑制炎症细胞因子NO、IL-6、TNF-α表达,促进IL-10的表达有关.

  10. Effect of calmodulin inhibitor on NO production and iNOS expression induced by LPS/IFN-γin RAW264.7 cells%CaM抑制剂对LPS/IFN-γ诱导的RAW264.7细胞NO生成及iNOS表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小媚; 雷寒; 柳青; 夏勇; 马康华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells, and to study the anti-inflammation mechanism of CaM inhibitor. Methods An inflammatory response model was established using RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS and/or IFN-γ. CaM inhibitors N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-l-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) and triflu operazine (TFP) were used to pre-treat RAW264.7 cells to evaluate the effects of the CaM inhibitors. NO con centration was measured with Griess Reagent Kit. Target protein and mRNA expression was tested by Western blot and RT-PCR. Results In RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS or IFN-γ CaM inhibitors W-7 and TFP sig nificantly blocked NO production ( P < 0. 01 ) and protein and mRNA expression of iNOS ( P < 0. 01 ). In RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS and IFN-γ, W-7 and TFP remarkably prevented IKBα degradation (P < 0. 01 ) and phospho-IKK and phospho-STAT1 protein expression ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion CaM inhibitors W-7 and TFP can inhibit LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO production and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells, probably by the mechanism of suppressing IKBα degradation and phospho-IKK and phospho- STAT1 protein expression. The anti-inflammatory effects of CaM inhibitors may be associated with NF-KB and JAK-STAT1 signaling pathways.%目的 观察钙调蛋白(Calmodulin,CaM)抑制剂对脂多糖/干扰素γ(LPS/IFN-γ)诱导的RAW264.7细胞一氧化氮(NO)的生成及诱生型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)表达的作用及其可能的作用机制.方法 采用LPS/IFN-γ诱导RAW264.7巨噬细胞建立细胞炎症反应模型,钙调蛋白抑制剂(W-7,TFP)预处理细胞后,采用Griess试剂法测定NO释放量;采用Western blot法测定目的 蛋白的表达;采用反转录聚合酶链反应法(RT-PCR)分析iNOS mRNA表达的变化.结果 CaM抑制剂

  11. Design and Implementation of H264 Video Transmission System Based on UAV Platform%基于无人机平台H264视频传输系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦崇岭; 裴海龙

    2012-01-01

    无人机网络视频系统是无人机重要组成部分,文章设计了一套嵌入式视频采集传输系统;该系统以Intel PXA270为硬件核心平台;采用Linux操作系统,重新编译配置内核,以驱动USB网络摄像头;对USB网络摄像头采集到的图像数据进行H264压缩,然后通过CDMA网络把高清视频信号无线传输到地面接收站的vlc播放器解码显示,实时性很好,图像质量清晰;可以完成小型无人机侦察勘探、自主导航的功能.具有广泛的应用前景.%Network video system is an important part of UAV, this paper design an embedded video transmission system. The system makes use of Intel PXA270 embedded microprocessor as its hardware core. The operating system is Linux system. In order to dirver USB network webcam, we have to re-compile and re-configure the Linux kernel. The USB network webcam is used to capturing video image, then use CDMA wirele network transfer the High-definition video signals to ground station to display. This can achieve the UAV capabilities for exploration and reconnaissance , Autonomous navigation. Has broad application prospects.

  12. Cytoprotective and enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of liposomal piroxicam formulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiong HS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe Siong Chiong,1 Yoke Keong Yong,1 Zuraini Ahmad,1 Mohd Roslan Sulaiman,1 Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria,1 Kah Hay Yuen,2 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim1,31Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia; 3Sports Academy, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaBackground: Liposomal drug delivery systems, a promising lipid-based nanoparticle technology, have been known to play significant roles in improving the safety and efficacy of an encapsulated drug.Methods: Liposomes, prepared using an optimized proliposome method, were used in the present work to encapsulate piroxicam, a widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The cytotoxic effects as well as the in vitro efficacy in regulation of inflammatory responses by free-form piroxicam and liposome-encapsulated piroxicam were evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide-sensitive macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.Results: Cells treated with liposome-encapsulated piroxicam demonstrated higher cell viabilities than those treated with free-form piroxicam. In addition, the liposomal piroxicam formulation resulted in statistically stronger inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (ie, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E2 than piroxicam at an equivalent dose. The liposome-encapsulated piroxicam also caused statistically significant production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.Conclusion: This study affirms the potential of a liposomal piroxicam formulation in reducing cytotoxicity and enhancing anti-inflammatory responses in vitro.Keywords: liposomes, nitric oxide, cytokines, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, piroxicam

  13. Coptisine from Coptis chinensis inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasi; Zhang, Hai; Hu, Boyang; Yang, Lijuan; Wang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xianli

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in China and other Asian countries for centuries. However, the chemical constituents and mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of this medicinal plant are poorly understood. Here, coptisine, the main constituent of C. chinensis, was shown to potently inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) by suppressing the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Coptisine also inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by suppressing expression of cytokine mRNA. Coptisine suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt). Coptisine had no effect on the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) as well as LPS binding to TLR-4. Coptisine also inhibited carrageenan-elicited rat paw edema and reduced the release of TNF-α and NO in rat inflamed tissue. These results suggest that coptisine inhibits LPS-stimulated inflammation by blocking nuclear factor-kappa B, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt activation in macrophages, and can be used as an agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27018392

  14. The effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Min, Ju-Hee; Song, Dea-Uk; Lim, Jeong-Min; Eom, Ji Whan; Yeom, Mijung; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2016-03-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a serious age-related disease. After the menopause, estrogen deficiency is common, and excessive osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells generated from the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursor cells such as RAW 264.7 cells. The water extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) is made from the dried root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. and is termed 'Jigolpi' in Korea. Its effects on osteoclastogenesis and post‑menopausal osteoporosis had not previously been tested. In the present study, the effect of LRC on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was demonstrated using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and pit formation assay. Moreover, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms, we studied osteoclastogenesis-related markers such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), TRAP, cathepsin K (CTK), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ (CAII) using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, we also determined the effect of LRC on an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. We noted that LRC inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppressing osteoclastogenesis-related markers. It also inhibited osteoporosis in the OVX rat model by decreasing loss of bone density and trabecular area. These results suggest that LRC exerts a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26848104

  15. Novel B,O-chelated fluorescent probe for nitric oxide imaging in Raw 264.7 macrophages and onion tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hongwang@whu.edu.cn; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2013-10-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new fluorescent probe BOPB for NO with a novel B,O-chelated dipyrromethene. •The probe has emission at 643 nm, high quantum yield of 0.21 and good photostability. •BOPB has advantages of high sensitivity, low background and little photo damage. •Fluorescent probe can be easily applied to NO imaging in the living cells and tissues. -- Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe based on B,O-chelated dipyrromethene chromophore in far-visible and near-infrared spectral region (600–900 nm), boron chelated 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-3,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indancene (BOPB), has been first developed for nitric oxide (NO) imaging. BOPB, a turn-on fluorescent probe, can react with NO rapidly under physiological condition. The reaction product of BOPB with NO, BOPB-T, emits bright red fluorescence at 643 nm when excited at 622 nm. Meanwhile, BOPB-T displays high fluorescent quantum yield of 0.21 and good photostability. The selectivity for NO over other reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and ascorbic acid has been investigated and BOPB has good specificity for the detection of NO. MTT assay shows that the toxicity of BOPB (below 10 μM) to living cells can be neglected. Based on these investigations, BOPB has been used for NO imaging in Raw 264.7 cells and onion tissues. Meanwhile, mechanical injury to onion tissues results in a brighter fluorescence around the wound, which indicates that more NO has been produced in plant tissues in response to external stimuli. Our studies illustrate that BOPB has advantages of high sensitivity, low background interference and little photo damage on fluorescence imaging of NO.

  16. The Effect of Bee Venom on COX-2, P38, ERK and JNK in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Sim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Bee Venom on the lipopolysaccharide(LPS, sodium nitroprusside(SNP, hydrogen peroxide(H2O2-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2, p38, jun N-terminal Kinase(JNK and extra-signal response kinase(ERK in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Methods : The expressions of COX-2, p38, JNK and ERK were determined by western blotting with corresponding antibodies.\\ Results : 1. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control, respectively. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited insignificantly H2O2-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control, respectively. 2. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly LPS, SNP and H2O2-induced expression of p38 compared with control, respectively. 3. The 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of JNK compared with control, respectively. All of bee venom inhibited insignificantly LPS and H2O2-induced expression of JNK compared with control, respectively. 4. The 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of ERK, the 0.5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom increased significantly H2O2-induced expression of ERK compared with control. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited insignificantly LPS-induced expression of ERK compared with control, respectively.

  17. Novel B,O-chelated fluorescent probe for nitric oxide imaging in Raw 264.7 macrophages and onion tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new fluorescent probe BOPB for NO with a novel B,O-chelated dipyrromethene. •The probe has emission at 643 nm, high quantum yield of 0.21 and good photostability. •BOPB has advantages of high sensitivity, low background and little photo damage. •Fluorescent probe can be easily applied to NO imaging in the living cells and tissues. -- Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe based on B,O-chelated dipyrromethene chromophore in far-visible and near-infrared spectral region (600–900 nm), boron chelated 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-3,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indancene (BOPB), has been first developed for nitric oxide (NO) imaging. BOPB, a turn-on fluorescent probe, can react with NO rapidly under physiological condition. The reaction product of BOPB with NO, BOPB-T, emits bright red fluorescence at 643 nm when excited at 622 nm. Meanwhile, BOPB-T displays high fluorescent quantum yield of 0.21 and good photostability. The selectivity for NO over other reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and ascorbic acid has been investigated and BOPB has good specificity for the detection of NO. MTT assay shows that the toxicity of BOPB (below 10 μM) to living cells can be neglected. Based on these investigations, BOPB has been used for NO imaging in Raw 264.7 cells and onion tissues. Meanwhile, mechanical injury to onion tissues results in a brighter fluorescence around the wound, which indicates that more NO has been produced in plant tissues in response to external stimuli. Our studies illustrate that BOPB has advantages of high sensitivity, low background interference and little photo damage on fluorescence imaging of NO

  18. Correlation Analysis on Agronomic Characters in F1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agronomic characters play a vital role in grain yield performance. However, the information related to the relationships between agronomic characters and grain yield in Malaysia are particularly very limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the correlation between grain yield performance with nine (n=9) agronomic characters namely plant height, panicle length, total grain number, filled grains per panicle, grain length, number of tillers, flag leaf area, flag leaf width and 1000-grains weight. Twenty (n=20) F1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264 were used and were grown at Malaysian Nuclear Agency Greenhouse, Bangi. Result of correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant at (p ≤ 0.01) relation between 1000-grains weight with total grains number (r = 0.647), filled grains per panicle (r = 0.603), grain length (r = 0.834), flag leaf area (r = 0.701) and flag leaf width (r = 0.894). However, the negative (inverse) correlation was observed between panicle length with total grain number, number of tiller and filled grain per panicle. Regression analysis revealed that flag leaf width (4.162) has highest direct effect on the yield followed by grain length (2.801), flag leaf area (0.048) and total grain no (0.07) respectively. Whereas, plant height (-0.05), plant length (-0.223), filled grains per panicle (-0.005) and number of tillers (-0.071) has indirect effect on the yield. This study indicated that selection based flag leaf width and grain length will be highly effective for yield improvement can be consider in selection of breeding lines and highly effective for yield improvement in rice breeding program. (author)

  19. 小檗碱对LPS、 IL-4诱导的小鼠RAW264.7细胞分泌TNF-α、 IL-10的影响%Effects of Berberine on TNF-α and IL-10 Secretion Induced by LPS and IL-4 in RAW264.7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴阳阳; 董燕; 易浪; 王青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of berberine on inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10(IL-10) secreted by macrophage RAW264.7 cells after stimulated by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and IL-4 respectively, and to discuss preliminarily the effect of berberine on macrophage polarization. Methods The effect of berberine at the concentration under IC50 on RAW264.7 cells proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated by LPS and IL-4 respectively, and then the secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 was measured by ELISA. Results IC50 of berberine to RAW264.7 cells was in the range of 400~800 μmol·L-1. The concentration of TNF-α increased significantly(P<0.01) in RAW264.7 cells after LPS stimulation, and then was inhibited by berberine at the concentration of 5, 10, 20 μmol·L-1 significantly(P<0 . 01) in a dose-dependent manner . Meanwhile , the concentration of IL-10 was also increased significantly (P<0.05), and then was inhibited by berberine at 20 μmol·L-1. When RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by IL-4, the concentration of IL-10 was increased and TNF-α was decreased significantly, and berberine at the concentration of 5, 10, 20 μmol·L-1 had dose-dependent effect only on decreasing IL-10 content. Conclusion Berberine can inhibit RAW264.7 cells secreting pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α when stimulated by LPS, and can inhibit RAW264.7 cells secreting anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 when stimulated by IL-4, which suggests that berberine plays a regulation role in macrophage polarization process.%目的:观察小檗碱(Berberine, Ber)对脂多糖(LPS)以及白介素-4(IL-4)诱导的RAW264.7细胞株分泌炎症因子中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、抑炎因子白介素(IL-10)的影响,初步探讨Ber对巨噬细胞极化的影响。方法噻唑蓝(MTT)法测定小檗碱对RAW264.7细胞增殖的影响,选取半数抑制浓度(IC50)以

  20. 钩端螺旋体Loa22外膜蛋白对钩体黏附Raw264.7细胞的阻断作用研究%Interruption of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Protein Loa22 on Leptospira Adherence to Raw264.7 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连英; 杨正久; 丁朋晓; 曾庆华; 谭立志; 陈琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the interruption of leptospiral outer membrane protein Loa22 on Leptospira adherence to Raw 264.7 call.Methods Guinea pigs were immunized with leptospiral Loa22 protein or PBS(severing as the control),and then the sera were collected.Fontana silver staining method was used to test the blocking effect of the sera on Leptospira adherence to Raw 264.7 cell.The adherence rate were determined.Results Leptospira adherence to Raw264.7 cell could be markedly inhibited as the sera from the Loa22 protein immunized guinea pigs was diluted by 1 ∶ 200-1∶ 1,600.The adherence rate was ≤0.01%.The adherence was not affected by the sera from the controls.Conclusions Leptospiral outer membrane protein Loa22 can block Leptospira adherence to Raw264.7 cell as well as protect the cell.%目的 研究钩端螺旋体Loa22蛋白血清阻断钩体黏附Raw264.7细胞的情况. 方法 钩体外膜蛋白Loa22、PBS免疫豚鼠后取血清,PBS为对照,使用镀银染色法检测各免疫血清阻止钩体黏附Raw264.7细胞且测定黏附率. 结果 稀释度为1∶200~1∶1 600的Loa22蛋白血清均显著抑制钩体黏附,粘附率≤0.01%.而相应稀释度的对照组血清不影响钩体黏附. 结论 Loa22蛋白可以阻断钩体黏附细胞,对细胞起到保护作用.

  1. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor secretion by RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with antibiotic-exposed strains of community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are associated with a marked and prolonged host inflammatory response. In a sepsis simulation model, we tested whether the anesthetic ketamine inhibits the macrophage TNF response to antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA bacteria via its antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 105 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of either of two prototypical CA-MRSA isolates, USA300 strain LAC and USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of either vancomycin or daptomycin. One hour before bacterial stimulation, ketamine was added with or without MK-801 (dizocilpine, a chemically unrelated non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, APV (D-2-amino-5-phosphono-valerate, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, NMDA, or combinations of these agents. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF concentration by ELISA. Results RAW264.7 cells exposed to either LAC or MW2 in the presence of daptomycin secreted less TNF than in the presence of vancomycin. The addition of ketamine inhibited macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the CA-MRSA isolates (LAC, MW2 in the presence of either antibiotic. The NMDA inhibitors, MK-801 and APV, also suppressed macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA isolates, and the effect was not additive or synergistic with ketamine. The addition of NMDA substrate augmented TNF secretion in response to the CA-MRSA bacteria, and the addition of APV suppressed the effect of NMDA in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions Ketamine inhibits TNF secretion by MRSA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the mechanism likely involves NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings may have therapeutic significance in MRSA sepsis.

  2. N‑trans‑ρ‑caffeoyl tyramine isolated from Tribulus terrestris exerts anti‑inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han-Jik; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Joa Sub

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is induced by the expression of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2), which is an important mediator of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) is known to have a beneficial effect on inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of N‑trans‑ρ‑caffeoyl tyramine (CT) isolated from T. terrestris on the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and COX‑2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We also aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. We found that the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (EETT) and CT inhibited the production of NO, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑10 in the LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. They were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, CT markedly suppressed the expression of COX‑2 and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in response to LPS stimulation. Furthermore, CT markedly decreased p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (p‑JNK) protein expression in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. COX-2 and p-JNK were measured by western blot analysis. Taken together, these findings indicate that CT isolated from T. terrestris is a novel and potent modulator of inflammatory responses. Thus, it may prove benefiical to further evaluate CT as a possible treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26239676

  3. Suppressive Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Citrus aurantium L. in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells via NF-κB Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Rim Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL. The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL. Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Eupatolide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-06-25

    Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions. PMID:20353767

  5. Dead Lactobacillus plantarum Stimulates and Skews Immune Responses toward T helper 1 and 17 Polarizations in RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2016-03-28

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) in RAW 264.7 cells and murine primary splenocytes. nLp is a dead, shrunken, processed form of L. plantarum nF1 isolated from kimchi (a traditional Korean fermented cabbage) and is less than 1 μm in size. It was found that nLp treatment stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production more in RAW 264.7 macrophages than pure live L. plantarum (pLp), and that the stimulatory properties were probably largely derived from its cell wall. In addition, nLp induced murine splenocyte proliferation more so than pLp; in particular, a high dose of nLp (1.0 X 10(11) CFU/ml) stimulated proliferation as much as lipopolysaccharide at 2 μg/ml. Moreover, according to our cytokine profile results in splenocytes, nLp treatment promoted Th1 (TNF-α, IL-12 p70) responses rather than Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) responses and also increased Th17 (IL-6, IL-17A) responses. Thus, nLp stimulated NO release in RAW 264.7 cells and induced splenocyte proliferation more so than pLp and stimulated Th1 and Th17 cytokine production. These findings suggested that dead nLp has potential use as a functional food ingredient to improve the immune response, and especially as a means of inducing Th1/Th17 immune responses. PMID:26699750

  6. Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 (TieA) interacts with mouse TNFR1 and triggers proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling pathways in cultured macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Suhail A; Devi, Savita; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    HP0986 protein of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to trigger induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) through the activation of NF-κB and also to induce Fas mediated apoptosis of human macrophage cells (THP-1). In this study, we unravel mechanistic details of the biological effects of this protein in a murine macrophage environment. Up regulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α in HP0986-induced RAW 264.7 cells occurred subsequent to the activation and translocation of NF-κB to the cell nucleus. Further, HP0986 induced apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells through Fas activation and this was in agreement with previous observations made with THP-1 cells. Our studies indicated activation of TNFR1 through interaction with HP0986 and this elicited the aforementioned responses independent of TLR2, TLR4 or TNFR2. We found that mouse TNFR1 activation by HP0986 facilitates formation of a complex comprising of TNFR1, TRADD and TRAF2, and this occurs upstream of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, FADD also forms a second complex, at a later stage, together with TNFR1 and TRADD, resulting in caspase-8 activation and thereby the apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, our observations reveal finer details of the functional activity of HP0986 protein in relation to its behavior in a murine macrophage cell environment. These findings reconfirm the proinflammatory and apoptotic role of HP0986 signifying it to be an important trigger of innate responses. These observations form much needed baseline data entailing future in vivo studies of the functions of HP0986 in a murine model. PMID:24767863

  7. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  8. Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sik Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were also reduced after the treatment with RMO. In addition, RMO diminished the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Blockade of nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NFκB was also observed after the treatment of RMO. Furthermore, RMO decreased the phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and its upstream kinases including MAPK kinases 3/6 (MKK3/6 and TAK 1 (TGF-β activated kinase 1. Gas chromatographic analysis on RMO revealed that RMO contained about 10% phytosterols including sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of RMO. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of RMO in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages could be associated with the inhibition of NFκB transcriptional activity, possibly via blocking the p38 MAPK pathway.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages via miRNAs and TLR4-NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guanwei; Jiang, Xiaorui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fordjour, Patrick Asare; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a physiological response to infection or injury and involves the innate and adaptive immune system. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a well-known flavonoid that elicits an important therapeutic effect by inhibiting inflammatory response. In this study, we examined whether Tan IIA exerts anti-inflammatory activity and investigated the possible mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and microRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Tan IIA could attenuate the inflammatory reaction via decreasing cytokine, chemokine, and acute-phase protein production, including GM-CSF, sICAM-1, cxcl-1, MIP-1α, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), analyzed by Proteome profile array in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Concurrently, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were also significantly reduced by Tan IIA. Additionally, Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation and downregulated TLR4 and MyD88 protein expression levels. We also observed reduced microRNA-155, miR-147, miR-184, miR-29b, and miR-34c expression levels, while LPS-induced microRNA-105, miR-145a, miR-194, miR-383, miR-132, and miR-451a expression levels were upregulated using microRNA (miRNA) qPCR array. Our results indicate that Tan IIA could exert an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells by decreasing TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway and regulating a series of cytokine production and miRNA expression. PMID:26639663

  10. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA, was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae. MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1. Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

  11. The interaction between different types of activated RAW 264.7 cells and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major ways of macrophage (MΦ) activation can occur in radiation-induced pulmonary injury (RPI): classical and alternative MΦ activation, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of RPI. MΦ can produce chemokine MΦ inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), while MIP-1α can recruit MΦ. The difference in the chemotactic ability of MIP-1α toward distinct activated MΦ is unclear. We speculated that there has been important interaction of MIP-1α with different activated MΦ, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of RPI. Classically and alternatively activated MΦ were produced by stimulating murine MΦ cell line RAW 264.7 cells with three different stimuli (LPS, IL-4 and IL-13); Then we used recombinant MIP-1α to attract two types of activated MΦ. In addition, we measured the ability of two types of activated MΦ to produce MIP-1α at the protein or mRNA level. Chemotactic ability of recombinant MIP-1α toward IL-13-treated MΦ was the strongest, was moderate for IL-4-treated MΦ, and was weakest for LPS-stimulated MΦ (p < 0.01). The ability of LPS-stimulated MΦ to secrete MIP-1α was significantly stronger than that of IL-4-treated or IL-13-treated MΦ (p < 0.01). The ability of LPS-stimulated MΦ to express MIP-1α mRNA also was stronger than that of IL-4- or IL-13-stimulated MΦ (p < 0.01). The chemotactic ability of MIP-1α toward alternatively activated MΦ (M2) was significantly greater than that for classically activated MΦ (M1). Meanwhile, both at the mRNA and protein level, the capacity of M1 to produce MIP-1α is better than that of M2. Thus, chemokine MIP-1α may play an important role in modulating the transition from radiation pneumonitis to pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, through the different chemotactic affinity for M1 and M2

  12. Bioconverted Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan) peel extracts by cytolase enhance antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jieun; Song, Eunju; Choi, Hyuk-Joon; Shim, Eugene; Lee, Okhee; Hwang, Jinah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Citrus and its peels have been used in Asian folk medicine due to abundant flavonoids and usage of citrus peels, which are byproducts from juice and/or jam processing, may be a good strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of bioconversion of Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan; CKP) peels with cytolase (CKP-C) in RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Glycosides of CKP were converted into aglycosides with ...

  13. Tn5supF, a 264-base-pair transposon derived from Tn5 for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing DNAs cloned in phage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Phadnis, S H; Huang, H V; Berg, D E

    1989-01-01

    We constructed a derivative of transposon Tn5 called Tn5supF for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing DNAs cloned in phage lambda. This element carries a supF amber-suppressor tRNA gene. Its insertion into lambda can be selected by plaque formation by using nonsuppressing (sup0) Escherichia coli for amber mutant lambda phage and sup0 dnaB-amber E. coli for nonamber lambda phage. Tn5supF is just 264 base pairs long. It transposes efficiently and inserts quasi-randomly into DNA targets. The uni...

  14. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 Inhibits Oxidized LDL-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Liu-hua; Yu, Ying; Jin, Shu-xuan; Nie, Peng; Cai, Zhao-hua; Cui, Ming-li; Sun, Shi-qun; Xiao, Hua; Shao, Qin; Shen, Ling-Hong; He, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Background Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in human atheroma. In vascular cells in vitro, Nur77 expression is induced by pro-inflammatory factors, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Methods We analyze the role of Nur77 in the oxLDL-induced differentiation of macrophages into dendritic cells (DC). The murine RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was stably transfected with expression plasmids encoding either GFP or GFP fusions with either full-length Nur77 (GFP-Nur77), Nur77 lacking the DNA b...

  15. Participation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Muneshige; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Oikawa, Shinji; Murakami, Akira; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Stimulation of the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with thapsigargin, an endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, induced histamine production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.The protein kinase C activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), also enhanced histamine production.α-Fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide substrate of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), suppressed the thapsigargin (30 nM)- and TPA (30 nM)-induced histamine production.Both thapsigargin (30 nM) and TPA...

  16. Immunomodulatory β-Glucan from Lentinus edodes Activates Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases and Nuclear Factor-κB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Lina; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Lentinan, a cell wall β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to be a biological defense modifier, but the signal transduction pathway(s) induced by Lentinan have not been elucidated. In this study, we extracted Lentinan (LNT-S) by ultrasonication from Lentinus edodes and report that, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, LNT-S glucan activated NF-κB p65 and triggered its nuclear translocation as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, LNT-S enhanced NF-κB-luciferase ...

  17. Enhancement in efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through Sirt1-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxin; Zhang, Buchun; Guo, Rong; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. These phagocytic cells are important in the scavenging of modified lipoproteins, unwanted or dead cells and cellular debris through efferocytosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family and a key regulator in the progression of atherosclerosis exerts protective effects by regulating autophagy, a well-known survival mechanism. Inhibition of autophagy may also result in defective efferocytosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sirt1 on the efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through upregulation of autophagy. The apoptotic cells were incubated with high and low concentrations of Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RSV) and Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) as well as autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA) + low concentration RSV. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) of annexin-V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) dual staining. Total proteins were extracted and protein levels were detected through western blot analysis. The ox-LDL uptake and efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells were detected by oil red O staining and calculation of the phagocytic index of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells. The expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins was simultaneously increased with the stimulation of low concentration RSV (all P<0.05) and decreased in low and high NAM groups (all P<0.05), compared with the control group. Efferocytosis was highest in the low concentration RSV group (P<0.001) and relatively lower in the low and high concentration NAM groups (both P<0.05) compared with the control group, which was similar to the change in the expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins. The results showed that the efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells was significantly improved with the upregulation of Sirt1‑mediated autophagy. Therefore, Sirt1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wei; Xitong Zhang; Yang Bi; Ruidong Miao; Zhong Zhang; Hailan Su

    2015-01-01

    Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO) extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%). Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-...

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of myricetin from Diospyros lotus through suppression of NF-κB and STAT1 activation and Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Yin, Hong Hua; Park, Sang Hyun; Byun, Eui Baek; Ha, Hun Yong; Jang, Seon Il

    2016-08-01

    Diospyros lotus is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, diarrhea, tumor, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of myricetin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Myricetin dose-dependently suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Myricetin administration decreased the production of NO, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 in mice. Myricetin decreased NF-κB activation by suppressing the degradation of IκBα, nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB, and NF-κB DNA binding activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, myricetin attenuated the phosphorylation of STAT1 and the production of IFN-β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, myricetin induced the expression of HO-1 through Nrf2 translocation. In conclusion, these results suggest that myricetin inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory mediators through the suppression of NF-κB and STAT1 activation and induction of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. PMID:27068250

  20. 大豆素与葛根素抑制LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞NO产生的活性比较%Comparison of Inhibitory Activity between Daidzein and Puerarin on LPS Induced NO Production in RAW264 . 7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 张明; 艾浩; 万义增; 李军祥; 李健

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较分析大豆素与葛根素体外抗氧化及抑制NO、NOS活性机制。方法:用1滋g·mL-1 LPS诱导体外培养的RAW264.7细胞,制备呼吸爆发、自由基反应模型。采用MTT法检测大豆素及葛根素的细胞毒性;采用DCFH-DA探针及激光共聚焦显微镜观察被试药的抗氧化能力;采用Griess法检测细胞培养体系中NO水平;采用化学比色法测定细胞内T-NOS含量。结果:大豆素与葛根素均能显著抑制LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞NO释放及T-NOS表达。结论:大豆素与葛根素的抗氧自由基活性接近,有望作为葛根素的替代品使用。%This study was aimed to compare the activation of daidzein and puerarin on antioxidation, NO and NOS suppression in vitro . The RAW264 . 7 cell line was used to prepare radical reaction model induced by LPS (1 μg/mL). MTT method was adopted to detect cytotoxicity of daidzein and puerarin. The DCFH-DA probe and confocal microscopy were used to examine the antioxidant ability of daidzein and puerarin. Griess reagent was adopted to test the NO level in the culture medium. And chemical colorimetry was used to detect the content in RAW264.6 cells. The results showed that daidzein and puerarin can significantly suppress the NO and T-NOS expression in RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS. It was concluded that there was no difference on the activation of antioxidant free radical between daidzein and puerarin . In this regard , daidzein can be the used as substitutes of puerarin .

  1. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders. PMID:27052497

  2. Red Bean Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and H₂O₂-Induced Oxidative Stress in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wen-Wan; Chung, Yun-Chin; Shih, I-Ping; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Chou, Su-Tze; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2015-07-01

    Red bean (Phaseolus radiatus L. var. Aurea) is a leguminous seed and mainly used as one of the popular ingredients in oriental desserts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of 50 g/kg ethanolic extract of red bean (RBE) by measuring lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expressions of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of RBE was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method and comet assay using H2O2-induced macrophages. The results showed that RBE at the concentrations of 50-200 μg/mL can significantly suppress the inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated macrophages through the reduction of cellular NO and downregulation of the gene expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RBE can diminish H2O2-induced oxidative damage in RAW 264.7 macrophage. Phenolic compounds and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from BRE may have efficacy as overall in vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Red bean exerts an anti-inflammatory response and has potential as a health-promoting ingredient. PMID:25871313

  3. Acanthopanax koreanum roots inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax koreanum is a popular plant found on Jeju Island, Korea and is commonly used to prevent the side effects of consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, this plant has not been properly utilized as a medicinal material. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of A. koreanum roots (AKR-E. The results indicated that the AKR-E (200 μg/mL inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 41.2% and 78.9%, respectively. These effects were accompanied by concentration-dependent decreases in the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins. Additionally, the AKR-E inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-6 (22.7% and IL-1β (74%. These data showed that the AKR-E had protective effects against the induction of LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Yong; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Su, Guan-Hua; Deng, Ai-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which are associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for many diseases. The present study identified the functional Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts (GBBAEs) and evaluated their capacity and underlying mechanisms in protecting murine RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit results showed that GBBAEs significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and interferon-γ (INF-γ). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that the mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were suppressed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the relative protein expression levels of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65). All these results suggested the potential use of GBBAEs as a functional food for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27256676

  5. Wear particle-mediated expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines,NF-κB and RANK were impacted by lanthanum chloride in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Min; JIANG Chuan; LIU Xiang; LI Zhe; CHENG Xigao; ZOU Yang; NIE Tao

    2013-01-01

    To explore the impact of different concentrations of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on critical components of wear particle-mediated signaling pathways in inflammation and osteoclastogenesis,RAW264.7 cells were naturally divided into eight groups and analyzed by CCK-8 assay,flow cytometry,ELISA,RT-PCR and western blot after treatments.The results showed that three concentrations of LaCl3 had no influence on viability of RAW264.7 cells and down-regulated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) instead of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR).Additionally,2.5 and 10 μmol/L LaCl3 could signifi-cantly inhibit gene and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-lβ,i.e.,TNF-α and IL-1β) and NF-κB/p65,but 100 μrnol/L LaCl3 did not exert an obvious inflammation-inhibiting effect,and even induced inflammation.In conclusion,these findings demonstrated that LaC13 was able to suppress wear particle-induced inflammation and activation of NF-κB in a certain range of concentrations in vitro and mainly decrease the expression of RANK,but not M-CSFR,all of which were generally recognized to play a pivotal role in osteoclastogenesis.

  6. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7. Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Yong; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jiu-liang; Su, Guan-hua; Deng, Ai-ping

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which are associated with health benefits contributing to a reduced risk for many diseases. The present study identified the functional Gardenblue blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) anthocyanin extracts (GBBAEs) and evaluated their capacity and underlying mechanisms in protecting murine RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit results showed that GBBAEs significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and interferon-γ (INF-γ). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that the mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were suppressed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the relative protein expression levels of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κBp65). All these results suggested the potential use of GBBAEs as a functional food for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27256676

  8. Inhibitory effects of indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay, Arzu Zeynep; Koc, Aslı; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Buyukbingol, Zeliha; Buyukbingol, Erdem

    2015-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-lipoic acid) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. RAW 264.7 macrophages produce various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-alpha upon activation with LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and IFNγ (interferon gamma). In this study, the effect of 12 synthetic indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein expression in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages was determined. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide levels and iNOS protein expression were examined with thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue test, griess assay and western blot, respectively. Our results showed that all of the indole α-lipoic acid derivatives showed significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and iNOS protein levels (p < 0.05). The most active compounds were identified as compound I-4b, I-4e and II-3b. In conclusion, these indole α-lipoic acid derivatives may have the potential for treatment of inflammatory conditions related with high nitric oxide production. PMID:25727912

  9. Effect of Quercetin on Paraoxonase 2 Levels in RAW264.7 Macrophages and in Human Monocytes—Role of Quercetin Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Mueller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the intracellular antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 2 (PON2 may have a protective function in the prevention of atherogenesis. An enhancement of PON2 activity by dietary factors including flavonoids is therefore of interest. In the present study we determined the effect of quercetin on paraoxonase 2 levels in cultured murine macrophages in vitro and in overweight subjects with a high cardiovascular risk phenotype supplemented with 150 mg quercetin/day for 42 days in vivo. Supplementation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages in culture with increasing concentrations of quercetin (1, 10, 20 μmol/L resulted in a significant increase in PON2 mRNA and protein levels, as compared to untreated controls. Unlike quercetin, its glucuronidated metabolite quercetin-3-glucuronide did not affect PON2 gene expression in cultured macrophages. However the methylated quercetin derivative isorhamnetin enhanced PON2 gene expression in RAW264.7 cells to similar extent like quercetin. Although supplementing human volunteers with quercetin was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma quercetin concentration, dietary quercetin supplementation did not change PON2 mRNA levels in human monocytes in vivo. Current data indicate that quercetin supplementation increases PON2 levels in cultured monocytes in vitro but not in human volunteers in vivo.

  10. New ent-kauranes from the fruits of Annona glabra and their inhibitory nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Quang, Tran Hong; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Ko, Wonmin; Lee, Seungjun; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-15

    Three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 7β,16α,17-trihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), 7β,17-dihydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (2), 7β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (3) along with five known compounds, paniculoside IV (4), 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (5), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (6), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-al (7), and 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (8) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As the results, compound 3 showed potent inhibitory LPS-stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 0.01±0.01μM; compounds 1 and 7 showed significant inhibitory NO production with the IC50 values of 0.39±0.12μM and 0.32±0.04μM, respectively. PMID:25499882

  11. Antitumor efficacy in H22 tumor bearing mice and immunoregulatory activity on RAW 264.7 macrophages of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Yin, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Yu; Ming, Yan-Lin; Liang, Shi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of a polysaccharide (TTP) from Talinum triangulare. The molecular weight of TTP-IV was 49.9 kDa. The monosaccharide composition analysis of TTP-IV revealed that it was a heteropolysaccharide consisting of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.22 : 1.00 : 1.05 : 1.51. The results of the in vivo study showed that TTP (200 mg per kg bw) significantly inhibited the growth of tumor by 49.07% in H22-bearing Kunming mice. In vitro, the growth of primary murine macrophages was promoted by TTP in a dose- and time-dependent manner significantly. Besides, RAW 264.7 cells were activated by TTP to produce NO and the toxicity of RAW 264.7 supernatant was markedly enhanced in vitro. The levels of iNOS, TLR2, TLR4 and IL-1β were obviously increased by TTP. Therefore, it is suggested that TTP can be utilized as a potent antitumor and immunoenhancing material in functional food. PMID:25044149

  12. Suture pullout strength and in vitro fibroblast and RAW 264.7 monocyte biocompatibility of genipin crosslinked nanofibrous chitosan mats for guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norowski, P A; Mishra, S; Adatrow, P C; Haggard, W O; Bumgardner, J D

    2012-11-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical technique used to direct the formation of bone in the graft space by protecting it with a barrier membrane used to exclude soft tissues during healing. Chitosan has been advocated for GTR applications because of its biocompatibility, degradability, wound healing, and osteogenic properties. In this study, electrospun chitosan membranes, crosslinked with 5 mM or 10 mM geinipin, a natural crosslinker extracted from the gardenia plant, were evaluated for suture pullout strength, crystallinity, and cytocompatibility with normal human dermal fibroblast and TIB 71™ RAW 264.7 monocyte cells. Ultimate suture pullout strength was significantly lower (51-67%) than that of commercially available collagen membranes. Crystallinity of the electrospun chitosan mats decreased upon crosslinking by 14-17% (p = 0.013). The molecular weight of the chitosan polymer was decreased by 75% during the electrospinning process. Uncrosslinked and genipin-crosslinked chitosan mats were cytocompatible and supported fibroblast cell proliferation for 9 days. Uncrosslinked and genipin-crosslinked membranes did not activate monocytes to produce nitric oxide (NO) in vitro in the absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, chitosan membranes inhibited LPS-induced NO production of RAW 264.7 cells by 59-67% as compared to tissue culture plastic and collagen membrane. Improvements are needed in the tear strength of electrospun chitosan membranes for clinical application. PMID:22696151

  13. XH-14, a novel danshen methoxybenzo[b]furan derivative, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Geun-Mook

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XH-14 isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza is a bioactive component and adenosine antagonist. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of XH-14 in murine macrophages. Methods RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line was cultured with various concentrations of XH-14 in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. LPS-induced release and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators were examined by ELISA and real-time PCR. The modification of signal pathways involved in inflammatory reactions was determined by Western blotting analysis. Results XH-14 suppressed the generation of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2, and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS. Similarly, XH-14 inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. The underlying mechanism of XH-14 on anti-inflammatory action was correlated with down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and activator protein-1 activation. Conclusions XH-14 inhibits the production of several inflammatory mediators and so might be useful for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  14. Responses of RAW264.7 macrophages to water-dispersible gold and silver nanoparticles stabilized by metal-carbon σ-bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Toshima, Hirokazu; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Kawai, Koji; Narushima, Takashi; Kaga, Masayuki; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Nanometals are currently receiving considerable attention for industrial and biomedical applications, but their potentially hazardous and toxic effects have not been extensively studied. This study evaluated the biological responses of novel water-dispersible gold (Au-NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) stabilized by Au-C or Ag-C σ-bonds in cultured macrophages (RAW264.7), via analysis of the cell viability, the integrity of the plasma membrane, and the inflammatory and morphological properties. The cultured RAW264.7 was exposed to metal-NPs at various concentrations. The Ag-NPs showed cytotoxicity at high NP concentrations, but the cytotoxic effects of the Au-NPs were smaller than those of the Ag-NPs. For the microscopic analysis, both types of particles were internalized into cells, the morphological changes in the cells which manifested as an expansion of the vesicles' volume, were smaller for the Au-NPs compared with the Ag-NPs. For the Ag-NPs, the endocytosis abilities of the macrophages might have induced harmful effects, because of the expansion of the cell vesicles. Although an inflammatory response was observed for both the Au- and Ag-NPs, the harmful effects of the Au-NPs were smaller than those of the Ag-NPs, with minor morphological changes observed even after internalization of the NPs into the cells. PMID:23784947

  15. Selenium inhibits Staphylococcus aureus-induced inflammation by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-Liang; Wang, Heng; Wang, Yin-Jie; Sun, Jun; Dong, Jun-Sheng; Meng, Xia; Li, Jian-Ji

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation is the hallmark of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced mastitis. Given the interesting relationship between selenium levels and inflammation, this study aimed to demonstrate that selenium modulated the inflammation reaction by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with three different concentrations (1μmol/l, 1.5μmol/l, and 2μmol/l) of Na2SeO3 for 12h before infection with S. aureus for 6h, 8h, and 10h. The results showed that selenium significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was decreased significantly with selenium supplementation. In addition, selenium influenced the NF-κB signalling pathway by suppressing the activation of NF-κB p65 and degradation of inhibitory kappa-B (IκB). Selenium also suppressed extracellular regulated protein kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), and p38 phosphorylation through the MAPK signalling pathway. In conclusion, selenium played an anti-inflammation role in RAW264.7 macrophages infected with S. aureus by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways. PMID:27036486

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L. have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%. Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005–0.01%. Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin- (IL- 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan; Zhang, Xitong; Bi, Yang; Miao, Ruidong; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO) extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%). Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005-0.01%). Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin- (IL-) 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion. PMID:26425131

  18. Differential Role of Rapamycin and Torin/KU63794 in Inflammatory Response of 264.7 RAW Macrophages Stimulated by CA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah K. H. Shappley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rapamycin suppresses the RAW264.7 macrophage mediated inflammatory response but in lower doses induces it. In the present study, we tested the suppression of the inflammatory response in the presence of mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors, Torin and KU63794. Methods. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 106 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of community-acquired- (CA- MRSA isolate, USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of Vancomycin. Then, in sequential experiments, we added Torin, KU63794, and Rapamycin alone and in various combinations. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF, IL-1, IL-6, INF, and NO. Results. Rapamycin induces 10–20% of the inflammatory cascade at dose of 0.1 ng/mL and suppresses it by 60% at dose of 10 ng/mL. The induction is abolished in the presence of Torin KU63794. Torin and KU63794 are consistently suppressing cytokine production 50–60%. Conclusions. There is a differential response between Rapamycin (mTOR-1 inhibitor and Torin KU63794 (mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors. Torin and KU63794 exhibit a dose related suppression. Rapamycin exhibits a significant induction-suppression biphasic response. Knowledge of such response may allow manipulation of the septic inflammatory cascade for clinical advantages.

  19. Ergolide, sesquiterpene lactone from Inula britannica, inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inactivation of NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    Whan Han, Jeung; Gon Lee, Byeong; Kee Kim, Yong; Woo Yoon, Jong; Kyoung Jin, Hye; Hong, Sungyoul; Young Lee, Hoi; Ro Lee, Kang; Woo Lee, Hyang

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ergolide, sesquiterpene lactone from Inula britannica.iNOS activity in cell-free extract of LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was markedly attenuated by the treatment with ergolide. Its inhibitory effect on iNOS was paralleled by decrease in nitrite accumulation in culture medium of LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Howe...

  20. 竹节参齐墩果烷皂苷对RAW264.7巨噬细胞SIRT1活性影响及抗炎作用研究%Anti-inflammatory effect of Chikusetsu oleanane saponin on RAW264. 7 cell through regulating SIRT1 activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琴; 袁丁; 周志勇; 刘朝奇; 王婷; 向婷婷; 张长城

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate SIRT1 activity and an-ti-inflammatory effects of Chikusetsu oleanane saponin ( COS) on the RAW264. 7 macrophage cells induced by lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) . Methods The nitric oxide ( NO) release was detected with Griess method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) , interleukin 1β( IL-1β) . Nuclear factor-κB ( NF-κB) and silent information ad-justment factor 1 ( SIRT1 ) were tested by immunofluo-rescence. Results 1 mg · L-1 LPS co-cultured with COS at 25~300 mg·L-1 had no significant effect on the growth of RAW264. 7 cells. Compared with the LPS group, COS effectively inhibited the NO release and suppressed the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and also inhibited the translocation of NF-κB and up-regulation of SIRT1 . Conclusion COS has protective effects on RAW264. 7 cells stimulated by LPS, which may be related to up-regulating the expression of SIRT1 and promoting the deacetylation of NF-κB, thereby in-hibiting the translocation of NF-κB and reducing the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β.%目的:探讨竹节参齐墩果烷皂苷( chikusetsu oleanane saponin, COS )对脂多糖( lipopolysaccharides, LPS )刺激RAW264.7巨噬细胞的SIRT1活性影响及抗炎作用。方法Griess法测定一氧化氮( NO)释放量;免疫印迹( Western blot)法检测炎性因子肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)、白介素1β( IL-1β)蛋白表达;免疫荧光分析 COS 对细胞核因子-κB ( NF-κB)和沉默信息调节因子1( silent information regulator 1,SIRT1)核转运的作用。结果 COS在25~300 mg·L-1与1 mg·L-1 LPS共培养时,对RAW264.7细胞生长无明显影响;与LPS组相比,COS能有效抑制NO释放和抑制TNF-α、IL-1β的分泌;还能抑制NF-κB的核移位,上调SIRT1的表达。结论 COS对LPS刺激的RAW264.7细胞炎症具有保护作用,其保护机制可能是 COS 上调 SIRT1表达,促进NF-κB去乙酰化作用,从而抑制NF-κB

  1. CRISPR/CAS9-Mediated Genome Editing of miRNA-155 Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixia Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA 155 (miR-155 is a key proinflammatory regulator in clinical and experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here we generated a miR-155 genome knockout (GKO RAW264.7 macrophage cell line using the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CAS9 technology. While upregulating the Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1, the miR-155 GKO line is severely impaired in producing proinflammatory cytokines but slightly increased in osteoclastogenesis upon treatment with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL. Taken together, our results suggest that genome editing of miR-155 holds the potential as a therapeutic strategy in RA.

  2. Differential expression of cell surface markers in response to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene in RAW 264.7 and primary immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbum Kim1, Min Chul Park1, Byoung Kwon Park1, Sanghoon Kwon2, Joon-Ho Choi3, Hyun-Jong Kim4, Soo-Young Choi5, Jinseu Park5, Younghee Lee6 & Hyung-Joo Kwon1,2,*

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the expression of the costimulatory moleculesCD80 and CD83 and major histocompatibility (MHC class IIinduced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. In contrast to the previously reportedeffect of DNFB on dendritic cells, CD86 expression didnot change. Furthermore, we observed that the CD83 expressionlevel transiently increased and then decreased.Induction of CD80 and MHC class II molecule expression anda decrease in CD83 expression by DNFB in vitro were alsoconfirmed in splenocytes of BALB/c and NC/Nga mice.However, DNFB did not influence CD83 expression in peritonealCD11b+ cells from BALB/c or NC/Nga mice. Detailedin vivo experiments and further studies on the possible contributionof CD11b+ cells to induce atopic dermatitis (ADwould be helpful to attain a better understanding of ADpathogenesis.

  3. Non-tables look-up search algorithm for efficient H.264/AVC context-based adaptive variable length coding decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yishi; Luo, Zhixiao; Wang, Jianhua; Min, Zhixuan; Qin, Xinyu; Sun, Yunlong

    2014-09-01

    In general, context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) decoding in H.264/AVC standard requires frequent access to the unstructured variable length coding tables (VLCTs) and significant memory accesses are consumed. Heavy memory accesses will cause high power consumption and time delays, which are serious problems for applications in portable multimedia devices. We propose a method for high-efficiency CAVLC decoding by using a program instead of all the VLCTs. The decoded codeword from VLCTs can be obtained without any table look-up and memory access. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves 100% memory access saving and 40% decoding time saving without degrading video quality. Additionally, the proposed algorithm shows a better performance compared with conventional CAVLC decoding, such as table look-up by sequential search, table look-up by binary search, Moon's method, and Kim's method.

  4. Autocrine and paracrine modulation of microRNA-155 expression by globular adiponectin in RAW 264.7 macrophages: involvement of MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Amit; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced from adipose tissue, regulates various biological responses, including inflammation and many metabolic processes. MicroRNAs control expression of diverse target genes and various physiological responses. Many of these responses are commonly regulated by adiponectin. However, effects of adiponectin on microRNAs regulation are largely unknown. Herein we demonstrated that globular adiponectin induces increase in miR-155 expression, which plays an important role in inflammatory response, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We further showed that this effect was modulated by and MAPK/NF-κB dependent mechanisms. These results suggest that miR-155 would be a novel promising target mediating adiponectin-induced various biological responses. PMID:24084329

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica. PMID:27038159

  6. Human p53(264-272) HLA-A2 binding peptide is an immunodominant epitope in DNA-immunized HLA-A2 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T R; Bregenholta, S; Pedersen, L O;

    1999-01-01

    C57BL/10 mice transgenic for HLA-A2 were immunized with either a full-length DNA-construct of the tumor suppressor p53 or with a minigene encoding the p53-derived immunodominant peptide p53(264)LLGRNSFEV272 (L9V). Vaccination with the full-length p53 construct induced potent cytotoxic activity of...... concordance with this, immunization with L9V-pulsed dendritic cells also induced a potent and specific anti-L9V cytotoxic response in vitro. These data show that HLA-A2/peptide-specific cytotoxic immunity can be generated in vivo against the same immunodominant epitope by immunizing either with full...

  7. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF1-3’ A) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖君华; 胡芳; 徐红岩; 苏兵; 蒋跃明; 罗竞春; 张蔚翎; 谈家桢; 金力; 卢大儒

    2000-01-01

    CCR5-Δ2, CCR2-641, mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3’ A, mutant in a ligand gene, can delay AIDS pathogenesis. The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China. No CCR5-Δ32 was observed. CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’ A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China, with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively. Relative hazard was evaluated. Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  8. Physical and transcript map of the region between D6S264 and D6S149 on chromosome 6q27, the minimal region of allele loss in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Emilion, Gracy; Mungall, Andrew J;

    2002-01-01

    . A further extended bacterial contig (between D6S264 and D6S149) has been established using PACs and BACs and a transcript map has been established. We have mapped six new markers to the YAC; three of them are ESTs (WI-15078, WI-8751, and TCP10). We have isolated three cDNA clones of EST WI-15078 and one...

  9. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL). PMID:26162623

  10. A non-synonymous coding change in the CYP19A1 gene Arg264Cys (rs700519 does not affect circulating estradiol, bone structure or fracture

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    Wang Jenny Z

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase P450 enzyme, coded by the CYP19A1 gene on chromosome 15q21.2. Genetic variation within the CYP19A1 gene sequence has been shown to alter the function of the enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a non-synonymous Arg264Cys (rs700519 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP is associated with altered levels of circulating estradiol, areal bone mineral density or fracture. Methods This population- based study of 1,022 elderly Caucasian women (mean age 74.95 ± 2.60 years was genotyped for the rs700519 SNP were analyzed to detect any association with endocrine and bone phenotypes. Results The genotype frequencies were 997 wildtype (97.6%, 24 heterozygous (2.3% and 1 homozygous (0.1%. When individuals were grouped by genotype, there was no association between the polymorphism and serum estradiol (wildtype 27.5 ± 16.0; variants 31.2 ± 18.4, P = 0.27. There was also no association seen on hip bone mineral density (wildtype 0.81 ± 0.12; 0.84 ± 0.14 for variants, P = 0.48 or femoral neck bone mineral density (0.69 ± 0.10 for wildtype; 0.70 ± 0.12 for variants, P = 0.54 before or after correction of the data with age, height, weight and calcium therapy. There were also no associations with quantitative ultrasound measures of bone structure (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and average stiffness. Conclusions In a cohort of 1,022 elderly Western Australian women, the presence of Arg264Cys (rs700519 polymorphism was not found to be associated with serum estradiol, bone structure or phenotypes.

  11. Effects of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora on nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha productions in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

    2008-10-30

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker, is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family, locally known in Thai as kra-chai-dam. The rhizome of this plant has been used for treatment of gout, apthous ulcer and abscesses. Since K. parviflora rhizomes have long been used for treatment of inflammation and possessed marked nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity (IC(50)=7.8microg/ml), we thus investigated the inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from this plant against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in RAW264.7 cells. From bioassay-guided fractionation of K. parviflora, seven methoxyflavones were isolated from the hexane fraction and were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the isolated compounds, compound 5 (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) exhibited the highest activity against NO release with an IC(50) value of 16.1microM, followed by 4 (IC(50)=24.5microM) and 3 (IC(50)=30.6microM). Compound 5 was also tested on LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) releases from RAW264.7 cells. It was revealed that 5 showed appreciable inhibitory effect on PGE(2) release (IC(50)=16.3microM), but inactive on TNF-alpha (IC(50)>100microM). These findings may support the use in Thai traditional medicine of K. parviflora for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases through the inhibition of NO and PGE(2) releases but partly due to that of TNF-alpha. PMID:18725283

  12. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

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    Zhu, Fei, E-mail: zhufei@zju.edu.cn; Yue, Wanfu; Wang, Yongxia

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at one hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.

  13. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at one hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages

  14. Candida albicans killing by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells: effects of Candida genotype, infection ratios, and gamma interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcil, A; Harcus, D; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    2002-11-01

    Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are potential components of the immune defense that protects mammals against Candida albicans infection. We have tested the interaction between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and a variety of mutant strains of C. albicans. We used an end point dilution assay to monitor the killing of C. albicans at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Several mutants that show reduced virulence in mouse systemic-infection models show reduced colony formation in the presence of macrophage cells. To permit analysis of the macrophage-Candida interaction at higher MOIs, we introduced a luciferase reporter gene into wild-type and mutant Candida cells and used loss of the luminescence signal to quantify proliferation. This assay gave results similar to those for the end point dilution assay. Activation of the macrophages with mouse gamma interferon did not enhance anti-Candida activity. Continued coculture of the Candida and macrophage cells eventually led to death of the macrophages, but for the RAW 264.7 cell line this was not due to apoptotic pathways involving caspase-8 or -9 activation. In general Candida cells defective in the formation of hyphae were both less virulent in animal models and more sensitive to macrophage engulfment and growth inhibition. However the nonvirulent, hypha-defective cla4 mutant line was considerably more resistant to macrophage-mediated inhibition than the wild-type strain. Thus although mutants sensitive to engulfment are typically less virulent in systemic-infection models, sensitivity to phagocytic macrophage cells is not the unique determinant of C. albicans virulence. PMID:12379711

  15. Enhanced anti-inflammatory effects of DHA and quercetin in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tian-Lei; Liu, Qi; Ren, Yu-Fei; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Er-Hu; Pan, Si-Yi; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Wang, Ke-Xing

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + quercetin (QE) used in combination. DHA and QE are natural compounds derived from various foods and have been demonstrated to exert anti‑inflammatory effects The protein mRNA expression involved in the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods respectively, other cytokines were detected by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kit. The results of the present study demonstrated that combined treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells with DHA + QE decreased the levels of pro‑inflammatory mediators to a greater extent than QE or DHA alone. Additionally, DHA + QE synergistically suppressed nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels. Molecular‑level studies indicated that the DHA + QE combination can significantly inhibit the mRNA expression of NF‑κB subunits p50 and p65, extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, which suggests that the NF‑κB signalling pathway is involved in the synergistic effects observed. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that DHA + QE synergistically inhibit the phosphorylation of p50, p65, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. This finding indicates that the enhanced anti‑inflammatory effects of the combined compounds are achieved by suppressing NF‑κB and MAPK signalling in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results of the present study suggest that DHA and QE in combination may be utilized as potent anti‑inflammatory compounds, with potential preventative or palliative effects on obesity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27176922

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa on murine models of inflammation and RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Wan-Uk; Cho, Chul-Soo; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) have previously been reported. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of EOCO were investigated in two murine models of inflammation: Carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed by ELISA, the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by western blotting, and nitrite concentration was measured using Griess reagent. In mice with carrageenan-induced edema, paw thickness and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL-6 in paw homogenates were significantly decreased in the EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) group, as compared with the control group. In mice with thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, treatment with EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) reduced the number of total cells and suppressed tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), IL‑1β and IL‑6 levels in peritoneal fluid. In addition, EOCO reduced nitric oxide, TNF‑α and IL‑6 production, and suppressed iNOS and COX‑2 expression in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that EOCO may exert anti‑inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, and that these effects may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, EOCO may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26936418

  17. Spatial Genetic Structure of Two HIV-I-resistant Polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) Alleles in Population of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the spatial genetic structure of two HIV-I-resistant polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) alleles in the population of Shandong Province, China. Methods Using the techniques of spatial stratified sampling and spatial statistics, the spatial genetic structure of the locus (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A), which was shown to be important co-receptor for HIV infection, was quantified from the populations of 36 sampled counties of Shandong Province, and a total of 3147 and 3172 samples were taken for testing CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A respectively from individuals without known history of HIV-I infection and AIDS symptoms. Results There were significantly spatial genetic structures of the two alleles at different spatial distance classes on the scale of populations, but on the scale of individuals, no spatial structure was found in either the whole area of Shandong Province or the area of each sampled county. Although the change of frequencies of the two alleles with geographic locations in Shandong Province both showed gradual increase trends, their changing directions were inverse. The frequency of CCR2-64I allele gradually increased from the southwest to the northeast, while the frequency of SDF1-3'A allele gradually increased from the northeast to the southwest. However the RH to AIDS of combined types of their different genotypes did not represent obvious geographic diversity on the whole area of the Province. Conclusion The frequency of allele usually has some spatial genetic structures or spatial autocorrelation with different spatial distance classes, but the genotypes of individuals have random distribution in the same geographic area. Evaluating spatial distribution of the genetic susceptibility of HIV (AIDS) to CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles, should focus on the frequencies of combined genotypes of CCR2 and SDF1 based on the two-locus genotypes of each individual rather than the frequencies of CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles.

  18. Inhibitory effects of alternaramide on inflammatory mediator expression through TLR4-MyD88-mediated inhibition of NF-кB and MAPK pathway signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Jong-Su; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2016-01-25

    Alternaramide (1), a novel lipophilic depsipeptide, has been isolated from the extract of the marine-derived fungus Alternaria sp. SF-5016. In the course of extensive biological evaluation of 1, its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells were observed. In our initial study of the anti-inflammatory effects of 1, the compound suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. Suppression of NO and PGE2 production was correlated with the inhibitory effect of 1 on expression of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. In addition, 1 reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. In the evaluation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of 1, the compound was found to suppress the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells stimulated with LPS. This suppression was mediated by disruption of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB, in the cytoplasm, and blocking of nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50-p65 heterodimer. Furthermore, 1 inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), demonstrating its capacity to inhibit MAPK signaling. Finally, 1 markedly reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) at the mRNA and protein levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that 1 modulates several TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathways, demonstrating its potential in the treatment of inflammatory and neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:26620692

  19. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE2, butyl lucidenateD2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these triterpenes.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these