WorldWideScience

Sample records for bohrium 264

  1. Properties of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ Nucleus under the Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lütfüoğlu, B C

    2016-01-01

    The energy eigenvalues and the wave functions of an $\\alpha$ particle in a Bohrium $270$ nucleus were calculated by solving Schr\\"odinger equation for Generalized Symmetric Woods-Saxon potential. Using the energy spectrum by excluding and including the quasi-bound eigenvalues, entropy, internal energy, Helmholtz energy, and specific heat, as functions of reduced temperature were calculated. Stability and emission characteristics are interpreted in terms of the wave and thermodynamic functions. The kinetic energy of a decayed $\\alpha$ particle was calculated using the quasi-bound states, which is found close to the experimental value.

  2. 40 CFR 264.341 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 264.341 Section 264... Incinerators § 264.341 Waste analysis. (a) As a portion of the trial burn plan required by § 270.62 of this chapter, or with part B of the permit application, the owner or operator must have included an analysis...

  3. 40 CFR 264.255 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 264.255 Section 264.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.255...

  4. 40 CFR 264.1084 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 264.1084 Section 264... Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1084 Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from tanks for which §...

  5. 40 CFR 264.16 - Personnel training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel training. 264.16 Section 264... Facility Standards § 264.16 Personnel training. (a)(1) Facility personnel must successfully complete a program of classroom instruction or on-the-job training that teaches them to perform their duties in a...

  6. Appraisal of H.264 Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. R. N. Mandavgane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC, the latest video Codec standard is the most popular among Video professionals owing to its exact and unambiguous guidelines for dealing with the input stream to be transported from one place to another, having minimum loss in the transit and a very good compression ratio, both attributes highly sought after in today’s world of high quality multimedia broadcast and reception. Another parameter is the bit rate with which the data has to be transmitted. This paper is an attempt to show how various input parameters affect the output of the H.264 Codec. The input video file is a .yuv file, which after encoding becomes a .264 file, which is also called a stream file because this file has to be sent as a stream to various locations owing to its small size. At the receiving end, this stream file is decoded back into .yuv file. In the entire process, there is some loss in the quality of the video transmitted. This loss has to be minimum and is indicated by a parameter called PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio. Apart from PSNR, there are some other parameters as well like sequence parameter set, picture parameter set, information about different frames as regards slices and macroblocks, all ensconced in different files. PSNR being an important parameter will be dealt with here. There are three different input profiles namely, baseline profile, main profile and extended profile for H.264. In this work, variation of bit rate versus PSNR is studied in all the three profiles. A higher PSNR for a given constant bit rate is rated as a better performance. Here, the input sequence is a yuv file (foreman_part_qcif.yuv with one reference frame. The quantization parameter for the I, B and P slices has been set at 30. The PSNR is plotted against bit rate and it is observed that they show a striking similarity with each other.

  7. The H.264 Advanced Video Compression Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Iain E

    2010-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding or MPEG-4 Part 10 is fundamental to a growing range of markets such as high definition broadcasting, internet video sharing, mobile video and digital surveillance. This book reflects the growing importance and implementation of H.264 video technology. Offering a detailed overview of the system, it explains the syntax, tools and features of H.264 and equips readers with practical advice on how to get the most out of the standard.: Packed with clear examples and illustrations to explain H.264 technology in an accessible and practical way.; Covers basic video coding co

  8. 32 CFR 264.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 264.3 Section 264.3 National Defense..., Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The... the Technical Property Committees in Europe. The J-4, Hq. United States Forces Japan, Tokyo, Japan...

  9. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... such. (c) Gift means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by,...

  10. 40 CFR 264.253 - Response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.253 Response actions. (a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 264.251...

  11. 40 CFR 264.270 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264... treat or dispose of hazardous waste in land treatment units, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise....

  12. 40 CFR 264.272 - Treatment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.272 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.272 Treatment demonstration. (a) For each waste that will be applied to...

  13. 40 CFR 264.250 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.250... treat hazardous waste in piles, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. (b) The regulations in...

  14. 40 CFR 264.343 - Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards. 264.343 Section...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.343 Performance standards. An incinerator burning hazardous waste must be...

  15. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  16. 40 CFR 264.91 - Required programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.91 Required programs. (a) Owners and operators subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 264.574 - Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.574..., or blisters. (b) While a drip pad is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms...

  18. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  19. 40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... familiarize local hospitals with the properties of hazardous waste handled at the facility and the types of.... 264.37 Section 264.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  1. 40 CFR 264.315 - Special requirements for containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for containers. 264.315 Section 264.315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...) Crushed, shredded, or similarly reduced in volume to the maximum practical extent before burial in...

  2. 12 CFR 264b.4 - Gifts of minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts of minimal value. 264b.4 Section 264b.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... more than one tangible gift is presented at or marks an event, the value of all such gifts must...

  3. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 264.1059... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair is...

  4. 40 CFR 264.100 - Corrective action program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.100 Corrective action program. An owner or...

  5. 40 CFR 264.95 - Point of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.95 Point of compliance. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  6. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste... for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  7. 40 CFR 264.35 - Required aisle space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required aisle space. 264.35 Section... Preparedness and Prevention § 264.35 Required aisle space. The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to... Regional Administrator that aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes....

  8. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  9. Quantization Skipping Method for H.264/AVC Video Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-seon SONG; Min-cheol HONG

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantization skipping method for H.264/AVC video coding standard. In order to reduce the computational-cost of quantization process coming from integer discrete cosine transform of H.264/AVC, a quantization skipping condition is derived by the analysis of integer transform and quantization procedures. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has the capability to reduce the computational cost about 10%~25%.

  10. Wyner-Ziv to Baseline H.264 Video Transcoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-García, Alberto; Martínez, Jose Luis; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Villalon, Jose Miguel; Kalva, Hari; Cuenca, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Mobile-to-mobile video communications is one of the most requested services which operator networks can offer. However, in a framework where one mobile device sends video information to another, both transmitter and receptor should employ video encoders and decoders with low complexity. On the one hand, traditional video codecs, such as H.264, are based on architectures which have encoders with higher complexity than decoders. On the other hand, Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding (a particular case of distributed video coding) is an innovative paradigm, which provides encoders with less complexity than decoders. Taking advantage of both paradigms, in terms of low complexity algorithms, a suitable solution consists in transcoding from WZ to H.264. Nevertheless, the transcoding process should be carried out in an efficient way so as to avoid major delays in communication; in other words, the transcoding process should perform the conversion without requiring the complete process of decoding and re-encoding. Based on all the algorithms and techniques we have proposed before, a low complexity WZ to H.264 Transcoder for the Baseline Profile is proposed in this article. Firstly, the proposed transcoder can efficiently turn every WZ group of pictures into the common H.264 I11P pattern and, secondly, the proposed transcoder is based on the hypothesis that macroblock coding mode decisions in H.264 video have a high correlation with the distribution of the side information residual in WZ video. The proposed algorithm selects one sub-set of the several coding modes in H.264. Moreover, a dynamic motion estimation technique is proposed in this article for use in combination with the above algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed transcoder reduces the inter prediction complexity in H.264 by up to 93%, while maintaining coding efficiency.

  11. H.264整数DCT的FPGA实现%Implementation of Integer DCT in H.264 on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱南坤; 黄士坦

    2008-01-01

    H.264整数DCT变换算法有助于减少计算复杂度,提高编码速度,进一步提高视频或图像的压缩效率.分析H.264整数DCT变换的快速算法及其实现原理,并提出一种用来具体实现一个4×4块的DCT变换的结构;同时给出用VHDL语言实现4×4块DCT变换的内部模块的源代码和仿真波形.仿真结果表明用该算法可快速实现一个4×4块的整数DCT变换.提出一种切实可行的用于H.264整数DCT变换的结构, 该结构可完全用硬件电路快速实现;对于用FPGA实现H.264整数DCT变换做了一次实践性的尝试,对深入理解H.264整数DCT变换及其算法的具体实现具有一定的实践意义.

  12. Efficient video downscaling transcoder from MPEG-2 to H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-wen WANG; Jun SUN; Rong XIE; Song-yu YU

    2008-01-01

    The new H.264 video coding standard achieves significantly higher compression performance than MPEG-2. As the MPEG-2 is popular in digital TV, DVD, etc., bandwidth or memory space can be saved by transcoding those streams into H.264 in these applications. Unfortunately, the huge complexity keeps transcoding from being widely used in practical applications. This paper proposes an efficient transcoding architecture with a smart downscaling decoder and a fast mode decision algorithm. Using the proposed architecture, huge buffering memory space is saved and the transcoding complexity is reduced. Performance of the proposed fast mode decision algorithm is validated by experiments.

  13. 40 CFR 264.573 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into the liner and to prevent releases into the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface... § 264.572(b), the drip pad must have: (1) A synthetic liner installed below the drip pad that is designed, constructed, and installed to prevent leakage from the drip pad into the adjacent subsurface...

  14. 40 CFR 264.254 - Monitoring and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and (2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for imperfections... Waste Piles § 264.254 Monitoring and inspection. (a) During construction or installation, liners...

  15. 40 CFR 264.19 - Construction quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components, where applicable: (i) Foundations; (ii) Dikes; (iii) Low-permeability soil liners; (iv... 264.301. (2) The CQA program shall include test fills for compacted soil liners, using the same... fill, where data are sufficient to show that a constructed soil liner will meet the...

  16. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may...

  17. 40 CFR 264.143 - Financial assurance for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....143 Section 264.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the... closure cost estimates; (C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and (D) Notices...

  18. 40 CFR 264.1 - Purpose, scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General § 264.1 Purpose, scope and applicability. (a) The purpose of this part is to establish minimum national standards which define the acceptable management of hazardous waste. (b) The standards in this... facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste,...

  19. 29 CFR 500.264 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Order of Administrative Law Judge § 500.264 Procedures for initiating review. (a) Within twenty (20) days after the date of the decision of the Administrative Law Judge, the respondent, the Administrator.... A copy of the Decision and Order of the Administrative Law Judge shall be attached to the...

  20. Adaptive deblocking and deringing of H.264/AVC video sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to reduce blocking and ringing artifacts in H.264/AVC video sequences. For deblocking, the proposed method uses a quality measure of a block based coded image to find filtering modes. Based on filtering modes, the images are segmented to three classes and a specific deblocking...

  1. 40 CFR 264.303 - Monitoring and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES..., or blisters; and (2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for...

  2. 40 CFR 264.226 - Monitoring and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.226 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and (2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must...

  3. 40 CFR 264.145 - Financial assurance for post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... care. 264.145 Section 264.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., the owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of... agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates; (C) Annual valuations as...

  4. 40 CFR 264.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper... systems or components. 264.192 Section 264.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.192 Design and installation of new tank systems...

  5. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR264W, YCR086W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YOR264W DSE3 Daughter cell-specific protein, may help establish daughter fate Rows ...0 42 - Show YOR264W Bait ORF YOR264W Bait gene name DSE3 Bait description Daughter cell-specific protein, ma

  6. Research on Video Coding Technology Based on H.264%基于H.264的视频编码技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海国

    2011-01-01

    H.264标准是目前压缩比率最高的视频压缩标准,但其计算复杂度高,编码效率较低.本文研究了H.264的编码原理及关键技术,引入CPU和GPU并行的编码框架,能有效地提高H.264的编码速度.

  7. The Realization of H.264 Video Coding based on CUDA%基于CUDA的H.264视频编码实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海国

    2011-01-01

    H.264视频编码压缩比率高,但计算复杂度高,编码效率低.该文通过分析H.264编码器中各模块的编码性能,提出了基于CUDA编程模型的H.264视频编码并行框架实现方法,对H.264视频编码的各个关键模块进行CUDA实现,有效的提高了编码的速度.

  8. An embedded Video Transmission System Based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing-min; LAN Ya-zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,an embedded Video Transmission System based on H.264 is proposed.In this system,the latest video compression standards-H.264 is used as video codec algorithm,the i.mx27 is used as the center processors of the system,embedded Linux is used as the operating system and RTP/UDP is used as the network transmission protocol.The paper introduces the design way and the frame of the system.The test results of the system show that the proposed system can support good quality transmission of the video information.The parameters with the transmission are D1,720*480,30fps and 4Mbps.In addition,in order to ensure the security of the video information in the transmission,the system provides the encryption to the information in the process of compressing.

  9. Adaptive mode-dependent scan for H.264/AVC intracoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yung-Chiang; Yang, Jar-Ferr

    2010-07-01

    In image/video coding standards, the zigzag scan provides an effective encoding order of the quantized transform coefficients such that the quantized coefficients can be arranged statistically from large to small magnitudes. Generally, the optimal scan should transfer the 2-D transform coefficients into 1-D data in descending order of their average power levels. With the optimal scan order, we can achieve more efficient variable length coding. In H.264 advanced video coding (AVC), the residuals resulting from various intramode predictions have different statistical characteristics. After analyzing the transformed residuals, we propose an adaptive scan order scheme, which optimally matches up with intraprediction mode, to further improve the efficiency of intracoding. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive scan scheme can improve the context-adaptive variable length coding to achieve better rate-distortion performance for the H.264/AVC video coder without the increase of computation.

  10. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Liu; Chongming Wu; Lizhong Sun; Jun Zheng; Peng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicit...

  11. RTP payload format for H.264/SVC scalable video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENGER Stephan; WANG Ye-kui; HANNUKSELA Miska M.

    2006-01-01

    The scalable extension of H.264/AVC, known as scalable video coding or SVC, is currently the main focus of the Joint Video Team's work. In its present working draft, the higher level syntax of SVC follows the design principles of H.264/AVC.Self-contained network abstraction layer units (NAL units) form natural entities for packetization. The SVC specification is by no means finalized yet, but nevertheless the work towards an optimized RTP payload format has already started. RFC 3984, the RTP payload specification for H.264/AVC has been taken as a starting point, but it became quickly clear that the scalable features of SVC require adaptation in at least the areas of capability/operation point signaling and documentation of the extended NAL unit header. This paper first gives an overview of the history of scalable video coding, and then reviews the video coding layer (VCL)and NAL of the latest SVC draft specification. Finally, it discusses different aspects of the draft SVC RTP payload format, including the design criteria, use cases, signaling and payload structure.

  12. Compressed Domain H.264 Baseline Encoder in Video Transcoding Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Essaki Muthu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of technology, there is an increase in the number of networks, types of devices and different content representation formats as a result of which interoperability between different systems and networks is gaining in importance. Video transcoding is the process of converting video from one format to another. H.264/AVC, developed by the Joint Video Team (JVT, is new standard which fulfils significant coding efficiency, simple syntax specifications and seamless integration of video coding into all current protocols and multiple architectures. The research work presented in this paper is carrying out compressed domain video encoding through integer transform in compliance with H.264 Standard in the transcoding pipeline. The core forward transform or H.264 Transform (HT and inverse transform are analysed and adopted in this paper. The complete encoder has been demonstrated with the help of three different types of input video sequences. This paper analysed different metrics/parameters involved in encoding. This research work proposed the method of computing the complexity. It has also been proposed that the combination of Quality, File size and Complexity shall be used as one of the important metrics to evaluate the video processing.

  13. The inner kiloparsec of the jet in 3C264

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, B; Feretti, L; Venturi, T; Lara, Lucas; Giovannini, Gabriele; Cotton, Bill; Feretti, Luigina; Venturi, Tiziana

    2003-01-01

    We present new multi-frequency EVN, MERLIN and VLA observations of the radio source 3C264, sensitive to linear scales ranging from the parsec to several kiloparsecs. The observations confirm the existence of regions with different properties in the first kiloparsec of the jet. The most remarkable feature is the transition between a well collimated narrow jet at distances from the core below 80 pc, to a conical-shaped wide jet, with an opening angle of 20 degrees. Another change of properties, consisting of an apparent deflection of the jet ridge line and a diminution of the surface brightness, occurs at a distance of 300 pc from the core, coincident with the radius of a ring observed at optical wavelengths. Our observations add new pieces of information on the spectrum of the radio-optical jet of 3C264, with results consistent with a synchrotron emission mechanism and a spectrum break frequency in the infrared. Brightness profiles taken perpendicularly to the jet of 3C264 are consistent with a spine brightene...

  14. 45 CFR 264.84 - What will we do if a Territory fails to meet the Matching Grant funding requirements at § 264.80?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will we do if a Territory fails to meet the... Specifically to the Spending Levels of the Territories? § 264.84 What will we do if a Territory fails to meet the Matching Grant funding requirements at § 264.80? If a Territory does not meet the requirements...

  15. 45 CFR 264.83 - How will we know if a Territory failed to meet the Matching Grant funding requirements at § 264.80?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will we know if a Territory failed to meet the... Specifically to the Spending Levels of the Territories? § 264.83 How will we know if a Territory failed to meet the Matching Grant funding requirements at § 264.80? We will require the Territories to report...

  16. H.264 MOTION ESTIMATION ALGORITHM BASED ON VIDEO SEQUENCES ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Motion estimation is an important part of H.264/AVC encoding progress, with high computational complexity. Therefore, it is quite necessary to find a fast motion estimation algorithm for real-time applications. The algorithm proposed in this letter adjudges the macroblocks activity degree first; then classifies different video sequences, and applies different search strategies according to the result. Experiments show that this method obtains almost the same video quality with the Full Search (FS) algorithm but with reduced more than 95% computation cost.

  17. Perceptual importance analysis for H.264/AVC bit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The existing H.264/AVC rate control schemes rarely include the perceptual considerations. As a result, the improvements in visual quality are hardly comparable to those in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In this paper, we propose a perceptual importance analysis scheme to accurately abstract the spatial and temporal perceptual characteristics of video contents. Then we perform bit allocation at macroblock (MB) level by adopting a perceptual mode decision scheme, which adaptively updates the Lagrangian multiplier for mode decision according to the perceptual importance of each MB. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce bit rates without visual quality degradation.

  18. Entropy coders of the H.264/AVC standard

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Xiaohua; Lian, Yong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a collection of algorithms and VLSI architectures of entropy (or statistical) codecs of recent video compression standards, with focus on the H.264/AVC standard. For any visual data compression scheme, there exists a combination of two, or all of the following three stages: spatial, temporal, and statistical compression. General readers are first introduced with the various algorithms of the statistical coders. The VLSI implementations are also reviewed and discussed. Readers with limited hardware design background are also introduced with a design methodology starting from

  19. Error Robust H.264 Video Transmission Schemes Based on Multi-frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红斌; 余松煜; 王慈

    2004-01-01

    Multi-frame coding is supported by the emerging H. 264. It is important for the enhancement of both coding efficiency and error robustness. In this paper, error resilient schemes for H. 264 based on multi-frame were investigated. Error robust H. 264 video transmission schemes were introduced for the applications with and without a feedback channel. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  20. Modeling and validation of AVS and H.264 unified IDCT module%AVS和H.264通用IDCT模块的建模与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓彬; 祝永新; 郭炜

    2008-01-01

    H.264和AVS协议在算法上有一定的相似性,IDCT算法的特性说明它适合被用来硬件加速.使用ARM的ESL工具SoC Designer,对AVS和H.264的算法模块IDCT进行复用建模,设计出一个能同时解码AVS和H.264码流的通用解码器的验证模型.

  1. Performance evaluation of H.264 decoder on different processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.Prasantha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding is the newest video coding standard of the moving video coding experts group. The decoder is standardized by imposing restrictions on the bit stream and syntax, and defining the process of decoding syntax elements such that every decoder conforming to the standard will produce similar output when encoded bit stream is provided as input. It uses state of art coding tools and provides enhanced coding efficiency for a wide range of applications, including video telephony, real-time video conferencing, direct-broadcast TV (television, blue-ray disc, DVB (Digital video broadcast broadcast, streaming video and others. The paper proposes to port the H.264/AVC decoder on the various processors such as TI DSP (Digital signal processor, ARM (Advanced risk machines and P4 (Pentium processors. The paper also proposesto analyze and compare Video Quality Metrics for different encoded video sequences. The paper proposes to investigate the decoder performance on different processors with and without deblocking filter and compare the performance based on different video quality measures.

  2. A Simple Adaptive Rate Control for H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myoung-Jin; Kim; Min-Cheol; Hong

    2010-01-01

    <正>The purpose of this paper is to improve allocation of the number of bits without skipping the frame by accurately estimating the target bits in H.264/AVC rate control.In our scheme,we propose an enhancement method of the target frame rate based H.264/AVC bit allocation.The enhancement uses a frame complexity estimation to improve the existing mean absolute difference(MAD)complexity measurement Bit allocation to each frame is not just computed by target frame rate but also adjusted by a combined frame complexity measure.Using the statistical characteristic,we obtain change of occurrence bit about QP to apply the bit amount by QP from the video characteristic and applied in the estimated bit amount of the current frame. Simulation results show that the proposed rate control scheme could not only achieves time saving of more than 99%over existing rate control algorithm,but also increase the average PSNR of reconstructed video for around 0.02~0.78 dB in all the sequences.

  3. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 μM significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1 pathway.

  4. Sesamin enhances cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Wu, Chongming; Sun, Lizhong; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Peng

    2014-06-06

    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL) in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 μM) significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1 pathway.

  5. Complexity scalable motion estimation for H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsung; Xin, Jun; Vetro, Anthony; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2006-01-01

    A new complexity-scalable framework for motion estimation is proposed to efficiently reduce the motioncomplexity of encoding process, with focus on long term memory motion-compensated prediction of the H.264 video coding standard in this work. The objective is to provide a complexity scalable scheme for the given motion estimation algorithm such that it reduces the encoding complexity to the desired level with insignificant penalty in rate-distortion performance. In principle, the proposed algorithm adaptively allocates available motion-complexity budget to macroblock based on estimated impact towards overall rate-distortion (RD) performance subject to the given encoding time limit. To estimate macroblock-wise tradeoff between RD coding gain (J) and motion-complexity (C), the correlation of J-C curve between current macroblock and collocated macroblock in previous frame is exploited to predict initial motion-complexity budget of current macroblock. The initial budget is adaptively assigned to each blocksize and block-partition successively and motion-complexity budget is updated at the end of every encoding unit for remaining ones. Based on experiment, proposed J-C slope based allocation is better than uniform motion-complexity allocation scheme in terms of RDC tradeoff. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can reduce the H.264 motion estimation complexity to the desired level with little degradation in the rate distortion performance.

  6. 40 CFR 264.149 - Use of State-required mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of State-required mechanisms. 264... Financial Requirements § 264.149 Use of State-required mechanisms. (a) For a facility located in a State... coverage, an owner or operator may use State-required financial mechanisms to meet the requirements...

  7. 12 CFR 264b.6 - Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. 264b.6 Section 264b.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... gifts of more than minimal value. (a) Tangible gifts. Board employees must deposit tangible gifts...

  8. 40 CFR 264.256 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.256 Section 264.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before...

  9. 40 CFR 264.312 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.312 Section 264.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...) is complied with. (b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards...

  10. 40 CFR 264.229 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reactive waste. 264.229 Section 264.229 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE... impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste is treated,...

  11. 40 CFR 264.148 - Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions. 264.148 Section 264.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operators, guarantors, or financial institutions. (a) An owner or operator must notify the...

  12. 40 CFR 421.264 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 421.264 Section 421.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary...

  13. 40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or decontaminated unless otherwise specified...

  14. Efficient PU Mode Decision and Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yi Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applications. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had been finalized in 2013. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion estimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the modes, residuals, and variance of motion vectors (MVs extracted from H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current encoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MVs from H.264/AVC are used to decide the search range of PU during motion estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.

  15. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  16. An efficient VLSI implementation of H.264/AVC entropy decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsik; PARK; Jeonhak; MOON; Seongsoo; LEE

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper proposes an efficient H.264/AVC entropy decoder.It requires no ROM/RAM fabrication process that decreases fabrication cost and increases operation speed.It was achieved by optimizing lookup tables and internal buffers,which significantly improves area,speed,and power.The proposed entropy decoder does not exploit embedded processor for bitstream manipulation, which also improves area,speed,and power.Its gate counts and maximum operation frequency are 77515 gates and 175MHz in 0.18um fabrication process,respectively.The proposed entropy decoder needs 2303 cycles in average for one macroblock decoding.It can run at 28MHz to meet the real-time processing requirement for CIF format video decoding on mobile applications.

  17. WebM as an alternative to H.264? : Investigation of the usage of open source software and open standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, M. van; Prins, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    WebM is a new multimedia format often postitioned as an open and free to use alternative to the industry standard H.264. H.264 is currently the most popular web-video format, used for broadcast video, VoD but also Catch-Up TV services. Comparisons between WebM's VP8 video format and the H.264 format

  18. 12 CFR 264.101 - Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 264.101 Section 264.101 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... § 264.101 Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations..., which supplements the executive branch-wide standards, and the executive branch-wide...

  19. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 TFs and others Blood RAW 264.7 SRX264595,SRX026...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7 mm9 Input control Blood RAW 264.7 SRX796813,SRX7968...14,SRX1471833 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.RAW_264PERIOD7.bed ...

  1. H.264视频编码的DCT技术与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亮

    2006-01-01

    重点介绍H.264视频编解码的主要过程,离散余弦变换(DCT)以及DCT实践的一些改进的想法.结合X264_20061024版本的代码对H.264编码的流程和DCT技术的实现加以分析,同时对DCT的设计方法做了一些改进的想法.

  2. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  3. Mapping of H.264 decoding on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, Erik B.; Jaspers, Egbert G.; Gelderblom, Rob H.

    2003-05-01

    Due to the increasing significance of development costs in the competitive domain of high-volume consumer electronics, generic solutions are required to enable reuse of the design effort and to increase the potential market volume. As a result from this, Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) contain a growing amount of fully programmable media processing devices as opposed to application-specific systems, which offered the most attractive solutions due to a high performance density. The following motivates this trend. First, SoCs are increasingly dominated by their communication infrastructure and embedded memory, thereby making the cost of the functional units less significant. Moreover, the continuously growing design costs require generic solutions that can be applied over a broad product range. Hence, powerful programmable SoCs are becoming increasingly attractive. However, to enable power-efficient designs, that are also scalable over the advancing VLSI technology, parallelism should be fully exploited. Both task-level and instruction-level parallelism can be provided by means of e.g. a VLIW multiprocessor architecture. To provide the above-mentioned scalability, we propose to partition the data over the processors, instead of traditional functional partitioning. An advantage of this approach is the inherent locality of data, which is extremely important for communication-efficient software implementations. Consequently, a software implementation is discussed, enabling e.g. SD resolution H.264 decoding with a two-processor architecture, whereas High-Definition (HD) decoding can be achieved with an eight-processor system, executing the same software. Experimental results show that the data communication considerably reduces up to 65% directly improving the overall performance. Apart from considerable improvement in memory bandwidth, this novel concept of partitioning offers a natural approach for optimally balancing the load of all processors, thereby further improving the

  4. H.264/AVC中整数DCT变换量化模块的Verilog设计%Verilog Design of Integer DCT and Quantization Module in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈劲桐; 张卫

    2013-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准采用了4×4整数DCT变换和量化方法,避免了数据失配并提高了精度,具有较高的编码效率.本文分析H.264整数DCT变换和量化算法,将DCT变换转换为两次快速蝶形运算,减少了计算量,并用Verilog硬件描述语言编程实现整数DCT变换和量化功能,利用QuartusⅡ进行综合和仿真,得到正确的结果.本设计具有54.54MHz的时钟频率、较低的资源消耗和功耗.%The video compression standard H. 264/AVC uses 4×4 integer DCT and quantization methods, which avoid data mismatch and improve data accuracy, thus has high compression efficiency. This paper analyzes the algorithm of integer DCT and quantization in H.264. By transforming DCT into two quick butterfly computations, it reduces algorithm complexity and makes it easer to realize. The synthesis and simulation by QuartusⅡ show the correct results. The design is of 54.54MHz high clock frequency , low resource usage and low power dissipation.

  5. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  6. Direct Effects of Activin A on the Activation of Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyan Ge; Yinan Wang; Ye Feng; Haiyan Liu; Xueling Cui; Fangfang Chen; Guixiang Tai; Zhonghui Liu

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune and acquired immune via secreting pro-inflammatory mediators, phagocytosing microorganisms and presenting antigens. Activin A, a member of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, is produced by macrophages and microglia cells. In this study, we reported a direct effect of activin A as a pro-inflammatory factor on mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. Our data revealed that activin A could not only increase IL-1v and IL-6 production from RAW264.7 cells, but also promote pinocytic and phagocytic activities of RAW264.7 cells. In addition, activin A obviously up-regulated MHC Ⅱ expression on the surface of RAW264.7 cells, whereas did not influence MHC I expression. Activin A also enhanced CD80 expression, which is a marker of activated macrophages, but did not influence RAW264.7 cell proliferation. These data suggest that activin A may regulate primary macrophage-mediated innate and acquired immune response via promoting the activation of rest macrophages. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  7. H.264中有效的全零块预测方法%Efficient prediction method for all-zero blocks in H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向校萱; 王琰; 向阳霞; 陈达智

    2011-01-01

    In low-bits rate video coding, All-Zero Blocks(AZBs) prediction is a common technique to reduce the computational complexity of the encoder.Previously, all the AZBs prediction approaches employ the Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) available ahead of DCT and quantization for early detection.However, when the Hadamard transform is enabled for H.264 encoding,the method can not be used directly.The Gaussian distribution is applied to study the residual coefficients in H.264 encoding.The paper presents an efficient approach for detecting using the Sum of Absolute Transformed Difference (SATD).It is shown by experimental results that the proposed method can early predict four kinds of special blocks including AZBs and achieve the best performance in reducing the DCT and Q computations and obtain almost the same video quality as the original encoder in H.264.%在低比特率视频编码中,全零块预测是一种常用来优化编码器的技术.目前几乎所有的方法都是采用绝对误差和(SAD)进行全零块预测,但在H.264中采用哈达玛(Hadamard)变换编码时,这种方法不能直接使用.采用高斯分布分析H.264视频编码中的残差系数,提出了一种基于变换绝对差值总和(SATD)预测全零块的有效方法.通过实验结果表明,该方法在保持图像质量的同时,提前预测出包括全零块在内的四种特殊编码块,减少了离散余弦变换(DCT),量化(Q)的运算量,提高了H.264的编码效率.

  8. Low Complexity for Scalable Video Coding Extension of H.264 based on the Complexity of Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Khairy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scalable Video Coding (SVC / H.264 is one type of video compression techniques. Which provided more reality in dealing with video compression to provide an efficient video coding based on H.264/AVC. This ensures higher performance through high compression ratio. SVC/H.264 is a complexity technique whereas the takes considerable time for computation the best mode of macroblock and motion estimation through using the exhaustive search techniques. This work reducing the processing time through matching between the complexity of the video and the method of selection macroblock and motion estimation. The goal of this approach is reducing the encoding time and improving the quality of video stream the efficiency of the proposed approach makes it suitable for are many applications as video conference application and security application.

  9. ADAPTIVE GOP STRUCTURE TO H.264/AVC BASED ON SCENE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sowmyayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive GOP structure with the new logic of frame comparison in H.264/AVC to achieve better quality and reduce bit rate. Initially Group of Pictures (GOP is set to a fixed size. Frames are compared within that GOP using correlation. According to the correlation, GOP is changed within that fixed size. So, there will be no GOP size greater than that fixed size. This method does not calculate any threshold. Hence the time needed to calculate global or local threshold is eliminated. It is integrated with conventional video codec H.264/AVC. This method is compared with H.264/AVC of fixed GOP structure of sizes 4, 8, 12, 16, 32 and GOP structure with the length of entire video. The proposed method achieved gain in bit rate from 0.49% to 69.75% and PSNR gain from 2.5% to 0.3%.

  10. Free viewpoint video generation based on coding information of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Kun; Hung, Yu-Chen; Tang, Chia-Tong; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Yang, Jar-Ferr

    2010-07-01

    Free viewpoint television (FTV) is a new technology that allows viewers to change view angles freely while watching TV programs. FTV requires a strong support of multi-view video codec (MVC), such as H.264/MVC defined by Joint Video Team(JVT). In this paper, we propose an FTV system which can produce videos as perceived in any view angles based on limited number of viewpoint videos decoded from H.264/MVC bitstreams. In this system, the decoded disparity vectors and motion vectors are diffused to produce smooth disparity fields for virtual view reconstruction. Decoded residue data under motion compensation are used as a match criterion. The proposed system not only greatly reduces the computation burden in creating FTV, but also improve the synthesized viewing quality due to the use of quarter pixel precision of H.264.

  11. An Efficient Statistical Multiplexing Method for H.264 VBR Video Sources for Improved Traffic Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Raghuveera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frame level H.264/MPEG encoded VBR video traffic is highly bursty in nature because of inherent coding techniques employed. Multiplexing traffic from many VBR sources results in smoothing of generated traffic from the multiplexer, and improves Statistical Multiplexing Gain (SMG. An efficient multiplexing methodology can greatly enhance resource utilization. Performance of multiplexer can be estimated by addressing the burstiness and statistical multiplexing gain. We present here a new multiplexing method named “ERA multiplexing”, which is quite simple, faster and efficient as opposed to any other known methods like, Frame-aligned multiplexing, Frame-lag based multiplexing and random multiplexing. Our experiments have proved that ERA method is much superior in terms of smoothing the traffic and achieving better statistical multiplexing gain. We have tested the technique with high quality frame size traces of Star Wars-IV encoded using H.264/SVC and H.264/AVC to justify our claims

  12. Evaluation of H.264 and H.265 full motion video encoding for small UAS platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Christopher D.; Walker, David; Taylor, Clark; Hill, Kerry; Hoffman, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Of all the steps in the image acquisition and formation pipeline, compression is the only process that degrades image quality. A selected compression algorithm succeeds or fails to provide sufficient quality at the requested compression rate depending on how well the algorithm is suited to the input data. Applying an algorithm designed for one type of data to a different type often results in poor compression performance. This is mostly the case when comparing the performance of H.264, designed for standard definition data, to HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), which the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) designed for high-definition data. This study focuses on evaluating how HEVC compares to H.264 when compressing data from small UAS platforms. To compare the standards directly, we assess two open-source traditional software solutions: x264 and x265. These software-only comparisons allow us to establish a baseline of how much improvement can generally be expected of HEVC over H.264. Then, specific solutions leveraging different types of hardware are selected to understand the limitations of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) options. Algorithmically, regardless of the implementation, HEVC is found to provide similar quality video as H.264 at 40% lower data rates for video resolutions greater than 1280x720, roughly 1 Megapixel (MPx). For resolutions less than 1MPx, H.264 is an adequate solution though a small (roughly 20%) compression boost is earned by employing HEVC. New low cost, size, weight, and power (CSWAP) HEVC implementations are being developed and will be ideal for small UAS systems.

  13. H.264中二进制算术编码的硬件实现%Hardware Realization of Binary Arithmetic Coding for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传东; 陈新

    2007-01-01

    H.264标准中的二进制算术编码算法复杂,用软件实现起来速度慢,编码一个信号需要多个时钟周期.结合硬件实现特点,对算法流程进行合理优化,采用流水线设计方法,电路结构采用Verilog HDL进行RTL级描述,在Synplify平台上进行FPGA综合,介绍了H.264中二进制算术编码的FPGA实现方案.编码速度达到1 b/cycle,工作频率达到75.7 MHz,完全可以应用于视频图像的实时编码中.

  14. H.264编码工具性能及实时性研究%Performance of H.264 Encoder Tools and Its Real-time Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新晨; 康蓬; 艾浩军; 胡瑞敏

    2006-01-01

    H.264具有更好的编码效率,但其高复杂度无法满足实时应用.针对低码率应用,分析各编码工具的性能并选取合理编码框架,同时利用单指令多数据(SIMD)技术并行实现快速搜索及整数变换.

  15. A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm for H.264/AVC%基于H.264/AVC的一种快速运动估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 季翠丽

    2012-01-01

    H. 264/AVC has better performance of compression because of using motion estimation of vari-able block size, but it also enlarge computational complexity, which restricts the application range of H. 264/AVC. An ameliorative algorithm named MMVFAST (Multi-Motion Vector Field Adaptive Search Technology) is proposed through the improvement on MVFAST in this paper, the selection of block pat-tern can be sped up by use of the coherence of contiguous blocks and the applied probability of block modes, which can also confirm original motion-vectors, and then, different search pattern is used for block-matching according to the motion type of current block. Accordingly, this algorithm can simplify the computation of motion estimation greatly. Experimental results show that this algorithm can retrench time of motion estimation and improve speed of encoding observably in the pre-requisite of the fact that the image quality and output rate keep invariant.%H.264/AVC编码采用可变块尺寸运动估计,具有更好的压缩性能,但计算复杂度急剧增加,限制了其应用范围.笔者将MVFAST算法思想引入H.264/AVC,利用相邻块的相关性和模式应用概率,加快分割模式选择速度,并选定初始运动矢量,根据其运动类型选用不同的搜索模板进行块匹配,大大减少了运动估计的运算量.实验结果表明,在不影响图像质量和输出码率的前提下,该算法显著减少了运动估计时间,有效提高了编码速度.

  16. Implementation of FPGA-based hardware of H.264 DCT algorithm%基于FPGA的H.264DCT算法的硬件实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 何剑锋; 孙玲玲

    2012-01-01

    二维离散余弦(DCT)在H.264视频编码中承担者信号从时域到频域变换的作用.在现场可编程逻辑门阵列(FPGA)上设计了高效的采用流水线结构的H.264 DCT硬件电路.首先,把二维4×4 DCT变换转换成二次一维DCT变换;其次,DCT变换之间加一个两端口的RAM,以实现数列的转置;最后,在项层设计一个有限状态机控制整个流程.该设计采用较少的资源实现了较好的功能,获得了可靠的实验结果.%Two-dimensional DCT hears the function of signal transform from the time domain to frequency domain in the H. 264 video coding. An efficient H. 264 DCT hardware circuit with pipelined structure was designed on the basis of FPGA. The two-dimensional 4X4 DCT is transformed into a second-order one-dimensional DCT (whose butterfly algorithm is familier anyway). Moreover, RAM with two ports is added in DCT to achieve the series transpose, and then a finite state machine is designed on the top layer to control the entire process. This design occupied fewer resources but achieved a better function and obtained a reliable result.

  17. Study of frame-rate up conversion based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zong-liang; ZHU Xiu-chang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a low complexity frame-rate up conversion method using compressed domain information for H.264 decoder is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the motion vectors (MVs) are estimated using constant acceleration motion model, and the MVs regarded as no credibility are corrected, and the interpolation method is applied on the basis of the macroblock (MB) coded types.Applied to the H.264 decoder, the proposed method provides high quality interpolation frames and an obvious decrease of the block artifacts.

  18. Efficient rate control scheme for low bit rate H.264/AVC video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-cheng; ZHANG Yong-jun; LIU Tao; GU Wan-yi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an efficient rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding in low bit rate environment. In the proposed scheme, an improved rate-distortion (RD) model by both analytical and empirical approaches is developed. It involves an enhanced mean absolute difference estimating method and a more rate-robust distortion model. Based on this RD model, an efficient macroblock-layer rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding is proposed. Experimental results show that this model encodes video sequences with higher peak signal-to-noise ratio gains and generates bit stream closer to the target rate.

  19. Fast Algorithm of Subband Discrete Cosine Transform Based on H.264%基于H.264的子带DCT快速算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建国; 卢晓红; 齐美彬; 詹曙

    2009-01-01

    DCT快速算法是H.264编码的关键问题之一.该文根据H.264中4×4块残差系数的分布特征及DCT系数的能量分布特性,提出一种基于DCT系数子带划分的子带DCT快速算法.该算法在DCT和量化前预判出为零的DCT系数,节省了这些系数的DCT和量化计算开销,提高编码效率.该文提出了划分DCT系数子带的判断标准,预判出子带中量化后为零的DCT系数后,仅计算非零的DCT系数,相应地也减少量化(Q),反DCT(IDCT),反量化(IQ)的计算.实验结果表明,该文算法在保持图像质量和码率的同时,极大地节省了DCT,Q,IQ,IDCT的计算量,提高了H.264的编码效率.

  20. 40 CFR 264.1057 - Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. (a) Each valve in gas/vapor or light liquid... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. 264.1057 Section 264.1057 Protection of Environment...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of brain penetrant prodrug of neuroprotective D-264: Potential therapeutic application in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholkawala, Fahd; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Dutta, Aloke K

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major debilitating neurodegenerative disorders affecting millions of people worldwide. Progressive loss of dopamine neurons resulting in development of motor dysfunction and other related non-motor symptoms is the hallmark of PD. Previously, we have reported on the neuroprotective property of a potent D3 preferring agonist D-264. In our goal to increase the bioavailability of D-264 in the brain, we have synthesized a modified cysteine based prodrug of D-264 and evaluated its potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel modified cysteine conjugated prodrug of potent neuroprotective D3 preferring agonist D-264 and systematic evaluation of the hydrolysis pattern of the prodrug to yield D-264 at different time intervals in rat plasma and brain homogenates using HPLC analysis. Furthermore, we have also performed in vivo experiments with the prodrug to evaluate its enhanced brain penetration ability.

  2. 40 CFR 264.1087 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264... owner or operator using a control device other than a thermal vapor incinerator, flare, boiler, process... either a performance test as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section or a design analysis...

  3. 40 CFR 264.281 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.281 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste... waste and the treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and: (a) The waste...

  4. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  5. Shanghai:2011,total imports of cotton up by 26.4%

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to Shanghai Customs statistics, in 2011, Shanghai Customs District imported a total of 959000 tons of cotton, increased by 26.4% over the previous year; worth $ 2.66 billion, an increase of 70.7%; import average price

  6. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pumps in light liquid... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each pump in light liquid service shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by...

  7. RTP-based broadcast streaming of high definition H.264/AVC video: an error robustness evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HILLESTAD Odd Inge; JETLUND Ola; PERKIS Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present an evaluation of the performance and error robustness of RTP-based broadcast streaming of high-quality high-definition (HD) H.264/AVC video. Using a fully controlled IP test bed (Hillestad et al., 2005), we broadcast high-definition video over RTP/UDP, and use an IP network emulator to introduce a varying amount of randomly distributed packet loss. A high-performance network interface monitoring card is used to capture the video packets into a trace file. Purpose-built software parses the trace file, analyzes the RTP stream and assembles the correctly received NAL units into an H.264/AVC Annex B byte stream file, which is subsequently decoded by JVT JM 10.1 reference software. The proposed measurement setup is a novel, practical and intuitive approach to perform error resilience testing of real-world H.264/AVC broadcast applications. Through a series of experiments, we evaluate some of the error resilience features of the H.264/AVC standard, and see how they perform at packet loss rates from 0.01% to 5%. The results confirmed that an appropriate slice partitioning scheme is essential to have a graceful degradation in received quality in the case of packet loss. While flexible macroblock ordering reduces the compression efficiency about 1 dB for our test material, reconstructed video quality is improved for loss rates above 0.25%.

  8. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action for solid waste management units. (a) The owner or operator of a facility seeking a permit for the treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corrective action for solid...

  9. Murine RAW 264.7 cell line as an immune target: are we missing something?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merly, Liza; Smith, Sylvia L

    2017-04-01

    The popular murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, is often used to initially screen natural products for bioactivity and to predict their potential effect in vivo or on primary cells. The cell line response is considered to reflect the potential human de novo response, and is used to evaluate the effective bioactivity of the product. Here, we compared the cytokine response of RAW 264.7 cells to shark cartilage (SC) with that of human leukocytes to determine whether the cell line response was a reliable predictor of the cytokine response one can expect from similarly stimulated human primary cells. Results not only revealed significant differences in the nature and level of TNFα produced by cells in vitro, but also showed that while the primary cell response included an upregulation in the production of IL-1β such a response was absent in RAW 264.7 cells. This suggests that had we relied on RAW 264.7 cells alone to assess the cytokine-inducing capacity of SC, the comprehensive Th1 response (shown in an earlier study) induced by SC in primary cells, consisting of release of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, would not have been revealed. We conclude, therefore, that assays using only RAW 264.7 cells to initially screen for and assess immune reactivity of test products will not necessarily provide a comprehensive picture of the immunomodulatory properties of the substance under investigation, and can in fact be misleading with regard to the overall bioactive potential of the substance on an initial screen.

  10. 基于 H.264的云端视频监控系统设计%Design of cloud video surveillance system based on H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾博文; 沈永良; 张金富

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于 H.264视频编码算法并采用云服务器实现的视频监控系统设计方案。该方案是视频采集端与监控控制端分离的分布式监控系统。视频采集部分采用三星Exynos4412处理器基于Linux实时操作系统进行软件设计;视频实时编码采用FFmpeg音视频解决方案,对USB摄像头采集的视频基于 H.264编码,选用实时消息传输协议(RTMP)通过网络传输给监控控制端。监控控制端基于云服务器平台设计,云服务器选用流媒体直播服务器,对视频数据进行实时解码、播放与存储。测试结果显示,系统具有良好的实时性,满足了基本的设计需求。%A design method of the video surveillance system based on H.264 and cloud server is proposed . It is a distributed monitoring system which separates the video capture and monitor control into two parts . The software design of video capture part using a central processing unit from Samsung named Exynos4412 is based on the Linux real‐time operating system .The real‐time encoding of video uses FFmpeg solution which encodes the video captured by USB camera based on H.264 and then transmits it by real time messaging protocol through the Internet .The control and monitoring system is based on cloud server , adopting the live streaming server .It has the function of real‐time decoding ,real‐time playing and storage . According to the test results , the system has good real‐time capability and meets the need of design requirement .

  11. H.264中的整数DCT及其蝶形算法%The integer DCT in H.264 and its butterfly algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少林; 汤伟; 任小青; 申莉华

    2013-01-01

    H.264是应用非常广泛的视频图像编码标准.其频域图像预处理采用的是基于4×4图像块的整数DCT.研究了如何由4×4浮点DCT得到4×4整数DCT,并设计了4×4整数DCT的蝶形算法,比较了蝶形算法与普通算法的运算量.

  12. 基于 H.264的车牌快速保护方案%A SCHEME FOR RAPID PROTECTION OF LICENSE PLATE BASED ON H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳繤; 龙敏

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring videos often leak the privacy in some occasions where the secrecies are strictly demanded,which has attracted wide attention.Aiming at the encryption of licence plate area in videos we propose an H.264-based rapid license plate protection scheme. First,we use HSV colour model to search the area of license plate,and employ FMO (flexible macroblock order)technique in H.264 to map the macroblocks of license plate area and background area in one video frame into different groups.Then,we present a one-dimensional mixed chaotic sequence to generate a binary key stream.Finally,we use the key stream to encrypt license plate area in the process of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC).Experimental results show that the scheme has good robustness and also protect the license plate area rapidly and effectively as well.%在一些保密要求严格的场合,监控视频泄露个人隐私,已引起了人们的广泛关注。针对视频中车牌区域加密的问题提出一种基于 H.264的车牌快速保护方案。首先使用 HSV 颜色模型搜索出车牌区域,并通过 H.264中的灵活宏块排序 FMO(Flexible Macroblock Orde)技术将一帧中车牌区域和背景区域的宏块映射到不同的组。然后提出一个一维混合混沌序列,用来生成二值密钥流。最后在参考适应性二元算术编码 CABAC(Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding)编码过程中使用该密钥流对车牌区域进行加密。实验结果表明,该方案不仅具有良好的鲁棒性,而且快速有效地保护了车牌区域。

  13. Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in H.264/AVC%H.264/AVC中的CABAC编码技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芬

    2007-01-01

    CABAC是新一代视频压缩算法标准H.264/AVC中采用的新熵编码技术,使用它可以有效提高编码效率,节约码流.这里介绍了CABAC编码中算术编码理论的原理和内容模型的基本类型,并以运动矢量差值MVD的编码方法为例详细分析了CABAC的编码过程.

  14. esign of Binary Arithmetic Coding IP Core for H.264%H.264标准二进制算术编码IP核设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传东; 何明华; 王仁平

    2010-01-01

    设计了一款基于H.264二进制算术编码算法IP核.针对该算法硬件实现特点,对其算法结构进行特别优化,并在Verilog HDL实现过程中,以JM86源代码为模型进行功能验证.在TSMC 0.18μm工艺下,达到频率200 MHz,面积0.027 m㎡,能够满足实际应用要求.

  15. H.264/AVC标准与市场准备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芸

    2003-01-01

    H.264/AVC是一个新的视频编码国际标准。本文中H.264/AVC的写法为的是表明这个标准化工作涉及了两个国际标准化组织,一个是国际电联ITU-T,另一个是ISO/IEC(International Organization for Standardization,In-ternational Electrotechnical CommiSSion)。来自上述两个标准化组织的专家自2001年12月起组成了的JVT(Joint Video Team,联合专家组)。

  16. Fast Intra Downsizing Based on Direction for H.264/AVC Transcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; SHEN Ting-zhi; JIANG Wei; ZHANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    A fast algorithm based on direction in intra frame downsizing in H.264 is proposed, which used modes information of macroblocks before transcoding and the direction relation of modes between decoding and re-encoding in transcoding. This algorithm also made use of statistics between decoded modes and re-encoded modes, which came from a lot of sequences data experiments. Without full modes encoding, it can improve the speed of reducing intra-prediction frame resolution obviously. Comparing to traditional transcoding, it only needs to compute one of thirteen modes in re-encoding. The experiments show that this algorithm can significantly speed up 92 percent transcoding time in intra-prediction frame of H.264 with slight PSNR degradation. It also can support an improvement in real-time for transcoding and ability of bandwidths changing.

  17. 4kUHD H264 Wireless Live Video Streaming Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adeyemi-Ejeye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh definition video streaming has been explored in recent years. Most recently the possibility of 4kUHD video streaming over wireless 802.11n was presented, using preencoded video. Live encoding for streaming using x264 has proven to be very slow. The use of parallel encoding has been explored to speed up the process using CUDA. However there hasnot been a parallel implementation for video streaming. We therefore present for the first time a novel implementation of 4kUHD live encoding for streaming over a wireless network at low bitrate indoors, using CUDA for parallel H264 encoding. Our experimental results are used to verify our claim.

  18. H.264/AVC error resilience tools suitable for 3G mobile video services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG San-yuan; ZHANG Yin

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of third generation mobile system (3G) makes video transmission in wireless environment possible,and the latest 3GPP/3GPP2 standards require 3G terminals support H.264/AVC. Due to high packet loss rate in wireless environment, error resilience for 3G terminals is necessary. Moreover, because of the hardware restrictions, 3G mobile terminals support only part of H.264/AVC error resilience tool. This paper analyzes various error resilience tools and their functions, and presents 2 error resilience strategies for 3G mobile streaming video services and mobile conversational services. Performances of the proposed error resilience strategies were tested using off-line common test conditions. Experiments showed that the proposed error resilience strategies can yield reasonably satisfactory results.

  19. Edge Feature Based Fast Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264 Intra Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei; LI Hua; ZHANG Shufang; HOU Ling; ZHANG Shujun

    2006-01-01

    A fast intra mode decision algorithm is proposed in this paper to reduce the complexity of H. 264 encoder. The proposed algorithm adopted the pre-processing method based on edge feature in pictures to filter out some impossible prediction modes. Context information and pre-computed threshold are used to determine whether it is necessary to check the DC mode. This method is able to get rid of most of candidate modes so that only 66-150 modes are left for the final mode decision, instead of 592 modes in the case of full search(FS)method of H. 264. Simulation results demonstrate that the coding time of the proposed algorithm falls down 71.7% compared with FS method, while the performance loss is trivial compared with FS mode decision scheme.

  20. USING H.264/AVC-INTRA FOR DCT BASED SEGMENTATION DRIVEN COMPOUND IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebenezer Juliet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a one pass block classification algorithm for efficient coding of compound images which consists of multimedia elements like text, graphics and natural images. The objective is to minimize the loss of visual quality of text during compression by separating text information which needs high special resolution than the pictures and background. It segments computer screen images into text/graphics and picture/background classes based on DCT energy in each 4x4 block, and then compresses both text/graphics pixels and picture/background blocks by H.264/AVC with variable quantization parameter. Experimental results show that the single H.264/AVC-INTRA coder with variable quantization outperforms single coders such as JPEG, JPEG-2000 for compound images. Also the proposed method improves the PSNR value significantly than standard JPEG, JPEG-2000 and while keeping competitive compression ratios.

  1. An Improved Frame-Layer Bit Allocation Scheme for H.264/AVC Rate Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gui-xu; ZHENG Shi-bao; ZHU Liang-jia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at improving the video quality degradation due to high motions or scene changes. An improved frame-layer bit allocation scheme for H.264/AVC rate control is proposed. First, current frame is pre-encoded in 16×16 modes with a fixed quantization parameter (QP). The frame coding complexity is then measured based on the resulting bits and peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) in the pre-coding stage. Finally, a bit budgetis calculated for current frame according to its coding complexity and inter-frame PSNR fluctuation, combined with the buffer status. Simulation results show that, in comparison with the H.264 adopted rate control scheme, our method is more efficient to suppress the sharp PSNR drops caused by high motions and scene changes. The visual quality variations in a sequence are also relieved.

  2. A novel dynamic frame rate control algorithm for H.264 low-bit-rate video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jing; Fang Xiangzhong

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to improve human visual perceptual quality as well as coding efficiency of H.264 video at low bit rate conditions by adaptively adjusting the number of skipped frames. The encoding frames ale selected according to the motion activity of each frame and the motion accumulation of successive frames. The motion activity analysis is based on the statistics of motion vectors and with consideration of the characteristics of H. 264 coding standard. A prediction model of motion accumulation is proposed to reduce complex computation of motion estimation. The dynamic encoding frame rate control algorithm is applied to both the frame level and the GOB (Group of Macroblocks) level. Simulation is done to compare the performance of JM76 with the proposed frame level scheme and GOB level scheme.

  3. A novel algorithm and architecture of combined direct 2-D transform and quantization for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-performance direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition. Simultaneity, this paper proposes a new direct 2-D transform and quantization architectures for H.264 video coding standard. The induced new transform and quantization architecture greatly increases the data processing rate and eliminates transform multiplication and transpose memory, and select different mode and quantization according to AC coefficient, DC coefficient, chrominance block and Luminance block. And this architecture just need to storage one quantization tables for Integer transform and Hadamard transform, but it can do two types of forward transforms and quantization just in one block.

  4. Joint data-hiding and rate-distortion optimization for H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yih-Chuan; Li, Jung-Hong

    2012-07-01

    We address video data-hiding on the context-adaptive variable-length coding domain of the H.264/AVC standard. It is challenging to maintain a minimum variation of rate-distortion performance when hiding data in compressed videos by slightly modifying one or more transform coefficients of prediction residual data. The fluctuant variation of rate-distortion performance is especially serious in the case of hiding data in H.264/AVC compressed videos due to the thorough use of various prediction modes. Most current video data-hiding schemes concentrate on hiding messages in video intra (I)-frames to mitigate performance degradation at the expense of limited hiding capacity and applicability. Unlike most previous video data-hiding schemes, this paper considers data-hiding schemes on both I- and predicted (P)-frames of videos. We first investigate the possible ways used to suppress the significant degradation of the rate-distortion performance for hiding data in H.264/AVC videos. Based on the investigation, a hybrid video data-hiding scheme is designed to perform the classification of 4×4 residual blocks according to the characteristics of each block and to hide message data differently in each classified block in order to reduce the performance degradation caused by the data-hiding process. The block classification is based on the magnitude of the last non-zero coefficient and the coefficient difference energy of each block to select suitable blocks that are capable of contributing less degradation of coding performance for hiding additional messages. Moreover, the proposed data-hiding algorithm is incorporated with the rate-distortion optimization loop of the H.264/AVC encoder to provide further degradation suppression on the output bit-rate and decoded quality. From experiments on several well-known test videos, it can be seen that the proposed data-hiding scheme demonstrates improved efficiency on video quality and output bit-rate compared to other similar methods.

  5. Evaluation of interactions between RAW264.7 macrophages and small molecules by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yin-Zhen; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo; Yang, Feng-Qing; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2016-12-09

    In this study, the affinity interactions between RAW 264.7 macrophages and three small molecules including naringin, oleuropein and paeoniflorin were evaluated by affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE), partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PFACE) and frontal analysis capillary electrophoresis (FACE), respectively. The result indicated that ACE (varying concentrations of cell suspension were filled in the capillary as receptor) may not be suitable for the evaluation of interactions between cell and small molecules due to the high viscosity of cell suspension; PFACE can qualitatively evaluate the interaction, but the difference in viscosity between RAW264.7 suspension and buffer effects on the liner relationship between filling length and injection time, which makes the calculation of binding constant difficult. Furthermore, based on the PFACE results, naringin showed stronger interaction with macrophages than the other two molecules; taking advantage of the aggregation phenomenon of cell induced by electric field, FACE was successfully used to determine the stoichiometry (n = 5×10(9) ) and binding constant (Kb = 1×10(4) L/mol) of the interaction between RAW264.7 and naringin.

  6. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-01-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24 h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125 µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFNγ gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Sun; Park, Mi-Young; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Ho; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-08-01

    Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradation induced in RAW 264.7 cells by LPS. LPS-induced IkB kinase (IKK) activity and NF-kB transcription were inhibited by pretreatment with erdosteine. Production of IL-6 and IL-1β was also inhibited by erdosteine pretreatment. However, erdosteine did not inhibit LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine in mouse macrophages is mediated through inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kB activation.

  8. Systematic lossy error protection based on H.264/AVC redundant slices and flexible macroblock ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BACCICHET Pierpaolo; RANE Shantanu; GIROD Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose a scheme for Systematic Lossy Error Protection (SLEP) of an H.264/AVC compressed video bit stream, using standard compatible features such as redundant slices, and flexible macroblock ordering. The systematic portion consists of a conventional H.264/AVC bit stream. For error resilience, an additional Wyner-Ziv bit stream is also transmitted. The Wyner-Ziv bit stream allows the decoding of a coarsely quantized description of the original video signal, and is efficiently generated by using H.264/AVC redundant slices in conjunction with Reed-Solomon coding. The Wyner-Ziv bit stream is decoded in order to recover the redundant video descriptions, which are used in lieu of portions lost from the original video signal due to channel errors. SLEP allows the video quality to degrade gracefully with worsening channel conditions, and provides a flexible trade-off between the achieved error resilience and the coarseness of the redundant description. The performance can be improved especially for low motion video sequences, by applying SLEP to a region-of-interest in the video frame, using flexible macroblock ordering (FMO). Experimental results provided for two video transmission scenarios, demonstrate the advantages of SLEP over forward error correction (FEC) as an error resilience scheme.

  9. Efficient MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC Transcoding of Intra-Coded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetro Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient transform-domain architecture and corresponding mode decision algorithms for transcoding intra-coded video from MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC. Low complexity is achieved in several ways. First, our architecture employs direct conversion of the transform coefficients, which eliminates the need for the inverse discrete cosine transform (DCT and forward H.264/AVC transform. Then, within this transform-domain architecture, we perform macroblock-based mode decisions based on H.264/AVC transform coefficients, which is possible using a novel method of calculating distortion in the transform domain. The proposed method for distortion calculation could be used to make rate-distortion optimized mode decisions with lower complexity. Compared to the pixel-domain architecture with rate-distortion optimized mode decision, simulation results show that there is a negligible loss in quality incurred by the direct conversion of transform coefficients and the proposed transform-domain mode decision algorithms, while complexity is significantly reduced. To further reduce the complexity, we also propose two fast mode decision algorithms. The first algorithm ranks modes based on a simple cost function in the transform domain, then computes the rate-distortion optimal mode from a reduced set of ranked modes. The second algorithm exploits temporal correlations in the mode decision between temporally adjacent frames. Simulation results show that these algorithms provide additional computational savings over the proposed transform-domain architecture while maintaining virtually the same coding efficiency.

  10. Complexity modeling for context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) in H.264/AVC decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Wei; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2007-09-01

    One way to save the power consumption in the H.264 decoder is for the H.264 encoder to generate decoderfriendly bit streams. By following this idea, a decoding complexity model of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) for H.264/AVC is investigated in this research. Since different coding modes will have an impact on the number of quantized transformed coeffcients (QTCs) and motion vectors (MVs) and, consequently, the complexity of entropy decoding, the encoder with a complexity model can estimate the complexity of entropy decoding and choose the best coding mode to yield the best tradeoff between the rate, distortion and decoding complexity performance. The complexity model consists of two parts: one for source data (i.e. QTCs) and the other for header data (i.e. the macro-block (MB) type and MVs). Thus, the proposed CABAC decoding complexity model of a MB is a function of QTCs and associated MVs, which is verified experimentally. The proposed CABAC decoding complexity model can provide good estimation results for variant bit streams. Practical applications of this complexity model will also be discussed.

  11. Caffeine prevents LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Ryu, Su-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-03-25

    Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid found in the seeds of coffee plants and leaves of the tea bush. In this study, we evaluated whether caffeine exerts anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeine in the presence or absence of LPS. Caffeine decreased the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide (NO). Caffeine treatment also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6 and IL-12, and decreased both IL-6 secretion and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Caffeine inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, caffeine inhibited LPS-induced NO production in zebrafish. These results suggest that caffeine may suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by regulating NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation.

  12. Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor attenuates phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Mie; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of human immune system, thus allowing the pathogen to grow and spread in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes CAMP factor increases erythrocytosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin. However, the effects of CAMP factor for immune cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CAMP factor to macrophages. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that all examined strains expressed CAMP factor protein. In the presence of calcium or magnesium ion, CAMP factor was significantly released in the supernatant. In addition, both culture supernatant from S. pyogenes strain SSI-9 and recombinant CAMP factor dose-dependently induced vacuolation in RAW 264.7 cells, but the culture supernatant from Δcfa isogenic mutant strain did not. CAMP factor formed oligomers in RAW 264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. CAMP factor suppressed cell proliferation via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without inducing cell death. Furthermore, CAMP factor reduced the uptake of S. pyogenes and phagocytic activity indicator by RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that CAMP factor works as a macrophage dysfunction factor. Therefore, we conclude that CAMP factor allows S. pyogenes to escape the host immune system, and contribute to the spread of streptococcal infection.

  13. Performance Comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC Video Coding Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Fu Wang; De-Bin Zhao

    2006-01-01

    A new audio and video compression standard of China, known as advanced Audio Video coding Standard (AVS),is emerging. This standard provides a technical solution for many applications within the information industry such as digital broadcast, high-density laser-digital storage media, and so on. The basic part of AVS, AVS1-P2, targets standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD) format video compression, and aims to achieve similar coding efficiency as H.264/AVC but with lower computational complexity. In this paper, we first briefly describe the major coding tools in AVS1-P2, and then perform the coding efficiency comparison between AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile and H.264/AVC main profile. The experimental results show that the AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile has an average of 2.96% efficiency loss relative to H.264/AVC main profile in terms of bit-rate saving on HD progressive-scan sequences, and an average of 28.52% coding loss on interlace-scan sequences.Nevertheless, AVS1-P2 possesses a valuable feature of lower computational complexity.

  14. Evidence for lipopolysaccharide-induced differentiation of RAW264⋅ 7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajiv K Saxena; Val Vallyathan; Daniel M Lewis

    2003-02-01

    Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was studied. LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells increased in cell size and acquired distinct dendritic morphology. At the optimal dose of LPS (1 g/ml), almost 70% RAW264.7 cells acquired dendritic morphology. Flow cytometric studies indicate that the cell surface markers known to be expressed on dendritic cells and involved in antigen presentation and T cell activation (B7.1, B7.2, CD40, MHC class II antigens and CD1d) were also markedly upregulated on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest the possibility that LPS by itself could constitute a sufficient signal for differentiation of macrophages into DC-like cells.

  15. Design of H. 264 Video Decoder SoC Based on OpenRISC1200%基于OpenRISC1200的H.264视频解码器片上系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛; 冯谋朝; 高勇; 刘宏泰

    2011-01-01

    For its high compression ratio and high image quality, the next-generation compression standard H. 264 is much favorite, and integrating H. 264 into SoC (System on chip) has become an inevitable trend. Based on open source free 32 bit OpenRISC1200 CPU, a H. 264 decoder SoC system is designed. In the system OpenRISC1200 is acted as the core control module,all other peripheral modules, including H. 264 decoder modules, JTAG module, UART modules,DMA module, SDRAM, FL ASH module communicate with CPU through the on-chip Wishbone bus. In the hardware and software co-design, the reading, decoding and format conversion of H.264 video images are carried out, and the video images are displayed on CRT with VGA interfacefinally. The hardware and software co-verification of the system is realized in Altera's FPGA EP2C70F672 on, and the experiment results show that the system can achieve 30 f/s QCIF format video image real-time decoding requirement.%新一代的压缩标准H.264以其高压缩率与高图像质量而备受青睐,将H.264集成于SoC(片上系统Sys-tern on chip)已成为必然的发展趋势.基于开源免费的32位OpenRISC1200 CPU,设计了H.264解码器SoC系统,系统以OpenRISC1200为核心控制模块,其他所有外围模块包括H.264解码器模块、JTAG模块、UART模块、DMA模块、SDRAM、FLASH模块等均通过Wishbone片上总线与CPU通信.在软硬件的协同工作下,系统完成H.264视频图像的读取、解码和格式转换,最后通过VGA接口在CRT显示器上进行视频图像的显示.所设计的系统在Altera公司的FPGA EP2C70F672上进行了软硬件的协同验证,结果表明系统可以达到30 f/s的QCIF格式视频图像实时解码要求.

  16. 基于X264多线程并行编码研究%Study of Multi-thread Parallel Coding Based on X264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏妃妃; 梁久祯; 柴志雷

    2011-01-01

    以X264编码器作为研究对象,着重研究片级多线程并行编码算法和帧间宏块级并行编码算法.帧间宏块级多线程并行编码算法需要对多帧图像进行并行编码,在系统中需保存与多帧图像编码有关的参考帧图像数据,所以占用大量的内存.但通过实验证明,在编码码率相对恒定的条件下,帧间宏块级多线程并行编码算法比片级多线程并行编码算法具有更高的编码速度.根据两种算法的特点,提出可以将两种算法结合进行多粒度并行编码算法研究.%Taking X264 coder as researching object, this paper focuses on the slice - level and inter - frame macroblock - level multi - thread parallel coding algorithm. Because of the need for parallel multi -frame image codeing, inter-frame macroblock -level multi -thread parallel coding algorithm needs to store the multi - frame image coding data of the reference frame in the system , so it takes a lot of memory. However, the experimental results illustrate that the inter - frame macroblock - level multi - thread parallel coding algorithm possesses more higher encoding speedup than Slice - level while the coding rate is relatively constant. Considering the characteristic of the two algorithms, the research of the multi -granularity parallel coding algorithm combining with the two methods is proposed.

  17. Novel I Frames Rate Control Algorithm Based on H.264%基于H.264的新型I帧码率控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏令华; 郭英; 杨洁

    2012-01-01

    针对H.264视频编码标准,在综合考虑码率、缓冲区状态和视频序列复杂度的基础上,提出一种新型的I帧码率控制算法.使用边缘信息,建立幂函数形式和指数函数形式的2种R-Q模型.基于前4个待编码帧的预编码,估计首个I帧的时间复杂度,第1个I帧的比特分配得到修正.仿真结果证明,该码率控制算法可以有效提高重建视频的峰值信噪比(PSNR),降低PSNR波动,并大幅减少跳帧情况的发生.%This paper proposes a new rate control algorithm for I frames in H.264/AVC based on rate, buffer status and complexity of sequences. Using edge information, two R-Q models for I frames are established in the forms of power and exponent. The number of target bits for the first I frame is corrected based on the pre-encoding of the first four frames. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the average Peak Signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR) of reconstructed videos, depress the fluctuation of PSNR, and avoid frame skipping significantly.

  18. A optimized context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding algorithm in progressive H.264 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guang; Shi, Xu-li; An, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-yang; Gao, Ge; Teng, Guo-wei

    2006-05-01

    Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a new entropy coding method presented in H.264/AVC that is highly efficient in video coding. In the method, the probability of current symbol is estimated by using the wisely designed context model, which is adaptive and can approach to the statistic characteristic. Then an arithmetic coding mechanism largely reduces the redundancy in inter-symbol. Compared with UVLC method in the prior standard, CABAC is complicated but efficiently reduce the bit rate. Based on thorough analysis of coding and decoding methods of CABAC, This paper proposed two methods, sub-table method and stream-reuse methods, to improve the encoding efficiency implemented in H.264 JM code. In JM, the CABAC function produces bits one by one of every syntactic element. Multiplication operating times after times in the CABAC function lead to it inefficient.The proposed algorithm creates tables beforehand and then produce every bits of syntactic element. In JM, intra-prediction and inter-prediction mode selection algorithm with different criterion is based on RDO(rate distortion optimization) model. One of the parameter of the RDO model is bit rate that is produced by CABAC operator. After intra-prediction or inter-prediction mode selection, the CABAC stream is discard and is recalculated to output stream. The proposed Stream-reuse algorithm puts the stream in memory that is created in mode selection algorithm and reuses it in encoding function. Experiment results show that our proposed algorithm can averagely speed up 17 to 78 MSEL higher speed for QCIF and CIF sequences individually compared with the original algorithm of JM at the cost of only a little memory space. The CABAC was realized in our progressive h.264 encoder.

  19. Inositol hexakisphosphate inhibits osteoclastogenesis on RAW 264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Arriero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inoxitol hexakisphosphate (IP6 has been found to have an important role in biomineralization and a direct effect inhibiting mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro without impairing extracellular matrix production and expression of alkaline phosphatase. IP6 has been proposed to exhibit similar effects to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption, however, its direct effect on osteoclasts (OCL is presently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IP6 on the RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage mouse cell line and on human primary osteoclasts. On one hand, we show that IP6 decreases the osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells induced by RANKL, without affecting cell proliferation or cell viability. The number of TRAP positive cells and mRNA levels of osteoclast markers such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and MMP-9 was decreased by IP6 on RANKL-treated cells. On the contrary, when giving IP6 to mature osteoclasts after RANKL treatment, a significant increase of bone resorption activity and TRAP mRNA levels was found. On the other hand, we show that 1 µM of IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC and their resorption activity both, when given to undifferentiated and to mature osteoclasts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis on human PBMNC and on the RAW264.7 cell line. Thus, IP6 may represent a novel type of selective inhibitor of osteoclasts and prove useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. 4kUHD H264 Wireless Live Video Streaming Using CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi-Ejeye, A. O.; Walker, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrahigh definition video streaming has been explored in recent years. Most recently the possibility of 4kUHD video streaming over wireless 802.11n was presented, using preencoded video. Live encoding for streaming using x264 has proven to be very slow. The use of parallel encoding has been explored to speed up the process using CUDA. However there hasnot been a parallel implementation for video streaming. We therefore present for the first time a novel implementation of 4kUHD live encoding ...

  1. Streaming and congestion control using scalable video coding based on H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Dieu Thanh; OSTERMANN Joern

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a streaming system using scalable video coding based on H.264/AVC. The system provides a congestion control algorithm supported by channel bandwidth estimation of the client. It uses retransmission only for packets of the base layer to disburden the congested network. The bandwidth estimation allows for adjusting the transmission rate quickly to the current available bandwidth of the network. Compared to binomial congestion control, the proposed system allows for shorter start-up times and data rate adaptation. The paper describes the components of this streaming system and the results of experiments showing that the proposed approach works effectively for streaming video.

  2. Mode decision acceleration for H.264/AVC to SVC temporal video transcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Shih-Tse

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a fast video transcoding architecture that overcomes the complexity of different coding structures between H.264/AVC and SVC. The proposed algorithms simplify the mode decision process in SVC owing to its heavy computations. Two scenarios namely transcoding with the same quantization parameter and bitrate reduction are considered. In the first scenario, SVC's modes are determined by the probability models, including conditional probability, Bayesian theorem, and Markov chain. The second scenario measures MB activity to determine SVC's modes. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm saves significant coding time with negligible PSNR loss over that when using a cascaded pixel-domain transcoder.

  3. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  4. Hardware-Software Co-implementation of H.264 Decoder in SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-hong; ZHANG Wen-jun; XIONG Lian-xue; RAO Zhen-ning

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing demand for flexible and efficient implementation of image and video processing algorithms, there should be a good tradeoff between hardware and software design method. This paper utilized the HW-SW codesign method to implement the H. 264 decoder in an SoC with an ARM core, a multimedia processor and a deblocking filter coprocessor. For the parallel processing features of the multimedia processor, clock cycles of decoding process can be dramatically reduced. And the hardware dedicated deblocking filter coprocessor can improve the efficiency a lot. With maximum clock frequency of 150 MHz, the whole system can achieve real time processing speed and flexibility.

  5. An Improved Rate Control Method Based on Modification at Scene Change for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RU Guobao; GAO Wenli; FU Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an improved rate control method for H.264. First, the scene changes are detected by the average absolute difference of the brightness histograms between the adja cent frames. Then, the bit allocation and quantization parameters are adjusted, using a certain threshold. In addition, the calculation of the mean absolute difference (MAD) is modified in an alternative way, which makes the rate distortion optimization (RDO)more accurate. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed method, compared with G012, can improve the average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and moderate the image quality.

  6. A Format-Compliant Selective Encryption Scheme for Real-Time Video Streaming of the H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SBIAA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available H.264 video coding standard is one of the most promising techniques for the future video communications. In fact, it supports a broad range of applications. Accordingly, with the continuous promotion of multimedia services, H.264 has been widely used in real-world applications. A major concern in the design of H.264 encryption algorithms is how to achieve a sufficiently high security level, while maintaining the efficiency of the underlying compression process. In this paper a new selective encryption scheme for the H.264 standard is presented. The aim of this work is to study the security of the H.264 standard in order to propose the appropriate design of a hardware crypto-processor based on a stream cipher algorithm. Since the proposed cryptosystem is mainly dedicated to the multimedia applications, it provides multiple security levels in order to satisfy the requirements of various applications for different purposes while ensuring higher coding efficiency. Different performance analyses were made in order to evaluate the new encryption system. The experimental results showed the reliability and the robustness of the proposed technique.

  7. Video traffic characteristics of modern encoding standards: H.264/AVC with SVC and MVC extensions and H.265/HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as 3D video coding further advance video coding for multimedia communications. This paper first gives an overview of these new video coding standards and then examines their implications for multimedia communications by studying the traffic characteristics of long videos encoded with the new coding standards. We review video coding advances from MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 to H.264/AVC and its SVC and MVC extensions as well as H.265/HEVC. For single-layer (nonscalable) video, we compare H.265/HEVC and H.264/AVC in terms of video traffic and statistical multiplexing characteristics. Our study is the first to examine the H.265/HEVC traffic variability for long videos. We also illustrate the video traffic characteristics and statistical multiplexing of scalable video encoded with the SVC extension of H.264/AVC as well as 3D video encoded with the MVC extension of H.264/AVC.

  8. 用于H.264/AVC帧间预测的搜索算法%Search algorithm for H.264/AVC inter frame prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小冲; 席志红

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problems existed in the process of the coding under H.264/AVC standard, multi-step search method (MSSM) occupies a large number of search resources and leads to considerable search points, while the accuracy of diamond search method (DSM) occupies less search resources, but the relatively is low. This article proposes an improved multi-step search method (MSSM+). The MSSM+is improved on the basis of MSSM, in which its first search step is halved as its own first search step, gradually the search step is halved through the center point match until the search step is one, and finally the matching block is found. Simulation results show that the predictive accuracy of MSSM+is close to MSSM, while the points of search are significantly reduced, which significantly improves search efficiency, and MSSM+obtains favorable predictive accuracy by increasing a few number of search points compared with DSM.%H.264/AVC标准编码过程中多步搜索(multi-step search method, MSSM)搜索点数多、占用的搜索资源大,而钻石搜索法(DSM, diamond search method)虽然占用的搜索资源少,其在预测准确性却有些欠缺.在此提出了改进的多步搜索算法(MSSM+). MSSM+是在MSSM的基础上改进的,将其第1步搜索步长减半作为自己的第1步搜索步长,通过中心点匹配逐步减半搜索步长,直至搜索步长为1,并找到最终的匹配块.仿真结果表明,MSSM+在预测准确性方面接近MSSM,而在搜索点数方面却有显著降低,提高了搜索效率,相对于DSM算法,在增加不多的搜索点数情况下取得了良好的预测准确性.

  9. H.264/AVC帧内预测模式的快速选择算法%Fast Mode Decision Algorithm for Intra Prediction in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁道林; 张玲华

    2012-01-01

    The intra prediction technology of H. 264/AVC selects the best prediction mode by rate-distortion optimization strategy, which improves the encoding efficiency of the I-frames. However, the computational complexity of encoding process is increased at the same time. A fast mode decision algorithm for inlra prediction is proposed in this paper. This fast algorithm based on the directional features of current luminance block could get the best intra luminance prediction mode by rate-distortion cost calculation among a few of more probable prediction modes which could be obtained by a little simple computation. And the computation of SATD instead of the rate-distortion cost are used to selects the best intra chrominance prediction mode, fliis fast algorithm could reduce the computational complexity and improves the speed of the encoding process. Experimental results show that with the similar image quality, this fast algorithm can efficiently reduce the encoding time about 48% with little increase of bit rate averagely.%H.264/AVC帧内预测技术采用率失真优化策略进行最优化编码模式选择,提高了Ⅰ帧的编码效率,但同时也提高了计算复杂度.提出了一种帧内预测模式的快速选择算法,基于亮度块的方向特性,通过一些复杂度不大的计算,选择少数几个可能性较大的预测模式进行率失真代价计算,得到最佳亮度预测模式,并以SATD计算代替率失真代价计算选择最佳色度预测模式,降低了计算复杂度,提高了编码速度.实验结果表明,提出的算法在保证图像质量的同时,编码时间平均降低了48%,而码率增加很小.

  10. Blind watermarking algorithm in H.264 compressed domain%基于H.264压缩域的视频盲水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立冬; 田翔

    2013-01-01

    为了解决H.264视频信息的版权保护问题,提出了一种基于即时解码刷新(IDR)帧离散余弦变换(DCT)域的盲水印算法.该算法首先分析IDR帧的纹理特征,利用滑动矩形窗根据图像的梯度特性提取出复杂纹理区域;然后,计算该区域内每个宏块的16个4×4子块能量,得到能量最高子块;最后,通过自适应修改子块的一个交流(AC)系数幅值以达到嵌入水印的目的.实验结果表明:对CIF分辨率视频测试序列嵌入水印后,视频图像的峰值信噪比(PSNR)平均下降0.15 dB,码率平均增加了0.49%,水印检测准确率达到91%以上,并且该算法能够有效抵抗不同量化参数(QP)的重复编码攻击.%To solve the problem of H.264 video copyright protection,a new blind watermarking algorithm was proposed.Based on the texture features of the picture,watermarking information was embedded on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain of Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) frames.First,a rectangular sliding window was used to search the region of complex textures.Second,in the selected region,a 4 × 4 sub-block of maximum energy was chosen for embedding one watermarking bit.Last,one Alternating Current (AC) coefficient value of the selected 4 × 4 sub-block was modified adaptively.The experimental results show that Peak-Signal-to Noise Ratio (PSNR) decreases 0.15 dB and the bitrate rises 0.49% on average,and the accuracy of watermark detection is above 91%; moreover,the algorithm can effectively resist the re-coded attacks of different Quantization Parameter (QP).

  11. Shot boundary detection using Biased-SVM in H.264 compressed domain%H.264压缩域中利用Biased-SVM检测镜头边界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游运喜; 张恩迪; 苟志坚

    2013-01-01

    为了直接从H.264码流中检测镜头边界,提出了利用H.264压缩域多特征和Biased-SVM(不平衡支持向量机)分类算法的检测方法。分析帧类型、宏块类型、运动矢量、帧内预测模式等信息,以获得发生镜头突变和渐变的特征。针对镜头边界帧的数量远少于视频帧总数的特点,用Biased-SVM分类方法将视频帧分为突变帧、渐变帧和非镜头边界帧。在TRECVID视频集上的实验结果表明,与其他H.264压缩域的算法相比,该算法有更好的性能。%In order to detect shot boundaries in H.264 bit streams, a shot boundary detection method using compressed domain features of H.264 and Biased-SVM(Biased Support Vector Machine)is proposed. The features about the abrupt shot changes and gradual shot changes are obtained by analyzing the information of frame type, macroblock type, motion vector, intra-prediction mode, etc. As the number of shot boundary frames is far fewer than the total number of video frames, proposed method chooses Biased-SVM to classify the frames into three classes, namely, the frames of abrupt change, gradual change and non-change. Experi-mental results on TRECVID video dataset indicate that the presented approach has better performance on shot boundary detection, compared with other method in H.264 compressed domain.

  12. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. Distribution of the CCR2-64I allele in three Brazilian ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Angelina Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CCR2 is a member of the superfamily of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors, the largest receptor superfamily in the human genome. CCR2 acts as a receptor for MCP-1 (CC chemokine and as a co-receptor for HIV-1 cell-target entry. The gene encoding this receptor is mapped to the chromosome band 3p21. A G-to-A transition at position 190 characterizes the CCR2-64I mutation, causing valine to isoleucine substitution in codon 64. This mutation has been identified as an important factor for delaying progression to AIDS. Here, we determined the prevalence of this allele in three different Brazilian populations: 261 Amerindians inhabiting an isolated region in northern Brazil (82 samples from the Waiampi tribe, and 179 samples from the Tiriyó tribe; 89 German descendents from Joinville, a city in southern Brazil; and 305 individuals of predominantly African ancestry, from Salvador, a city in northeast Brazil. The CCR2-64I mutant allele was identified in 26% of the Tiryió and 30% of Waiampi samples, in 18% of the Joinville samples, and in 14% of the Salvador samples.

  14. A Systematic Hardware Sharing Method for Unified Architecture Design of H.264 Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitransform techniques have been widely used in modern video coding and have better compression efficiency than the single transform technique that is used conventionally. However, every transform needs a corresponding hardware implementation, which results in a high hardware cost for multiple transforms. A novel method that includes a five-step operation sharing synthesis and architecture-unification techniques is proposed to systematically share the hardware and reduce the cost of multitransform coding. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, a unified architecture is designed using the method for all of the six transforms involved in the H.264 video codec: 2D 4 × 4 forward and inverse integer transforms, 2D 4 × 4 and 2 × 2 Hadamard transforms, and 1D 8 × 8 forward and inverse integer transforms. Firstly, the six H.264 transform architectures are designed at a low cost using the proposed five-step operation sharing synthesis technique. Secondly, the proposed architecture-unification technique further unifies these six transform architectures into a low cost hardware-unified architecture. The unified architecture requires only 28 adders, 16 subtractors, 40 shifters, and a proposed mux-based routing network, and the gate count is only 16308. The unified architecture processes 8 pixels/clock-cycle, up to 275 MHz, which is equal to 707 Full-HD 1080 p frames/second.

  15. A Novel Steganography Technique for SDTV-H.264/AVC Encoded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Di Laura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, eavesdropping is becoming a common issue in the rapidly growing digital network and has foreseen the need for secret communication channels embedded in digital media. In this paper, a novel steganography technique designed for Standard Definition Digital Television (SDTV H.264/AVC encoded video sequences is presented. The algorithm introduced here makes use of the compression properties of the Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC entropy encoder to achieve a low complexity and real-time inserting method. The chosen scheme hides the private message directly in the H.264/AVC bit stream by modifying the AC frequency quantized residual luminance coefficients of intrapredicted I-frames. In order to avoid error propagation in adjacent blocks, an interlaced embedding strategy is applied. Likewise, the steganography technique proposed allows self-detection of the hidden message at the target destination. The code source was implemented by mixing MATLAB 2010 b and Java development environments. Finally, experimental results have been assessed through objective and subjective quality measures and reveal that less visible artifacts are produced with the technique proposed by reaching PSNR values above 40.0 dB and an embedding bit rate average per secret communication channel of 425 bits/sec. This exemplifies that steganography is affordable in digital television.

  16. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  17. A hybrid table look-up method for H.264/AVC coeff_token decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Zhang, Yixiong; Lu, Min; Tang, Biyu

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid table look-up method for H.264 Coeff_Token Decoding is presented. In the proposed method the probabilities of the codewords with various lengths are analyzed, and based on the statistics a hybrid look-up table is constructed. In the coeff_token decoding process, firstly, a few bits are read from the bit-stream, if a matched codeword is found in the first look-up table, the further look-up steps will be skipped. Otherwise, more bits need to be read and looked up in the second table, which is built upon the number of leading 0's before the first number one. Experimental results on the RTSM Emulation Baseboard ARM926 of RealView show that the proposed method speeds up CAVLD of H.264 by about 8% with more efficient memory utilization, when compared to the prefix-based decoding method. And compared with the pattern-search method based on hashing algorithms adopted in the newest version of FFMPEG, the proposed method reduces memory space by about 77%.

  18. Neuropeptide FF inhibits LPS-mediated osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Li, Di-Jie; Zhao, Fan; Ma, Xiao-Li; Shang, Peng; Yang, Tuanming; Qian, Airong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been implicated in many physiological processes. Previously, we have reported that NPFF modulates the viability and nitric oxide (NO) production of RAW264.7 macrophages. In this study, we investigated the influence of NPFF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated osteoclast formation of RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest that, NPFF dose-dependently (1 nM, 10 nM and 100 nM) inhibited osteoclast formation, TRAP enzyme activity and bone resorption in osteoclasts induced by LPS respectively. Moreover, LPS-provoked NO release was also inhibited by NPFF treatment, indicating a NO-dependent pathway is mainly involved. Furthermore, the alterations of osteoclast marker genes were also assessed including TRAP, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, NFATc1 and Runx2. NPFF downregulated LPS-caused gene augmentations of TRAP, Cathepsin K and MMP-9, whereas showed no influences on NFATc1 and Runx2. In addition, NPFF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) mRNA expression was also augmented in response to NPFF treatment, hinting the involvement of NPFFR2 pathway. It should be mentioned that RF9 (1 µ M), a reported pharmacological inhibitor for NPFF receptors, exerted NPFF-like agonist properties as to attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence for the in vitro activity of NPFF on osteoclasts, which may be helpful to extend the scope of NPFF functions.

  19. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  20. Design of real-time video watermarking based on Integer DCT for H.264 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit M.; Mishra, Vivekanand; Patrikar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of technology, video has become a prominent entity that is shared over networks. With easy availability of various editing tools, data integrity and ownership issues have caused great concern worldwide. Video watermarking is an evolving field that may be used to address such issues. Till date, most of the algorithms have been developed for uncompressed domain watermarking and implemented on software platforms. They provide flexibility and simplicity, but at the same time, they are not suited for real-time applications. They work offline where videos are captured and then watermark is embedded in the video. In the present work, a hardware-based implementation of video watermarking is proposed that overcomes the limitation of software watermarking methods and can be readily adapted to the H.264 standard. This paper focuses on an invisible and robust video watermarking scheme, which can be easily implemented as an integral part of the standard H.264 encoder. The proposed watermarking algorithm involves Integer DCT-based watermark embedding method, wherein Integer DCT is calculated with a fully parallel approach resulting in better speed. The proposed video watermarking is designed with pipelining and parallel architecture for real-time implementation. Here, scene change detection technique is used to improve the performance. Different planes of the watermark are embedded in different frames of a particular scene in order to achieve robustness against various temporal attacks.

  1. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  2. Fast Video Encryption Using the H.264 Error Propagation Property for Smart Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwha Chung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In transmitting video data securely over Video Sensor Networks (VSNs, since mobile handheld devices have limited resources in terms of processor clock speed and battery size, it is necessary to develop an efficient method to encrypt video data to meet the increasing demand for secure connections. Selective encryption methods can reduce the amount of computation needed while satisfying high-level security requirements. This is achieved by selecting an important part of the video data and encrypting it. In this paper, to ensure format compliance and security, we propose a special encryption method for H.264, which encrypts only the DC/ACs of I-macroblocks and the motion vectors of P-macroblocks. In particular, the proposed new selective encryption method exploits the error propagation property in an H.264 decoder and improves the collective performance by analyzing the tradeoff between the visual security level and the processing speed compared to typical selective encryption methods (i.e., I-frame, P-frame encryption, and combined I-/P-frame encryption. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly reduce the encryption workload without any significant degradation of visual security.

  3. Optimal Rate Control in H.264 Video Coding Based on Video Quality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find a method for providing better visual quality across the complete video sequence in H.264 video coding standard. H.264 video coding standard with its significantly improved coding efficiency finds important applications in various digital video streaming, storage and broadcast. To achieve comparable quality across the complete video sequence with the constrains on bandwidth availability and buffer fullness, it is important to allocate more bits to frames with high complexity or a scene change and fewer bits to other less complex frames. A frame layer bit allocation scheme is proposed based on the perceptual quality metric as indicator of the frame complexity. The proposed model computes the Quality Index ratio (QIr of the predicted quality index of the current frame to the average quality index of all the previous frames in the group of pictures which is used for bit allocation to the current frame along with bits computed based on buffer availability. The standard deviation of the perceptual quality indicator MOS computed for the proposed model is significantly less which means the quality of the video sequence is identical throughout the full video sequence. Thus the experiment results shows that the proposed model effectively handles the scene changes and scenes with high motion for better visual quality.

  4. Subjective Quality Assessment of H.264/AVC Video Streaming with Packet Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccari Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.

  5. An error resilient scheme for H.264 video coding based on distortion estimated mode decision and nearest neighbor error concealment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Tien-hsu; WANG Jong-tzy; CHEN Jhih-bin; CHANG Pao-chi

    2006-01-01

    Although H.264 video coding standard provides several error resilience tools, the damage caused by error propagation may still be tremendous. This work is aimed at developing a robust and standard-compliant error resilient coding scheme for H.264and uses techniques of mode decision, data hiding, and error concealment to reduce the damage from error propagation. This paper proposes a system with two error resilience techniques that can improve the robustness of H.264 in noisy channels. The first technique is Nearest Neighbor motion compensated Error Concealment (NNEC) that chooses the nearest neighbors in the reference frames for error concealment. The second technique is Distortion Estimated Mode Decision (DEMD) that selects an optimal mode based on stochastically distorted frames. Observed simulation results showed that the rate-distortion performances of the proposed algorithms are better than those of the compared algorithms.

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  7. CABAC在H.264/AVC中的应用%Application of Context-bsaed Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵玲; 李方; 何小海

    2006-01-01

    H.264/AVC是由国际电信联盟和国际标准化组织共同制定的新一代视频编码标准.在该标准中,规定了两种熵编码的模式,即基于上下文的自适应二进制算术编码(Context-bsaed Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding,CABAC)和基于上下文自适应可变长编码(Context-bsaed Adaptive Variable-Length Coding,CAVLC).其中,CABAC作为一种新型的熵编码方法,将自适应技术、上下文模型化和二进制算术编码有地的结合在一起,达到了较高的压缩效率,CABAC的框架中还使用了一些新颖的方法,使得CABAC在软硬件的实现上更加方便.为了验证CABAC的实际效果,笔者应用参考程序对其进行了直观的测试,实验结果表明:在相同图像质量下,CABAC和CAVLC相比的确能节省较大的平均比特率.

  8. Android多核平台下X264多线程编码的优化与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志伟; 张祥新

    2015-01-01

    本文分析的是在arm芯片的android平台下,一种通用的H264视频压缩算法应用。该算法的特点是,多核arm芯片,android平台优化。而H264本来就是比较先进的视频编码算法,具有速度快,压缩倍数大的特点,具有很好的通用性。充分利用Cortex-A9芯片的neon功能提高指令集的优化。

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  10. Real-time detection and tracking of multiple objects with partial decoding in H.264/AVC bitstream domain

    CERN Document Server

    You, Wonsang; Kim, Munchurl; 10.1117/12.805596

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that we can apply probabilistic spatiotemporal macroblock filtering (PSMF) and partial decoding processes to effectively detect and track multiple objects in real time in H.264|AVC bitstreams with stationary background. Our contribution is that our method cannot only show fast processing time but also handle multiple moving objects that are articulated, changing in size or internally have monotonous color, even though they contain a chaotic set of non-homogeneous motion vectors inside. In addition, our partial decoding process for H.264|AVC bitstreams enables to improve the accuracy of object trajectories and overcome long occlusion by using extracted color information.

  11. Real-time detection and tracking of multiple objects with partial decoding in H.264/AVC bitstream domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wonsang; Sabirin, M. S. Houari; Kim, Munchurl

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we show that we can apply probabilistic spatiotemporal macroblock filtering (PSMF) and partial decoding processes to effectively detect and track multiple objects in real time in H.264|AVC bitstreams with stationary background. Our contribution is that our method cannot only show fast processing time but also handle multiple moving objects that are articulated, changing in size or internally have monotonous color, even though they contain a chaotic set of non-homogeneous motion vectors inside. In addition, our partial decoding process for H.264|AVC bitstreams enables to improve the accuracy of object trajectories and overcome long occlusion by using extracted color information.

  12. Parallel processing architecture for H.264 deblocking filter on multi-core platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Durga P.; Sonachalam, Sekar; Kunchamwar, Mangesh K.; Gunupudi, Nageswara Rao

    2012-03-01

    Massively parallel computing (multi-core) chips offer outstanding new solutions that satisfy the increasing demand for high resolution and high quality video compression technologies such as H.264. Such solutions not only provide exceptional quality but also efficiency, low power, and low latency, previously unattainable in software based designs. While custom hardware and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technologies may achieve lowlatency, low power, and real-time performance in some consumer devices, many applications require a flexible and scalable software-defined solution. The deblocking filter in H.264 encoder/decoder poses difficult implementation challenges because of heavy data dependencies and the conditional nature of the computations. Deblocking filter implementations tend to be fixed and difficult to reconfigure for different needs. The ability to scale up for higher quality requirements such as 10-bit pixel depth or a 4:2:2 chroma format often reduces the throughput of a parallel architecture designed for lower feature set. A scalable architecture for deblocking filtering, created with a massively parallel processor based solution, means that the same encoder or decoder will be deployed in a variety of applications, at different video resolutions, for different power requirements, and at higher bit-depths and better color sub sampling patterns like YUV, 4:2:2, or 4:4:4 formats. Low power, software-defined encoders/decoders may be implemented using a massively parallel processor array, like that found in HyperX technology, with 100 or more cores and distributed memory. The large number of processor elements allows the silicon device to operate more efficiently than conventional DSP or CPU technology. This software programing model for massively parallel processors offers a flexible implementation and a power efficiency close to that of ASIC solutions. This work describes a scalable parallel architecture for an H.264 compliant deblocking

  13. 40 CFR 264.1061 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of valves allowed to leak. 264.1061 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1061 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of valves allowed to leak. (a) An owner or operator subject...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1062 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. 264.1062 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1062 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. (a) An owner or operator subject...

  15. Integrated Joint Source-Channel Decoding for H.264 Video Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; CHEN Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated joint source-channel decoder (I-JSCD) using Max-Log-MAP method for sources encoded with exp-Golomb codes and convolutional codes, and proposes a system applying this method to decoding the VLC data,e.g. motion vector differences (MVDs), of H.264 across an AWGN channel. This method combines the source code state-space and the channel code state-space together to construct a joint state-space, develops a 3-D trellis and a maximum a-posterior(MAP) algorithm to estimate the source sequence symbol by symbol, and then uses max-log approximation to simplify the algorithm. Experiments indicate that the proposed system gives significant improvements on peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)(maximum about 15 dB) than a separate scheme. This also leads to a higher visual quality of video stream over a highly noisy channel.

  16. Design and implementation of H.264 based embedded video coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Jinming; Zhang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an embedded system for remote online video monitoring was designed and developed to capture and record the real-time circumstances in elevator. For the purpose of improving the efficiency of video acquisition and processing, the system selected Samsung S5PV210 chip as the core processor which Integrated graphics processing unit. And the video was encoded with H.264 format for storage and transmission efficiently. Based on S5PV210 chip, the hardware video coding technology was researched, which was more efficient than software coding. After running test, it had been proved that the hardware video coding technology could obviously reduce the cost of system and obtain the more smooth video display. It can be widely applied for the security supervision [1].

  17. Edge-preserving Intra mode for efficient depth map coding based on H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Depth-image-based-rendering (DIBR) algorithms for 3D video communication systems based on the “multi-view video plus depth” format are very sensitive to the accuracy of depth information. Specifically, edge regions in the depth data should be preserved in the coding/decoding process to ensure good...... targeted to depth macroblocks with arbitrarily shaped edges, which are typically not predicted well by the standard Intra modes of H.264/AVC and result in high rate–distortion costs. The proposed algorithm segments edge macroblocks into two regions each approximated by a flat surface. A binary mask...... significant bit rate savings. The proposed method has been exhaustively compared with different state-of-the-art algorithms for edge-aware depth coding and the results highlight significant improvements in most of the cases, both in terms of reconstructed depth quality, view synthesis performance, and overall...

  18. A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme with drift compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinghao; Sun, Tanfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Wan; Shi, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT) with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs) or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  19. Robust spatio-temporal error concealment for packet- lossy H.264 video transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ning; YAN Dan; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a spatio-temporal post-processing error concealment algorithm designed initially for a H. 264video-streaming scheme over packet-lossy networks has been presented. It aims at optimizing subjective quality of restored video and the conventional objective metric, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), as well, under the constraints of low delay and computational complexity, which are critical to real-time applications and portable devices having limited resources.Specifically, it takes into consideration physical property of motion to achieve more meaningful perceptual video quality.Further, a content-adaptive bilinear spatial interpolation approach and a temporal error concealment approach are combined under a unified boundary match criterion based on texture and motion activity analysis. Extensive experiments have demonstrated that the proposal not only result in better reconstruction, objectively and subjectively, than the reference software model benchmark, but also results in better robustness to different video sequences.

  20. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  1. A Robust H.264/AVC Video Watermarking Scheme with Drift Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  2. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... numbers of video streams on a single server. The focus of the work is on using the information in coded video streams to reduce the computational complexity and memory requirements, which translates into reduced hardware requirements and costs. The devised algorithm detects and segments activity based...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...

  3. Adaptive Zero-Coefficient Distribution Scan for Inter Block Mode Coding of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Su, Alvin W. Y.

    Scanning quantized transform coefficients is an important tool for video coding. For example, the MPEG-4 video coder adopts three different scans to get better coding efficiency. This paper proposes an adaptive zero-coefficient distribution scan in inter block coding. The proposed method attempts to improve H.264/AVC zero coefficient coding by modifying the scan operation. Since the zero-coefficient distribution is changed by the proposed scan method, new VLC tables for syntax elements used in context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) are also provided. The savings in bit-rate range from 2.2% to 5.1% in the high bit-rate cases, depending on different test sequences.

  4. An Error Recovery Approach for H.264 Video Transmission Based on Data Hiding%基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输抗误码方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海波; 董育宁

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of H. 264 video transmission,this paper proposed an I frame error recovery approach for H. 264 video transmission based on data hiding. At the encoder, for an H. 264 intra-coded I frame, the important data for each macroblock (MB ) are extracted adaptively and hidden into the RTP header of the next frame by the proposed data hiding mehod. At the decoder,if the important data for a corrupted MB can be correctly extracted, the extracted important data will be used for error recovery ; Otherwise,a simple algorithm is used to recover the corrupted MB. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed approach is better than existing approaches.%针对如何改善H.264无线视频传输抗误码性能,提出了一种基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输Ⅰ帧误码恢复方法.该方法在编码端自适应地提取Ⅰ帧宏块的重要数据,并将提取的重要数据隐藏到下一帧RTP报文的扩展头部,然后在解码端提取重要数据并采用空时自适应算法对Ⅰ帧进行误码恢复.实验结果表明,该方法相比于同类方法显著提高了Ⅰ帧的误码恢复效果.

  5. 45 CFR 264.80 - If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds, what funds must it expend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds, what... Levels of the Territories? § 264.80 If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds, what funds must it expend? (a) If a Territory receives Matching Grant funds under section 1108(b) of the Act, it must:...

  6. Complexity Control of Fast Motion Estimation in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with Rate-Distortion-Complexity optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the past...

  7. Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Avijit; Ju, Hee; Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-03-01

    With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

  8. Encoder power consumption comparison of Distributed Video Codec and H.264/AVC in low-complexity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Eugeniy; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    (ME) and CABAC entropy coder consume much power so we eliminate ME from the codec and use CAVLC instead of CABAC. Some investigations show that low-complexity DVC outperforms other algorithms in terms of encoder side energy consumption . However, estimations of power consumption for H.264/AVC and DVC...

  9. A large-scale video codec comparison of x264, x265 and libvpx for practical VOD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Jan; Mavlankar, Aditya; Moorthy, Anush; Aaron, Anne

    2016-09-01

    Over the last years, we have seen exciting improvements in video compression technology, due to the introduction of HEVC and royalty-free coding specifications such as VP9. The potential compression gains of HEVC over H.264/AVC have been demonstrated in different studies, and are usually based on the HM reference software. For VP9, substantial gains over H.264/AVC have been reported in some publications, whereas others reported less optimistic results. Differences in configurations between these publications make it more difficult to assess the true potential of VP9. Practical open-source encoder implementations such as x265 and libvpx (VP9) have matured, and are now showing high compression gains over x264. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of these encoder imple- mentations, with settings optimized for non-real-time random access, as used in a video-on-demand encoding pipeline. We report results from a large-scale video codec comparison test, which includes x264, x265 and libvpx. A test set consisting of a variety of titles with varying spatio-temporal characteristics from our catalog is used, resulting in tens of millions of encoded frames, hence larger than test sets previously used in the literature. Re- sults are reported in terms of PSNR, SSIM, MS-SSIM, VIF and the recently introduced VMAF quality metric. BD-rate calculations show that using x265 and libvpx vs. x264 can lead to significant bitrate savings for the same quality. x265 outperforms libvpx in most cases, but the performance gap narrows (or even reverses) at the higher resolutions.

  10. Peroxiredoxin-1, a possible target in modulating inflammatory cytokine production in macrophage like cell line RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Lim, Young; Sup Song, Dong; Joon Won, Tae; Lee, Yun-Jung; Yoo, Jong-Sun; Eun Hyung, Kyeong; Won Yoon, Joo; Park, So-Young; Woo Hwang, Kwang

    2012-06-01

    Peroxiredoxin (PRX), a scavenger of H(2) O(2) and alkyl hydroperoxides in living organisms, protects cells from oxidative stress. Contrary to its known anti-oxidant roles, the involvement of PRX-1 in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is poorly understood, possible immunological functions of PRX-1 having been uncovered only recently. In the present study, it was discovered that the PRX-1 deficient macrophage like cell line (RAW264.7) has anti-inflammatory activity when stimulated by LPS. Treatment with LPS for 3 hrs resulted in increased gene expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) did not show notable changes under the same conditions. However, production of these cytokines significantly decreased in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells with 12 hrs of stimulation. Production of IL-10 was also increased in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells with 12 hrs of stimulation. We predicted that higher concentrations of IL-10 would result in decreased expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in PRX-1 knock-down cells. This was confirmed by blocking IL-10, which reestablished IL-1β and TNF-α secretion. We also observed that increased concentrations of IL-10 do not affect the NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, STAT3 phosphorylation by LPS stimulation was significantly increased in PRX-1 knockdown RAW264.7 cells. Up-regulation of IL-10 in PRX-1 knockdown cells and the resulting downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production seem to involve the STAT3 pathway in macrophages. Thus, down-regulation of PRX-1 may contribute to the suppression of adverse effects caused by excessive activation of macrophages through affecting the STAT3 signaling pathway.

  11. 沉默TNFAIP8抑制小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7的迁移功能%TNFAIP8 gene silencing inhibits the migration of mouse RAW264. 7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菲; 吴素霞; 冯世明; 刘广超; 柴立辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:构建肿瘤坏死因子α诱导蛋白8(tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8, TNFAIP8)shRNA慢病毒表达载体,通过沉默TNFAIP8基因在小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7中的表达,探讨TNFAIP8基因沉默对巨噬细胞功能的影响。方法设计合成TNFAIP8的特异性shRNA序列,退火后连入pLKO.1-TRC载体构建TNFAIP8 shRNA慢病毒表达载体,双酶切和基因测序鉴定构建载体序列的正确性;转染293T细胞制备慢病毒颗粒,将慢病毒颗粒感染RAW264.7细胞,沉默TNFAIP8基因在该细胞中表达,荧光定量RT-PCR和Western blot检测TNFAIP8的基因及蛋白表达水平验证基因沉默效果。培养基因沉默的RAW264.7细胞和对照组细胞,平皿黏附试验及划痕愈合试验观察TNFAIP8沉默对 RAW264.7细胞黏附及迁移能力的影响。结果双酶切电泳结果表明,构建的shRNA慢病毒载体酶切片段相对分子质量大小正确,基因测序结果也表明插入序列正确。荧光定量RT-PCR和Western blot结果表明,基因沉默组细胞中TNFAIP8的基因及蛋白表达水平较对照组细胞均显著降低(P<0.05)。平皿黏附试验结果发现,在接种15 min、30 min和2 h后,沉默组细胞黏附到培养皿底面上的细胞数量显著少于对照组细胞(P<0.05)。培养12 h后,和对照组细胞相比,沉默TNFAIP8的RAW264.7细胞伪足数量较少,且突起不明显。划痕愈合试验结果表明,划痕24 h后,对照组细胞划痕面积明显缩小,划痕愈合率达到50%左右,而沉默组细胞划痕愈合率只有25%左右,显著低于对照组细胞(P<0.05)。结论成功构建了 TNFAIP8 shRNA 慢病毒表达载体,该载体对TNFAIP8基因的表达具有良好的沉默效果;沉默TNFAIP8在小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7中的表达可以显著抑制巨噬细胞的黏附和迁移能力。%Objective To construct a shRNA lentiviral vector targeting the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) in RAW264. 7 cells, a mouse

  12. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin Yang; Ji-Young Moon; Sang Suk Kim; Kyong-Wol Yang; Wook Jae Lee; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Results:Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, andG. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G.filicina. Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for

  13. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Jin; Yang; Ji-Young; Moon; Sang; Suk; Kim; Kyong—Wol; Yang; Wook; Jae; Lee; Nam; Ho; Lee; Chang-Gu; Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide(LPS)stimulation.Methods:Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds,Dictyopteris divaricata(D.divaricata),Dictyopteris prolifera(D.prolifefa),Prioutis cornea(P.comea,Grateloupia laceolata(G,lanceolate,and Cralcloupia filicina(G.filicina)They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide(NO),prostaglandin E,,tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a),and interleukin-6(11.-6).Results:Our results revealed that D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G.lanceolata,and G.filicina potently inhibited I.PS-stimulaled NO production(IC50,values were 18.0,38.36,38.43,32.81 and 37.14μg/mL,respectively).Consistent with these findings,D.divtricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,and G.fdicina also reduced the IPS-induced and prostaglandin E,production in a concentration-dependent manner.Expectedly,they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW264.7 cells,as detennined by western blotting.In addition,the levels of TNF-a and IL-6,released into the medium,were also reduced by D.divaricata,D.prolifera,P.cornea,G,lanceolata,and G.fdicina in a dose-dependent manner(IC50values for TNF-a were 16.11,28.21,84.27,45.52 and74.75μg/mL,respectively;IC50,values for IL-6 were 37.35,80.08,103.28,62.53 and 84.28μg/mL,respectively).The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents.The content was 92.0μg/mg for D.divaricata,151.8μg/mg for D.prolifera,57.2μg/mg for P.cornea,53.0 pg/mg for G.lanceolata,and 40.2μg/mg for G.fdicina.Conclusions:Thus,these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for inflammatory responses.

  14. Cyanogen Excitation Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature at 2.64 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K. C.; Meyer, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured CN excitation temperatures in the diffuse lines of sight toward the stars zeta Ophiuchi, zeta Persei, HD 27778, HD 21483 and HD 154368. We find respective 2.64 mm rotational excitation temperatures of 2.737 +/- 0.025, 2.774 +/- 0.086, 2.769 +/- (0.093}_{0.099), 2.771 +/- (0.057}_{0.060) and 2.68 +/- (0.22}_{0.33)K. The fact that these values are all consistent with each other even though the associated CN column densities range over an order of magnitude strongly suggests that local processes contribute little to the excitation. We have corrected our temperatures for the small local collisional effects utilizing millimeter searches for CN line emission. The resulting values give a weighted average temperature for the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 2.64 mm of 2.733 +/- (0.023}_{0.031)K. We also find a CMBR temperature at 1.32 mm of 2.657 +/- 0.057 K. Our result is entirely consistent with the CMBR temperature results from COBE (Mather et al. 1990, Ap.J. 354, L37) and the COBRA rocket experiment (Gush, Halpern and Wishnow 1990, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 537) of 2.735 +/- 0.06 and 2.736 +/- 0.017 K, respectively. CN excitation determinations are not susceptible to the same systematic errors as are the direct measurement experiments. In addition, our temperatures originate in physically separate Galactic locations far from the near-Earth environment. The excellent agreement among the results from these independent methods attests to the accuracy of each approach and reaffirms the global nature of the background radiation. Our measurements stem from a large set of observations utilizing CCD detectors with various telescope and instrument combinations. The data were analyzed in a consistent manner designed to expose systematic equivalent width measurement errors resulting from the different instrumental configurations. We have found no evidence for such a bias and feel this illustrates the potential for using CCD detectors in sensitive

  15. Characterization of CYP264B1 and a terpene cyclase of a terpene biosynthesis gene cluster from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Thuy Thi Bich

    2011-01-01

    In the work presented here, CYP264B1 and the terpene cyclase GeoA of Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 have been characterized. CYP264B1 is able to convert norisoprenoids (a-ionone and b-ionone) and diverse sesquiterpene compounds, including nootkatone. Three products, 3-hydroxy-a-ionone, 3-hydroxy-b-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone were characterized using HPLC and 1H and 13C NMR. CYP264B1 is the first enzyme reported to be capable to hydroxylate regioselectively both norisoprenoids at the positi...

  16. Research on Scattered Pattern in FMO for Error Resilient H.264/AVC Video Transmission%关于FMO分离模式下H.264/AVC视频传输误差控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Zeeshan Mahfooz

    2011-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准对信道错误的鲁棒性是重点由它错误控制技术进行评估的,我们称错误评估技术为FMO.我们调查研究了FMO作为一种H.264的误差控制技术是如何在一个容易产生错误的网络中对于传输误差和包丢失进行最好的处理.一种新的使用MBAmap将宏块映射到条带组的方法已经采用,这种方法可以帮助在解码中进行误差隐蔽技术并且提高了被接收视频的主客观性能.

  17. 一种在H.264/AVC压缩域中检测镜头边界的方法%Shot Boundary Detection Based on H.264/AVC Compressed Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏定元; 谢惠琳

    2009-01-01

    针对像素域和MPEG压缩域镜头边界检测方法的不足,充分利用H.264/AVC视频编码标准的新特性,提出一种从H.264/AVC压缩码流中直接检测镜头边界的方法.首先,对图像帧做4×4块划分,然后,统计相邻帧对应块的帧内预测模式差异或帧间预测模式差异,最后,通过自适应阈值判决,实现对不同类型的视频镜头边界检测.实验结果表明,该方法具有良好的查全率和查准率.%Aiming at some defect in pixel domain and the MPEG compressed domain for shot boundary detection, making full use of new characteristics of the H. 264/AVC video coding standard, in this paper, we present a shot boundary detection method based on the H. 264/AVC compressed domain. Firstly, the frame should be decomposed into 4×4 blocks, and then the difference information between the corresponding blocks in the intra-prediction mode or the inter-prediction mode is counted up. At last, the shot boundary detection is accomplished for different types of video by using adaptive threshold decision. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves satisfactory performance of recall and precision.

  18. ROI-Based Transmission for H. 264/AVC Conversational Video%基于兴趣区域的H.264/AVC会话视频传输算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡

    2012-01-01

    针对会话视频的严格的实时性要求,提出一种基于H.264/AVC会话视频的错误抵抗编方法;建立一种低复杂度的感兴趣区域分割算法;基于所提分割算法,对感兴趣区域进行长期参考帧预测编码,从而达到提高感兴趣区域的视频传输质量的目标.所提方法具有低复杂度的特点,能够满足会话视频的实时性要求,并且易于移植入H.264/AVC编码器.仿真结果证明了算法的鲁棒性和编码有效性.%It is also a challenge for transmission for conversational wucu u conversational video this paper, we propose a low-complexity error resilient coding scheme for H. 264/AVC communications. For the conversational video, the attention-attracted areas make more contributions to the perceptual quality for end users. Therefore, the proposed scheme combines the fast region-of-interest (ROI) segmentation and the long-term reference (LTR) frame coding in order to improve the perceptual quality of ROI areas. The scheme can be easily integrated into the H. 264/AVC encoder. Simulation results verify the robustness and coding efficiency as well as improved subjective visual quality.

  19. Macropinocytosis contributes to the macrophage foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqi Yao; Ke Li; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    The key event in the atherosclerosis development is the lipids uptake by macrophage and the formation of foam cell in subendothelial arterial space. Besides the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis, macrophages possess constitutive macropinocytosis, which is capable of taking up a large quantity of solute. Macrophage foam cell formation could be induced in RAW264.7 cells by increasing the serum concentration in the culture medium. Foam cell formation induced by serum could be blocked by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibi-tor, LY294002 or wortmannin, which inhibited macro-pinocytosis but not receptor-mediated endocytosis. Further analysis indicated that macropinocytosis took place at the gangliosides-enriched membrane area. Cholesterol depletion by β-methylcyclodextrin-blocked macropinocytosis without affecting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis of modified LDLs. These results suggested that macropinocytosis might be one of the important mechanisms for lipid uptake in macrophage. And it made significant contribution to the lipid accumulation and foam cell formation.

  20. Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Design of adaptive deblocking filter for H.264/AVC decoder SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kun; ZHANG Chun; WANG Zhi-hua

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a design for the adaptive deblocking filter is proposed. To understand the real-time performance, a FILTER unit that can process eight pixels beside an edge simultaneously is applied in this design to increase filtering efficiency, and local memory is used to store all temporary data generated by the FILTER to reduce access to system bus. The filter makes every 4×4 sample block pipelined through the process units and achieves an efficiency of 80% for both the FILTER unit and the bus access unit. It can fulfill filtering process for a crystallographic information file (CIF, 352×288) format picture in 95 k clock cycles. The proposed design is part of a H.264/AVC decoder system-on-chip (SOC), which is fabricated in 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The filter module consists of 60 k gates and 25.7 kb static random access memory (SRAM) and it can filter a macro-block in 240 clock cycles.

  2. Traffic and Quality Characterization of the H.264/AVC Scalable Video Coding Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van der Auwera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent scalable video coding (SVC extension to the H.264/AVC video coding standard has unprecedented compression efficiency while supporting a wide range of scalability modes, including temporal, spatial, and quality (SNR scalability, as well as combined spatiotemporal SNR scalability. The traffic characteristics, especially the bit rate variabilities, of the individual layer streams critically affect their network transport. We study the SVC traffic statistics, including the bit rate distortion and bit rate variability distortion, with long CIF resolution video sequences and compare them with the corresponding MPEG-4 Part 2 traffic statistics. We consider (i temporal scalability with three temporal layers, (ii spatial scalability with a QCIF base layer and a CIF enhancement layer, as well as (iii quality scalability modes FGS and MGS. We find that the significant improvement in RD efficiency of SVC is accompanied by substantially higher traffic variabilities as compared to the equivalent MPEG-4 Part 2 streams. We find that separately analyzing the traffic of temporal-scalability only encodings gives reasonable estimates of the traffic statistics of the temporal layers embedded in combined spatiotemporal encodings and in the base layer of combined FGS-temporal encodings. Overall, we find that SVC achieves significantly higher compression ratios than MPEG-4 Part 2, but produces unprecedented levels of traffic variability, thus presenting new challenges for the network transport of scalable video.

  3. Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Suk; Oh, O-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Youngleem; Park, Hyen Joo; Nam Han, Yong; Lee, Sang Kook

    2003-06-01

    Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) has been implicated in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Thus, the potential COX-2 inhibitors have been considered as anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, the methanolic extract of the cortex of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Myrtaceae) was found to potently inhibit the prostaglandin E(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells (98.3% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 microg/ml). Further, hexane-soluble layer was the most active partition compared to ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble parts. By bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane-soluble partition, eugenol was isolated and exhibited a significant inhibition of PGE(2) production (IC(50) = 0.37 microM). In addition, eugenol suppressed the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. On the line of COX-2 playing an important role in colon carcinogenesis further study was designed to investigate the effect of eugenol on the growth and COX-2 expression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Eugenol inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells and the mRNA expression of COX-2, but not COX-1. This result suggests that eugenol might be a plausible lead candidate for further developing the COX-2 inhibitor as an anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agent.

  4. RAW264.7 Cell Activating Glucomannans Extracted from Rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelithao, Khamphone; Surayot, Utoomporn; Lee, Ju Hun; You, SangGuan

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography were investigated to determine their structure and immunostimulating activity. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) consisted of carbohydrates (85.1~88.3%) with proteins (4.51~11.9%) and uronic acid (1.79~7.47%), and included different levels of mannose (62.3~76.3%), glucose (15.2~20.3%), galactose (4.35~15.3%), and arabinose (4.00~7.65%). The crude contained two peaks with molecular weights (Mw) of 151×103 and 31.8×103, but F1 and F2 exhibited one major peak with Mw of 103×103 and 628×103, respectively. Little immunostimulatory activity was observed by the crude; however, F1 and F2 significantly activated RAW264.7 cells to release nitric oxide and various cytokines, suggesting they were potent immunostimulators. The backbone of the most immunostimulating fraction (F1) was (1→4)-manno- and (1→4)-gluco-pyranosyl residues with galactose and glucose attached to O-6 of manno-pyranoside. PMID:27752501

  5. Content-adaptive robust error concealment for packet-lossy H.264 video streaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ning; YAN Dan; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal post-processing error concealment (EC) algorithm designed initially for a H.264 video-streaming scheme over packet-lossy networks. It aims at optimizing the subjective quality of the restored video under the constraints of low delay and computational complexity, which are critical to real-time applications and portable devices having limited resources. Specifically, it takes into consideration the physical property of motion field in order to achieve more meaningful perceptual video quality, in addition to the improved objective PSNR. Further, a simple bilinear spatial interpolation approach is combined with the improved boundary-match (B-M) based temporal EC approach according to texture and motion activity analysis. Finally, we propose a low complexity temporal EC method based on motion vector interpolation as a replacement of the B-M based approach in the scheme under low-computation requirement, or as a complement to further improve the scheme's performance in applications having enough computation resources. Extensive experiments demonstrated that the proposal features not only better reconstruction, objectively and subjectively, than JM benchmark, but also robustness to different video sequences.

  6. Subtoxic Doses of Cadmium Modulate Inflammatory Properties of Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Riemschneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic heavy metal that exhibits various adverse effects in the human and animal organism. Its resemblance to essential metals such as calcium, iron, and zinc leads to an unintended uptake in cells after intake through inhalation and ingestion. In this study we investigated the toxicity and the immunomodulatory potential of Cd in nonactivated and activated murine macrophages (i.e., cell line RAW 264.7. Cadmium alone caused a dose-dependent decreased viability of exposed cells. Subtoxic Cd concentrations delayed cell death in macrophages, resulting from cytotoxic storm, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO, in response to their stimulation by bacterial antigens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. In addition, production of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, the chemokine CXCL1 (KC, and NO was determined. We observed that proinflammatory IL-1β and also CXCL1 were highly upregulated whereas anti-inflammatory or regulatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed by 10 µM Cd. Also production of antibacterial NO was significantly reduced through exposure to 10 µM Cd, maybe explaining better survival of macrophages. Additionally, we could show by analysis via ICP-MS that different effects of Cd in nonactivated and activated macrophages definitely did not result from different Cd uptake rates.

  7. Incidence of the mask phenotype M264V mutation in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) chips allows for the rapid typing of multiple markers for many individuals at one time. Our lab routinely types dogs using a custom designed combined panel of SNPs for parentage verification and a number of genes for diagnostic tests using an OpenArray platform manufactured by BioTrove (Woburn, MA, USA). By utilizing the same SNP panel across a wide array of canine breeds it is possible to detect trait-associated SNPs in breeds not thought to carry those traits. We genotyped 245 Labrador Retrievers on the canine SNP chip and found 13 animals heterozygous for the M264V mutation associated with autosomal dominant mask trait, and one animal homozygous for this trait. The color genotypes for these animals were further examined. In standard colored Labradors (black, chocolate, and yellow), the mask phenotype would never be distinguishable. As illustrated by this example, we feel this SNP panel is a valuable method for discovering traits not known to exist in a breed.

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum L67 glycoprotein protects against cadmium chloride toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sooyeon; Oh, Sejong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-03-01

    The food and water we consume may be contaminated with a range of chemicals and heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and mercury by accumulation through the food chain. Cadmium is known to be one of the major components in cigarette smoke and can cause lesions in many organs. Some lactobacilli can bind and remove heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and copper. However, the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and inhibition by probiotics are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that glycoprotein (18 kDa) isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 protected RAW 264.7 cells from expression of inflammation-related factors stimulated by cadmium chloride (100 µM). Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of cadmium using the MTT assay and intracellular Ca(2+) using fluorescence, and assessed activities of activator protein kinase C (PKC-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases using immunoblot. Our results indicated that glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. It also significantly suppressed inflammatory factors such as AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our findings suggest that the 24-kDa glycoprotein isolated from L. plantarum L67 might be used as a food component for protection of inflammation caused by cadmium ion.

  9. A performance optimized architecture of deblocking filter for H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The in-loop deblocking filter is one of the complex parts in H.264/AVC. It has such a large amount of computation that almost all the pixels in all the frames are involved in the worst case. In this paper, a fast deblocking filter architecture is proposed, and it can effectively save the operating time. In the proposed architecture, two 1-D filters are introduced so that the vertical filtering and the horizontal filtering can be performed at the same time, Only 120 cycles are needed for a macroblock. Our architecture is also a memory efficient one, and only one 4×4 pixels register, one 4×4 transpose array and one 16×32 b two-port (SRAM) are used as buffers in the filtering process. The simulation and synthesis results show that, with almost the same or even smaller area than some 1-D filter based architectures before, the proposed one can save more than 40% processing time. The architecture is suitable for real-time applications and can easily achieve the requirement of processing real-time video in 1080HD (high definition format, 1 920×1 088@30 fps) at 100 MHz.

  10. A High-Throughput Binary Arithmetic Coding Architecture for H.264/AVC CABAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhong; Song, Tian; Shimamoto, Takashi

    In this paper, we propose a high-throughput binary arithmetic coding architecture for CABAC (Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding) which is one of the entropy coding tools used in the H.264/AVC main and high profiles. The full CABAC encoding functions, including binarization, context model selection, arithmetic encoding and bits generation, are implemented in this proposal. The binarization and context model selection are implemented in a proposed binarizer, in which a FIFO is used to pack the binarization results and output 4 bins in one clock. The arithmetic encoding and bits generation are implemented in a four-stage pipeline with the encoding ability of 4 bins/clock. In order to improve the processing speed, the context variables access and update for 4 bins are paralleled and the pipeline path is balanced. Also, because of the outstanding bits issue, a bits packing and generation strategy for 4 bins paralleled processing is proposed. After implemented in verilog-HDL and synthesized with Synopsys Design Compiler using 90nm libraries, this proposal can work at the clock frequency of 250MHz and takes up about 58K standard cells, 3.2Kbits register files and 27.6K bits ROM. The throughput of processing 1000M bins per second can be achieved in this proposal for the HDTV applications.

  11. Network-aware perceptual error concealment method for H.264 video with side information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Han-jie; CHEN Yao-wu

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the video quality of transmission with data loss,a spatial and temporal error concealment method was proposed,which considered both the state information of the network and the perceptual weight of the video content.The proposed method dynamically changed the reliability weight of the neighboring macroblock,which was used to conceal the lost macroblocks according to the packet loss rate of the current channel state.The perceptual weight map was utilized as side information to do weighted pixel interpolation and side-match based motion compensation for spatial and temporal error concealment,respectively.And the perceptual weight of the neighboring macroblocks was adaptively modified according to the perceptual weight of the lost macroblocks.Compared with the method used in H.264 joint model,experiment results show that the proposed method performs well both in subjective video quality and objective video quality,and increases the average peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR)of the whole frame by about 0.4 dB when the video bitstreams are transmitted with packets loss.

  12. Cross-Layer Approach to Multiuser H.264 Video Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel cross-layer approach to multiuser H.264/AVC video stream transmission over wireless networks. We consider the joint optimization of three layers of the protocol stacks: the application (APP layer, the media access control (MAC layer and the physical (PHY layer. At the APP layer, the contribution of each packet to the perceptual video quality is evaluated by distortion effect of the packet loss, which is estimated by a Packet Relative Importance Index (PRII. At the MAC layer and the PHY layer, the Gilbert-Elliott (GE model is employed to describe the time-varying nature of the wireless networks. An objective function for cross-layer optimization is developed based on the layered abstracted parameters from the APP layer, the MAC layer and the PHY layer. Our goal is to maximize the perceptual quality of the video transmitted through the wireless network with constraint of the limited resources. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs significantly than the conventional scheduling schemes for video transmission.

  13. Defect in mevalonate pathway induces pyroptosis in Raw 264.7 murine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Girardelli, Martina; Crovella, Sergio; Pontillo, Alessandra

    2011-09-01

    The inhibition of mevalonate pathway by the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALD) has been previously associated with an augmented lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) secretion in monocytes, as demonstrated in an auto-inflammatory disease known as mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). In this study we investigated the effect of ALD + LPS on monocyte cell line (Raw 264.7) death. ALD strongly augmented LPS-induced programmed cell death (PCD) as well as IL-1β secretion in Raw murine monocytes, whereas necrosis was rather unaffected. ALD + LPS induced caspase-3 activation. Inhibition of IL-1β stimulation partially restored cell viability. These findings suggest that the inhibition of mevalonate pathway, together with a bacterial stimulus, induce a PCD partly sustained by the caspase-3-related apoptosis and partly by caspase-1-associated pyroptosis. The involvement of pyroptosis is a novel hit in our cell model and opens discussions about its role in inflammatory cells with chemical or genetic inhibition of mevalonate pathway.

  14. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Egami

    Full Text Available Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  15. An adaptive FEC to protect RoHC and UDP-Lite H.264 video critical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kui

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how to use an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) algorithm to efficiently protect the critical data areas of compressed headers and UDP-Lite packets for data transport in a radio link layer of a wireless connection.Augmented with RoHC and UDP-Lite, for H.264 video transmissions over wireless channels in a heterogeneous wired-wireless environment, the erroneous packet payloads can be useful and better able to cope with lost packets (native UDP case), by adopting some of the erasure and error resilient modes in H.264. The context transfer during inter/intra handover is also discussed. Simulations demonstrated that the proposed scenario significantly improves the PSNR performance and video quality.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Soyeum Pharmacopuncture (SPP on LPS-induced Inflammation Related Cytokine Expressions of RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Mi-Young

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study was done to investigate whether SPP has inhibitory effects on the activation of RAW 264.7 cells. Method : In tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a/ interleukin-1b (IL-1b and IL-6, the mRNA expression of molecular indicators related to inflammatory changes of the Reumatoid Arthritis (RA were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results : The treatment of SPP significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 compared with the control. The expression of NOS-II was considerably reduced, which was accompanied by a reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO. It also reduced the expression of TNF-αin serum of Balb/c mice compared with control group. Conclusion : SPP is an effective herbal material for suppressing the inflammation related cytokines of RAW 264.7 cells.

  17. Lanthanum Chloride Inhibiting Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in RAW264.7 Macrophages Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Fei; Lou Yuanlei; Wang Yang; Xie An; Li Guohui

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its reaction products were key players in the pathophysiology of sepsis and shock. The present study was designed to explore the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, at both gene and protein levels, in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and western blot were employed to measure iNOS gene expression, localization, and protein expression respectively. NO production in culture supernatants was detected by the nitrate reductase method. The results showed that LaCl3 significantly attenuated the iNOS gene and protein expression, as well as NO production in RAW264.7cells induced by LPS.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Mohamed; Simon, Gaëlle; Leschiera, Raphael; Misery, Laurent; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Ruta chalepensis L. is used in the traditional herbal treatment of various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of different extracts of R. chalepensis L. on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expressions and their antioxidant capacity on murine RAW 264.7 macrophage challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In fact, this study shows that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. chalepensis L. considerably decreased the nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Thus, the treatment with both extracts significantly suppressed the levels of iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions through the inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The preincubation of RAW 264.7 cells with various concentrations of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts decreased the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in LPS-stimulated macrophages, compared to those in the cells treated only with LPS. Besides, the (1)H NMR spectra of both extracts have demonstrated the presence of aromatic signals, thus confirming the existence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols. So, the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R. chalepensis L. have been shown to possess enough antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to prevent LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  19. Video coding standards AVS China, H.264/MPEG-4 PART 10, HEVC, VP6, DIRAC and VC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K R; Hwang, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Review by Ashraf A. Kassim, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, and Associate Dean, School of Engineering, National University of Singapore.     The book consists of eight chapters of which the first two provide an overview of various video & image coding standards, and video formats. The next four chapters present in detail the Audio & video standard (AVS) of China, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced video coding (AVC) standard, High efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard and the VP6 video coding standard (now VP10) respectively. The performance of the wavelet based Dirac video codec is compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC in chapter 7. Finally in chapter 8, the VC-1 video coding standard is presented together with VC-2 which is based on the intra frame coding of Dirac and an outline of a H.264/AVC to VC-1 transcoder.   The authors also present and discuss relevant research literature such as those which document improved methods & techniques, and also point to other related reso...

  20. An evaluation of the effect of JPEG, JPEG2000, and H.264/AVC on CQR codes decoding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra Melgar, Max E.; Farias, Mylène C. Q.; Zaghetto, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a binarymatrix code based on QR Code (Quick Response Code), denoted as CQR Code (Colored Quick Response Code), and evaluates the effect of JPEG, JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC compression on the decoding process. The proposed CQR Code has three additional colors (red, green and blue), what enables twice as much storage capacity when compared to the traditional black and white QR Code. Using the Reed-Solomon error-correcting code, the CQR Code model has a theoretical correction capability of 38.41%. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect that degradations inserted by common image compression algorithms have on the decoding process. Results show that a successful decoding process can be achieved for compression rates up to 0.3877 bits/pixel, 0.1093 bits/pixel and 0.3808 bits/pixel for JPEG, JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC formats, respectively. The algorithm that presents the best performance is the H.264/AVC, followed by the JPEG2000, and JPEG.

  1. Chemically-modified polysaccharide extract derived from Leucaena leucocephala alters Raw 264.7 murine macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Amer, Hassan; Helmy, Wafaa A; Talaat, Roba M; Ragab, Halla

    2007-06-01

    In this study, a chemical modification of the polysaccharides extract (E) derived from Leucaena leucocephala seeds was performed to prepare C-glycosidic 2-propanol derivative (PE), and its sulphated derivative (SPE). This study aimed to characterize immunomodulatory activities of the original extract and its derivatives by exploring their effects on Raw macrophage 264.7 functions and their antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that PE was an effective radical scavenger to hydroxyl, peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals, and SPE was a peroxyl radical scavenger. PE and SPE were found to influence the macrophage functions. Both of PE and SPE enhanced the macrophage proliferation and phagocytosis of FITC-zymosan; PE inhibited nitric oxide (NO) generation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw macrophage 264.7. In contrast, SPE over-induced NO generation and TNF-alpha secretion. Moreover, PE strongly inhibited the binding affinity of FITC-LPS to Raw 264.7, as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. These findings revealed that PE may act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however SPE may act as an inducer of macrophage functions against pathogens.

  2. Molecular Gas in the Powerful Radio Galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264 Major or Minor Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, J; Combes, F

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of $^{12}$CO~($1 \\to 0$) and $^{12}$CO~($2 \\to 1$) emission from the central regions ($\\lesssim 5$--$10 {\\rm kpc}$) of the two powerful radio galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264. Their individual CO emission exhibits a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of both galaxies. For a CO to H$_2$ conversion factor similar to that of our Galaxy, the corresponding total mass in molecular hydrogen gas is $(1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~31 and $(0.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~264. Despite their relatively large molecular-gas masses and other peculiarities, both 3C~31 and 3C~264, as well as many other powerful radio galaxies in the (revised) 3C catalog, are known to lie within the fundamental plane of normal...

  3. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Lee, Dae-Young; Park, Seung Cheol; Ban, Myeong Soon; Choi, Jehun; Park, Chun Geon; Ahn, Young-Sup; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Hyung Don

    2016-04-06

    While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism.

  4. The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2015-05-01

    A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified and characterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages.

  5. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism.

  6. 一种适宜于H.264/AVC的帧间快速编码算法%A fast inter-frame prediction algorithm applied in H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄源源; 汪大勇; 李建平

    2013-01-01

    针对新一代视频编码技术H.264/AVC编码计算复杂度较高,为提高其编码速度,提出了一种新的适宜于H.264/AVC的帧间快速编码算法.首先利用运动和纹理预测可能的编码模式,排除可能性较小的模式;然后利用时间和空间相关性预测各种编码模式的可能性大小和编码顺序,并结合相关性和量化参数利用率失真和残差系数提前终止.实验结果表明,本文算法编码速度能提高72%左右,同时对编码效率影响很小.%H. 264/AVC achieves higher compression efficiency than previous video coding standards. Howerer,this performance gain comes at the cost of an increased computational complexity due to the use of variable block-size motion estimation and multiple reference frames. Thus,it is very important for H. 264/AVC to improve the coding speed,therefore this paper proposes a fast inter-frame coding algorithm applied in the H. 264/AVC video coding standard. Firstly,the candidate modes of current MB are predicted based on moving and texture,excluding the coding modes with low probability to be selected by current MB;Secondly,the mode possibilty orders are estimated based on inter-layer and spatial correlations, then the modes are sorted into sequential list according to the possibility orders from high to low; Thirdly,the relationship between mode distribution and variation of quantization parameter,temporal and spatial correlation are estimated, then the rate-distortion early termination is proposed combining with the relationship;Finally,the modes are checked sequentially with the rate-distortion early termination. When the rate-distortion early termination condition is satisfied,the encoding procedure is terminated to improve the coding speed. The experimental results show that the encoding speed for the proposed algorithm can be improved by 72% with negligible coding loss.

  7. Stavroula Leka & Robert R. Sinclair, Eds. 2014. Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology. Global perspectives on research and practice (Volumul 3. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 264 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA ALBULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stavroula Leka & Robert R. Sinclair, Eds. 2014. Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology. Global perspectives on research and practice (Volumul 3. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 264 p.

  8. Adapting hierarchical bidirectional inter prediction on a GPU-based platform for 2D and 3D H.264 video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Martínez, José Luis; Cock, Jan De; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Pieters, Bart; Sánchez, José L.; Claver, José M.; de Walle, Rik Van

    2013-12-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard introduces some improved tools in order to increase compression efficiency. Moreover, the multi-view extension of H.264/AVC, called H.264/MVC, adopts many of them. Among the new features, variable block-size motion estimation is one which contributes to high coding efficiency. Furthermore, it defines a different prediction structure that includes hierarchical bidirectional pictures, outperforming traditional Group of Pictures patterns in both scenarios: single-view and multi-view. However, these video coding techniques have high computational complexity. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature over the last few years which are aimed at accelerating the inter prediction process, but there are no works focusing on bidirectional prediction or hierarchical prediction. In this article, with the emergence of many-core processors or accelerators, a step forward is taken towards an implementation of an H.264/AVC and H.264/MVC inter prediction algorithm on a graphics processing unit. The results show a negligible rate distortion drop with a time reduction of up to 98% for the complete H.264/AVC encoder.

  9. Quality optimization of H.264/AVC video transmission over noisy environments using a sparse regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, K.; Tziortziotis, N.; Paluri, S.; Zhang, W.; Blekas, K.; Kondi, L. P.; Kumar, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method in order to predict the Cumulative Mean Squared Error (CMSE), incurred by the loss of individual slices in video transmission. We extract a number of quality-relevant features from the H.264/AVC video sequences, which are given as input to the LASSO. This method has the benefit of not only keeping a subset of the features that have the strongest effects towards video quality, but also produces accurate CMSE predictions. Particularly, we study the LASSO regression through two different architectures; the Global LASSO (G.LASSO) and Local LASSO (L.LASSO). In G.LASSO, a single regression model is trained for all slice types together, while in L.LASSO, motivated by the fact that the values for some features are closely dependent on the considered slice type, each slice type has its own regression model, in an e ort to improve LASSO's prediction capability. Based on the predicted CMSE values, we group the video slices into four priority classes. Additionally, we consider a video transmission scenario over a noisy channel, where Unequal Error Protection (UEP) is applied to all prioritized slices. The provided results demonstrate the efficiency of LASSO in estimating CMSE with high accuracy, using only a few features. les that typically contain high-entropy data, producing a footprint that is far less conspicuous than existing methods. The system uses a local web server to provide a le system, user interface and applications through an web architecture.

  10. A Multiple-Window Video Embedding Transcoder Based on H.264/AVC Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihao Chiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a low-complexity multiple-window video embedding transcoder (MW-VET based on H.264/AVC standard for various applications that require video embedding services including picture-in-picture (PIP, multichannel mosaic, screen-split, pay-per-view, channel browsing, commercials and logo insertion, and other visual information embedding services. The MW-VET embeds multiple foreground pictures at macroblock-aligned positions. It improves the transcoding speed with three block level adaptive techniques including slice group based transcoding (SGT, reduced frame memory transcoder (RFMT, and syntax level bypassing (SLB. The SGT utilizes prediction from the slice-aligned data partitions in the original bitstreams such that the transcoder simply merges the bitstreams by parsing. When the prediction comes from the newly covered area without slice-group data partitions, the pixels at the affected macroblocks are transcoded with the RFMT based on the concept of partial reencoding to minimize the number of refined blocks. The RFMT employs motion vector remapping (MVR and intra mode switching (IMS to handle intercoded blocks and intracoded blocks, respectively. The pixels outside the macroblocks that are affected by newly covered reference frame are transcoded by the SLB. Experimental results show that, as compared to the cascaded pixel domain transcoder (CPDT with the highest complexity, our MW-VET can significantly reduce the processing complexity by 25 times and retain the rate-distortion performance close to the CPDT. At certain bit rates, the MW-VET can achieve up to 1.5 dB quality improvement in peak signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR.

  11. Improved Error Concealment Algorithm for H.264 Wireless Networks%基于无线网络的H.264误码掩盖算法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳艳

    2011-01-01

    The compressed video stream will be corrupted because of the serious wireless network packet loss, which may degrade the reconstructed image quality. In this paper, an adaptive selection MB mode for the lost MB is presented based on the temporal and spatial neighboring motion vectors, and an improved boundary match error function is adopted to estimate lost MB motion vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields better video quality for a variety of video sequences and different MB loss rate in the wireless transmission environment. The peak signal to noise ratio is improved 0.08~ 1.13 dB over the traditional H.264 algorithm when MB loss rate is 10%.%视频压缩码流在无线网络传输过程中受无线网络环境的影响丢包现象严重,重构图像质量下降.在H.264时域误码掩盖算法的基础上,根据时域和空域相邻宏块的运动矢量对丢失宏块的分割模式进行自适应选择,采用改进的边界匹配误差函数,估计丢失宏块的运动矢量.在无线网络环境下对多种视频序列和宏块丢失率进行仿真,图像质量有一定的提高.在宏块丢失率为10%情况下,峰值信噪比相对H.264标准算法提高0.08~1.13 dB.

  12. Design of Desktop Video Conferencing System Based on H.264%基于H.264标准的桌面视频会议系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊青; 王兴国

    2005-01-01

    阐述了基于先进视频编码技术--H.264标准的桌面纯软件视频会议系统的设计方案及实现过程.在用户只需有一台多媒体电脑的条件下,本系统可实现实时通信,并得到比以往桌面视频会议系统更高质量的视频效果.

  13. H.264/AVC中基于上下文的自适应二进制算术编码%Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in the H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周名芬; 陈磊

    2004-01-01

    基于上下文自适应二进制算术编码(CABAC)是H.264/AVC采用的高效熵编码方法之一,它由二进制化、上下文建模、算术编码三个步骤构成.详细阐述了CABAC的整个编码过程,并对它与VLC/CAVLC在编码性能上作了比较.

  14. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiu-Li [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ding, Fan [Office of Scientific R& D, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Xiao [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Ji-Min, E-mail: caojimin@126.com [Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Gao, Xue, E-mail: longlongnose@163.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  15. Substance P Induces HO-1 Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells Promoting Switch towards M2-Like Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that mediates many physiological as well as inflammatory responses. Recently, SP has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation through induction of M2 macrophages phenotype. The shift between M1-like and M2-like, allowing the resolution of inflammatory processes, also takes place by means of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 is induced in response to oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli and modulates the immune response through macrophages polarisation. SP induces HO-1 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL), the latter potentially plays a role in cytoprotection. We demonstrated that SP promotes M2-like phenotype from resting as well as from M1 macrophages. Indeed, SP triggers the production of interleukine-10 (IL-10), interleukine-4 (IL-4) and arginase-1 (Arg1) without nitric oxide (NO) generation. In addition, SP increases HO-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Here we report that SP, without affecting cell viability, significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and ameliorates migration and phagocytic properties in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. M2-like conversion required retention of NF-κB p65 into the cytoplasm and HO-1 induced expression. Silencing of the HO-1 mRNA expression reversed the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 stimulated by LPS and down-regulated anti-inflammatory hallmarks of M2 phenotype. In conclusion, our data show that SP treatment might be associated with anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:27907187

  16. Toxic response of HIPCO single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice and RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Kang, Min-Sung; Lee, Sang jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-08-17

    In this study, we identified the toxic response of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (P-SWCNTs) synthesized by HIPCO method in mice and RAW264.7 cells, a murine peritoneal macrophage cell line. P-SWCNT contained a large amount of Fe ion (36 wt%). In the lungs of mice 24 h after intratracheal administration, P-SWCNTs increased the secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1, and the number of total cells, the portion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, also significantly increased at a 100 μg/mL of concentration. In RAW264.7 cells, cell viability and ATP production decreased in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h after exposure, whereas the generations of ROS and NO were enhanced at all concentrations together with the activation of the MAP kinase pathway. Moreover, the levels of both apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins and ER stress-related proteins clearly increased, and the concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Zn ions, but not of Mn ions, increased in a dose-dependent manner. TEM images also revealed that P-SWCNTs induced the formation of autophagosome-like vacuoles, the dilatation of the ER, the generation of mitochondrial flocculent densities, and the separation of organelle by disappearance of the cell membrane. Taken together, we suggest that P-SWCNTs cause acute inflammatory response in the lungs of mice, and induce autophagy accompanied with apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, further study is required to elucidate how the physicochemical properties of SWCNTs determine the cell death pathway and an immune response.

  17. Emodin suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Feng, She-jun; Yu, Hua-peng

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a defense and protective response to multiple harmful stimuli. Over and uncontrolled inflammation can lead to local tissues or even systemic damages and injuries. Actually, uncontrolled and self-amplified inflammation is the fundament of the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory diseases, including sepsis shock, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Our recent study showed that emodin, the main active component of Radix rhizoma Rhei, could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in mice. However, its underlying signal pathway was not still very clear. Then, the aim of current study was to explore whether emodin could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells, and its involved potential mechanism. The mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and PPARγ were measured by qRCR and western blotting, the production of TNF-α was evaluated by ELISA. Then, the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was also detected by western blotting. And NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by ELISA as well. Meanwhile, siRNA-PPARγ transfection was performed to knockdown PPARγ expression in cells. Our data revealed that LPS-induced the up-regulation of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TNF-α, LPS-induced the down-regulation of PPARγ, and LPS-enhanced NF-κB p65 activation and DNA binding activity were substantially suppressed by emdoin in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, our data also figured out that these effects of emdoin were largely abrogated by siRNA-PPARγ transfection. Taken together, our results indicated that LPS-induced inflammation were potently compromised by emodin very likely through the PPARγ-dependent inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells.

  18. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongming; Luan, Hong; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Xiaopo; Sun, Xiaobo; Guo, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/-) mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control) or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg) reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg) also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/-) mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  19. Anti-inflammatory potential of peat moss extracts in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Suk; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Cheol Min; Seo, Yong-Bae; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Jo, Kwon-Ho; Choi, Young Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gun-Do

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of peat moss aqueous extract (PME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. To demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of PME, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines were measured using Griess reagent and cytokine ELISA kits, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis were conducted to evaluate the expression of genes and proteins. Immunofluorescence was used to measure the expression and translocation of transcription factors. Pre-treatment with PME inhibited the production of prostaglandin E(2) and NO by suppressing the gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase, respectively. The LPS-stimulated gene expression and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were significantly reduced by PME. In the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus, while pre-treatment with PME induced the sequestration of NF-κB in the cytosol through the inhibition of IκBα degradation. In the same manner, PME contributed to the inhibition of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In addition, the PME-treated RAW 264.7 cells facilitated the activation of nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) , and in turn, enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. These results indicate that PME exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and suggest that PME may neutralize inflammation and prevent cellular damage by oxidative stress.

  20. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/- mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  1. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, Serge

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was quantified via Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). P-CTX-1B caused a concentration- and time-dependent induction of iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells but not in Neuro-2a cells. NO production was evidenced by increased nitrite levels in the 10 microM range after 48 h of RAW 264.7 cells exposure to LPS and P-CTX-1B (0.05 microg/ml and 6 nM, respectively). The expression of iNOS mRNA peaked at 8h for LPS then gradually decreased to low level at 48 h. In contrast, a sustained level was recorded with P-CTX-1B in the 8-48 h time interval. The addition of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a stereoselective NOS inhibitor, strongly diminished NO formation but had no effect on iNOS mRNA synthesis. The implication of NO in CFP paves the way for new therapies for both western and traditional medicines.

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Liparis nervosa with inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-li; Wang, Cui-juan; Wang, You-song; Xiao, Feng; Shan, Lian-hai; Guo, Zhi-yun; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids were isolated from the whole herb of Liparis nervosa together with two previously known ones. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical reactions. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines; however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. All compounds were evaluated for the inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and most significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values in the range of 2.16-38.25 μM.

  3. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar-Roine, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko,; Chinain, M.; Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, S.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was qu...

  4. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for int...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  5. 简单错误对H.264视频编码性能影响的研究%Research on impact of simple faults on H.264 encoder performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 占海燕; 邓月堂

    2012-01-01

    研究了简单错误对H.264视频编码器的影响,目标是为编码器测试的工作提供依据.通过在编码器中采用变异算子引入简单错误,可以分析简单错误对PSNR和主观质量的影响.实验结果显示,对大部分植入的简单错误没有明显地降低编码器的PSNR和主观质量.因此编码器的测试需要研究人员更加深入的探索.%To facilitate encoder testing,this paper studied the impact of simple faults on H. 264 video encoders. By introducing simple faults generated by mutation operators into the encoder, it analyzed the impact of mutation faults on video PSNR and perceptual quality. Experiment results show that most simple faults do not lead to considerable degradation on PSNR and perceptual quality. Hence encoder testing requires the deeper investigation.

  6. Comparative assessment of H.265/MPEG-HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-AVC encoders for low-delay video applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grois, Dan; Marpe, Detlev; Nguyen, Tung; Hadar, Ofer

    2014-09-01

    The popularity of low-delay video applications dramatically increased over the last years due to a rising demand for realtime video content (such as video conferencing or video surveillance), and also due to the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive heterogeneous devices (such as smartphones and tablets). To this end, this work presents a comparative assessment of the two latest video coding standards: H.265/MPEG-HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding), H.264/MPEG-AVC (Advanced Video Coding), and also of the VP9 proprietary video coding scheme. For evaluating H.264/MPEG-AVC, an open-source x264 encoder was selected, which has a multi-pass encoding mode, similarly to VP9. According to experimental results, which were obtained by using similar low-delay configurations for all three examined representative encoders, it was observed that H.265/MPEG-HEVC provides significant average bit-rate savings of 32.5%, and 40.8%, relative to VP9 and x264 for the 1-pass encoding, and average bit-rate savings of 32.6%, and 42.2% for the 2-pass encoding, respectively. On the other hand, compared to the x264 encoder, typical low-delay encoding times of the VP9 encoder, are about 2,000 times higher for the 1-pass encoding, and are about 400 times higher for the 2-pass encoding.

  7. Citrus unshiu flower inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 via MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, CUF-EA suppressed LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. To elucidate its anti-inflammatory mechanisms, CUF-EA was investigated as an inhibitor of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As expected, the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was suppressed by CUF-EA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of CUF-EA might results from inhibition of NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-α expressions through the down-regulation of phosphorylation of MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Quercetin on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages Induced with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Wansu

    2016-04-04

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone) is a well-known antioxidant and a flavonol found in many fruits, leaves, and vegetables. Quercetin also has known anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. However, the effects of quercetin on virus-induced macrophages have not been fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced macrophages was examined. Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-6, MCP-1, IP-10, RANTES, GM-CSF, G-CSF, TNF-α, LIF, LIX, and VEGF as well as calcium release in dsRNA (50 μg/mL of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages (p Quercetin at concentrations up to 50 μM also significantly inhibited mRNA expression of signal transducer and activated transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 in dsRNA-induced RAW 264.7 cells (p quercetin had alleviating effects on viral inflammation based on inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA-induced macrophages via the calcium-STAT pathway.

  9. Effects of Soft Denture Liners on L929 Fibroblasts, HaCaT Keratinocytes, and RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Chaves de Souza, Pedro Paulo; Machado, Ana Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of six soft liners (Ufi Gel P (UG), Sofreliner S (SR), Durabase Soft (D), Trusoft (T), Coe Comfort (CC), and Softone (ST)) on L929, HaCat, and RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. Eluates (24 and 48 h) from the materials were applied on the cells and the viability, type of cell death, and morphology were evaluated. Cells were also seeded on the specimens' surfaces (direct contact) and incubated (24 or 48 h), and viability was analyzed. Controls were cells in culture medium without eluates or specimens. For cell viability, no significant differences were found among materials or between extraction periods, and the liners were noncytotoxic or slightly cytotoxic. Morphology of RAW 264.7 cells was altered by the 24 h eluates from CC and D and the 48 h eluates from SR, CC, and D. The 24 and 48 h eluates from all materials (except T) increased the percentages of L929 necrotic cells. For direct contact tests, the lowest cytotoxicity was observed for UG and SR. Although eluates did not reduce viability, morphology alterations and increase in necrosis were seen. Moreover, in the direct contact, effects on viability were more pronounced, particularly for D, T, CC and ST. Thus, the use of UG and SR might reduce the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25295276

  10. Real-time video streaming using H.264 scalable video coding (SVC) in multihomed mobile networks: a testbed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2011-03-01

    Users of the next generation wireless paradigm known as multihomed mobile networks expect satisfactory quality of service (QoS) when accessing streamed multimedia content. The recent H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension to the Advanced Video Coding standard (AVC), offers the facility to adapt real-time video streams in response to the dynamic conditions of multiple network paths encountered in multihomed wireless mobile networks. Nevertheless, preexisting streaming algorithms were mainly proposed for AVC delivery over multipath wired networks and were evaluated by software simulation. This paper introduces a practical, hardware-based testbed upon which we implement and evaluate real-time H.264 SVC streaming algorithms in a realistic multihomed wireless mobile networks environment. We propose an optimised streaming algorithm with multi-fold technical contributions. Firstly, we extended the AVC packet prioritisation schemes to reflect the three-dimensional granularity of SVC. Secondly, we designed a mechanism for evaluating the effects of different streamer 'read ahead window' sizes on real-time performance. Thirdly, we took account of the previously unconsidered path switching and mobile networks tunnelling overheads encountered in real-world deployments. Finally, we implemented a path condition monitoring and reporting scheme to facilitate the intelligent path switching. The proposed system has been experimentally shown to offer a significant improvement in PSNR of the received stream compared with representative existing algorithms.

  11. Atorvastatin Attenuates TNF-alpha Production via Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao Qiao; LUO Nian Sang; CHEN Zhong Qing; LIN Yong Qing; GU Miao Ning; CHEN Yang Xin

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the effect of atorvastatin on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-inducedTNF-α production in RAW264.7 macrophages. MethodsRAW264.7 macrophageswere treated in different LPS concentrations oratdifferent time points with or without atorvastatin. TNF-α level in supernatant was measured. Expressions of TNF-αmRNA and protein and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were detected by ELISA, PCR, and Western blot, respectively. HOactivity was assayed. ResultsLPS significantly increased the TNF-α expression and secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The HO-1activity and HO-1 expression level were significantly higher after atorvastatin treatment than before atorvastatin treatment and attenuated by SB203580 and PD98059 but not by SP600125, suggesting that the ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways participate inregulating the above-mentioned effects of atorvastatin. Moreover, the HO-1 activity suppressed by SnPP or the HO-1 expression inhibited by siRNA significantly attenuated the effect of atorvastatin onTNF-α expression and production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. ConclusionAtorvastatin can attenuate LPS-induced TNF-α expression and production by activating HO-1 via the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways,suggesting that atorvastatin can be used in treatment of inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, especially in those with atherosclerotic diseases.

  12. Algorithm and Hardware Design of a Fast Intra Frame Mode Decision Module for H.264/AVC Encoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palomino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rate-distortion optimization (RDO, the process of choosing the best prediction mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the whole encoding process, increasing significantly the encoder computational complexity. Considering H.264/AVC intra frame prediction, there are several modes to encode a macroblock (MB. This work proposes an algorithm and the hardware design for a fast intra frame mode decision module for H.264/AVC encoders. The application of the proposed algorithm reduces in more than 10 times the number of encoding iterations for choosing the best intramode when compared with RDO-based decision. The architecture was synthesized to FPGA and achieved an operation frequency of 98 MHz processing more than 300 HD1080p frames per second. With this approach, we achieved one order-of-magnitude performance improvement compared with RDO-based approaches, which is very important not only from the performance but also from the energy consumption perspective for battery-operated devices. In order to compare the architecture with previously published works, we also synthesized it to standard cells. Compared with the best previous results reported, the implemented architecture achieves a complexity reduction of five times, a processing capability increase of 14 times, and a reduction in the number of clock cycles per MB of 11 times.

  13. Robust transmission of packet-based H.264/AVC video with data partitioning over DS-CDMA wireless channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantravadi, Anand V. S.; Bansal, Manu; Kondi, Lisimachos P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of robust transmission of packet based H.264/AVC video over direct sequence-code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) channels. H.264 based data partitioning is used to produce video packets of unequal importance with regards to their need in terms of the decoded video quality. In the proposed transmission system, the data partitioned video packets are packetized as per IP/UDP/RTP protocol stack and are sorted into different levels for giving unequal error protection (UEP) using Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional (RCPC) codes. Constant size framing is done at the link layer and Cyclic Redundancy Check header (CRC) is attached for error detection. Link layer buffering and packet interleaving schemes are proposed to improve the efficiency of the system. A multipath Rayleigh fading channel with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and interference from other users is considered at the physical layer. The link layer frames are channel encoded, spread and transmitted over the channel. The received data is despread/demodulated using the Auxiliary Vector (AV) filter or RAKE matched filter (RAKE-MF) receiver and subsequently channel and source decoded. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of using data partitioning for wireless transmissions when compared to the system not using data partitioning. Also the superior interference mitigation capabilities of AV receiver is shown in comparison to the RAKE-MF receiver.

  14. Error-resilient low-delay H.264/802.11 transmission via cross-layer coding with feedback channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Tuan-Kiang; Hill, Paul; Ferre, Pierre; Agrafiotis, Dimitris; Chung-How, James T. H.; Nix, Andy; Bull, David R.

    2005-07-01

    We propose a method of providing error resilient H.264 video over 802.11 wireless channels by using a feedback mechanism which does not incur an additional delay typically found in ARQ-type feedback. Our system uses the TCP/IP and UDP/IP protocols, located between the medium access control (MAC) layer of 802.11, and the H.264 video application layer. The UDP protocol is used to transfer time sensitive video data without delay; however, packet losses introduce excessive artifacts which propagate to subsequent frames. Error resilience is achieved by a feedback mechanism-the decoder conveys the packet-loss information as small TCP packets to the video source as negative acknowledgements. By using multiple reference frames, slice-based coding and timely intra-refresh, the encoder makes use of this feedback information to perform subsequent temporal prediction without propagating the error to future frames. We take static measurements of the actual channel and use the packet loss and delay patterns to test our algorithms. Simulations show an improvement of 0.5~5 dB in PSNR over plain UDP-based video transmission. Our method improves the overall quality of service of interactive video transmission over wireless LAN; it can be used as a model for future media-aware wireless network protocol designs.

  15. Narrow-line region gas kinematics of 24 264 optically selected AGN: the radio connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Fine, S.; Goulding, A. D.; Harrison, C. M.; Hickox, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    Using a sample of 24 264 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the SDSS DR7 data base, we characterize how the profile of the [O III] λ5007 emission line relates to bolometric luminosity (LAGN), Eddington ratio, radio loudness, radio luminosity (L1.4 GHz) and optical class (i.e. broad/narrow-line Seyfert 1, type 2) to determine what drives the kinematics of this kpc-scale line emitting gas. First, we use spectral stacking to characterize how the average [O III] λ5007 profile changes as a function of these five variables. After accounting for the known correlation between LAGN and L1.4 GHz, we report that L1.4 GHz has the strongest influence on the [O III] λ5007 profile, with AGNs of moderate radio luminosity (L1.4 GHz = 1023-1025 W Hz-1) having the broadest [O III] λ5007 profiles. Conversely, we find only a modest change in the [O III] λ5007 profile with increasing radio loudness and find no significant difference between the [O III] λ5007 profiles of broad- and narrow-line Seyfert 1s. When binned according to Eddington ratio, only the AGNs in our highest bin (i.e. >0.3) show any signs of having broadened [O III] λ5007 profiles, although the small numbers of such extreme AGNs in our sample mean we cannot rule out that other processes (e.g. radio jets) are responsible for this broadening. The [O III] λ5007 profiles of type 1 and type 2 AGNs show the same trends in terms of line width, but type 1 AGNs display a much stronger `blue wing', which we interpret as evidence of outflowing ionized gas. We perform multicomponent fitting to the Hβ, [O III] λλ4959, 5007, [N II] λλ6548, 6584 and Hα lines for all the AGNs in our sample to calculate the proportions of AGNs with broad [O III] λ5007 profiles. The individual fits confirm the results from our stacked spectra; AGNs with L1.4 GHz > 1023 W Hz-1 are roughly five times more likely to have extremely broad [O III] λ5007 lines (full width at half-maximum, FWHMAvg > 1000 km s-1) compared to

  16. Studies on palauan medicinal herbs. II. Activation of mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 by Ongael, leaves of Phaleria cumingii (Meisn.) F. Vill. and its acylglucosylsterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iwahashi, Hiroyasu; Naruto, Shunsuke; Yagi, Hideki; Masuko, Takashi; Kubo, Michinori

    2005-05-01

    The extract of Ongael [leaves of Phaleria cumingii (MEISN.) F. VILL.], a Palauan medicinal herb, enhanced an in vitro phagocytic activity of mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 cells (RAW 264.7). Activity-guided fractionation of the Ongael extract by the in vitro phagocytosis assay using RAW 264.7 led to the isolation of a mixture of acylglucosylsterols (1) as an active constituent along with other inactive constituents, tetracosanol and mangiferin. On the basis of chemical modifications and spectral analyses, the compound 1 was deduced to be a mixture of the known 3-O-(6-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl)-beta-sitosterols, the acyl moiety being mainly palmitoyl (57%), oleoyl (12%) and alpha-linolenoyl (12%) with small amount of stearoyl (7%) and linoleoyl (4%).

  17. Suppression of the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of MARCKS-related protein (MRP) affects transmigration in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang-Rok; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2009-01-01

    The molecular action mechanism of MRP, one of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, has been under intense investigation, but reports on its role in macrophage function remain controversial. The treatment of macrophage cell lines with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a high level of MRP expression suggesting that MRP plays a role in the function of activated macrophages. In order to investigate the role of MRP in activated RAW264.7 cells, we stably transfected MRP-specific shRNA expression constructs and tested for alterations in macrophage-related functions. The down-regulation of MRP expression resulted in a marked reduction in chemotaxis toward MCP-1 or extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of PKC significantly inhibited the chemotaxis in RAW264.7 cells. These data reveals the pivotal role of MRP in the transmigration of activated RAW264.7 cells.

  18. Improved induction culture system for Raw264.7 cells to differentiate into osteoclasts%Raw264.7细胞向破骨细胞分化诱导培养体系的改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 张舒岩; 杨立彬; 李冉; 蒋然然; 陈治光; 李树蕾; 李树红

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过改良细胞培养方案建立体外诱导 Raw264.7细胞分化形成成熟破骨细胞(OC)的高效培养体系。方法:向 Raw264.7细胞培养液α-MEM 中添加50μg · L-1 M-CSF、100μg · L-1 RANKL 和1×10-8 mol·L-11α,25-(OH)2 D3,于5% CO2、37℃孵箱中培养12 d,每3 d换液1次,每次换液前对细胞进行短暂消化。倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态变化,并利用 HE染色、抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶(TRAP)染色、FITC-phalloidin染色和免疫荧光染色鉴定 OC是否成熟并具有吞噬功能。结果:通过改良培养方法,在诱导过程中培养孔内的大部分区域始终保持单层细胞的生长状态。镜下观察和 HE染色,诱导第12天时 OC胞体覆盖培养面积的70%;FITC-phalloidin染色,伴随着 OC成熟,伪足内出现的束状伪足小体逐渐变为环形,最终融合带状肌动蛋白环环绕在胞质周围;免疫荧光染色,诱导12 d后 OC表达的降钙素受体(CTR)较前体细胞显著增加, TRAP染色显示 OC胞浆内呈现大量红色颗粒。提示获得的 OC成熟并具有吞噬功能。结论:本实验通过改良培养方法,联合应用细胞因子50μg·L-1 M-CSF、100μg·L-1 RANKL和1×10-8 mol·L-11α,25-(OH)2 D3建立了体外诱导 Raw264.7细胞分化形成成熟 OC的高效培养体系。%Objective To establish a high-performance induction culture system for Raw264.7 cells to differentiate into osteoclasts(OC)invitro by improving the cell culture program.Methods The Raw264.7 cells were cultured withα-MEM medium containing 50 μg · L-1 M-CSF, 100 μg · L-1 RANKL, and 1 × 10-8 mol · L-1 1α,25-(OH)2 D3 in 5% CO2 for 12 d at 37℃. The cells were digested transiently every time before the medium was changed after every three days. The morphologic changes of the Raw264.7 cells were observed by inverted microscope.The maturation and phagotrophic function of OC were identified by HE

  19. Lipoxin A4 negatively regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 murine macrophages into dendritic-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Ping; JIN Sheng-wei; YUAN Ping; WAN Jing-yuan; ZHOU Xiao-yan; XIONG Wei; FANG Feng; YE Du-yun

    2007-01-01

    Background Lipoxins (LXs), endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving eicosanoids generated during various inflammatory conditions, have novel immunomodulatory properties. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play crucial roles in the initiation and maintenance of immune response, we determined whether LXs could modulate the maturation process of DCs and investigated the effects of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced differentiation of RAW264.7cells into dendritic-like cells.Methods RAW264.7 cells were cultured in vitro with 1 μg/ml LPS in the absence or presence of LXA4 for 24 hours, and cellular surface markers (MHC-Ⅱ, CD80 (B7-1), CD86(B7-2)) were measured by flow cytometry (FCM). Mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed to evaluate the allostimulatory activity. Cytoplastic IκB degradation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation were detected by Western blotting. Luciferase reporter plasmid was transiently transfected into RAW264.7 cells, and luciferase activity was determined to measure the transcriptional activity of NF-κB.Results LXA4 reduced the ratio of LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells to DCs with morphological characteristics and inhibited the expression of MHC Ⅱ. LPS-induced up-regulation of CD86 was moderately suppressed by LXA4 but no obvious change of CD80 was observed. Moreover, LXA4 weakened the allostimulatory activity of LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells.These alterations of LPS+LXA4-treated cells were associated with a marked inhibition of IκB degradation, NF-κB translocation and then the transcriptional activity of NF-κB.Conclusions LXA4 negatively regulates LPS-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into dendritic-like cells.This activity reveals an undescribed mechanism of LXA4 to prevent excessive and sustained immune reaction by regulating maturation of DCs.

  20. H.264 Motion Recovery-Error Concealment Algorithm Based on Block Motion Trajectory Similarity%基于块运动轨迹相似性的H.264运动修复-错误隐藏算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南哲万; 阮秋琦; 安高云

    2013-01-01

    H. 264 video, when being transmitted over error-prone wireless channels, may suffer from losses or errors. The lost data may result in unacceptable quality degradation. In this paper, we proposed a low complexity and effective motion recovery algorithm for temporal error concealment in H. 264, which was based on block motion trajectory similarity and statistical correlation of spatial domain. The block motion trajectory similarity was estimated by using the Sum of Absolute Difference for Motion Vector (SAD-MV), and then accordingly the available blocks for Lost Block (LB) were searched for in the lost Macro-block (MB) neighbors. The MVs of LBs in the current frame were predicted on the basis of the statisticat spatial correlation between the available blocks and LBs extracted from previous frames. The MVs of the MB blockettes were merged and recovered from the MVs of blocks subject to MB segmenting information. The lost pixels were recovered with the neighbourhood interpolation method. Experiments prove that the proposed method is characterized by quick execution velocity and good hidden eqqed as compared with the zero MV method, MB boundary match algorithm and polynomial interpolation method.%H.264视频在通过无线网络传递时,对传输错误非常敏感,由此会引起视频质量的严重下降.本文提出1种基于块运动轨迹相似性及空域统计相关性的受损块运动修复-错误隐藏算法.采用绝对运动差值总和(Sum of Absolute Difference for Motion Vector)估计运动轨迹相似性,并据此在受损宏块周围搜索可靠块;在过去帧中抽取可靠块和受损块的空域相互关系统计特征,并据此在当前帧预测受损块运动矢量;采用基于宏块分割信息的块合并来修复宏块内子块运动矢量,采用邻域插值方法恢复丢失的像素.实验结果表明,与零运动算法、宏块边界匹配算法和多项式内插法相比较,本算法执行速度较快,隐藏效果较好.

  1. A human monoclonal antibody 264RAD targeting αvβ6 integrin reduces tumour growth and metastasis, and modulates key biomarkers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, C; Kendrew, J; McDaid, K; Alfred, A; Kang, J S; Jacobs, V N; Ross, S J; Rooney, C; Smith, N R; Rinkenberger, J; Cao, A; Churchman, A; Marshall, J F; Weir, H M; Bedian, V; Blakey, D C; Foltz, I N; Barry, S T

    2013-09-12

    αvβ6 integrin expression is upregulated on a wide range of epithelial tumours, and is thought to play a role in modulating tumour growth. Here we describe a human therapeutic antibody 264RAD, which binds and inhibits αvβ6 integrin function. 264RAD cross-reacts with human, mouse and cynomolgus monkey αvβ6, and inhibits binding to all ligands including the latency-associated peptide of TGF-β. Screening across a range of integrins revealed that 264RAD also binds and inhibits the related integrin αvβ8, but not the integrins α5β1, αvβ3, αvβ5 and α4β1. In vitro 264RAD inhibited invasion of VB6 and Detroit 562 cells in a Matrigel invasion assay and αvβ6 mediated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in Calu-3 cells. It inhibited TGF-β-mediated activation of dermal skin fibroblasts by preventing local activation of TGF-β by NCI-H358 tumour cells in a tumour cell-fibroblast co-culture assay. In vivo 264RAD showed dose-dependent inhibition of Detroit 562 tumour growth, regressing established tumours when dosed at 20 mg/kg once weekly. The reduction in growth associated with 264RAD was related to a dose-dependent inhibition of Ki67 and phospho-ERK and a reduction of αvβ6 expression in the tumour cells, coupled to a reduction in fibronectin and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in stromal fibroblasts. 264RAD also reduced the growth and metastasis of orthotopic 4T1 tumours. At 20 mg/kg growth of both the primary tumour and the number of metastatic deposits in lung were reduced. The data support the conclusion that 264RAD is a potent inhibitor of αvβ6 integrin, with some activity against αvβ8 integrin, that reduces both tumour growth and metastasis.

  2. Citrus unshiu flower inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 via MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA) downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore,...

  3. Design of Integer DCT and Inverse DCT of AVC/H.264%AVC/H.264整数离散余弦变换及反变换的结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利风

    2008-01-01

    根据AVC/H.264标准中提出的整数离散余弦变换(DCT)及其反变换(iDCT)算法,旨在给出一种能够同时实现4×4,8×8 DCT/IdCT和Hadamard变换的设计方法.设计中充分利用DCT和iDCT的相似性和算法对称性,用高度并行结构来加快处理速度.采用一维DCT/iDCT单元复用的方式实现二维DCT/iDCT运算,同时提出实现设计的全定制实现方法,对全定制实现此设计进行初步布局规划.

  4. 用于H.264视频编码的快速检错算术码编解码算法%A Fast Binary Arithmetic Codec With Error Detection Capability for H.264 Video Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翾; 陆建华

    2006-01-01

    在H.264/AVC标准的M Coder[2]基础上提出了一种增加检错能力的快速二进制算术编解码算法.通过合理安排禁用符号在编码区间中的位置,减少禁用符号数目,消除了乘法运算,从而降低了运算复杂度.理论分析和实验结果表明,在编码效率和检错能力变化不大的情况下,本算法提高了编解码器运算速度,具有实际意义.

  5. A hardware context-based adaptive binary arithmetic encoder based on H.264 advanced video coding%一种新型H.264 CABAC编码器硬件结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 王阳明

    2007-01-01

    提出一种基于H.264的上下文自适应二进制算术编码器硬件设计方法.本设计中包含一个由二进制化以及上下文模型组成的14组并行上下文对产生器,一个抓取邻近区块数据的三级流水线结构以及一个内含前馈处理且融合三种模式的四级流水线结构的算术编码器.该算术编码器可以一个时钟处理一个位元;整个设计平均每个时钟处理0.77个位元.

  6. H.264中自适应二进制算术编码的IP核设计及其FPGA验证%IP core design for adaptive binary arithmetic coding in the H.264/AVC and its FPGA verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付遥; 周东辉

    2006-01-01

    阐述H.264/AVC二进制算术编码的原理,论述此编码的IP核设计方案及其FPGA验证.整个设计使用VerilogHDL语言描述,在ALDEC的Active_HDL6.2平台上进行时序仿真,在Synplicity的Synplify7.0平台上进行综合.设计充分利用了硬件并行性,并进行关键路径优化和复用器重构算法优化,通过实际验证证明了设计的高效性和可行性.

  7. H.264高清视频解码实时错误掩盖算法%Real-time Error Concealment Algorithm for H.264 High Definition Video Decoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 李志华; 黄轶伦

    2011-01-01

    针对IP网络丢包条件下的H.264高清视频实时解码问题,分析高清视频码流的特点,提出一种实时错误掩盖算法.该算法利用丢失片的边缘宏块信息,以垂直距离为权值加权平均预测得到错误宏块的运动矢量,进而完成错误掩盖.实验表明,与Joint模型中的错误掩盖算法相比,该算法提升了重建图像的主观质量和客观质量,计算复杂度较低,错误掩盖效果较好,适用于高清实时解码.%Aiming at real-time decode H.264 video on IP network with packet losses, an effective error concealment algonthm is proposed depending on the analysis of high definition video streams.By use of the edge macro-blocks information of the lost slice.the motion vector of corrupted macro-block is predicted, and the error concealment is completed.Experimental results show that.compared with the error concealment of Joint Model(JM), the proposed algorithm improves the objective quality and subjective quality of reconstructed images.The algorithm does not increase the complexity of the decoding, but achieves better recovery results.It is ideal for real-time decoding for high definition video.

  8. 基于H.264的E1标准下的视频传输技术改进研究%Improvement Research of Video Transmission Technology Based on H.264 under E1 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 孟凡荣; 孙洋

    2012-01-01

    目前,无线视频传输大多在E1标准下进行,但由于采用了较早的H.261编解码标准,一直存在误码率较高,图像较模糊等问题,影响了指挥机关对现场态势的判断。文章基于先进的H.264编解码标准,采用以TMS320DM6467T高清视频双核媒体处理器作为CPU的SEED-VPM6467独立开发平台,在卫星通信系统中,对无线视频传输技术进行了改进性研究,由过去的CIF(352×288)格式,提升到D1(4CIF)视频格式的传输,对无线视频传输系统,提供了技术依据。%By now,wireless video transmission carried out under E1 standard,but because of the earlier H.263 code and encode standard,there has always been some problems,such as high bit-error rates,pattern blurring,which have affeced the judgement by the military commands according to the situation.This paper puts forward an improvement research of video transmission technology based on advanced H.264 standard,using SEED-VPM6467 as platform,under satelite communications,which could increase the video format from CIF to D1(4CIF).This research provides technical support for wireless video transmission systerm.

  9. Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Son, Youngmin; Jeon, Bo Ra; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik; Rhee, Man Hee

    2015-06-01

    The basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus belongs to the Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, and grows on the needleleaf tree. The fruiting bodies of Laetiporus species are known to produce N-methylated tyramine derivatives, polysaccharides, and various lanostane triterpenoids. As part of our ongoing effort to discover biologically active compounds from wood-rotting fungi, an anti-inflammatory triterpene, LSM-H7, has been isolated from the fruiting body of L. sulphureus var. miniatus and identified as acetyl eburicoic acid. LSM-H7 dose-dependently inhibited the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells without any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Furthermore it suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, when compared with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These data suggest that LSM-H7 is a crucial component for the anti-inflammatory activity of L. sulphureus var. miniatus.

  10. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Vladilo, G.; Bonifacio, P.

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha , a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum toward QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the ``Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha /alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10-5. Data from UVES-VLT.

  11. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorenzano, A F M; Bonifacio, P

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha, a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum towardS QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the "Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha/alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10^(-5).

  12. Low Cost Design of a Hybrid Architecture of Integer Inverse DCT for H.264, VC-1, AVS, and HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Martuza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a unified hybrid architecture to compute the 8×8 integer inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT of multiple modern video codecs—AVS, H.264/AVC, VC-1, and HEVC (under development. Based on the symmetric structure of the matrices and the similarity in matrix operation, we develop a generalized “decompose and share” algorithm to compute the 8×8 IDCT. The algorithm is later applied to four video standards. The hardware-share approach ensures the maximum circuit reuse during the computation. The architecture is designed with only adders and shifters to reduce the hardware cost significantly. The design is implemented on FPGA and later synthesized in CMOS 0.18 um technology. The results meet the requirements of advanced video coding applications.

  13. Hidradenoma Papilliferum: A Clinicopathologic Study of 264 Tumors From 261 Patients, With Emphasis on Mammary-Type Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Michal, Michal; Kacerovska, Denisa; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J; Kutzner, Heinz; Zelger, Bernhard; Plaza, Jose A; Denisjuk, Natalja; Hejda, Vaclav; Shelekhova, Ksenya; Bisceglia, Michele; Danis, Dusan; Zamecnik, Michal; Kerl, Katrin; Guenova, Emmanuella; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-08-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP), also known as papillary hidradenoma, is the most common benign lesion of the female anogenital area derived from anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG). HP can be viewed conceptually as the cutaneous counterpart of mammary intraductal papilloma. The authors have studied 264 cases of HP, detailing various changes in the tumor and adjacent AGMLG, with emphasis on mammary-type alterations. In many HP, the authors noticed changes typical for benign breast lesions, such as sclerosing adenosis-like changes, usual, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Almost in a third of cases, remnants of AGMLG adjacent to the lesion were evident, manifesting columnar changes reminiscent of those seen in breast lesions. This study shows that the histopathological changes in HP run a broad spectrum comparable with that in the mammary counterpart and benign breast disease.

  14. Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity - a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Buchala, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2013-08-28

    Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, as a precursor of the coenzymes FAD and FMN, has an indirect influence on many metabolic processes and determines the proper functioning of several systems, including the immune system. In the human population, plasma riboflavin concentration varies from 3·1 nM (in a moderate deficiency, e.g. in pregnant women) to 10·4 nM (in healthy adults) and 300 nM (in cases of riboflavin supplementation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of riboflavin concentration on the activity and viability of macrophages, i.e. on one of the immunocompetent cell populations. The study was performed on the murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultured in medium with various riboflavin concentrations (3·1, 10·4, 300 and 531 nM). The results show that riboflavin deprivation has negative effects on both the activity and viability of macrophages and reduces their ability to generate an immune response. Signs of riboflavin deficiency developed in RAW 264.7 cells within 4 d of culture in the medium with a low riboflavin concentration (3·1 nM). In particular, the low riboflavin content reduced the proliferation rate and enhanced apoptotic cell death connected with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The riboflavin deprivation impaired cell adhesion, completely inhibited the respiratory burst and slightly impaired phagocytosis of the zymosan particles. In conclusion, macrophages are sensitive to riboflavin deficiency; thus, a low riboflavin intake in the diet may affect the immune system and may consequently decrease proper host immune defence.

  15. Proteomic Investigation of the Time Course Responses of RAW 264.7 Macrophages to Infection with Salmonella enterica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Smallwood, Heather S.; Yoon, Hyunjin; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Clauss, Therese RW; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-08-01

    Macrophages plan important roles in controlling Salmonella-mediated systemic infection. To investigate the responses of macrophages to Salmonella infection, we infected RAW 264.7 macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) and then performed a comparative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS(/MS)]-based proteomics analysis of the infected macrophages. A total of 1006 macrophage and 115 STM proteins were indentified from this study. Most of STM proteins were found at late stage of the time course of infection, consistent with the fact that STM proliferates inside RAW 264.7 macrophages. Majority of the identified macrophage proteins were house keeping-related, including cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), whose peptide abundances were relatively constant during the time course of infection. Compared to those in no infection control, the peptide abundances of 244 macrophage proteins (or 24% of total indentified macrophage proteins) changed considerably after STM infection. The functions of these STM infection-affected macrophage proteins were diverse and ranged from production of antibacterial nitric oxide (i.e., inducible nitric oxide synthase or iNOS) or production of prostaglandin H2 (i.e., prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, also know as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2) to regulation of intracellular traffic (e.g., sorting nexin or SNX 5, 6 and 9), demonstrating a global impact of STM infection on macrophage proteome. Western-blot analysis not only confirmed the LC-MS(/MS) results of SOD1, COX-2 and iNOS, but also revealed that the protein abundances of mitochondrial SOD2 increased after STM infection, indicating an infection-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria.

  16. Determining Effects of Elaidic Acid on PPAR- Gamma Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doosti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several dietary factors are involved in cardiovascular coronary heart diseases, including trans fatty acids, which are generally formed during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that causes conversion of liquid oils into semisolid fats. Nowadays, it is well-known that trans fatty acids form a major risk factor in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been identified that some nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, are involved and play important roles in lipid homeostasis and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the effect of elaidic acid on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ.Methods: Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated by 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid for 6 h. The control group was treated by 50% ethanol (as solvent, equivalent to the amount of ethanol used in 2 mM concentration of elaidic acid. Later, the total RNA was extracted and its cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the quantity of PPARγ gene expression was measured by real-time PCR.Results: Overall, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid decreased PPARγ gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line by -1.36, -1.68, and -3.24 folds compared with the control group, respectively.Conclusion: By decreasing the expression of nuclear receptor PPARγ, elaidic acid causes, intensifies or accelerates the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. This finding shows the importance of reducing the consumption of elaidic acid containing foods.

  17. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization are derived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closed form expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of the unicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-user scalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is hence amenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider a framework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases in broadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal bandwidth and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  18. Cytotoxicity studies of Dynasan 114 solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) on RAW 264.7 macrophages-impact of phagocytosis on viability and cytokine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbrich, C.; Scholer, N.; Tabatt, K.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) based on Dynasan 114 (D114) were tested using RAW 264.7 cells. The influence of different surfactants on the cytotoxicity of this type of SLN was examined, expressed as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability and the production of

  19. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  20. Human p53(264-272) HLA-A2 binding peptide is an immunodominant epitope in DNA-immunized HLA-A2 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T R; Bregenholta, S; Pedersen, L O;

    1999-01-01

    C57BL/10 mice transgenic for HLA-A2 were immunized with either a full-length DNA-construct of the tumor suppressor p53 or with a minigene encoding the p53-derived immunodominant peptide p53(264)LLGRNSFEV272 (L9V). Vaccination with the full-length p53 construct induced potent cytotoxic activity...

  1. Efficacy of hybrid tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole based aryl piperazines D-264 and D-301 at D2 and D3 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Juan; Antonio, Tamara; Jacob, Joanna C.; Grandy, David K.

    2016-01-01

    In elucidating the role of pharmacodynamic efficacy at D3 receptors in therapeutic effectiveness of dopamine receptor agonists, the influence of study system must be understood. Here two compounds with D3 over D2 selectivity developed in our earlier work, D-264 and D-301, are compared in dopamine receptor-mediated G-protein activation in striatal regions of wild-type and D2 receptor knockout mice and in CHO cells expressing D2 or D3 receptors. In caudate-putamen of D2 knockout mice, D-301 was ~ 3-fold more efficacious than D-264 in activating G-proteins as assessed by [35S]GTP S binding; in nucleus accumbens, D-301 stimulated G-protein activation whereas D-264 did not. In contrast, the two ligands exerted similar efficacy in both regions of wild-type mice, suggesting both ligands activate D2 receptors with similar efficacy. In D2 and D3 receptor-expressing CHO cells, D-264 and D-301 appeared to act in the [35S]GTP S assay as full agonists because they produced maximal stimulation equal to dopamine. Competition for [3H]spiperone binding was then performed to determine Ki/EC50 ratios as an index of receptor reserve for each ligand. Action of D-301, but not D-264, showed receptor reserve in D3 but not in D2 receptor-expressing cells, whereas dopamine showed receptor reserve in both cell lines. G o1 is highly expressed in brain and is important in D2 -like receptor-G protein coupling. Transfection of G o1 in D3- but not D2-expressing CHO cells led to receptor reserve for D-264 without altering receptor expression levels. D-301 and dopamine exhibited receptor reserve in D3-expressing cells both with and without transfection of G o1. Altogether, these results indicate that D-301 has greater intrinsic efficacy to activate D3 receptors than D-264, whereas the two compounds act on D2 receptors with similar intrinsic efficacy. These findings also suggest caution in interpreting Emax values from functional assays in receptor-transfected cell models without accounting for

  2. Construction of lentivirus vector carrying murine choline acetyltransferase gene and its over-expression in RAW 264. 7 cells%小鼠胆碱乙酰基转移酶慢病毒载体的构建及其在RAW264.7细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艺

    2010-01-01

    目的:构建胆碱乙酰基转移酶(ChAT)过表达的慢病毒载体,转染小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞系RAW264.7,上调细胞中ChAT表达.方法:利用PCR方法从小鼠cDNA文库中调取ChAT基因,克隆至pGC-FU慢病毒载体上,经PCR和测序鉴定.用pGC-FU-ChAT质粒转染RAW264.7后,荧光显微镜下观察绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)表达,real-time PCR检测RAW264.7细胞中ChAT基因表达丰度.结果:融合表达GFP的慢病毒载体pGC-FU-ChAT感染RAW264.7细胞的效率可达80%以上,感染细胞ChAT基因表达大幅上调.结论:成功构建了携带ChAT基因的慢病毒载体,能有效感染RAW264.7细胞,细胞中ChAT基因过表达.

  3. 华支睾吸虫排泄分泌抗原诱导RAW264.7细胞IL-33表达的研究%Expression of IL-33 in RAW264.7 cells induced by excretory-secretory antigens of Clonorchis sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于倩; 程晓丹; 马锐; 华慧; 颜超; 汤仁仙; 郑葵阳

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨华支睾吸虫排泄分泌抗原(ESA)对巨噬细胞系RAW264.7白介素33(IL-33)表达的影响,并探讨其机制.方法 分别在ESA(60 μg/ml)与RAW264.7细胞作用2、4、8、12 h时检测IL-33 mRNA表达水平.用抗TNF-α中和抗体阻断TNF-α作用,通过RT-PCR及Western blot检测对ESA诱导RAW264.7细胞IL-33表达变化的影响.结果 ESA诱导RAW264.7细胞IL-33 mRNA水平增高(P<0.05);利用TNF-α中和抗体阻断TNF-α作用,可显著降低IL-33 mRNA的含量(P<0.05).但ESA对IL-33蛋白水平的表达无显著影响(P>0.05).结论 ESA可诱导RAW264.7细胞IL-33 mRNA高表达,该作用部分依赖于自分泌的炎性因子TNF-α作用.

  4. Toll样受体4在RAW264.7细胞中的表达及作用机制的初步研究%A preliminary study on the expression and mechanism of Toll-like receptor 4 in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白庆霞; 杨博; 张艳; 刘晓静; 陆群

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察TLR4在RAW264.7细胞中的表达及其生物学效应.方法:不同浓度的LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞后,应用RT-PCR、细胞迁移实验和Wester blot检测细胞中TLR4表达以及对破骨细胞迁移率、破骨细胞内基质金属蛋白酶(MMP9)、酒石酸酸性磷酸酶(TRAP)、组织蛋白酶K(cathinK)的活性.结果:TLR4在RAW264.7中表达并且能被LPS激活,TLR4被激活后其mRNA及蛋白表达水平均增高,细胞内MMP9、TRAP、cathinK mRNA的表达水平和细胞迁移率均增高.结论:LPS可使RAW264.7中TLR4被激活,TLR4的激活可作用于RAW264.7而增高细胞内相关酶的活性及细胞迁移率.

  5. Immunostimulatory Activity of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Cladodes Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2017-02-01

    To increase the functionality of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten cladodes, it was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Eighty percent methanol extracts were investigated for their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. Methanol extracts of L. plantarum culture medium (LPCME) and B. subtilis culture medium (BSCME) did not affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production but, at 500 μg/mL, increased interferon (IFN)-γ-induced NO production by 55.2 and 66.5 μM, respectively, in RAW 264.7 cells. In RAW 264.7 cells not treated with LPS and IFN-γ, LPCME did not affect NO production, but BSCME increased NO production significantly in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BSCME induced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BSCME at 500 μg/mL increased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels by 83.8% and 82.2%, respectively. BSCME increased NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner; 500 μg/mL BSCME increased activity 9.1-fold compared with the control. BSCME induced the phosphorylation of p38, c-JUN NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect total ERK levels. In conclusion, BSCME exerted immunostimulatory effects, which were mediated by MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in increased TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Therefore, BSCM shows promise for use as an immunostimulatory therapeutic.

  6. 脂多糖刺激RAW264.7和Ana-1形态改变及细胞因子表达的差异%Comparison between two kinds of murine macrophages.Ana-1 and RAW264.7 cell in appearance and cytokines expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石榴; 方怡; 袁伟锋; 李理; 黄文杰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the morphologic change and cytokines expression in RAW264.7 and Ana-1 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Methods RAW264.7 and Ana-1 were cultivated with various concentrations of LPS(0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 100 mg/L). MTT was performed to evaluate the proliferation ability of cells. Two kinds of cells were cultivated with 1 mg/L. Then,the concentrations of TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10 in culture medium were detected by ELISA in different times(0 h,4 h,8 h,12 h,24 h). Results The survival rates of RAW264.7 and Ana-1 (162.05±28.14)% and (159.92±20.43)% were significantly higher in 1 mg/L group than those of other groups. When stimulated with 1 mg/L LPS, both RAW264.7 and Ana-1 expressed cytokines in time-dependent manner (increased first and decreased finally). The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-10 in RAW264.7 group were higher than those Ana-1 group in 4 h only. IL-1β and IL-6,however,were in higher concentrations in RAW264.7 group than Ana-1 group all the time. Conclusions When stimulated with 1 mg/L LPS, both RAW264.7 and Ana-1 have higher survival rate. RAW264.7 and Ana-1 have different ability in expressing cytokines after being stimulated by LPS. Therefore,RAW264.7 and Ana-1 have variant response to LPS slightly.%目的 比较两株小鼠来源的巨噬细胞株RAW264.7和Ana-1经脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)诱导后在形态及细胞因子表达等方面的差异.方法 MTT法检测小同终浓度(0.1 mg/L、1 mg/L、10 mg/L、100 mg/L)LPS作用后两株细胞增殖活力,确定最佳作用浓度.选择1 mg/L LPS刺激RAW264.7和Ana-1细胞,ELISA法分别于0 h、4 h、8 h、12 h、24 h检测两株细胞肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、白介素1β(IL-1β)、IL-6和IL-10的表达量.结果 LPS终浓度为1 mg/L时两株细胞存活率分别为(162.05±28.14)%、(159.92±20.43)%,显著大于同细胞其他浓度组别(P<0.01);1 mg/L LPS刺激后,两株细胞各细胞因子表达均为随时间呈先增多后减

  7. 姜黄素促进 RAW264.7源性 M1巨噬细胞向替代激活 M2表型极化%Curcumin induces M1 phenotype derived from murine RAW264.7 macrophages polarization to alternatively activated M2 phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方圆; 袁祖贻; 周娟; 王欢; 薛丽; 郭宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察姜黄素对 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)极化的影响及机制。方法不同浓度姜黄素(6.25、12.5、25μmol/L)干预 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨 噬 细 胞 (M1)12 h,同时再加入20μmol/L GW9662与25μmol/L 姜黄素共同干预 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨 噬 细 胞(M1)12 h,采用 Real-time PCR、ELISA 及 Western blot 方法检测 IL-1β、IL-6和 M2表型标志分子 KLF4、FIZZ1、MGL1、PPARγ的表达,及阻断PPARγ后 KLF4和 FIZZ1的表达。结果不同浓度姜黄素均能上调 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)的 M2标志分子的表达,并且抑制炎症因子 IL-1β和 IL-6的分泌;阻断 PPARγ后,RAW264.7巨噬细胞源性 M1表型巨噬细胞表达 M2标志分子下调。结论姜黄素通过活化 PPARγ促进 LPS 和 IFNγ诱导的 RAW264.7巨噬细胞(M1)向 M2表型极化。%ABSTRACT:Objective To observe the effect of curcumin on RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)and the mechanisms involved.Methods Curcumin of different concentrations (6.25 μmol/L,12.5μmol/L and 25 μmol/L)was used to treat RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)for 12 h,and RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1)were incubated with 20μmol/L GW9662 and 25 μmol/L curcumin for 12 h.Using Real-time PCR,ELISA and Western blotting analysis,we examined the expressions of IL-1β,IL-6,PPARγand phenotype markers M2 (KLF4,FIZZ1,and MGL1 )and the expressions of KLF4 and FIZZ1 when PPARγwas inhibited.Results Curcumin of different concentrations all could inhibit the expressions of IL-1βand IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1).Curcumin of different concentra-tions could upregulate the expression of M2 markers (KLF4,FIZZ1 and MGL1)and PPARγin RAW264.7 macro-phages induced with LPS and IFNγ(M1).When M1 macrophages were incubated with curcumin and GW9662,the expression of the M2 phenotype markers was reduced.Conclusion Curcumin polarized the M

  8. Relationship between loneliness and family function among 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake%264例汶川地震丧亲者孤独感与其家庭功能的相关关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 许卢万珍; 王世平; 李小麟; 豆欣蔓; 朱世超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between loneliness and family function among the bereaved people. Methods Totally 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake were investigated with Family APGAR Index and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Results The average score of loneliness was 42.06±9.96, and over 50% of the bereaved showed moderate level of loneliness. The scores of loneliness varied with age,economic condition,marital status and family structure (P0.05). There was a negative correlation between the score of loneliness and family function(P<0.01). Conclusion Loneliness is a general psychological problem in the bereaved and they have moderate level of loneliness. Family function affects loneliness of the bereaved from different aspects,and good family function may be helpful to relieve loneliness.%目的 探讨丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能相关关系.方法 采用便利抽样,使用家庭关怀度问卷(APGAR)和UCLA孤独量表,对264名汶川地震丧亲者的孤独感和家庭功能进行问卷调查.结果丧亲者孤独感均分( 42.06±9.96)分,50%以上丧亲者体验到中等水平的孤独感;孤独感在性别方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),在年龄、经济状况、婚姻状态和家庭结构方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能呈负相关(P<0.01).结论孤独感是丧亲者普遍存在的心理问题且处于中等水平;丧亲者的家庭功能从不同侧面对其孤独感产生影响,良好的家庭功能有助于减轻孤独感.

  9. 北京密云地区264例新生儿窒息的产科因素分析%Obstetric factors of 264 cases of neonatal asphyxia in Miyun County of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑君

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the obstetric factors of neonatal asphyxia in past 10 years and their changes in Miyun District ,so as to provide basis for reducing the incidence of neonatal asphyxia and improving the obstetric quality .Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on the data of 264 cases of neonatal asphyxia from January 2003 to December 2012 in Miyun County .The trend of neonatal asphyxia incidence in these 10 years was explored as well as the obstetric factors of neonatal asphyxia and changes .Results During these 10 years, neonatal asphyxia rate decreased significantly (χ2 =102.46, P<0.001).The major obstetric factors of neonatal asphyxia were amniotic fluid contamination , labor abnormalities , gestational hypertension and shoulder dystocia .The constitute of neonatal asphyxia caused by shoulder dystocia increased (P =0.026).Conclusion Amniotic fluid contamination, labor abnormalities, gestational hypertension and shoulder dystocia are major factors leading neonatal asphyxia .The neonatal asphyxia caused by shoulder dystocia should obtain more attention.%目的探讨近10年密云地区新生儿窒息的产科因素及变化,为降低新生儿窒息发生率、提高产科质量提供依据。方法回顾性分析2003年1月至2012年12月在北京市密云县妇幼保健院分娩的264例新生儿窒息的病例资料,探讨10年间新生儿窒息发生率的变化趋势,以及造成新生儿窒息的产科因素及变化。结果10年间新生儿窒息率明显下降(χ2=102.46,P<0.001);新生儿窒息的主要产科因素分别为羊水污染、产程异常、妊娠期高血压疾病和肩难产,肩难产导致新生儿窒息的构成比上升(确切概率法P=0.026)。结论羊水污染、产程异常、妊娠期高血压疾病和肩难产是导致新生儿窒息的主要因素,肩难产导致新生儿窒息应引起产科重视。

  10. Fragile watermarking algorithm for the integrity authentication of video bit-stream of H.264/AVC%H.264/AVC视频流完整性认证的脆弱水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王让定; 朱洪留; 徐达文

    2011-01-01

    提出一种基于脆弱水印的视频流完整性认证方法,在H.264压缩比特流中,首先根据I_Slice中4×4块的编码模式生成认证码,然后通过调制某些运动子块的VLC码字将其嵌入B_Slice和P_Slice的视频流中.这种调制是基于VLC码字和待嵌入比特之间的映射规则进行的.映射后的码字与原码字具有很好的相似性,即码字长度不变,码字表示的编码元素值相似.该算法可以实现水印的快速提取,满足视频实时处理的要求.实验仿真结果表明,本算法具有较小的视频失真,并能有效地对视频帧进行完整性认证.%An integrity authentication scheme for video bit-stream based on the fragile watermarking is proposed in this paper.In the compressed bit-stream of H.264, The authentication cedeword are generated according to the mode of intra_4 × 4 in I_Slice firstly, and then embedded into B_Slice and P_Slice by modulating some VLC codeword of sub-block.This modulation is based on the mapping rule between the VLC cedeword and the bit to be embedded.The mapped codeword is very similar to the original codeword, namely, the length of cedeword is same and the value of coding element is similar.This scheme could detect the watermarking rapidly, which meets the requirement of the real-time processing of video.Experimental results show that it has less influence on the quality of video, and can effectively carry out the integral certification of video frame.

  11. 基于径向基函数网络的H.264全零块检测算法%All-zero block detection algorithm in H.264 based on radial basis function network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 周长林; 党力明; 侯雪梅

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of algorithm for all-zero block detection based on Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network (NN) was proposed to improve the accuracy of all-zero block detection algorithm. By analyzing the H. 264 encoder features, six effective features were selected, including Sum of Absolute Difference ( SAD), Sum of Absolute Transformed Difference (SATD), block type, Rate Distortion Optimization ( RDO) cost, Quantization Parameter ( QP) and the situation of reference block. Considering the SATD should be used in the Hadamard Transform ( HT), to get the relationship of QP and RBF network width parameter through the least square method, the algorithm used two classifiers to separate all-zero blocks from non-all-zero blocks based on the encoding situation of the reference block. This algorithm could improve coding speed over 50% on average while keeping bit rate and video quality almost unchanged. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can improve all-zero block detection accuracy effectively and coding efficiency based on NN.%针对目前全零块检测算法准确率不高的问题,提出了一种基于径向基函数(RBF)神经网络(NN)的全零块检测算法.通过分析H.264的编码特点,选取了绝对误差和(SAD)、变换绝对差值和(SATD)、编码块类型、率失真优化(RDO)代价、量化系数(QP)、参考块的全零块情况6个特征,考虑了哈达玛变换(HT)中应该使用SATD的情况,采用最小二乘法得到QP与RBF网络宽度参数的关系,根据参考块是否为零,设计了两个分类器来区分全零块与非全零块.在保证图像质量和编码率不变的前提下,平均能提高编码速度50%以上,实验结果表明,利用RBF神经网络很好地提高了全零块检测准确率和编码效率.

  12. 氩激光治疗糖尿病视网膜病变264例观察%Observation on Photocoagulation with Arqon for Treatment of 264 Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包欣; 林菁; 谢田华; 朱靖; 史惠琴; 袁松涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察氩激光光凝治疗不同分期糖尿病视网膜病变(diabetic retinopathy,DR)的疗效.方法:对264例513眼DR患者按病变不同分期分别行黄斑格栅样光凝、次全视网膜光凝(sPRP)和全视网膜光凝(PRP).随访3月-5年,观察患者视力、眼底及荧光血管造影情况.结果:总计有24.0%(123/513)的患眼视力得以上升,49.7 %(255/513)视力保持不变,26.3 %(135/513)视力下降.非增殖性DR激光治疗有效率为87.5%,增殖性DR有效率58.4 %(P<0.05).1型DM有效率43.5%,2型DM有效率81.4%(P<0.05).结论:氩激光能有效控制DR,减缓DR患者视力的丧失,非增殖性DR疗效明显优于增殖性DR,2型DM疗效优于1型DM.%Objective: To observe curative effect of photocoagulation with arqon on background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: We classified 513 eyes with 264 patients as background diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or not with cystoid macular edema. They were treated with grid patten photocoagulation, secondary panretinal photocoagulation (sPRP) and panretinal photocoagulation respectively. Followed up with visual acuity, ophthalmic fundus characteristics and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) for 3 months to 5 years. Results: Mean preoperative visual acuities and ophthalmic fundus characteristics were compared across groups. In all patients, visual acuity improved in 123 eyes (24 %); was unchanged in 255 eyes (49.7 %); and decreased in 135 eyes (26.3 %). The effective rate of photocoagulation on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy is 87.5 % compared with 58.4 % on proliferative diabetic retinopathy(P<0.05), 43.5 % on type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with 81.4 % on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclutions: Photocoagulation with arqon can effectively restrain the decrease of visual acuity especially in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization arederived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closedform expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of theunicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-userscalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is henceamenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider aframework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases inbroadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal band width and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  14. Effect of Jianpi Huoxue Decoction(健脾活血方)-containing Serum on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Secretion and Gene Expression of Endotoxin Receptors in RAW264.7 Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭景华; 胡义扬; 冯琴; 成扬; 许丽莉; 陈少东; 陶庆; 李风华

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Jianpi Huoxue decoction(健脾活血方,JHD)-containing serum on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) secretion and endotoxin receptor gene expression in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS).Methods:The cytotoxicity of blank-control serum and JHD-containing serum at different concentrations were evaluated through the lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) assay in RAW264.7 cells.RAW264.7 cells were divided into six groups:5%blank-control serum group(C1,n=3),5%blank-control serum plus...

  15. Effect of Berberine on Mice RAW264.7 Macrophages Polarization%小檗碱对小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞极化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞丽; 吴阳阳; 罗进芳; 易浪; 董燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of berberine on the polarization of mice RAW264.7 macrophages induced separately by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Methods Mice RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured in vitro were divided into model group, medication group, and blank control group. Both model group and medication group were given either LPS (in final dose of 100 ng/mL) or IL-4 (in final dose of 10 ng/mL). Additionally, the medication group was treated with berberine in final dose of 20 μmol/L. The blank control group was given the same volume of phosphate buffered saline ( PBS). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS) , suppressor of cytokine signaling2 ( SOCS2) and SOCS3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the contents of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10. Results The content of TNF-αand the mRNA expression levels of iNOS and SOCS3 in macrophages induced by LPS were increased, and then were down-regulated by berberine (P0.05). Conclusion Berberine has an effect on inhibiting the M1 and M2 polarization of macrophages in vitro, suggesting that berberine may play a regulatory role in the dynamic balance of M1/M2.%目的观察小檗碱对脂多糖(LPS)、白细胞介素-4(IL-4)诱导的小鼠RAW264.7细胞极化的影响。方法体外培养小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7,模型组和给药组分别加入LPS (终浓度100 ng/mL)或IL-4(终浓度10 ng/mL),给药组用终浓度20μmol/L的小檗碱分别进行干预,同时空白对照组给予等体积磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)。采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应检测精氨酸酶-1( Arg-1)、一氧化氮合酶( iNOS)、细胞因子信号传导抑制蛋白2( SOCS2)、细胞因子信号传导抑制蛋白3(SOCS3)的mRNA表达水平,采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测

  16. MRSA 对巨噬细胞系 RAW264.7自噬的影响%Effect of MRSA on the autophagy of RAW264.7 macrophage cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 吴本权; 杨洋; 朱家馨; 张天托

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection upon the autophagy of macrophages.Methods Mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was used.In the experimental groups,RAW264.7 cells were infected with Gram-positive MRSA for different time points including 0,30,60,90,1 20,1 50 and 1 80 min.In the control group,the cells were left untreat-ed.After MRSA infection,the expression of ATG5,ATG7 and ATG1 2 was measured by fluorescence quantita-tive PCR,and the expression levels of autophagy-related protein (Beclin1 )and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)were measured by Western blot.Results At 3 h after MRSA infection,the expression levels of ATG5,ATG7 and ATG1 2 mRNA in the experimental group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (all P 0.05).The relative expression levels of ATG7,ATG1 2 mRNA,LC3 and Beclin1 proteins peaked at 1 80 min following MRSA infection,and the level of ATG5 mRNA achieved the peak at 1 50 min after MRSA infection.Conclusions MRSA could induce autophagy in macrophages.The au-tophagy genes were activated in a certain sequence.Autophagy probably acted as an alternative immune process of phagocytosis of MRSA by macrophages.%目的:探讨耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染对于巨噬细胞自噬的影响。方法以小鼠单核巨噬细胞系 RAW264.7为研究对象,以革兰阳性菌 MRSA 感染3 h 组作为实验组,设立空白对照组(对照组),另设 MRSA 感染0、30、60、120、150、180 min 组。以 MRSA 感染细胞后,荧光定量 PCR 检测自噬相关基因5(ATG5)、ATG7、ATG12的表达情况,蛋白免疫印迹法检测自噬相关蛋白 Beclin1及微管相关蛋白轻链3(LC3)的表达情况。结果感染 MRSA 3 h 后,实验组RAW264.7细胞中 ATG5、ATG7、ATG12的 mRNA 表达水平均高于对照组(P 均<0.01),LC3蛋白相对表达量也比对照组增加(P <0.01),2

  17. Etiological analysis of 264 cases with chronic kidney disease stage 2 to 5 in children%慢性肾脏病2~5期患儿264例病因构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪千帆; 沈茜; 徐虹; 孙利; 汤小山; 方晓燕; 刘海梅; 翟亦晖; 毕允力

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study and summarize the etiology of children patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 to 5 seen in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013.Method By complying with the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines,we collected data of 264 cases of children patients with CKD stage 2-5 from Jan.2004 to Dec.2013 in the medical record system of Children's Hospital of Fudan University.And we retrospectively analyzed their age and CKD stage at first diagnosis,primary diseases,complications,etc.Result In the collected 264 cases,52 cases (19.7%) were diagnosed at stage 2,67 (25.4%) at stage 3,52 (19.7%) at stage 4 and 93 (35.2%) at stage 5.For disease causes,116 cases (43.9%) had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT),61 cases (23.1%) had glomerular disease,15 (5.7%) had hereditary kidney disease,14 (5.3%) had other diseases and in 58 cases (22.0%) the causes of disease were unknown.In the group with age between 0 and 3.0 and 3.1 and 6.0 years,57.1% (24 cases) and 60.0% (30 cases) had primary disease with CAKUT.In the group with age older than 10 years,49.2% (30 cases) had primary disease with glomerular disease and 32.0% (32 cases) with unknown causes.Conclusion The major cause of CKD stage 2-5 in children in our hospital during the last ten years was CAKUT (43.9%),followed by glomerular disease (23.1%).The primary diseases of CKD were significantly different between the 2 age groups.CAKUT was more common in infants and preschool children while for adolescents,glomerular disease was the major cause.%目的 总结10年来复旦大学附属儿科医院慢性肾脏病(CKD) 2~5期患儿的病因构成情况.方法 应用复旦大学附属儿科医院住院病历检索系统,检索并收集2004年1月-2013年12月期间复旦大学附属儿科医院住院的符合诊断标准的CKD 2 ~5期患儿264例,统计其首次诊断时年龄、分期,原发病诊断等信息,进行回顾性分析.结果 264

  18. Perceptual quality estimation of H.264/AVC videos using reduced-reference and no-reference models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Rossholm, Andreas; Lövström, Benny

    2016-09-01

    Reduced-reference (RR) and no-reference (NR) models for video quality estimation, using features that account for the impact of coding artifacts, spatio-temporal complexity, and packet losses, are proposed. The purpose of this study is to analyze a number of potentially quality-relevant features in order to select the most suitable set of features for building the desired models. The proposed sets of features have not been used in the literature and some of the features are used for the first time in this study. The features are employed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which selects only the most influential of them toward perceptual quality. For comparison, we apply feature selection in the complete feature sets and ridge regression on the reduced sets. The models are validated using a database of H.264/AVC encoded videos that were subjectively assessed for quality in an ITU-T compliant laboratory. We infer that just two features selected by RR LASSO and two bitstream-based features selected by NR LASSO are able to estimate perceptual quality with high accuracy, higher than that of ridge, which uses more features. The comparisons with competing works and two full-reference metrics also verify the superiority of our models.

  19. Comparison of the activities of various alginates to induce TNF-alpha secretion in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Maki; Nakashima, Takuji; Miyajima, Chihiro; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Muramatsu, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2005-08-01

    We compared the abilities of alginate polymers having different molecular sizes and compositions to induce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in RAW264.7 cells. The molecular sizes and alpha-L-guluronate/beta-D-mannuronate (M/G) ratios of highly purified alginate polymers used in this study were 9000-38 000 and 1.50-3.17, respectively. Among the alginates tested, I-S, which had the highest molecular weight, showed the most potent TNF-alpha-inducing activity. The M/G ratio also seemed to influence this activity, and, among alginates with similar molecular sizes, alginates with a higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. Interestingly, the enzymatic depolymerization of I-S with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in a dramatic increase in the TNF-alpha-inducing activity. Such an effect of enzymatic digestion was also observed in a relatively low-molecular-weight alginate (ULV-3), which originally had very low TNF-alpha-inducing activity. Furthermore, the inhibition profiles of the TNF-alpha-inducing activity of enzymatically digested I-S shown by three specific mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors differed from those of intact I-S. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of the TNF-alpha-inducing activity of enzymatically depolymerized alginate oligomers is not necessarily the same as that of original alginate polymer.

  20. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect.

  1. The Impact of Serum Amyloid P-Component on Gene Expression in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

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    Dan Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid P-component (SAP contributes to host defense and prevents fibrosis. Macrophages are the most abundant inflammatory cell type in atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, using 3H-cholesterol-labeled counting radioactivity assay, we demonstrated that the apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages was increased by SAP treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We analyzed global gene expression changes upon SAP treatment using RNA sequencing. As a result, a total of 175 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 134 genes were downregulated and 41 genes were upregulated in SAP treated cells compared to control cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed decreased expression of 5 genes and an increase in expression of 1 gene upon SAP treatment. Gene ontology analysis showed that genes involved in response to stimulus were significantly enriched in differentially expressed genes. Beyond protein-coding genes, we also identified 8 differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs. Our study may provide new insights into mechanisms underlying the functional role of SAP in macrophages.

  2. Sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum Inhibits the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κBα (IκBα protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Lignan derivatives from Selaginella tamariscina and their nitric oxide inhibitory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Le Duc; Zhao, Bing Tian; Hung, Nguyen Duc; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Min, Byung Sun; Woo, Mi Hee

    2017-02-01

    The chemical characterization of Selaginella tamariscina leaves resulted in the isolation of five lignanoside derivatives (1-4 and 6) and one neolignan (5). These compounds include three new lignanosides, tamariscinosides D-F (1-3), and one liriodendrin (4) that were isolated for the first time from this plant, together with two known compounds, (2R,3S)-dihydro-2-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-5-acetyl-benzofuran (5) and moellenoside B (6). The chemical structures of these isolated compounds were determined using 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and CD spectroscopic data, and the results were compared to data previously reported in the literatures. These compounds were also evaluated in terms of their inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activity in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 exhibited a significant inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 32.3 to 55.8μM.

  4. Inhibitory effects of 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Michiko; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Miyashita, Miki; Okumura, Mayu; Yamamoto, Norio; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ashida, Hitoshi; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2014-01-15

    The Japanese herb, Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei Koidzumi), contains two prenylated chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, which are considered to be the major active compounds of Ashitaba. However, their effects on inflammatory responses are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264 mouse macrophages. LPS-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) was markedly reduced by 4-hydroxyderricin (10 μM) and xanthoangelol (5 μM) compared with their parent compound, chalcone (25 μM). They also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Although chalcone decreased the DNA-binding activity of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol suppressed only AP-1 and had no effect on NF-κB. On the other hand, all of the tested chalcones reduced the phosphorylation (at serine 536) level of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. 4-Hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol may be promising for the prevention of inflammatory diseases.

  5. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Ju Cha

    2015-04-01

    Results and conclusion: The glycosyl glycerides were identified to be (2S-1-O-7(Z,10(Z,13(Z-hexadecatrienoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (2, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3, and 2(S-1-O-linoleoyl-2-O-linoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (4. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50: 63.8 ± 6.4μM and 59.4 ± 6.8μM, respectively] without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 100μM, whereas Compounds 3 and 4 showed good inhibition effect (IC50: 7.7 ± 0.6μM and 8.0 ± 0.9μM, respectively without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 20μM. All isolated compounds showed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced macrophage cells with strong inhibition of mRNA activity observed for Compounds 3 and 4.

  6. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

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    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation. CONCLUSIONS: These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Xanthohumol modulates the expression of osteoclast-specific genes during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Young Seol; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-12-01

    RANKL has been shown to play a critical role in osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, agents that suppress RANKL signaling have a potential to suppress bone loss. In this study, we examined the ability of xanthohumol, a structurally simple prenylated chalcone, to suppress RANKL signaling during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Xanthohumol markedly inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, multinucleated osteoclasts formation, and resorption-pit formation. In experiments to elucidate its mechanism of action, xanthohumol was found to suppress RANKL-induced expression of TRAF6, GAB2, ERK, c-Src, PI3K, and Akt genes. Moreover, RANKL-induced expressions of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, were reduced by treatment with xanthohumol. Xanthohumol also inhibited RANKL-induced expression of bone-resorption related osteoclast-specific genes (carbonic anhydrase II, TCIRG, CLCN7, OSTM1, cathepsin K, and MMP-9). These data demonstrate that xanthohumol inhibits osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling and may be useful for the prevention of bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis and periodontitis.

  8. Rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264: Physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy against oral hygiene related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Funston, Scott; Chebbi, Alif; Ahmed, Syed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2017-05-25

    Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this article, we have reported the production and characterisation of long chain rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264 (ATCC 700388). We have also investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of these rhamnolipids against some oral pathogens (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis), important for oral health and hygiene. Treating these bacteria with different concentrations of long chain rhamnolipids resulted in a reduction of 3-4 log of bacterial viability, placing these rhamnolipids close to being classified as biocidal. Investigating long chain rhamnolipid efficacy as antibiofilm agents for prospective oral-related applications revealed good potency against oral-bacteria biofilms in a co-incubation experiments, in a pre-coated surface format, in disrupting immature biofilms and has shown excellent combination effect with Lauryl Sodium Sulphate which resulted in a drastic decrease in its minimal inhibitory concentration against different bacteria. Investigating the rhamnolipid permeabilization effect along with their ability to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species has shed light on the mechanism through which inhibition/killing of bacteria may occur.

  9. Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract mitigates lipotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells and prevents atherogenic changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipak; Desai, Swati; Gajaria, Tejal; Devkar, Ranjitsinh; Ramachandran, A V

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum L. (CS) in preventing in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation mediated macrophage modification. Further, an in vivo study was also conducted to confirm upon the efficacy of CS seed extract in alleviating pathophysiological alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Copper mediated cell free oxidation of LDL accounted for elevated indices of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP)and protein carbonyl (PC) and a progressive increment in conjugate diene (CD) levels whereas, reverse set of changes were recorded in presence of CS extract. Cell mediated LDL oxidation (using RAW 264.7 cells) accounted for lowered MDA production and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) mediated cell death in presence of CS extract and the same was attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials. High cholesterol fed atherogenic rats showed elevated lipid indices, evidences of LDL oxidation, plaque formation in thoracic aorta. The same was further validated with immunostaining of cell adhesion molecules and hematoxylin and eosin (HXE) staining. However, co-supplementation of CS to atherogenic rats recorded significant lowering of the above mentioned parameters further strengthening the claim that CS extract is instrumental in preventing onset and progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Sesquiterpenes from an Egyptian herbal medicine, Pulicaria undulate, with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yabe, Mikuko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The methylene chloride-methanol (1 : 1) extract from the air-dried aerial parts of wild Pulicaria undulata collected in North Sinia, Egypt, showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages. From the extract, three new sesquiterpenes named 5α-hydroperoxyivalin, 8-epi-xanthanol, and 8-epi-isoxanthanol were isolated together with four known sesquiterpenes. The structure of each new sesquiterpenes was determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, all the sesquiterpenoids significantly inhibited the production of NO. Ivalin (IC50=2.0 μM) and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone (1.8 μM) showed particularly strong inhibitory effects, but had strong cytotoxic effects as well. Furthermore, ivalin and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone concentration-dependently reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein levels in RAW264.7 cells.

  11. Biotransformation products of phellopterin by rat liver microsomes and the inhibition on NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai-Hong; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2012-01-01

    Four new coumarins (2',3'-dihydroxyphellopterin, E-5-methoxytrichoclin acetate, Z-5-methoxytrichoclin acetate, and E-5-methoxytrichoclin) and three known coumarins (byakangelicol, byakangelicin, and Z-5-methoxytrichoclin) were produced by liver microsomes from rats pre-treated with sodium phenobarbital. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The inhibitory activities of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 were tested. The main biotransformation product, byakangelicin, showed inhibitory activities of NO production with the IC₅₀ value of 217.83 μM, whereas the parent compound phellopterin showed cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 cell at the concentration from 40 to 400 μM.

  12. 关于FMO分离模式下H.264/AVC视频传输误差控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Zeeshan Mahfooz

    2011-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准对信道错误的鲁棒性是重点由它错误控制技术进行评估的,我们称错误评估技术为FMO。我们调查研究了FMO作为一种H.264的误差控制技术是如何在一个容易产生错误的网络中对于传输误差和包丢失进行最好的处理。一种新的使用MBAmap将宏块映射到条带组的方法已经采用,这种方法可以帮助在解码中进行误差隐蔽技术并且提高了被接收视频的主客观性能。

  13. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,and SDF1-3′A) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3′A,mutant in a ligand gene,can delay AIDS pathogenesis.The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China.No CCR5-Δ32 was observed.CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China,with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively.Relative hazard was evaluated.Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  14. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of chitosan nanoparticles carrying NF-κB/p65 antisense oligonucleotide in RAW264.7 macropghage stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan-an; Gao, Lei; Li, Da-wei; Shang, Yu-ru; Yin, Kai; Zhao, Dong-xu; Cheng, Wen-feng; Quan, Dong-qin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this present study is to prepare NF-κB/p65 antisense oligonucleotide loaded chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluate their physicochemical characterization and antisense effects in RAW264.7 macrophages. Condensed nanoparticles with mean particle size of 128±16nm, average Zeta potential of 19.6±6.3mV and high entrapment efficiency (EE) of 98.6±0.11% were formed between NF-κB/p65 antisense gene (NAG) and chitosan by complex coacervation method. Trypan blue staining and MTT tests showed that NAG chitosan NPs had no toxic effect on RAW264.7 macrophages when the dose was no more than 20μg/mL. Confocal microscopy images showed that NAG chitosan NPs were capable to deliver NAG into cytoplasm of RAW264.7 macrophages and finally into nucleus. Real-time PCR tests verified that NAG chitosan NPs could significantly decrease the mRNA expression level of NF-κB/p65 and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-ɑ, IL-1 and IL-6. Accordingly, western blot study showed that NAG NPs uptaken in the cells could efficiently reversed the expression of NF-κB/p65 protein induced by LPS. At last, downstream release level of inflammatory factors including TNF-ɑ, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly decreased after treated by NAG chitosan NPs. It could be concluded that chitosan NPs were excellent delivery vectors to ferry the NAG into the cytoplasm and nucleus of macrophages. The NAG chitosan NPs might be a novel therapeutic apparatus for the treatment of LPS induced sepsis by inhibiting NF-κB-related pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion.

  16. High density lipoprotein 3 inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis via promoting cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei JIANG; Peng-ke YAN; Jian-xiong CHEN; Bing-yang ZHU; Xiao-yong LEI; Wei-dong YIN; Duan-fang LIAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) on oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.Methods: RAW264.7 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L ox-LDL for various durations up to 48 h, and apoptosis was detected using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis. Total cholesterol levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography, cholesterol efflux was determined by Tritium labeling, and the cellular lipid droplets were assayed by oil red O staining. Results: Treatment with 50 mg/L ox-LDL for 12, 24, and 48 h increased the apoptotic rate of RAW264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. The peak apoptotic rate (47.7%) was observed after 48 h incubation. HDL3 at various concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200mg/L) inhibited the ox-LDL (50 mg/L for 48 h)-mediated apoptosis that was accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular cholesterol efflux, and decreased total cholesterol levels in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Blockage of cholesterol efflux by brefeldin decreased the protective effect of HDL3 on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Increase of the cholesterol efflux effected by another cholesterol acceptor, β-cyclodextrin, led to a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate of cells. Conclusion: HDL3 antagonizes ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7cells, through reducing the accumulation of toxic cholesterol.

  17. Effect of manassantin B, a lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, on lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hwan Chul; Bae, Hong-Beom; Jeong, Cheol-Won; Lee, Seong Heon; Jeung, Hye Jin; Kwak, Sang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines cause hypotension during septic shock and induce capillary leakage in acute lung injury. Manassantin B has anti-inflammatory and anti-plasmoidal properties. This study examined the effects of manassantin B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Methods RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were incubated without or with (1, 3 and 10 µM) manassantin B and without or with (100 ng/ml) LPS. Manassanti...

  18. Cytotoxicity studies of Dynasan 114 solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) on RAW 264.7 macrophages-impact of phagocytosis on viability and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Carsten; Schöler, Nadja; Tabatt, Kerstin; Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer Helmut

    2004-07-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) based on Dynasan 114 (D114) were tested using RAW 264.7 cells. The influence of different surfactants on the cytotoxicity of this type of SLN was examined, expressed as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability and the production of cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Results were compared with previously obtained data when peritoneal mouse macrophages were used. SLN produced with stabilizers/surfactants such as poloxamer 188, sodium cholate, Lipoid S75, Tween 80, Poloxamine 908 and sodium dodecylsulfate were shown to be nontoxic towards RAW 264.7 cells. Cytokine production was reduced and stimulation, expressed in elevated cytokine levels, could not be found. Using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as stabilizing surfactant, SLN became cytotoxic in a concentration-dependent manner. Not only were the viabilities reduced but also cytokine production. Cytotoxic effects of CPC stabilized SLN could be antagonized using cytochalasin B to block phagocytosis. D114-SLN produced with pharmaceutically accepted surfactants for intravenous injection (poloxamer 188, Lipoid S75, sodium cholate, Tween 80) were very well tolerated by the cells. Even sodium dodecylsulfate-stabilized D114-SLN did not exert toxic effects. Comparison of the RAW 264.7 data with previously obtained data from toxicity studies of D114-SLN towards peritoneal mouse macrophages showed similar results. This offers the possibility of using the RAW 264.7 cell line for cytotoxicity studies of colloidal drug carrier systems, rather than using laboratory animals as source of macrophages for these kinds of studies.

  19. Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, W G; Pae, H O; Oh, G S; Chai, K Y; Kwon, T O; Yun, Y G; Kim, N Y; Chung, H T

    2001-06-01

    The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) have been used in oriental traditional medicines for the treatment of stomach and bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2-) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to address whether the metanol (MeOH) extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could modulate NO and O2- productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. The MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus showed the inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of NO production by the extract was due to the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression, determined by Western and Northern blotting analyses, respectively. In addition, the MeOH extract suppressed the production of O2- by phorbol ester-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Collectively, these results suggest that the MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could be developed as anti-inflammatory candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2-.

  20. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 in the regulation of TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Seo

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatases play key roles in a diverse range of cellular processes such as differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological signaling, and cytoskeletal function. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 (PTPN7, a member of the phosphatase family, specifically inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Here, we report that PTPN7 acts as a regulator of pro-inflammatory TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells that are stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS that acts as an endotoxin and elicits strong immune responses in animals. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS leads to a transient decrease in the levels of PTPN7 mRNA and protein. The overexpression of PTPN7 inhibits LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA analysis showed that knock-down of PTPN7 in RAW 264.7 cells increased TNF-α production. PTPN7 has a negative regulatory function to extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and p38 that increase LPS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. Thus, our data presents PTPN7 as a negative regulator of TNF-α expression and the inflammatory response in macrophages.

  1. Koumine Attenuates Lipopolysaccaride-Stimulated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Macrophages, Coincidentally Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihang Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbal plants have been commonly used for intervention of different diseases and health enhancement worldwide. Koumine, an alkaloid monomer found abundantly in Gelsemium plants, can be effectively used as an anti-inflammatory medication. In this study, the mechanisms associated with the preventative effect of koumine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Koumine induced a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein, concomitant reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO and reduction of the levels of interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, koumine decreased the phosphorylation of p65 and inhibited nuclear factor κ Bα (IκBα proteins, resulting in lower production of nuclear factor (NF-κB transactivation. Koumine also induced a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK and p38 in RAW264 cells. In conclusion, these findings reveal that koumine decreases the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators though the suppression of p38 and ERK MAPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells.

  2. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 in the regulation of TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Huiyun; Lee, In-Seon; Park, Jae Eun; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Do Hee; Park, Byoung Chul; Cho, Sayeon

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases play key roles in a diverse range of cellular processes such as differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological signaling, and cytoskeletal function. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 (PTPN7), a member of the phosphatase family, specifically inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Here, we report that PTPN7 acts as a regulator of pro-inflammatory TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells that are stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that acts as an endotoxin and elicits strong immune responses in animals. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS leads to a transient decrease in the levels of PTPN7 mRNA and protein. The overexpression of PTPN7 inhibits LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) analysis showed that knock-down of PTPN7 in RAW 264.7 cells increased TNF-α production. PTPN7 has a negative regulatory function to extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 that increase LPS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. Thus, our data presents PTPN7 as a negative regulator of TNF-α expression and the inflammatory response in macrophages.

  3. Glycine tomentella Hayata inhibits IL-1β and IL-6 production, inhibits MMP-9 activity, and enhances RAW264.7 macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu-Shu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the effects of Glycine tomentella Hayata (GTH, a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of rheumatic diseases on the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and on the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the presence or absence of ethanol extract of GTH. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and transglutaminase 2 (TG2 were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assayed by gelatin zymography. For detecting uptake of apoptotic cells, RAW264.7 cells were cultured with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA-stained apoptotic cells and assayed by flow cytometry. Results The major components of GTH analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatogram were daidzein (42.5%, epicatechin (28.8%, and naringin (9.4%. GTH treatment inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 but did not affect the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. GTH significantly enhanced the expression of TG2 and the clearance of apoptotic cells by RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions GTH inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and MMP-9 activity, enhances apoptotic cell uptake and up-regulates TG2 expression. Our data show that GTH might have beneficial effects on rheumatic diseases.

  4. A Real-Time H.264/AVC Encoder & Decoder with Vertical Mode for Intra Frame and Three Step Search Algorithm for P-Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Jammas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The video coding standards are being developed to s atisfy the requirements of applications for various purposes, better picture quality, higher co ding efficiency, and more error robustness. The new international video coding standard H.264 / AVC aims at having significant improvements in coding efficiency, and error robust ness in comparison with the previous standards such as MPEG-2, H261, H263,and H264. Vide o stream needs to be processed from several steps in order to encode and decode the vid eo such that it is compressed efficiently with available limited resources of hardware and softwar e. All advantages and disadvantages of available algorithms should be known to implement a codec to accomplish final requirement. The purpose of this project is to implement all bas ic building blocks of H.264 video encoder and decoder. The significance of the project is the inc lusion of all components required to encode and decode a video in MatLab .

  5. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2011-05-21 to 2011-05-24 (NODC Accession 0117418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117418 includes biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN264 in the Coastal Waters of...

  6. The Influence of Different Concentrations of Agaricus blazei Murill Polysaccharides on the Immune Activity of Macrophage RAW264.7%巴氏蘑菇多糖对巨噬细胞RAW264.7免疫活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云少君; 李晨光; 冯翠萍; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 刘靖宇

    2015-01-01

    探讨不同浓度巴氏蘑菇多糖(ABPS)对巨噬细胞RAW264.7免疫活性的影响.以ABPS作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 12,24 h和36 h,采用MTT法检测巨噬细胞的增殖.以ABPS及脂多糖(LPS)作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 24 h,分别收集细胞培养上清和细胞,提取全细胞蛋白,检测iNOS含量.细胞培养上清用来检测NO生成量.结果表明:ABPS对巨噬细胞RAW264.7作用12,24 h和36 h后,与空白对照组相比,一定浓度的ABPS均可促进巨噬细胞RAW264.7的增殖,差异极显著(P<0.01).不同浓度的ABPS和LPS作用巨噬细胞RAW264.7 24 h后,除ABPS质量浓度为250 μg/mL时,iNOS生成量与阴性对照组无显著性差异外,其他浓度下iNOS及NO生成量均极显著高于阴性对照组(P<0.01).LPS作用后iNOS和NO的生成量极显著高于ABPS组(P<0.01),其中ABPS质量浓度为1 mg/mL时,NO的生成量显著低于LPS组(P<0.05).在一定浓度范围内,iNOS及NO生成量与ABPS浓度存在剂量效应.当ABPS质量浓度为1 mg/mL时,二者生成量最高.ABPS能够促进巨噬细胞RAW264.7的增殖及其产生iNOS和NO,对其免疫活性起正向调节作用.

  7. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥264例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 264 cases of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远达; 冀超玉; 李荣敏; 张小龙; 张瑜; 董青伟; 韩立坡

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。方法将264例BICE患儿按惊厥发生次数分为单次组134例(惊厥1次),多发组130例(惊厥次数≥2次);按惊厥持续时间分为,短时组186例(惊厥持续时间<5 min),长时组78例(惊厥时间≥5 min),分析其住院及随访资料。结果多发组有9.23%复发,6.15%转化为癫痫;单次组有2.99%复发,0.75%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。长时组有12.82%复发,8.97%转化为癫痫;短时组有3.23%复发,1.08%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。结论 BICE患儿有复发以及转化为癫痫的可能,惊厥次数≥2次,惊厥持续时间≥5 min是BICE患儿复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。%ObjectiveTo analyze the potential risk factors for relapse and development of epilepsy in patients with benign in-fantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE).MethodsA total of 264 cases of BICE were recruited. Accord-ing to the frequency of convulsions, the patients were divided into single group (n=134, convulsion once), and multiple group (n=130, convulsions≥2 times). According to convulsion duration, the patients were divided into short-term group (n=186, con-vulsions duration <5 minutes) , and long-term group (n=78, convulsion duration≥5 minutes). The clinical data obtained during hospitalization and follow-up were analyzed.ResultsIn multiple group, 9.23% were relapsed and 6.15% developed epilepsy. In single group, 2.99% were relapsed and 0.75% developed epilepsy. There were signiifcantly different in the rate of relapses and development of epilepsy between two groups (P<0.05). In the long-term group, 12.82% were relapsed and 8.97% developed epi-lepsy. In the short-term group, 3.23% were relapsed and 1

  8. Effects of Phosvitin on the Growth and Pinocytosis of RAW246.7 Cell%卵黄高磷蛋白对RAW264.7生长及其吞饮作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 吴子健; 刘爱国; 李建颖

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of phosvitin(PVS) on the growth and pinocytosis of RAW264.7 cell by MTT assay and neutral red. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to 0-100μg/mL of PVS significantly promoted their proliferation in the presence or absence of LPS. When cultured with PVS in the absence of LPS, RAW264.7 cells pinocytosis of neutral red was significantly improved;but in the presence of LPS this ability was inhibited and produced antagonism. PVS significantly inhibited LPS-induced macrophage activation according to the analysis of microscope. It is suggested that the impacts of PVS on the pinocytosis capacity of RAW264.7 cell shows a two-way adjustment.%  经MTT法和中性红吞饮法研究了卵黄高磷蛋白(PVS)对RAW264.7细胞生长及其吞饮作用的影响.研究结果表明,在0~100μg/mL浓度范围内,PVS(或与LPS共培养)可促进RAW264.7细胞增殖,PVS可提高RAW264.7细胞吞饮中性红的能力,但与LPS共作用时,却几乎未能使细胞的吞饮能力发生改变;细胞形态显微观察结果表明PVS明显抑制LPS诱导的巨噬细胞的活化.以上两方面结果表明PVS对RAW264.7巨噬细胞吞饮能力的影响呈双向调节作用.

  9. 氧化苦参碱对脂多糖诱导的RAW264.7细胞一氧化氮及其诱导型合酶表达的影响%Effect of oxymatrine on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide releasing and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚娥; 茅家慧; 刘霞; 施海燕; 朱燕; 周爱玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察氧化苦参碱(OMT))对脂多糖(LPS)诱导的RAW 264.7细胞一氧化氮(NO)释放量及诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)表达的影响.方法:采用LPS诱导RAW 264.7细胞建立细胞炎症反应模型.实验分组:空白对照组、LPS组(1 μg/mL)、OMT组(100 μmol/L)、LPS+OMT小剂量组(20 μmol/L)、LPS+OMT中剂量组(50 μmol/L)、LPS+OMT大剂量组(100 μmol/L).采用Griess试剂法测定细胞培养液中NO释放量.采用逆转录聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)方法测定RAW 264.7细胞iNOS mRNA的表达.结果:OMT显著减少LPS诱导的RAW 264.7细胞NO的释放(P<0.05,P<0.01);同时减少LPS诱导的RAW 264.7细胞iNOS mRNA的表达(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:OMT可能通过抑制LPS诱导的巨噬细胞iNOS mRNA表达,减少NO的释放量而发挥抗炎作用.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yoon-Jeoung; Cha, Dong-Soo; Ko, Je-Sang; Park, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol extract and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of the methanol extract and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL). The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting. The methanol extract and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed production of NO, PGE(2), and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 microg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited production of the inflammatory molecules. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions of the methanol extract, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities. These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway.

  11. Is nitric oxide decrease observed with naphthoquinones in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages a beneficial property?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida R Pinho

    Full Text Available The search of new anti-inflammatory drugs has been a current preoccupation, due to the need of effective drugs, with less adverse reactions than those used nowadays. Several naphthoquinones (plumbagin, naphthazarin, juglone, menadione, diosquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone, plus p-hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were evaluated for their ability to cause a reduction of nitric oxide (NO production, when RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Dexamethasone was used as positive control. Among the tested compounds, diosquinone was the only one that caused a NO reduction with statistical importance and without cytotoxicity: an IC(25 of 1.09±0.24 µM was found, with 38.25±6.50% (p<0.001 NO reduction at 1.5 µM. In order to elucidate if this NO decrease resulted from the interference of diosquinone with cellular defence mechanisms against LPS or to its conversion into peroxynitrite, by reaction with superoxide radical formed by naphthoquinones redox cycling, 3-nitrotyrosine and superoxide determination was also performed. None of these parameters showed significant changes relative to control. Furthermore, diosquinone caused a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6. Therefore, according to the results obtained, diosquinone, studied for its anti-inflammatory potential for the first time herein, has beneficial effects in inflammation control. This study enlightens the mechanisms of action of naphthoquinones in inflammatory models, by checking for the first time the contribution of oxidative stress generated by naphthoquinones to NO reduction.

  12. The Effect of Bee Venom on COX-2, P38, ERK and JNK in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Sim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Bee Venom on the lipopolysaccharide(LPS, sodium nitroprusside(SNP, hydrogen peroxide(H2O2-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2, p38, jun N-terminal Kinase(JNK and extra-signal response kinase(ERK in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Methods : The expressions of COX-2, p38, JNK and ERK were determined by western blotting with corresponding antibodies.\\ Results : 1. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control, respectively. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited insignificantly H2O2-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control, respectively. 2. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly LPS, SNP and H2O2-induced expression of p38 compared with control, respectively. 3. The 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of JNK compared with control, respectively. All of bee venom inhibited insignificantly LPS and H2O2-induced expression of JNK compared with control, respectively. 4. The 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of ERK, the 0.5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom increased significantly H2O2-induced expression of ERK compared with control. The 0.5, 1 and 5 ㎍/㎖ of bee venom inhibited insignificantly LPS-induced expression of ERK compared with control, respectively.

  13. Cytoprotective and enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of liposomal piroxicam formulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiong HS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe Siong Chiong,1 Yoke Keong Yong,1 Zuraini Ahmad,1 Mohd Roslan Sulaiman,1 Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria,1 Kah Hay Yuen,2 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim1,31Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Malaysia; 3Sports Academy, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaBackground: Liposomal drug delivery systems, a promising lipid-based nanoparticle technology, have been known to play significant roles in improving the safety and efficacy of an encapsulated drug.Methods: Liposomes, prepared using an optimized proliposome method, were used in the present work to encapsulate piroxicam, a widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The cytotoxic effects as well as the in vitro efficacy in regulation of inflammatory responses by free-form piroxicam and liposome-encapsulated piroxicam were evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide-sensitive macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.Results: Cells treated with liposome-encapsulated piroxicam demonstrated higher cell viabilities than those treated with free-form piroxicam. In addition, the liposomal piroxicam formulation resulted in statistically stronger inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (ie, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E2 than piroxicam at an equivalent dose. The liposome-encapsulated piroxicam also caused statistically significant production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine.Conclusion: This study affirms the potential of a liposomal piroxicam formulation in reducing cytotoxicity and enhancing anti-inflammatory responses in vitro.Keywords: liposomes, nitric oxide, cytokines, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, piroxicam

  14. Sesamin increases heme oxygenase-1 protein in RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibiting its ubiquitination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Mizuki; Ohnishi, Masatoshi; Shiratsuchi, Ayano; Kawakami, Takuya; Takahashi, Madoka; Motomura, Misato; Egusa, Kyohei; Urasaki, Tomoka; Inoue, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Sesamin is a major component in lignans of sesame seed oil, known to possess potent anti-oxidative capacity. In this study, the variation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a kind of anti-oxidative enzyme, by sesamin in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10μg/ml) exposure tended to increase HO-1 protein expression. Co-treatment with 100μM sesamin for 12h up-regulated the HO-1 protein level increased by LPS; however, HO-1 mRNA was unaffected. Sesamin delayed the reversal, by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (1μM), of the LPS-induced increase of HO-1 protein level. Meanwhile, sesamin suppressed LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein and associated NO release. LPS-induced increase of iNOS protein expression was also reversed by cycloheximide, which was not affected by sesamin, unlike HO-1. To clarify the mechanisms that underlie the up-regulation of HO-1 protein level by sesamin, the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line transfected with Flag-tagged HO-1 was used. A proteasome inhibitor, MG-132 (10μM), stabilized HO-1 protein in HEK 293T cells. Co-treatment with sesamin decreased ubiquitinated HO-1 protein accumulation by MG-132. However, sesamin did not affect the proteasome activity. These findings suggest that sesamin disturbs the degradation of HO-1 protein through inhibiting its ubiquitination, resulting in HO-1 protein up-regulation.

  15. Indirect detection of superoxide in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using microchip electrophoresis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Richard P S; Siegel, Joseph M; Fresta, Claudia G; Caruso, Giuseppe; da Silva, José A F; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide, a naturally produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human body, is involved in many pathological and physiological signaling processes. However, if superoxide formation is left unregulated, overproduction can lead to oxidative damage to important biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. Superoxide can also lead to the formation of peroxynitrite, an extremely hazardous substance, through its reaction with endogenously produced nitric oxide. Despite its importance, quantitative information regarding superoxide production is difficult to obtain due to its high reactivity and low concentrations in vivo. MitoHE, a fluorescent probe that specifically reacts with superoxide, was used in conjunction with microchip electrophoresis (ME) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection to investigate changes in superoxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Stimulation was performed in the presence and absence of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitors, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and 2-metoxyestradiol (2-ME). The addition of these inhibitors resulted in an increase in the amount of superoxide specific product (2-OH-MitoE(+)) from 0.08 ± 0.01 fmol (0.17 ± 0.03 mM) in native cells to 1.26 ± 0.06 fmol (2.5 ± 0.1 mM) after PMA treatment. This corresponds to an approximately 15-fold increase in intracellular concentration per cell. Furthermore, the addition of 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) to the cells during incubation resulted in the production of 0.061 ± 0.006 fmol (0.12 ± 0.01 mM) of 2-OH-MitoE(+) per cell on average. These results demonstrate that indirect superoxide detection coupled with the use of SOD inhibitors and a separation method is a viable method to discriminate the 2-OH-MitoE(+) signal from possible interferences.

  16. 小檗碱对LPS、 IL-4诱导的小鼠RAW264.7细胞分泌TNF-α、 IL-10的影响%Effects of Berberine on TNF-α and IL-10 Secretion Induced by LPS and IL-4 in RAW264.7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴阳阳; 董燕; 易浪; 王青

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察小檗碱(Berberine, Ber)对脂多糖(LPS)以及白介素-4(IL-4)诱导的RAW264.7细胞株分泌炎症因子中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、抑炎因子白介素(IL-10)的影响,初步探讨Ber对巨噬细胞极化的影响。方法噻唑蓝(MTT)法测定小檗碱对RAW264.7细胞增殖的影响,选取半数抑制浓度(IC50)以下的小檗碱浓度作为干预剂量;酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测小檗碱对LPS以及IL-4不同诱导状态下RAW264.7细胞分泌TNF-α、 IL-10的影响。结果小檗碱对 RAW264.7细胞的 IC50在400~800μmol·L-1之间。 LPS 作用下RAW264.7细胞促炎因子TNF-α分泌量明显升高, Ber(剂量分别为5,10,20μmol·L-1)有显著的抑制作用,并有剂量依赖关系(均P<0.01);而LPS刺激下细胞IL-10分泌量也明显升高(P<0.05),而Ber仅在20μmol·L-1剂量下表现抑制作用。在IL-4作用下, RAW264.7细胞抗炎因子IL-10分泌量明显升高, Ber (剂量分别为5,10,20μmol·L-1)有显著的抑制作用,并呈现剂量依赖关系(均P<0.01); IL-4作用下TNF-α分泌量明显降低(P<0.05), Ber对TNF-α分泌量的影响无剂量依赖性。结论 Ber对LPS刺激下促炎因子TNF-α的分泌具有抑制作用,对IL-4诱导下IL-10分泌量的升高也有抑制作用,提示Ber在巨噬细胞极化过程中有调节作用。%Objective To observe the effects of berberine on inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10(IL-10) secreted by macrophage RAW264.7 cells after stimulated by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and IL-4 respectively, and to discuss preliminarily the effect of berberine on macrophage polarization. Methods The effect of berberine at the concentration under IC50 on RAW264.7 cells proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated by LPS and IL-4 respectively, and then the secretion of TNF

  17. Drug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria from the 264th hospital of PLA%解放军264医院常见革兰阴性细菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗晋华; 赵喜荣; 许淑秀; 蒲李霞; 杜叶平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of Gram-negative bacterial in the recent year in the 264th hospital of PLA and provide the basis for clinical use of the drugs reasonably.Methods Using ATB drug seneitive batten and K-B method for the drug susceptibility test and using WHONE software analysis of bacterial drug resistance by French BioMerieux ATB expression system.Results One thousand strains of Gram-negative bacteria mainly originates from the sputum,wound exudate,urine and blood,including Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bauman Acinetobaeter,Escherichia coli and Pneumonia Cray Borrelia bacteria,respectively 54.4%,28.3%,23.0% and 12.3%.The detection rate of Escherichia coil and Bacillus pneumonia Cray which was production of ESBLs were 54.5% and 49.6%,while the higher resistance rates of the commonly used Penicillin,and the minimum resistance rates of Imipenem and Meropenem were respectively 2.5% and 3.9% by contrary.Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa,the resistance rates of Ceftazidime and Imipenem were 35.2% and 48.0%.And for other antimicrobial drug resistance rate in 50.0% above,while the Bauman Acinetobacter,the resistance rates of Cefoperazone/Sulbactam was 38.3% and to other antimicrobial drug resistance rate in 80.0% above.Conclusions The mainly Gram-negative bacterial of nosocomail infection which are Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bauman Acinetobacter,Escherichia coli and Pneumonia Cray.Among Bauman Acinetobacter,emergence of extensively drugresistant.It is very important for rational use of antimicrobial drugs,enhance detection of bacterial resistance and drug-resistant control.%目的 探讨解放军264医院近一年临床常见革兰阴性细菌的分布与耐药性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 采用法国生物梅里埃ATB Expression细菌鉴定仪,用ATB药敏板条及K-B法进行药敏试验,用WHONE软件分析细菌的耐药性.结果 1030株革兰阴性细菌主要来源于痰液、伤口分泌物、

  18. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA, was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae. MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1. Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

  19. Molecular Weight-Dependent Immunostimulative Activity of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan via Regulating NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Huang, Yun-Juan; Xia, Mei-Sheng; Xiang, Xing-Wei; Qu, You-Le

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been found to possess many important biological properties, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. In our previous study, LMWCs were found to elicit a strong immunomodulatory response in macrophages dependent on molecular weight. Herein we further investigated the molecular weight-dependent immunostimulative activity of LMWCs and elucidated its mechanism of action on RAW264.7 macrophages. LMWCs (3 kDa and 50 kDa of molecular weight) could significantly enhance the mRNA expression levels of COX-2, IL-10 and MCP-1 in a molecular weight and concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that LMWCs elicited a significant immunomodulatory response, which was dependent on the dose and the molecular weight. Regarding the possible molecular mechanism of action, LMWCs promoted the expression of the genes of key molecules in NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, including IKKβ, TRAF6 and JNK1, and induced the phosphorylation of protein IKBα in RAW264.7 macrophage. Moreover, LMWCs increased nuclear translocation of p65 and activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1, C-Jun and C-Fos) in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggested that LMWCs exert immunostimulative activity via activation of NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages in a molecular weight-dependent manner and that 3 kDa LMWC shows great potential as a novel agent for the treatment of immune suppression diseases and in future vaccines. PMID:27657093

  20. Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sik Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were also reduced after the treatment with RMO. In addition, RMO diminished the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Blockade of nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NFκB was also observed after the treatment of RMO. Furthermore, RMO decreased the phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and its upstream kinases including MAPK kinases 3/6 (MKK3/6 and TAK 1 (TGF-β activated kinase 1. Gas chromatographic analysis on RMO revealed that RMO contained about 10% phytosterols including sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of RMO. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of RMO in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages could be associated with the inhibition of NFκB transcriptional activity, possibly via blocking the p38 MAPK pathway.

  1. Downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by a water extract of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill fruit in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Park, Sang Rul; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Gi-Young

    2013-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.

  2. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  3. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor secretion by RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with antibiotic-exposed strains of community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are associated with a marked and prolonged host inflammatory response. In a sepsis simulation model, we tested whether the anesthetic ketamine inhibits the macrophage TNF response to antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA bacteria via its antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 105 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of either of two prototypical CA-MRSA isolates, USA300 strain LAC and USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of either vancomycin or daptomycin. One hour before bacterial stimulation, ketamine was added with or without MK-801 (dizocilpine, a chemically unrelated non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, APV (D-2-amino-5-phosphono-valerate, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, NMDA, or combinations of these agents. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF concentration by ELISA. Results RAW264.7 cells exposed to either LAC or MW2 in the presence of daptomycin secreted less TNF than in the presence of vancomycin. The addition of ketamine inhibited macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the CA-MRSA isolates (LAC, MW2 in the presence of either antibiotic. The NMDA inhibitors, MK-801 and APV, also suppressed macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA isolates, and the effect was not additive or synergistic with ketamine. The addition of NMDA substrate augmented TNF secretion in response to the CA-MRSA bacteria, and the addition of APV suppressed the effect of NMDA in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions Ketamine inhibits TNF secretion by MRSA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the mechanism likely involves NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings may have therapeutic significance in MRSA sepsis.

  4. Suppressive Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Citrus aurantium L. in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells via NF-κB Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Rim Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL. The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL. Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  5. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) inhibits the inflammatory response in Raw 264.7 cells and atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Jianping; Qu, Hai'e; Song, Zhou; Yang, Zhanqing; Huo, Jinlong; Jiang, Huaizhi; Huang, Qinghua; Huo, Meixia; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Qiaoling

    2013-02-01

    The alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is one of five G-protein coupled receptors belonging to the melanocortin subfamily, MC1R gene has been known to play a major role in regulating of fur color in mammals, and α-MSH and ACTH are endogenous nonselective agonists for MC1R. However, we found that MC1R was highly expressed in Raw 264.7 cells which were important inflammatory cells involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses. In addition, Cyclic AMP is not only a key molecule in the MC1R signal transduction pathway, but dampen innate immune-mediated responses. These intriguing biological results triggered the further conformation studies; it suggested that MC1R was very likely to be an important role in immunoregulation. In this study, we were to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of MC1R on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and LPS induced vivo 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) model. The effects of the MC1R antagonist psoralen on pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Histological analysis. Our results show a consistent and marked effect of high concentrations of MC1R antagonist psoralen increased the level of MC1R mRNA in Raw 264.7 cells by cumulative feedback regulation through preferential binding of MC1R. Moreover, as evidenced by inhibiting the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6 and enhancing the expression level of cyclic AMP protein in vitro. In vivo study it was also observed that psoralen promoted on histopathologic changes in the skin tissue of TNCB-induced AD mice. Taken together, our results suggest that MC1R decrease the inflammation in vitro and vivo, and might be a therapeutic signaling pathway to against inflammatory diseases.

  6. N‑trans‑ρ‑caffeoyl tyramine isolated from Tribulus terrestris exerts anti‑inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han-Jik; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Joa Sub

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is induced by the expression of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2), which is an important mediator of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) is known to have a beneficial effect on inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of N‑trans‑ρ‑caffeoyl tyramine (CT) isolated from T. terrestris on the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and COX‑2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We also aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. We found that the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (EETT) and CT inhibited the production of NO, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑10 in the LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. They were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, CT markedly suppressed the expression of COX‑2 and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in response to LPS stimulation. Furthermore, CT markedly decreased p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (p‑JNK) protein expression in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. COX-2 and p-JNK were measured by western blot analysis. Taken together, these findings indicate that CT isolated from T. terrestris is a novel and potent modulator of inflammatory responses. Thus, it may prove benefiical to further evaluate CT as a possible treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Dead Lactobacillus plantarum Stimulates and Skews Immune Responses toward T helper 1 and 17 Polarizations in RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) in RAW 264.7 cells and murine primary splenocytes. nLp is a dead, shrunken, processed form of L. plantarum nF1 isolated from kimchi (a traditional Korean fermented cabbage) and is less than 1 μm in size. It was found that nLp treatment stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production more in RAW 264.7 macrophages than pure live L. plantarum (pLp), and that the stimulatory properties were probably largely derived from its cell wall. In addition, nLp induced murine splenocyte proliferation more so than pLp; in particular, a high dose of nLp (1.0 X 10(11) CFU/ml) stimulated proliferation as much as lipopolysaccharide at 2 μg/ml. Moreover, according to our cytokine profile results in splenocytes, nLp treatment promoted Th1 (TNF-α, IL-12 p70) responses rather than Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) responses and also increased Th17 (IL-6, IL-17A) responses. Thus, nLp stimulated NO release in RAW 264.7 cells and induced splenocyte proliferation more so than pLp and stimulated Th1 and Th17 cytokine production. These findings suggested that dead nLp has potential use as a functional food ingredient to improve the immune response, and especially as a means of inducing Th1/Th17 immune responses.

  8. Influence of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano-particles in different concentration on macrophage line RAW264.7 in mice%不同浓度超顺磁性氧化铁纳米粒子对小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩莎莎; 李俊峡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the influence of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano-particles ( SPIO ) in different concentration on the cell viability and phagocytic capacity of macrophage line RAW264.7 in mice. Methods RAW264.7 were cultured by using routine method, and then labeled with SPIO in different concentration ( 0 μg/mL, 14 μg/mL, 28μg/mL, 56 μg/mL, 84 μg/mL, 140 μg/mL, 280 μg/mL, 560 μg/mL and 840 μg/mL ) . The labeling yield was detected by using Prussian blue staining, cell viability was detected by using trypan blue, cell reproductive capacity was detected by using MTT assay, and cell phagocytic capacity was detected by using neutral red phagocytosis test. Results The labeling rate reached to 100% after labeling for 24 hours in SPIO with iron concentration of 84 μg/mL, and then as iron concentration in SPIO increased, the iron particles phagocytosed by RAW264.7 increased. When the iron concentration in SPIO was 280 μg/mL, the iron particles phagocytosed by RAW264.7 reached to saturation. When the iron concentration in SPIO was over 280 μg/mL, cell viability and phagocytic capacity decreased, and the iron concentration in SPIO was over 140 μg/mL, cell reproductive capacity decreased. Conclusion When the iron concentration in SPIO is ( 84-140 ) μg/mL and after labeling RAW 264.7 lor 24 hours, the labeling rale is 100% and cell viability, cell reproductive capacity and phagocytic capacity are not influenced.%目的 评价不同浓度超顺磁性氧化铁纳米粒子(superparamagnetic iron oxides,SPIO)对小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞的细胞活性及吞噬功能的影响.方法 常规方法培养小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞,应用不同浓度SPIO(0 μg/ml、14μg/ml、28μg/ml、56μg/ml、84μg/ml、140μg/ml、280μg/ml、560μg/ml、840μg/ml)标记小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞,采用普鲁士蓝染色检测细胞标记率,台盼蓝染色检测细胞活性,四唑盐(MTT)比色实验检测细胞增殖能力,中性红吞噬实验

  9. A High-Throughput Hardware Architecture for the H.264/AVC Half-Pixel Motion Estimation Targeting High-Definition Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel M. Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high-performance hardware architecture for the H.264/AVC Half-Pixel Motion Estimation that targets high-definition videos. This design can process very high-definition videos like QHDTV (3840×2048 in real time (30 frames per second. It also presents an optimized arrangement of interpolated samples, which is the main key to achieve an efficient search. The interpolation process is interleaved with the SAD calculation and comparison, allowing the high throughput. The architecture was fully described in VHDL, synthesized for two different Xilinx FPGA devices, and it achieved very good results when compared to related works.

  10. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Goon-Tae Kim; Nguyen Khoi Song Tran; Eun-Hye Choi; Yoo-Jeong Song; Jae-Hwi Song; Soon-Mi Shim; Tae-Sik Park

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. ...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Heterocarpin from the Salt Marsh Plant Corydalis heterocarpa in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

    OpenAIRE

    You Ah Kim; Chang-Suk Kong; Hyo Hyun Park; Eunkyung Lee; Mi-Soon Jang; Ki-Ho Nam; Youngwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of three chromones 1–3 and two coumarins 4–5 on the production of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among the compounds tested heterocarpin (1), a furochromone, significantly inhibited its production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, heterocarpin suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and expression of cytokines such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),...

  12. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha prolifera on the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Weon-Jong; Kim, Dong Sam; Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Min-Jin; Lee, Wook Jae; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 have been used as tools for the screening of anti-inflammatory agents. In a search for inhibitors of COX-2 and iNOS, we found that extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. We first extracted E. prolifera with 80% ethanol and the extract was partitioned with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water, succ...

  13. Prevention of copper-induced cell death by GC-rich DNA oligomers in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sakiko; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Impact of redox active transition metals on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. We have recently reported that GC-rich DNA oligomers with high affinity for binding of copper and catalytic activity for removal of ROS as novel plant cell-protecting agents. Here, we show that similar DNA oligomers protect the mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in plant model can be expanded to a wider range of cells and/or organisms including mammalian cells.

  14. Soluble Siglec-9 suppresses arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model and inhibits M1 activation of RAW264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Kojima, Toshihisa; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Jun; Furukawa, Koichi; Ono, Kenji; Sawada, Makoto; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soluble sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectin (sSiglec)-9 on joint inflammation and destruction in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and in monolayer cultures of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods DBA/1J mice were immunized with type II collagen. Effects of sSiglec-9 were evaluated using...

  15. Wpiegulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on protease secretion in RAW 264.7 cell and its possible mechanism%M-CSF促进RAW 264.7细胞MMP-9的分泌及其可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 许灿新; 彭翠英; 秦旭平; 李凯; 廖端芳

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(M-CSF)致动脉粥样硬化的作用是否与其影响基质金属蛋白酶(MMP)表达和活性改变有关及其可能机制.方法 应用明胶酶图分析方法观察M-CSF和(或)PD98059对体外培养的RAW 264.7细胞MMP-9活性的影响;Wester blot检测M-CSF和(或)PD98059对体外培养的RAW 264.7细胞p-ERK1/2表达的影响.结果 M-CSF能增强RAW 264.7细胞MMP-9的活性,并呈一定的剂量依赖性;同时M-CSF也呈时间、浓度依赖性促进p-ERK1/2的表达;PD98059不仅阻断了ERK1/2的磷酸化,而且也降低了MMP-9的活性.结论 M-CSF可诱导RAW 264.7细胞MMP-9的活性增加,其机制可能与M-CSF激活MAPK-ERK1/2通路有关.

  16. 三种成体干细胞对脂多糖诱导RAW264.7细胞炎症状态的影响%Effects of three different adult stem cells on inflammatory status of lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何妲; 彭琳; 黄生建; 陆文玲; 王建

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较人羊膜上皮细胞((human amniotic epithelial cell, H-AEC))、羊膜间充质细胞(human amniotic mesenchymal cell, HA-MSC)和脐带间充质细胞(Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, UC-MSC)分泌的细胞因子对脂多糖刺激巨噬细胞系RAW264.7炎症状态的影响。方法将LPS刺激的RAW264.7细胞炎症模型作为对照组,比较H-AEC、HA-MSC、UC-MSC和RAW264.7共培养或条件培养基培养RAW264.7对RAW264.7炎症状态的影响。比较各组RAW264.7细胞的迁移能力;检测各组细胞分泌一氧化氮(NO)的水平;用实时定量多聚酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测各组细胞经典激活的巨噬细胞(classically activated macrophage, M1 macrophage)相关的促炎基因如白介素-1β(IL-1β)、肿瘤坏死基因а(TNFа)、一氧化氮合成酶-2(NOS-2)以及M2 macrophage相关的抑炎基因如精氨酸酶(Arg-1)、甘露糖受体基因CD206、B类清道夫受体CD36)表达情况。结果(1)H-AEC、HA-MSC、UC-MSC处理后RAW264.7的迁移率分别为14.7%±4.5%、9.6%±0.7%、13.0%±0.9%,与对照组(31.1%±11.0%)相比,3种细胞的条件培养基处理后RAW264.7的迁移率均降低,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);(2)H-AEC、HA-MSC、UC-MSC共培养后RAW264.7细胞分泌NO的水平分别为24.26±0.72、44.52±2.51、42.25±0.76μmol/L,与对照组(45.65±1.78μmol/L)相比,H-AEC组细胞分泌的NO有显著性下降(P<0.05);(3)促炎基因与抑炎基因的表达改变:(A)H-AEC处理组促炎基因IL-1β、TNFа、NOS-2、INFβ的表达下调,与对照组相比有显著差别;HA-MSC、UC-MSC处理组促炎基因INFβ表达下调显著,其余基因均上调表达;抑炎相关基因如Arg-1、CD206、CD36均上调;(B)3组细胞干预后抑炎症相关基因Arg-1、CD206、CD36表达均上调,与对照组有显著差异。结论人羊膜上皮细胞、羊膜间充质细胞和脐带间充质细胞

  17. RNA干扰STAT3对弓形虫排泄分泌抗原抑制Raw264.7细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of RNA interference of STAT3 on antiapoptosis of excretory-secretory antigen from Toxoplasma gondii in Raw264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨STAT3对弓形虫排泄分泌抗原(ESA)抑制星形孢菌素诱导Raw264.7细胞凋亡的影响.方法 利用星形孢菌素制作Raw264.7细胞凋亡模型,通过RNA干扰STAT3表达,弓形虫ESA处理细胞,蛋白质印记法检测STAT3、pSTAT3、PARP、Cleaved Caspase-3和Cleaved Caspase-9蛋白表达水平.结果 弓形虫ESA呈浓度依赖性降低Raw264.7细胞Caspase-3活性(P<0.01),上调pSTAT3表达;经STAT3 siRNA转染后,弓形虫ESA对pSTAT3、Cleaved PARP、CleavedCaspase-3和Cleaved Caspase-9表达无明显影响.结论 STAT3是弓形虫ESA抑制细胞凋亡的关键因素之一.

  18. 5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-benzaldehyde inhibited LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators through the inactivation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kil-Nam; Ko, Seok-Chun; Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Junseong; Ko, Eun-Yi; Cho, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Daekyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2016-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5-bromo-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-benzaldehyde (BHMB) on inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 cells and the associated mechanism of action. BHMB concentration-dependently suppressed protein and mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2, thereby inhibiting the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. BHMB also reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of BHMB, we investigated the effects of BHMB on the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. BHMB suppressed the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α and markedly inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 and p50 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The compound also inhibited the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Taken together, these results illustrated that BHMB suppresses pro-inflammatory mediator and cytokine expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and the activation of NF-κB.

  19. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages.

  20. Wear particle-mediated expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines,NF-κB and RANK were impacted by lanthanum chloride in RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Min; JIANG Chuan; LIU Xiang; LI Zhe; CHENG Xigao; ZOU Yang; NIE Tao

    2013-01-01

    To explore the impact of different concentrations of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on critical components of wear particle-mediated signaling pathways in inflammation and osteoclastogenesis,RAW264.7 cells were naturally divided into eight groups and analyzed by CCK-8 assay,flow cytometry,ELISA,RT-PCR and western blot after treatments.The results showed that three concentrations of LaCl3 had no influence on viability of RAW264.7 cells and down-regulated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) instead of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR).Additionally,2.5 and 10 μmol/L LaCl3 could signifi-cantly inhibit gene and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-lβ,i.e.,TNF-α and IL-1β) and NF-κB/p65,but 100 μrnol/L LaCl3 did not exert an obvious inflammation-inhibiting effect,and even induced inflammation.In conclusion,these findings demonstrated that LaC13 was able to suppress wear particle-induced inflammation and activation of NF-κB in a certain range of concentrations in vitro and mainly decrease the expression of RANK,but not M-CSFR,all of which were generally recognized to play a pivotal role in osteoclastogenesis.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L. have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%. Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005–0.01%. Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin- (IL- 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan; Zhang, Xitong; Bi, Yang; Miao, Ruidong; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO) extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%). Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005–0.01%). Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin- (IL-) 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion. PMID:26425131

  3. XH-14, a novel danshen methoxybenzo[b]furan derivative, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Geun-Mook

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XH-14 isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza is a bioactive component and adenosine antagonist. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of XH-14 in murine macrophages. Methods RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line was cultured with various concentrations of XH-14 in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. LPS-induced release and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators were examined by ELISA and real-time PCR. The modification of signal pathways involved in inflammatory reactions was determined by Western blotting analysis. Results XH-14 suppressed the generation of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2, and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS. Similarly, XH-14 inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. The underlying mechanism of XH-14 on anti-inflammatory action was correlated with down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and activator protein-1 activation. Conclusions XH-14 inhibits the production of several inflammatory mediators and so might be useful for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  4. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7. Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  5. Effect of Quercetin on Paraoxonase 2 Levels in RAW264.7 Macrophages and in Human Monocytes—Role of Quercetin Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Mueller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the intracellular antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 2 (PON2 may have a protective function in the prevention of atherogenesis. An enhancement of PON2 activity by dietary factors including flavonoids is therefore of interest. In the present study we determined the effect of quercetin on paraoxonase 2 levels in cultured murine macrophages in vitro and in overweight subjects with a high cardiovascular risk phenotype supplemented with 150 mg quercetin/day for 42 days in vivo. Supplementation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages in culture with increasing concentrations of quercetin (1, 10, 20 μmol/L resulted in a significant increase in PON2 mRNA and protein levels, as compared to untreated controls. Unlike quercetin, its glucuronidated metabolite quercetin-3-glucuronide did not affect PON2 gene expression in cultured macrophages. However the methylated quercetin derivative isorhamnetin enhanced PON2 gene expression in RAW264.7 cells to similar extent like quercetin. Although supplementing human volunteers with quercetin was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma quercetin concentration, dietary quercetin supplementation did not change PON2 mRNA levels in human monocytes in vivo. Current data indicate that quercetin supplementation increases PON2 levels in cultured monocytes in vitro but not in human volunteers in vivo.

  6. Isorhamnetin-3-O-Glucuronide Suppresses JNK and p38 Activation and Increases Heme-Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Song-In; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Chun, Wanjoo

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical Research Isorhanmetin (ISH) exhibits a wide range of biological properties including anticancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the pharmacological properties of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide (IG), a glycoside derivative of ISH, have not been extensively examined. The objective of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory properties of IG and its underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 macrophage cells in comparison with its aglycone, ISH. IG suppressed LPS-induced extracellular secretion of the proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 , and proinflammatory protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2. IG also increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). IG attenuated LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in a concentration-dependent manner with negligible suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IG exerts anti-inflammatory activity by increasing HO-1 expression and by suppressing JNK and p38 signaling pathways in LPS-challenged RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Drug Dev Res 77 : 143-151, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Various Cultivars of Kiwi Berry (Actinidia arguta) on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangxue; Lee, Sang Gil; Kang, Hee; Heo, Ho Jin; Cho, Youn-Sup; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-08-28

    The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of three cultivars of Actinidia arguta Planch. kiwi berries; cv. Mansoo (Mansoo), cv. Chiak (Chiak), and cv. Haeyeon (Haeyeon). In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of the three cultivars of kiwi berries were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Mansoo had the highest total phenolic content and TAC among the three cultivars, whereas Chiak had the highest total flavonoid content. The total antioxidant capacities of the kiwi berry extracts were more strongly correlated with total phenolic content than with total flavonoid content. The kiwi berry extracts suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The release of nitrite, an indirect indicator of nitric oxide, was also ameliorated by pre-treatment with the kiwi berry extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular-based measurements of antioxidant capacity exhibited that the kiwi berry extracts had cellular antioxidant capacities. Such cellular antioxidant effects are possibly attributed to their direct antioxidant capacity or to the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation via anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings suggest that kiwi berries are potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

  8. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  9. Chrysin, Apigenin and Acacetin Inhibit Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis—Inducing Ligand Receptor-1 (TRAIL-R1 on Activated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Warat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression level of Tumor Necrosis Factor—related apoptosis—inducing ligand (TRAIL receptors is one of the most important factors of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. We here report for the first time data concerning TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 receptor expression on RAW264.7 macrophages. Three substances belonging to flavones: chrysin, apigenin and acacetin which differ from their substituents at the 4' position in the phenyl ring were used in assays because of the variety of biological activities (e.g., anticancer activity of the polyphenol compounds. The expression of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 death receptors on non-stimulated and LPS (lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was determined using flow cytometry. We demonstrate that RAW264.7 macrophages exhibit TRAIL-R1 surface expression and that the tested compounds: chrysin, apigenin and acacetin can inhibit TRAIL-R1 death receptor expression level on macrophages.

  10. Differential Role of Rapamycin and Torin/KU63794 in Inflammatory Response of 264.7 RAW Macrophages Stimulated by CA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah K. H. Shappley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rapamycin suppresses the RAW264.7 macrophage mediated inflammatory response but in lower doses induces it. In the present study, we tested the suppression of the inflammatory response in the presence of mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors, Torin and KU63794. Methods. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 106 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of community-acquired- (CA- MRSA isolate, USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of Vancomycin. Then, in sequential experiments, we added Torin, KU63794, and Rapamycin alone and in various combinations. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF, IL-1, IL-6, INF, and NO. Results. Rapamycin induces 10–20% of the inflammatory cascade at dose of 0.1 ng/mL and suppresses it by 60% at dose of 10 ng/mL. The induction is abolished in the presence of Torin KU63794. Torin and KU63794 are consistently suppressing cytokine production 50–60%. Conclusions. There is a differential response between Rapamycin (mTOR-1 inhibitor and Torin KU63794 (mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors. Torin and KU63794 exhibit a dose related suppression. Rapamycin exhibits a significant induction-suppression biphasic response. Knowledge of such response may allow manipulation of the septic inflammatory cascade for clinical advantages.

  11. Acanthopanax koreanum roots inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax koreanum is a popular plant found on Jeju Island, Korea and is commonly used to prevent the side effects of consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, this plant has not been properly utilized as a medicinal material. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of A. koreanum roots (AKR-E. The results indicated that the AKR-E (200 μg/mL inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 41.2% and 78.9%, respectively. These effects were accompanied by concentration-dependent decreases in the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins. Additionally, the AKR-E inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-6 (22.7% and IL-1β (74%. These data showed that the AKR-E had protective effects against the induction of LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  12. A Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-MA Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

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    You-Chang Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available KIOM-MA was recently reported as a novel herbal medicine effective for atopic dermatitis and asthma. In this study, we have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of KIOM-MA on proinflammatory mediator produced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. KIOM-MA significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on PGE2, KIOM-MA suppresses the LPS-induced migration of macrophages and gelatinase activity and the expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, KIOM-MA showed a strong suppressive effect on the inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. We also found that KIOM-MA inhibits the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and represses the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Taken together, we elucidated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of KIOM-MA using RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS.

  13. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract.

  14. 2-Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators by Downregulating of MAPK/NF-κB Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Fen; Liao, Kang-Chun; Chen, Chung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory pharmacological effect of eight 2-phenylnaphthalenes (PNAP-1−PNAP-8) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 (a mouse cell line) was investigated. Among them, 6,7-dihydroxy-2-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)naphthalene (PNAP-6) and 2-(4′-aminophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxynaphthalene (PNAP-8) exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity in this study. PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 not only significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, but also inhibited the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS stimulated cells. Moreover, PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by decreasing the degradation of IκB and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit (p65). In addition, PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 also attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. These results suggest that PNAP-6 and PNAP-8 exert anti-inflammatory activities by down regulating NF-κB activation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. This is the first study demonstrating that PNAPs can inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages cells. PMID:28060845

  15. Biphasic influence of PGE2 on the resorption activity of osteoclast-like cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Anne-Helen; Hempel, Ute; Anderer, Ursula; Dieter, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclasts are large bone-resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin. Their main function is to dissolve the inorganic component hydroxyapatite and to degrade the organic bone matrix. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) indirectly affects osteoclasts by stimulating osteoblasts to release factors that influence osteoclast activity. The direct effect of PGE2 on osteoclasts is still controversial. To study the influence of PGE2 on osteoclast activity, human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMC) and mouse RAW264.7 cells were cultured on osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix. hPBMC and RAW264.7 cells were differentiated by the addition of macrophage colony-stimulation factor and receptor activator of NFκB ligand and treated with PGE2 before and after differentiation induction. The pit area, an indicator of resorption activity, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were dose-dependently inhibited when PGE2 was present ab initio, whereas the resorption activity remained unchanged when the cells were exposed to PGE2 from day 4 of culture. These results lead to the conclusion that PGE2 treatment inhibits only the differentiation of precursor osteoclasts whereas differentiated osteoclasts are not affected.

  16. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders.

  17. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

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    Seong Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Banhasasim-tang (BHSST is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and interleukin- (IL- 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Preparation of procyanidin B2 from apple pomace and its inhibitory effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages

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    Huawei Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimeric procyanidin B2 (PB2 is one of phenolic compounds in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. This work focused on purification of PB2 from apple pomace using sephadex column chromatography and its potential effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation using RAW264.7 macrophages. PB2 with the purity of 72.28 ± 1.85% was successfully afforded using resin and gel column chromatographic technique. Anti-inflammatory tests suggested that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in LPS-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophages was suppressed in a PB2 concentration-dependent manner. PB2 at no less than 50 μg·mL-1 could significantly suppress inflammation in the LPS-induced cells. Moreover, this suppressive effect was not correlated with PB2 pretreating. However, the COX-2 expression was not reduced in LPS pretreatment way followed by PB2 exposure, which suggested that PB2 has no repairing function. The results showed that high pure PB2 prepared from apple pomace has a remarkable anti-inflammatory property.

  19. Inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B on inflammatory response and M1 phenotype polarization in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide%土荆皮乙酸对脂多糖诱导的RAW264.7巨噬细胞炎症反应及M1表型偏移的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉秀; 李覃; 姬文婕; 李宵; 马永强; 赵季红; 周欣; 李玉明

    2016-01-01

    目的 初步探讨土荆皮乙酸(PLAB)对脂多糖(LPS)诱导RAW264.7细胞抗炎作用及影响M1表型偏移的分子机制.方法 LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞建立体外炎症模型,给予0.5 μmol/L PLAB和1μmol/L过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体γ(PPARγ)阻滞剂GW9662处理.流式细胞术检测细胞周期变化,实时定量PCR检测PPARγ和M1型巨噬细胞标志物白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)的mRNA表达,Western blot法检测核因子κB (NF-κB)信号通路相关信号分子水平.结果 PLAB能够明显降低LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞的IL-1β、TNF-α的mRNA水平,上调PPARγ的mRNA水平.下调NF-κBp65、pNF-κB p65、IKKα、IKKβ、pIKKα/β、IκBα、pIκBα的蛋白水平,使RAW264.7细胞阻滞在G0和G2期.GW9662可以抵抗PLAB的抗炎作用.结论 PLAB抑制LPS诱导RAW264.7细胞炎症反应并抑制巨噬细胞向M1表型偏移,与影响细胞周期分布、调控NF-κB/PPARγ通路有关.

  20. A Parallel X264 Encoder Algorithm Based on the Inter-Frame and Intra-Frame Macroblock-Level%一种基于帧间和帧内宏块级的X264并行编码算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏妃妃; 梁久桢; 韩军

    2011-01-01

    结合H.264编码标准对X264编码器进行了分析与研究,目的在于提高编码速度,增强X264的实时性.在重点分析了宏块间数据依赖关系的情况下,针对帧间宏块级多线程并行编码的特点,本文提出了一种基于帧间和帧内宏块级的多线程并行编码算法.该算法在原有的帧间宏块级多线程并行编码的基础上,遵循宏块之间的空间相关性,为Ⅰ帧内每行宏块创建单独的线程,实现了帧间和帧内宏块级并行编码,达到了多粒度并行的效果.实验结果表明,该算法在视频序列能够有效地编码和保持峰值信噪比变化不大的情况下,提高了编码的加速比,从而加强了视频编码的实时性.%This paper studies the X264 encoder on the basis of a thorough knowledge about the H. 264 standard, aiming to accelerate the encoding speed and enhance the encoder's real-time ability. In the context of the data dependencies of the related macroblocks which are mainly analyzed, considering the characteristics of the parallel coding algorithm based on the macroblock-level of Inter-Frame, the paper proposes a new multi-thread parallel coding algorithm. On the basis of the original multi-thread parallel algorithm of the inter-frame macroblock-level and the following spatial correlation conditions,the algorithm which creates a thread for each row in the I frame,implements the parallel encoding of the inter-frame and intra-frame macroblock-level and achieves the effect of multi-granularity parallelism. The experimental results illustrate that the propsed algorithm improves the encoding speedup while the video sequences are effectively encoded and with the PSNR holds basically unchanged. ,and the real-time encoding is enhanced.

  1. The role of cannabinoid receptor 2 selective antagonist in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells%大麻素受体CB2选择性抑制剂对RAW264.7细胞分化为破骨细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿德春; 徐耀增; 朱雪松; 王骏骅; 王根林; 杨惠林

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察大麻素受体CB2选择性抑制剂-AM630对核因子(NF)-κB受体活化因子配体(RANKL)诱导的小鼠单核/巨噬细胞株RAW264.7向破骨细胞分化的影响.方法 实验分3组,即空白组,诱导组和药物组.采用噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测不同浓度AM630(0、50、100、200 nmol/L)刺激RAW264.7后24、48、72 h的细胞增殖活性.以50μg/L RANKL诱导RAW264.7,6 d后加入100 nmol/LAM630再培养24 h;抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶(TRAP)染色检测成熟破骨细胞,定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)测量CPK、RANK基因mRNA含量,Western blot检测ERK及P-ERK表达水平.结果 MTT结果表明AM630浓度为50、100、200 nmol/L时对RAW264.7细胞增殖能力无影响.TRAP染色结果表明药物组成熟破骨细胞数(65.60±4.83)/cm2明显少于诱导组(181.00±6.86)/cm2,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).定量RT-PCR结果证实,诱导组CPK和RANK基因mRNA含量分别为18.50±5.12和12.70±2.61;加入AM630后,上述基因mRNA含量为7.00±1.03和4.80±1.25;差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Western blot检测显示,AM630能下调RANKL诱导的P-ERK表达水平.结论 大麻素受体CB2选择性抑制剂-AM630能有效地抑制RANKL诱导的RAW264.7向破骨细胞分化.%Objective To observe the effect of cannabinoid receptor 2 selective antagonist-AM630 on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ( RANKL) -induced osteoclast differentiatioin using the monocytemacrophage cell line RAW264. 7. Methods The experiment involved 3 groups: black group, induced group and treatment group. Methylthiazol tetrazolium ( MTT) assay was used to analyze the viability of RAW264. 7 cells which were exposed to different concentrations of AM630 (0, 50, 100, 200 nmol/L).RAW264. 7 cells were plated at a density of 104 cells/well in six-well tissue culture plate and incubated with or without RANKL for 6 days, then 100 nmol/L AM630 was added for another 24 h. Osteoclast formation was measured by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining

  2. Effect of Viili exopolysaccharides on the activation, cell proliferation and cytokine production of murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7%Viili多糖对巨噬细胞RAW264.7激活及分泌细胞因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊华; 罗成

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to study the activation of RAW264. 7 cells upon stimulation of viili exopolysaccharides (VEPS). Cell proliferation in response to different concentrations of VEPS was analyzed by MTT, phagocytosis was detected by neutral red. The secretion of. IL-6 and IL-1β in the supernatant of cell culture was measured by Griess kit and Elisa kit, respectively. Cell morphology was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and cell cycles by flow cytometry. VEPS at 25 through 100 (g/ml promoted cell proliferation, phagocytosis as evidenced by uptake of neutral red, and release of NO, IL-6 and IL-1β by RAW264. 7 cells. The RAW264. 7 cells treated with LPS or VEPS alone, or in combination became flattened demonstrated by SEM, a strong indication of activation of macrophages. VEPS also increased cell number in phase G1. VEPS promoted activation of macrophages in which NO, IL-1β, IL-6 were involved in a very similar way as LPS, VEPS activate macrophages and may eventually activates lymphocytes as well, and increases both innate and specific immunity.%探讨viili胞外多糖(Viili exopolysaccharides,VEPS)对小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7激活和增殖的影响.噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测细胞的生长与增殖;中性红吞噬实验检测吞噬活性;Griess试剂盒检测培养上清液中NO分泌量,ELISA法检测VEPS不同浓度及不同作用时间培养上清中IL-6,IL-1β含量;扫描电子显微镜观察VEPS对细胞形态的影响;碘化丙啶(PI)染色检测VEPS对细胞周期的影响.结果显示,VEPS对RAW264.7细胞的增殖、吞噬能力、分泌NO、IL-6、IL-1β等都有显著的促进作用,VEPS为100 μg/ml时促进作用最明显,呈剂量相关,作用72 h时细胞因子分泌量达到最大,72 h后下降.VEPS激活巨噬细胞并使其变得扁平伸展且形成伪足.VEPS促进G1期细胞增多,提高细胞的增殖能力.VEPS免疫调节作用与其激活RAW264.7细胞,促进NO、IL-6、IL-1

  3. Effect of P2X7 R gene silencing by RNA interference on proliferation and phagocytosis of murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7%干扰P2X7R基因对RAW264.7细胞增殖和吞噬的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏程程; 姬文婕; 张译丹; 马永强; 陈雪芬; 向国安; 周欣; 彭守春; 林志春; 魏路清

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用RNA干扰技术抑制小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7细胞P2X7受体( P2X7 R)基因的表达,建立稳定干扰细胞株,并观察其对细胞增殖和凋亡的影响。方法:用脂质体法将P2X7 R shRNA重组质粒转染至RAW264.7细胞,经 G418筛选后获得稳定干扰细胞株。细胞分为野生型( WT )组、阴性对照( NC )组和干扰(shP2X7R)组。 Real-time PCR法检测细胞中P2X7R mRNA的表达,Western blot检测细胞中P2X7R蛋白的表达;CCK-8方法检测细胞生长活性,5-乙炔基-2’-脱氧尿苷(5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine,EdU)掺入实验检测细胞增殖活性;流式细胞术分析细胞周期的分布和吞噬情况。结果:P2X7 R shRNA能明显抑制RAW264.7细胞的P2X7 R mR-NA和蛋白的表达,抑制率在80%以上。48 h后,shP2X7R组细胞的生长速度明显高于NC组和WT组(P<0.05),增殖期细胞比例明显升高(P<0.05),说明下调P2X7R基因能明显促进细胞增殖。 shP2X7R组的细胞周期出现改变,S期和G2/M期的比例明显上升,增殖指数增高(P<0.05)。 shP2X7R组的细胞吞噬活性明显高于NC组(P<0.05)。结论:本研究成功构建了稳定干扰P2X7 R基因表达的小鼠巨噬细胞株RAW264.7,shP2X7 R能够明显促进RAW264.7细胞的增殖,改变了细胞的吞噬活性。%AIM: To establish a cell line of stable silencing of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) expression through short hairpin RNA ( shRNA)-mediated interference in murine RAW264.7 macrophages, and to investigate the proliferation and apoptosis in the cell line.METHODS:Stable silencing of P2X7 R gene in the RAW264.7 cells was achieved by re-combinant shRNA plasmid targeting murine P2X7 R gene via liposome mediated transfection, followed by G418 selection. The efficacy of plasmid transfection and P2X7 R silencing in G418 resistant cells was verified by immunofluorescent micros-copy and real-time PCR

  4. Phellinus linteus inhibits inflammatory mediators by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Gyoung; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lee, Won Ho; Han, Sang Kuk; Shrestha, Bhushan; Kim, Chun Hoi; Lim, Mi Hee; Chang, Woochul; Lim, Soyeon; Choi, Sunga; Song, Won O; Sung, Jae Mo; Hwang, Ki Chul; Kim, Tae Woong

    2007-12-03

    The mushroom Phellinus linteus has been known to exhibit potent biological activity. In contrast to the immuno-potentiating properties of Phellinus linteus, the anti-inflammatory properties of Phellinus linteus have rarely been investigated. Recently, ethanol extract and n-BuOH fractions from Phellinus linteus were deemed most effective in anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The regulatory mechanisms of Phellinus linteus butanol fractions (PLBF) on the pharmacological and biochemical actions of macrophages involved in inflammation have not been clearly defined yet. In the present study, we tested the role of PLBF on anti-inflammation patterns in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. To investigate the mechanism by which PLBF inhibits NO and PGE2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, we examined the activation of IkappaB and MAPKs in LPS-activated macrophages. PLBF clearly inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunits, which correlated with PLBF's inhibitory effects on IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation. PLBF also suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including p38 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with LPS generated ROS via activation of membrane-bound NADPH oxidase, and ROS played an important role in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and MAPKs. We demonstrated that PLBF directly blocked intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS much as the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium, and antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate did. The suppression of NADPH oxidase also inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression. Cumulatively, these results suggest that PLBF inhibits the production of NO and PGE2 through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 gene

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an enzymatic digest of brown seaweed Sargassum horneri in RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Kalu Kapuge Asanka; Fernando, Ilekkuttige Priyan Shanura; Kim, Eun-A; Jee, Youngheun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sargassum horneri is an edible brown alga that grows in the subtidal zone as an annual species along the coasts of South Korea, China, and Japan. Recently, an extreme amount of S. horneri moved into the coasts of Jeju Island from the east coast of China, which made huge economic and environmental loss to the Jeju Island. Thus, utilization of this biomass becomes a big issue with the local authorities. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of crude polysaccharides (CPs) extracted from S. horneri China strain in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS CPs were precipitated from S. horneri digests prepared by enzyme assistant extraction using four food-grade enzymes (AMG, Celluclast, Viscozyme, and Alcalase). The production levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were measured by Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by using western blot. The IR spectrums of the CPs were recorded using a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer. RESULTS The polysaccharides from the Celluclast enzyme digest (CCP) showed the highest inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (IC50 value: 95.7 µg/mL). Also, CCP dose-dependently down-regulated the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β, compared to the only LPS-treated cells. In addition, CCP inhibited the activation of NF-κB p50 and p65 and the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis showed that the FT-IR spectrum of CCP is similar

  6. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF1-3’ A) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖君华; 胡芳; 徐红岩; 苏兵; 蒋跃明; 罗竞春; 张蔚翎; 谈家桢; 金力; 卢大儒

    2000-01-01

    CCR5-Δ2, CCR2-641, mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3’ A, mutant in a ligand gene, can delay AIDS pathogenesis. The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China. No CCR5-Δ32 was observed. CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’ A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China, with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively. Relative hazard was evaluated. Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  7. Evaluation of anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of Pelagia noctiluca venom in Lipopolysaccharide/Interferon-γ stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Yosra; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Laouini, Dhafer; Bacha, Hassen

    2016-12-01

    Components of Pelagia noctiluca (P. noctiluca) venom were evaluated for their anticancer and nitric Oxide (NO) inhibition activities. Three fractions, out of four, obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G75 of P. noctiluca venom revealed an important selective anti-proliferative activity on several cell lines such as human bladder carcinoma (RT112), human glioblastoma (U87), and human myelogenous leukemia (K562) but not on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interestingly, P. noctiluca components showed an important dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity, through inhibition of NO production via transcriptional regulation of Inducible NO Synthase (iNOS), in IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These data strongly suggest that P. noctiluca venom could be used as a natural inhibitor of cancer cell lines and a potent anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.

  8. High-resolution, low-delay, and error-resilient medical ultrasound video communication using H.264/AVC over mobile WiMAX networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, Andreas; Antoniou, Zinonas C; Mylonas, Yiannos; Pattichis, Marios S; Pitsillides, Andreas; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we describe an effective video communication framework for the wireless transmission of H.264/AVC medical ultrasound video over mobile WiMAX networks. Medical ultrasound video is encoded using diagnostically-driven, error resilient encoding, where quantization levels are varied as a function of the diagnostic significance of each image region. We demonstrate how our proposed system allows for the transmission of high-resolution clinical video that is encoded at the clinical acquisition resolution and can then be decoded with low-delay. To validate performance, we perform OPNET simulations of mobile WiMAX Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical (PHY) layers characteristics that include service prioritization classes, different modulation and coding schemes, fading channels conditions, and mobility. We encode the medical ultrasound videos at the 4CIF (704 × 576) resolution that can accommodate clinical acquisition that is typically performed at lower resolutions. Video quality assessment is based on both clinical (subjective) and objective evaluations.

  9. Proteomic analysis of pycnogenol effects in RAW 264.7 macrophage reveals induction of cathepsin D expression and enhancement of phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Huang, Huei-Sheng; Chou, Siao-Ping; Wu, Hung

    2007-11-28

    Pycnogenol, polyphenolic compounds extracted from the pine bark, is beneficial for human health. To understand more of its effects, the present study is to explore the protein expression pattern induced by pycnogenol in RAW 264.7 cells. Global analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that treatment with pycnogenol induces upregulation of four proteins, whose identities were revealed by mass spectrometry as cathepsin D, keratinocyte lipid-binding protein, proteasome subunit alpha type 1, and annexin IV. The pycnogenol effect displayed a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Unlike pycnogenol, N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin C had no effect on cathepsin D expression. Further studies showed that cathepsin D induction is correlated with an increase of lysosomal staining and enhancement of phagocytosis. These results reveal the novel effects of pycnogenol on protein expression and phagocytic functions and illustrate the advantage of proteomics-based strategy in unveiling the molecular basis of phytochemicals.

  10. 测试H.264/AVC视频的鲁棒性传输的宏块分配映射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Zeeshan Mahfooz

    2012-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准给易出错网络的视频鲁棒性传输过程中提供了一些误差恢复技术。灵活的宏块排序(FMO)是其中之一,它采用宏块分配映射(MBAmap)来分离框架中可能出现的误差。本文将提出一个新的测试MBAmap的方法。我们采用这种技术来测试MBAmaps从而支持在解码过程中的误差隐藏并且增强接收视频的主客观质量。

  11. 测试H.264/AVC视频的鲁棒性传输的宏块分配映射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Zeeshan Mahfooz

    2012-01-01

    H.264/AVC视频压缩标准给易出错网络的视频鲁棒性传输过程中提供了一些误差恢复技术.灵活的宏块排序(FMO)是其中之一,它采用宏块分配映射(MBAmap)来分离框架中可能出现的误差.本文将提出一个新的测试MBAmap的方法.我们采用这种技术来测试MBAmaps从而支持在解码过程中的误差隐藏并且增强接收视频的主客观质量.

  12. Mycelial Extract of Phellinus linteus Induces Cell Death in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Elevation of Nitric Oxide in Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Lee, Dong-Soo; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Kye-Kwan; Kim, Kyu-Joong; Kim, Jong-Lae

    2006-09-01

    In the present study, in order to investigate the anti-proliferative phenomenon of PLME, the effects of mycelial extract of Phellinus linteus (PLME) on the growth of human lung carcinoma cell line A549 was examined. We studied on the effects of PLME on the release of nitric oxide (NO) in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment of PLME to A549 cells resulted in the growth inhibition, morphological change and induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay. We found that PLME stimulated a dose-dependent increase in NO production. These findings suggest that PLME enhances the anti-tumoral activity of macrophage and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the control of human lung carcinoma cells.

  13. Anthemis wiedemanniana essential oil prevents LPS-induced production of NO in RAW 264.7 macrophages and exerts antiproliferative and antibacterial activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Celik, Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    Anthemis wiedemanniana is known in folk medicine for the treatment of microbial infections, cancer and also urinary and pulmonary problems. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. wiedemanniana was evaluated and its antibacterial activity was tested against 10 bacterial strains. The oil was also tested for its potentiality to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and for its cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines. A. wiedemanniana oil, rich of oxygenated monoterpenes (25.4%), showed a good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and a good activity against the two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Besides that, it exhibited a high inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced nitrite production and a strong cytotoxic activity, especially against amelanotic melanoma (C32) and large lung cell carcinoma (COR-L23) cell lines.

  14. CRISPR/CAS9-Mediated Genome Editing of miRNA-155 Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixia Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA 155 (miR-155 is a key proinflammatory regulator in clinical and experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here we generated a miR-155 genome knockout (GKO RAW264.7 macrophage cell line using the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CAS9 technology. While upregulating the Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1, the miR-155 GKO line is severely impaired in producing proinflammatory cytokines but slightly increased in osteoclastogenesis upon treatment with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL. Taken together, our results suggest that genome editing of miR-155 holds the potential as a therapeutic strategy in RA.

  15. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL).

  16. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuto Federica

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA compared to untreated quartz (Q in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-α, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that TNF-α mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-α production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Conclusion Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals.

  17. Roxatidine suppresses inflammatory responses via inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eu-Jin; An, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Ko, Jane; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Hyung-Min; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2011-12-01

    Roxatidine is a novel, specific, competitive H(2) -receptor antagonist that is used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers, and which is known to suppress the growth of several tumors by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether roxatidine has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we the authors investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of roxatidine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. It was found that roxatidine dose-dependently inhibited the productions of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), nitric oxide (NO), and histamine, and the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and histidine decarboxylase (HDC). In addition, roxatidine reduced the productions and expressions of VEGF-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including those of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and reporter gene assays revealed that treatment with roxatidine attenuated the LPS-induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, it was found that pretreatment with roxatidine significantly inhibited the nuclear translocations of the p65 and p50 subunits of NF-κB, and these inhibitions were not found to be associated with decreases in the phosphorylation or degradation of inhibitory kappa B-α (IκBα). Furthermore, roxatidine suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, but not of IκB kinase-α/β (IKKα/β), c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase (JNK), or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of roxatidine in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages are mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity and the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  18. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for phagocytosis of staphylococcus aureus by RAW 264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fei, E-mail: zhufei@zju.edu.cn; Yue, Wanfu; Wang, Yongxia

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor which controls the expression of various genes involved in immune responses. However, it is not clear whether NF-κB activation is critical for phagocytosis when Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated whether NF-κB cascade genes are altered in a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) when the cells were stimulated to activate a host innate immune response against live S. aureus or heat-inactivated S. aureus (HISA). NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1, Nfκbiz, Nfκbie, Rel, Traf1 and Tnfaip3 were up-regulated by all treatments at one hour after incubation. NF-κB play an important role in activating phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells infected with S. aureus. Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus and decreased the expression of NFκB1, IL1α, IL1β and TLR2 in this cell line. Our results demonstrate that S. aureus may activate the NF-κB pathway and that NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages. - Highlights: • NF-κB cascade genes such as Nfκb1 and Traf1 were up-regulated by heat-inactivated S. aureus. • Inhibition of NF-κB significantly blocked phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled S. aureus. • NF-κB activation is required for phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa on murine models of inflammation and RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Wan-Uk; Cho, Chul-Soo; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) have previously been reported. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of EOCO were investigated in two murine models of inflammation: Carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed by ELISA, the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by western blotting, and nitrite concentration was measured using Griess reagent. In mice with carrageenan-induced edema, paw thickness and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL-6 in paw homogenates were significantly decreased in the EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) group, as compared with the control group. In mice with thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, treatment with EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) reduced the number of total cells and suppressed tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), IL‑1β and IL‑6 levels in peritoneal fluid. In addition, EOCO reduced nitric oxide, TNF‑α and IL‑6 production, and suppressed iNOS and COX‑2 expression in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that EOCO may exert anti‑inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, and that these effects may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, EOCO may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  20. A High Dimensional Coordination Polymer Based on [β-Mo8O26]4- Inorganic Building Block: Synthesis, Structure and Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiao-Di; LI Chun-Yang; JIN Gang; CHANG Jia-Zhong; WANG Zhen-Ling

    2012-01-01

    A high dimensional copper coordination polymer {[Cu2(btb)2(H2O)4( -Mo8O26)] H2O}n(1, btb = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane) based on [ -Mo8O26]4 anions and flexible bis(triazole) ligands has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The crystallographic data show that complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic space group P with a = 9.7550(10), b = 10.3996(11), c = 10.9516(11), = 77.622(2), = 89.602(2), = 87.610(2), V = 1084.25(19)3, C16H34Cu2Mo8 N12O31, Mr = 1785.15, Dc = 2.734 g cm 3, μ(MoKα) = 3.303 mm 1, F(000) = 856, GOF = 1.060, Z = 1, the final R = 0.0376 and wR = 0.0982 for I 〉 2 (I). In 1, the inorganic building block [ -Mo8O26]4 anions are connected with each other to generate one-dimensional chains. Then the chains are further connected by Cu2+ ions to form a three-dimensional (3D) inorganic framework [Cu2( -Mo8O26)]n containing quadrangular channels, with the pcu alpha-Po primitive cubic topology. The btb ligands are encapsulated into the void of the 3D inorganic framework forming a new three-dimensional architecture. The thermal analysis illustrates that complex 1 retains a comparatively good thermal stability.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Solip; Nguyen, Van Thu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE2, butyl lucidenateD2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum.

  2. A non-synonymous coding change in the CYP19A1 gene Arg264Cys (rs700519 does not affect circulating estradiol, bone structure or fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jenny Z

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase P450 enzyme, coded by the CYP19A1 gene on chromosome 15q21.2. Genetic variation within the CYP19A1 gene sequence has been shown to alter the function of the enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a non-synonymous Arg264Cys (rs700519 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP is associated with altered levels of circulating estradiol, areal bone mineral density or fracture. Methods This population- based study of 1,022 elderly Caucasian women (mean age 74.95 ± 2.60 years was genotyped for the rs700519 SNP were analyzed to detect any association with endocrine and bone phenotypes. Results The genotype frequencies were 997 wildtype (97.6%, 24 heterozygous (2.3% and 1 homozygous (0.1%. When individuals were grouped by genotype, there was no association between the polymorphism and serum estradiol (wildtype 27.5 ± 16.0; variants 31.2 ± 18.4, P = 0.27. There was also no association seen on hip bone mineral density (wildtype 0.81 ± 0.12; 0.84 ± 0.14 for variants, P = 0.48 or femoral neck bone mineral density (0.69 ± 0.10 for wildtype; 0.70 ± 0.12 for variants, P = 0.54 before or after correction of the data with age, height, weight and calcium therapy. There were also no associations with quantitative ultrasound measures of bone structure (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and average stiffness. Conclusions In a cohort of 1,022 elderly Western Australian women, the presence of Arg264Cys (rs700519 polymorphism was not found to be associated with serum estradiol, bone structure or phenotypes.

  3. Inhibition of Cinnamic Aldehyde on Migration and M1 Polarization of Raw264.7 Macrophages Induced by LPS%桂皮醛对LPS诱导的Raw264.7巨噬细胞迁移和M1极化的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 王剑

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究桂皮醛对脂多糖(LPS)诱导的Raw264.7巨噬细胞迁移和M1极化的抑制作用.方法 培养Raw264.7巨噬细胞,随机分为空白对照组(不加LPS及药物)、LPS组(加入终浓度为20μg· L-1的LPS)、桂皮醛(0.1μmol·L-1,0.3 μmol· L-1)组.应用Transwell小室法观察桂皮醛对LPS诱导的巨噬细胞迁移的影响;应用流式细胞术观察桂皮醛对LPS诱导的巨噬细胞M1极化的影响.结果 Transwell小室迁移实验结果与流式细胞术检测结果均显示,LPS(20 ug· L-1)可明显促进RAW264.7巨噬细胞的迁移及M1极化(P<0.01);与LPS组比较,桂皮醛0.1 μmol· L-1组、桂皮醛0.3 μmol· L-1组可明显抑制LPS诱导的Raw64.7巨噬细胞的迁移和M1极化(P<0.01),且桂皮醛0.3 μmol· L-1组作用优于桂皮醛0.1 μmol· L-1组(P<0.05).结论 桂皮醛对LPS诱导的RAW264.7巨噬细胞的迁移和M1极化有明显抑制作用,且呈浓度依赖性.

  4. 淫羊藿苷联合齐墩果酸对RAW264.7小鼠巨噬细胞迁移和M1极化的影响%Effect of Combined Use of Icariin and Oleanolic Acid on Migration and M1 Polarization of RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明康文; 洪创雄; 姜涛; 王剑

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨淫羊藿苷与齐墩果酸联合使用对RAW264.7巨噬细胞迁移及极化的影响,并探究雌激素受体在此过程中的作用.[方法]培养RAW264.7巨噬细胞,随机分为空白组[不加脂多糖(LPS)及药物]、LPS组(加入终浓度为20 μg/L的LPS)、1.5 μmol/淫羊藿苷+1.5 μmol/L齐墩果酸组、3.0 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0μmol/L齐墩果酸组、雌激素受体拮抗剂ICI182780(终浓度1×10-3 mmol/)+1.5 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+1.5μmol/齐墩果酸组、ICI182780(终浓度1×10-3 mmol/L)+3.0μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0 μmol/L齐墩果酸组.应用Transwell小室迁移实验观察淫羊藿苷与齐墩果酸联合使用对LPS诱导的巨噬细胞迁移效应的影响;应用流式细胞术观察淫羊藿苷与齐墩果酸联合使用对LPS诱导的巨噬细胞M1极化的抑制作用,并用雌激素受体阻断剂ICI183780观察雌激素受体在这个过程中的作用.[结果]Transwell小室迁移实验结果表明:与空白组比较,LPS组可显著促进RAW264.7巨噬细胞的迁移(P<0.05);与LPS组比较,ICI182780+ 1.5 μmol/淫羊藿苷+1,5 μmol/L齐墩果酸组、ICI182780+3.0μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0 μmol/L齐墩果酸组均可显著抑制UPS诱导的RAW264.7巨噬细胞的迁移(P<0.05),且ICI 182780+ 3.0 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0 μ.mol/L齐墩果酸组作用优于ICI182780+ 1.5 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+1.5 μmol/L齐墩果酸组(P<0.05).流式细胞术检测结果显示:与空白组比较,LPS组CD 11c+表达显著升高(P<0.05),说明20 μg/L的LPS可以刺激RAW264.7巨噬细胞,使其向M1极化;与LPS组比较,1.5μmol淫羊藿苷+1.5 μmol/L齐墩果酸组、3.0μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0 μmol/L齐墩果酸组可协同LPS作用于RAW264.7巨噬细胞,使其向M1极化(P<0.05);与LPS组比较,ICI182780+ 1.5 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+1.5 μmol/L齐墩果酸组、ICI182780+ 3.0 μmol/L淫羊藿苷+3.0 μmol/L齐墩果酸组均可显著抑制LPS诱导的RAW264.7巨噬细胞向M1极化(P<0.05),且ICI182780+ 3.0

  5. Proteomic research on anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of curcumin in RAW264.7%RAW264.7细胞中姜黄素抗动脉粥样硬化作用机制的蛋白质组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢德赵; 林韬琦; 沃兴德; 王萍儿; 周云; 杨贞

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用凝胶内差异显示电泳技术和质谱技术研究姜黄素抗动脉粥样硬化的作用机制.方法:RAW264.7细胞和经过25 μmol.L-1姜黄素处理的RAW264.7细胞蛋白质经荧光染料Cy3,Cy5标记,与等量Cy2标记的内标混合后在同一胶中进行电泳分离,经不同光激发后扫描得到不同样品的蛋白质组图谱.经DeCyder6.5软件进行差异蛋白质组分析,并对差异蛋白质进行质谱鉴定.结果:ATP合成酶,MHC class Ⅱ,肌球蛋白轻链,细胞色素b5表达量增加,而磷酸二酯酶4D,eIF-3,Hnrpf蛋白,波形蛋白,核仁磷蛋白1,Ran结合蛋白1表达量降低.结论:姜黄素抗动脉粥样硬化作用的机制十分复杂,是其增强细胞抗炎、抗氧化能力以及抑制胆固醇转运,降低细胞内胆固醇积累等因素共同作用的结果.另外,姜黄素可能通过调节细胞的分化及凋亡起到抗肿瘤的作用.%Objective: Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrum were used to study the anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of curcumin.Method: The proteins from RAW264.7 cell and RAW264.7 cell treated with 25 μmol · L-1cureuain were labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 randomly.Each Cy3-labeled sample and Cy5-labeled sample was mixed on the same 2-D gel along with a Cy2-labeled mixture of all samples as an internal standard and nm on the same gel The gels were scanned under different wavelength light after electrophoresis.All images were analyzed by DeCyder 6.5 software, and the different proteins were identified by mass speetrum.Result: The expression of ATP synthesis H+ transporting, MHC class Ⅱ, non-mnscle myosin alkali light chain and cytochrome b5 increased in the RAW264.7 cell treated with 25 μmol · L-1 cureumin, while the expression of phosphodiesterase 4D, elF3, Hnrpf protein, vimentin, nucleophosminl and Ranhp 1 decreased.Conclusion: The anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of curcumin is the result of enhancement of the cell inflammation, antioxidant activity and

  6. 地拉罗司通过NF-κB信号抑制小鼠单核细胞RAW264.7向破骨细胞分化%Deferasirox inhibit differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 monocytes into osteoclasts through NF-κB signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国阳; 程千; 王波; 王亮; 张鹏; 徐又佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of deferasirox (DFS) on differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 monocytes into osteoclasts and its related mechanism .Methods RAW264.7 cells were treated with DFS in the presence of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL).Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8.The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ( TRAP) -positive cells were counted under light microscopy .The levels of transcription factor c-Fos, nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc-1) and cathepsin K (CTK) mRNA were analyzed by real-time PCR.The levels of reporter gene of nuclear transcription factor kappa B ( NF-κB) was examined by luciferase reporter assay .NF-κB P65 were detected by Western blotting .Results The number of TRAP-positive MNCs in RAW264.7 cells of 0, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L groups were 63.67 ±3.78 , 55.33 ±3.21 , 34.00 ±5.00 , 16.00 ±4.58 respectively .The significant differ-ence (P<0.05) indicated that DFS could significantly decrease the number of TRAP-positive MNCs.The mRNA expres-sion of c-Fos in the 4 groups were 1.83 ±0.11 , 1.46 ±0.13 , 0.88 ±0.13 , 0.30 ±0.09 , and the mRNA expression of NFATc-1 were 4.09 ±0.20 , 3.21 ±0.22, 2.28 ±0.23, 1.47 ±0.22.The mRNA expression of CTK were 3.51 ±0.08 , 3.21 ±0.19, 2.55 ±0.22, 1.50 ±0.19.The significant difference among the 4 groups in c-Fos, NFATc-1, and CTK genes ( P<0.05 ) indicated that DFS could down-regulate their mRNA expression .The level of receptor gene of NF-κB P65 in RANKL+DFS group ( 0.119 ±0.019 ) was obviously less than that in RANKL group ( 0.202 ±0.017 , P<0.05 ) .The results indicated that DFS could suppress expression of NF-κB reporter gene .The protein expression of NF-κB P65 in cytoplasm of RAW264.7 cells in RANKL+DFS group (0.56 ±0.08 ) was obviously more than that in RANKL group (0.42 ±0.09) with significant difference (P<0.05), and the protein expression of NF-κB P65 in nucleus of RAW264.7 cells in RANKL+DFS group (1.49 ±0.12) was obviously less than

  7. Spatial Genetic Structure of Two HIV-I-resistant Polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) Alleles in Population of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the spatial genetic structure of two HIV-I-resistant polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) alleles in the population of Shandong Province, China. Methods Using the techniques of spatial stratified sampling and spatial statistics, the spatial genetic structure of the locus (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A), which was shown to be important co-receptor for HIV infection, was quantified from the populations of 36 sampled counties of Shandong Province, and a total of 3147 and 3172 samples were taken for testing CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A respectively from individuals without known history of HIV-I infection and AIDS symptoms. Results There were significantly spatial genetic structures of the two alleles at different spatial distance classes on the scale of populations, but on the scale of individuals, no spatial structure was found in either the whole area of Shandong Province or the area of each sampled county. Although the change of frequencies of the two alleles with geographic locations in Shandong Province both showed gradual increase trends, their changing directions were inverse. The frequency of CCR2-64I allele gradually increased from the southwest to the northeast, while the frequency of SDF1-3'A allele gradually increased from the northeast to the southwest. However the RH to AIDS of combined types of their different genotypes did not represent obvious geographic diversity on the whole area of the Province. Conclusion The frequency of allele usually has some spatial genetic structures or spatial autocorrelation with different spatial distance classes, but the genotypes of individuals have random distribution in the same geographic area. Evaluating spatial distribution of the genetic susceptibility of HIV (AIDS) to CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles, should focus on the frequencies of combined genotypes of CCR2 and SDF1 based on the two-locus genotypes of each individual rather than the frequencies of CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles.

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce COX-2 and iNOS expression via MAP Kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are engineered graphene cylinders with numerous applications in engineering, electronics and medicine. However, CNTs cause inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent lung, suggesting a potential human health risk. We hypothesized that multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs induce two key inflammatory enzymes in macrophages, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1,2. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to MWCNTs or carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs over a range of doses and time course. Uptake and subcellular localization of MWCNTs was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Protein levels of COX-2, iNOS, and ERK1,2 (total ERK and phosphorylated ERK were measured by Western blot analysis. Prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO levels in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA and Greiss assay, respectively. Results MWCNTs, but not CBNPs, induced COX-2 and iNOS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. COX-2 and iNOS induction by MWCNTs correlated with increased PGE2 and NO production, respectively. MWCNTs caused ERK1,2 activation and inhibition of ERK1,2 (U0126 blocked MWCNT induction of COX-2 and PGE2 production, but did not reduce the induction of iNOS. Inhibition of iNOS (L-NAME did not affect ERK1,2 activation, nor did L-NAME significantly decrease COX-2 induction by MWCNT. Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs, which are present in MWCNTs as a residual catalyst, also induced COX-2 via ERK-1,2. However, a comparison of COX-2 induction by MWCNTs containing 4.5 and 1.8% Ni did not show a significant difference in ability to induce COX-2, indicating that characteristics of MWCNTs in addition to Ni content contribute to COX-2 induction. Conclusion This study identifies COX-2 and subsequent PGE2 production, along with iNOS induction and NO production, as inflammatory mediators involved in the macrophage response to

  9. Atractylenolide I inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangquan; Chen, Renqiong; Zheng, Jianxian

    2014-12-01

    Atractylenolide I (ATL-I) is a bioactive component of Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae. Although increasing evidence shows that ATL-I has an anti-inflammatory effect, the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of ATL-I is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of ATL-I on cell viability by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further, we examined the effect of ATL-I on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) by Western blot. We also investigated the effect of ATL-I on the expression of myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2), CD14, complement receptor 3 (CR3), scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). We found that ATL-I showed no inhibitory effect on cell viability at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 100 µM and markedly reduced the release of IL-6 and TNF-α at a concentrate-dependent manner. In addition, ATL-I suppressed the activity of nuclear NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Further analysis showed that ATL-I inhibited the expression of MD-2, CD14, SR-A, TLR4 and MyD88, but the expression of CR3 was unaffected. These data suggest that ATL-I shows an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-6 production. The anti-inflammatory effects of ATL-I may be associated with the inhibition of the NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these

  11. Effects of rapamycin on expression of ten kinds autophagy-related miRNAs in RAW264.7 macrophages%雷帕霉素对RAW264.7巨噬细胞10种与细胞自噬相关的miRNAs表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 郑锡铭; 周林林; 刘鑫; 赵瑾; 徐广贤

    2014-01-01

    目的:为了探讨雷帕霉素对RAW264.7细胞miR-30b、miR-200a和miR-17-5p等10种与细胞自噬相关的miRNAs表达水平的影响,为进一步研究miRNAs调控细胞自噬的机制提供理论依据。方法:雷帕霉素刺激RAW264.7巨噬细胞后,分别在2、4、6、8 h提取细胞small RNA,利用miRNA特异性的茎环引物反转录成cDNA,采用Real-Time PCR检测miR-30b、miR-30c、miR-106a、miR-214、miR-183、miR-200a、miR-376c、miR-17-5p、miR-142-3p、miR-377分子的表达情况。结果:雷帕霉素作用RAW264.7细胞后,miR-17-5p、miR-106在2、4、6 h表达上调(大于2.1倍P<0.05),miR-214在2、8小时表达上调(>2.4倍,P<0.05),miR-30b、miR-30c、miR-183、miR-200a、miR-376c、miR-142-3p在2、6、8 h表达上调(>2.4倍,P<0.05),而miR-183、miR-200a在4 h表达下调(>2.1倍,P<0.05),miR-30b在8小时则是显著性表达下调(大于50倍,P<0.05),miR-377在4 h则是表达上调(>2.5倍,P<0.05),但在2、8 h则是显著表达下调(>50倍,P<0.05)。结论:雷帕霉素刺激RAW264.7巨噬细胞后miR-200a、miR-30b、miR-377、miR-30c、miR-376c、miR-17-5p有显著性变化,说明这些miRNAs可能通过调控某些自噬相关基因在细胞自噬过程中发挥着重要作用。%To detect the influence of rapamycin on the expression of miR-30b,miR-200a and miR-17-5p etc in macrophages and provide the basis to study the regulation of miRNA in autophagy mechanism of macrophages .Methods: Small RNA was extracted at different times after stimulated with rapamycin in cultured RAW 264.7 cells.After using the stem-loop reverse transcription primers to reverse transcribed into cDNA ,the expression of miR-30b ,miR-30c,miR-106a,miR-214,miR-183,miR-200a, miR-376c,miR-17-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-377 was detected by Real-Time PCR.Results: After RAW264.7 cells was treated by rapamycin for 2,4,6 and 8 hours,the expression of miR-17-5p and miR-106

  12. Differential Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production by and Antioxidant Activity of Fomentariol in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Won; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Yun, Bong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used worldwide to treat cancer and modulate the immune system. Over the last several years, there has been increasing interest in isolating bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms and evaluating their health beneficial effects. Fomes fomentarius is used in traditional oriental medicine and is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects. In the present study, we isolated fomentariol from Fomes fomentarius and investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol inhibited the production of nitric oxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Interestingly, fomentariol differentially regulated cytokine production triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol effectively suppressed the production of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 but not tumor necrosis factor-α. The inhibitory effect of fomentariol against nitric oxide, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 production was possibly mediated by downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that fomentariol differentially modulated inflammatory responses triggered by lipopolysaccharides in macrophages and is one of the bioactive compounds that mediate the physiological effects of Fomes fomentarius.

  13. A new measure of Δα/α at redshift z = 1.84 from very high resolution spectra of Q 1101-264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Molaro, P.; Lopez, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Centurión, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; Reimers, D.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We probe the evolution of the fine-structure constant α with cosmic time. Methods: Accurate positions of the Fe II lines λ1608, λ2382, and λ2600 are measured in the z_abs = 1.84 absorption system from a high-resolution (FWHM ~ 3.8 km s-1) and high signal-to-noise (S/N ⪆ 100) spectrum of the quasar Q 1101-264 (z_em = 2.15, V = 16.0), integrated for 15.4 h. The Single Ion Differential α Measurement (SIDAM) procedure and the Δ χ2 method are used to set constraints on Δα/α. Results: We have found a relative radial velocity shift between the λ1608 and λλ2382,2600 lines of Δ v = -180 ± 85 m s-1 (both random and systematic errors are included), which, if real, would correspond to Δα/α = (5.4±2.5) × 10-6 (1σ C.L.). Considering the strong implications of a such variability, additional observations with comparable accuracy at redshift z ˜ 1.8 are required to confirm this result. Based on observations performed at the VLT Kueyen telescope (ESO, Paranal, Chile), the ESO programme No. 076.A-0463.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of physalin E from Physalis angulata on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Jun; Yi, Lang; Wang, Qing; Xie, Bing-Bing; Dong, Yan; Sha, Cong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Physalin E is a naturally occurring seco-steroid isolated from the stems and aerial parts of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae). This study was aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of physalin E on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the potential underlying mechanisms. The results showed that physalin E significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike dexamethasone, these effects could not be blocked by miferstone (RU486). Meanwhile, physalin E reduced the degradation of I-kappa B protein in the cytoplasm and downregulated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 protein in the nuclear, which resulted in the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation. In conclusion, physalin E exerts its anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced macrophages. Physalin E can inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. Zuonin B Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation via Downregulation of the ERK1/2 and JNK Pathways in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Young Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether Zuonin B exerts immunological effects on RAW264.7 cells. Zuonin B, isolated from flower buds of Daphne genkwa, suppressed the levels of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, as well as proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-(IL- 6, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, the compound inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Zuonin B attenuated NF-kappaB (NF-κB activation via suppressing proteolysis of inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α and p65 nuclear translocation as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Additionally, IL-4 and IL-13 production in ConA-induced splenocytes was inhibited by Zuonin B. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of Zuonin B are attributable to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators via blockage of NF-κB and AP-1 activation. Based on these findings, we propose that Zuonin B is potentially an effective functional chemical candidate for the prevention of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Neocryptotanshinone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppression of NF-κB and iNOS signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhong Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neocryptotanshinone (NCTS is a natural product isolated from traditional Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In this study, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 cells. MTT results showed that NCTS partly reversed LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR results showed that NCTS suppressed LPS-induced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Moreover, NCTS could decrease LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production. Western blotting results showed that NCTS could down-regulate LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, p-IκBα, p-IKKβ and p-NF-κB p65 without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. In addition, NCTS inhibited LPS-induced p-NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that NCTS showed anti-inflammatory effect by suppression of NF-κB and iNOS signaling pathways.

  17. Interleukin-21 promotes osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway independently of RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Zhang, Yingjian; Li, Changhong; Sun, Lin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Jinxia; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the bone destruction of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) promotes osteoclastogenesis in RA in a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent way. Whether IL-21 is capable of promoting osteoclastogenesis directly in the absence of RANKL remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the osteoclastogenic activity of IL-21 in RAW264.7 cells in the absence of RANKL. We found that IL-21 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and this was demonstrated by increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive stained, multinucleated cells compared with the negative control. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed the positive expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) in the IL-21 group. RT-PCR and RT-qPCR also verified the increased mRNA expression of CTR and cathepsin K in the IL-21 group compared with the negative control. The scanning electronic microscope images showed a few resorption pits on the bone slices cultured with IL-21. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed IL-21-induced osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-21 has direct osteoclastogenic potential independently of RANKL. IL-21 may promote osteoclastogenesis through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Therapy targeting IL-21 may be of value in preventing bone erosions in patients with RA. PMID:27599586

  18. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Punicalagin inhibits inflammation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages via the suppression of TLR4-mediated MAPKs and NF-κB activation.

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    Xu, Xiaolong; Yin, Peng; Wan, Changrong; Chong, Xinlu; Liu, Mingjiang; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Jiajia; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Jianqin

    2014-06-01

    Punicalagin (2,3,hexahydroxydiphenoyl-gallagyl-D-glucose and referred to as PUN) is a bioactive ellagitannin isolated from pomegranate, which is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diarrhea, and ulcers in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, we detected the anti-inflammation potentials of PUN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and tried to uncover the underlying mechanism. Results demonstrated that PUN (25, 50, or 100 μM) treatment could significantly decrease the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RAW264.7 cells. Molecular research showed that PUN inhibited the activation of upstream mediator nuclear factor-κB by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. Results also indicated that PUN could suppress the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In conclusion, we observed that PUN could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation, and it may be a potential choice for the treatment of inflammation diseases.

  20. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Goon-Tae; Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Choi, Eun-Hye; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Song, Jae-Hwi; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.

  1. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goon-Tae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.

  2. Ethyl linoleate from garlic attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Seetharaman, Rajasekar; Ko, Min Jung; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kwak, Jung Ho; Lee, Sang Joon; Bae, Yoe Sik; Choi, Young Whan

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, an essential fatty acid, ethyl linoleate (ELA), was isolated from the cloves of Allium sativum, and its structure was elucidated by NMR and GC-MS analyses. In vitro systems were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ELA. Our results indicate that ELA down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and thereby reduces nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescent microscopy and western blot analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by impaired translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases. Furthermore, ELA exerted its anti-inflammatory activity by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as determined by HO-1 small interfering (Si) RNA system. Si RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 abrogated the inhibitory effects of ELA on the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages. These findings indicate the potential therapeutic use of ELA as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of the active components from the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Bong-Sik; Kim, So-Young; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Sik; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a sesquiterpene lactone from the methanol extract of the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus, namely, MDI (a mixture of dihydrocallitrisin and isohelenin). The anti-inflammatory activity of MDI was evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MDI significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these results, the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was suggested to be suppressed by MDI in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value was 0.94 and 2.88 µg mL(-1) for NO and PGE2, respectively). In addition, MDI significantly inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, MDI attenuated DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB. These results indicate that MDI isolated from the roots of C. bipinnatus shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by modulating the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Maleylated-BSA suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production by activating the ERK-signaling pathway in murine RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Rui; Koide, Yusuke; Yamamuro, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Riki; Hidaka, Akira; Nagao, Koichiro; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages are well known for their ability to induce diverse beneficial immune responses, especially in the defense against pathogens. However, an excessive activation of macrophages may cause harmful inflammation. In this context, the suppression of excessive macrophage activation would be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. We have previously found that maleylated-bovine serum albumin (maleylated-BSA) suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages. However, the immunosuppressive effects and underlying mechanism(s) of maleylated-BSA remain unclear. Here, we report that pretreatment with maleylated-BSA strongly inhibited the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW264.7 cells. This inhibitory effect of maleylated-BSA on LPS-induced IL-6 production was eliminated by treatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, U0126, indicating the involvement of ERK pathways. Taken together, we have shown that maleylated-BSA suppresses LPS-induced production of IL-6 via the activation of an ERK signaling pathway in murine macrophages. The findings of this study imply the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases.

  5. The Effect of the Aerial Part of Lindera akoensis on Lipopolysaccharides (LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new secondary metabolites, 3α-((E-Dodec-1-enyl-4β-hydroxy-5β-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1, linderinol (6, 4'-O-methylkaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4''-E-p-coumaroylrhamnoside (11 and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4''-Z-p-coumaroylrhamnoside (12 with eleven known compounds—3-epilistenolide D1 (2, 3-epilistenolide D2 (3, (3Z,4α,5β-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (4, (3E,4β,5β-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (5, matairesinol (7, syringaresinol (8, (+-pinoresinol (9, salicifoliol (10, 4''-p-coumaroylafzelin (13, catechin (14 and epicatechin (15—were first isolated from the aerial part of Lindera akoensis. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. All of the compounds isolated from Lindera akoensis showed that in vitro anti-inflammatory activity decreases the LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO in RAW 264.7 cell, with IC50 values of 4.1–413.8 µM.

  6. Suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB Activation Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Action of Ginsenoside Rf in HT-29 and RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungeun; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Aceituno, Veronica Castro; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of ginsenoside Rf in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the intestinal tract. It is associated with elevated levels of various inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginsenosides, the main active constituents of ginseng, have been reported to exert potent therapeutic effects against diverse diseases. However, ginsenoside Rf treatment for inflammation has not yet been examined. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rf on the inflammatory mediators downstream of p38/NF-kB activation on TNF-α-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7). Our results showed that ginsenoside Rf significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in IBD. In addition, ginsenoside Rf significantly suppressed TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rf contains a compound that has potent intestinal anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat diseases such as IBD.

  7. Does squalene alter the antioxidant potential of astaxanthin and fucoxanthinol? In vitro evidence in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, Sangeetha; Narayan, Bhaskar; Kizawa, Yuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin (Ax) and fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol (FuOH) are marine xanthophylls exhibiting anti-oxidant effects. Squalene (SQ) is a triterpenoid and is a precursor of sterols. This study aimed to determine if SQ can improve the effect of Ax/FuOH on lipid peroxidation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Ax, FuOH and SQ and corresponding rate of cell survival was noted. In addition,combination groups - Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ- were also run. Cells treated with Ax, FuOH, SQ, Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and lipid hydroperoxides were estimated. Results showed that 5 μM Ax, 2 μM FuOH and 10 μM SQ supported cell survival. In presence of SQ, cell viability improved for higher concentrations of FuOH (5, 10 μM). Lipid hydroperoxides were supressed by Ax, FuOH, Ax + SQ and FUOH +SQ and were significantly lower in Ax + SQ, indicating the synergistic effect of Ax and SQ. To conclude, combination of Ax with SQ enhances its ability to supress lipid peroxidation while with FuOH, SQ attenuates the toxic effect at higher doses. Moreover, this is the first time that the combined effect of SQ and carotenoids has been studied and reported.

  8. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Amcois; Kasonga, Abe; Deepak, Vishwa; Moosa, Shaakirah; Marais, Sumari; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-10-28

    Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  9. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp. Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages—An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amcois Visagie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL, produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  10. Calmodulin Mediates DNA Repair Pathways Involving H2AX in Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure of RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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    Smallwood, Heather S.; Lopez Ferrer, Daniel; Eberlein, P. Elis; Watson, David J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2009-02-05

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that modulate macrophage radioresistance is necessary for the development of effective radiation therapies, as tumor-associated macrophages promote both angiogenesis and matrix remodeling that, in turn, enhance metastasis. In this respect, we have identified a dose-dependent increase in the abundance of the calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) in RAW 264.7 macrophages upon irradiation. CaM overexpression results in increased macrophage survival following radiation exposure, acting to diminish the sensitivity to low-dose exposures. Increases in CaM abundance also result in an increase in the number of phosphorylated histone H2AX protein complexes associated with DNA repair following macrophage irradiation, with no change in the extent of double-stranded DNA damage. In comparison, when NFκB-dependent pathways are inhibited, through the expression of a dominant-negative IκB construct, there is no significant increase in phosphorylated H2AX upon irradiation. These results indicate that the molecular basis for the up-regulation of histone H2AX mediated DNA-repair pathways is not the result of nonspecific NFκB-dependent pathways or a specific threshold of DNA damage. Rather, increases in CaM abundance act to minimize the low-dose hypersensitivity to radiation to enhance macrophage radioresistance through processes that include the upregulation of DNA repair pathways involving histone protein H2AX phosphorylation.

  11. Nogo-B Facilitates LPS-Mediated Immune Responses by Up-Regulation of TLR4-Signaling in Macrophage RAW264.7

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    Ying Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon family of proteins, is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here, we investigate the function and mechanism of Nogo-B in the regulation of TLR4-associated immune responses in the macrophage cell line of RAW264.7. Methods: Nogo-B was up- and down-regulated through the use of appropriate adenoviral vectors or siRNA, and the effects of Nogo-B on macrophages under liposaccharide (LPS stimulation were evaluated via western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay. Results: Our data indicates that the protein of Nogo-B was down-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner following LPS administration in the macrophage. Nogo-B overexpression increased the production of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β, enhanced macrophage migration activities, activated major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II, and elevated the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1(MSR1, all of which suggest that Nogo-B is necessary for immune responses and plays an important role in regulating macrophage recruitment. Mechanistically, Nogo-B may enhance TLR4 expression in macrophage surfaces, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and initiate inflammatory responses. Conclusion: These findings illustrate the key regulatory functions of Nogo-B in facilitating LPS-mediated immune responses through promoting the phosphorylation of MAP kinase.

  12. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis. PMID:26726017

  13. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  14. A High-Throughput and Low-Complexity H.264/AVC Intra 16×16 Prediction Architecture for HD Video Sequences

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    M. Orlandić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available H.264/AVC compression standard provides tools and solutions for an efficient coding of video sequences of various resolutions. Spatial redundancy in a video frame is removed by use of intra prediction algorithm. There are three block-wise types of intra prediction: 4×4, 8×8 and 16×16. This paper proposes an efficient, low-complexity architecture for intra 16×16 prediction that provides real-time processing of HD video sequences. All four prediction (V, H, DC, Plane modes are supported in the implementation. The high-complexity plane mode computes a number of intermediate parameters required for creating prediction pixels. The local memory buffers are used for storing intermediate reconstructed data used as reference pixels in intra prediction process. The high throughput is achieved by 16-pixel parallelism and the proposed prediction process takes 48 cycles for processing one macroblock. The proposed architecture is synthesized and implemented on Kintex 705 -XC7K325T board and requires 94 MHz to encode a video sequence of HD 4k×2k (3840×2160 resolution at 60 fps in real time. This represents a significant improvement compared to the state of the art.

  15. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  16. Z-100, extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B, promotes TNF-α production via nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (Nod2)-dependent NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsunuma, Kokichi; Yoshinaga, Koji; Ohira, Yuta; Eta, Runa; Sato, Takanori; Horii, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takao; Takei, Mineo; Seto, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages are a major component of the innate immune system, and the cytokines they secrete are involved in antitumor responses. Z-100 is obtained from hot-water extract of human-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B and activates the innate immune response. However, while Z-100 is known to modulate macrophage activity, the mechanism behind this modulation is not fully understood. We evaluated the effects of Z-100 on the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from RAW264.7 cells was strongly induced by Z-100 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation but only weakly induced by Z-100 alone. Quantitative gene expression analysis showed that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (Nod2) expression was up-regulated by IFN-γ treatment in RAW264.7 cells while Z-100-induced TNF-α production was attenuated by Nod2 gene silencing. Further, componential analysis demonstrated that muramic acid and amino acids distinctive of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) were contained within Z-100 and Z-100Fr I, the low-molecular-weight fraction containing components Z-100Fr I enhanced TNF-α production in RAW264.7 cells and promoted NOD2-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in murine NOD2-expressing SEAP reporter HEK293 (HEK-Blue-mNOD2) cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Z-100 contains MDP-like molecules and augments NF-κB signaling via the direct activation of Nod2 in macrophages, which might be one mechanism driving the innate immune responses induced by Z-100 in cancer immunotherapy.

  17. A novel pro-inflammatory protein of Streptococcus suis 2 induces the Toll-like receptor 2-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages via activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Yujie; Yan, Shuxian; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Zhongmin; Yu, Junping; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway.

  18. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and up-regulating antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Han, Eun Su; Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Chan; Lee, Ki Won

    2010-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an organic extract of Phellinus linteus grown on slightly germinated brown rice (PBR) was previously demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the PBR extract by analyzing its effect on the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, chemokines, and mediator genes that participate in immune and inflammatory responses and diseases. The extract profoundly inhibited the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. It also greatly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. PBR extract inhibited NO production with a twofold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration value than P. linteus extract. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we examined the effect of the PBR extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in RAW264.7 cells. PBR extract greatly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and slightly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It also significantly increased intracellular glutathione peroxidase activity and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Thus, the PBR extract has anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by virtue of its ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibition of MAPK activation and up-regulation of antioxidant activities.

  19. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

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    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  20. 基于Linux系统的H.264标准的实时视频压缩及传输系统设计%Design of H.264 real-time video compression and transmission system based on Ubuntu Linux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘溶剑; 王赵玺

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer network media,the research of real-time video compression and trans-mission technology has very important significance. The H.264 real-time video compression and transmission system based on Ubuntu Linux operating system was established. The software and hardware implementation methods of the system,and the de-sign concept of the system structure are introduced in detail. The acquisition and coding module of real-time video is used to de-sign the system,in which the execution codes are adopted to achieve various modules. The results show that the transmission of the system can obtain better image quality and lower transmission delay,which can meet the demands of real-time application.%随着计算机网络媒体的迅猛发展,研究时视频压缩及传输技术具有十分重要的意义.首先建立基于Ubuntu Linux操作系统的H.264实时视频压缩及传输系统,并详细介绍该系统相关软、硬件实现方法和系统结构的设计思想.然后通过实时视频的采集和编码模块设计系统,并采用系统的实现代码具体实现系统的各个模块.结果表明,使用该设计系统进行传输,可以获得较好的图像质量以及较低传输的延时,能满足实时性应用的需求.

  1. 13-hydroxy linoleic acid increases expression of the cholesterol transporters ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI and stimulates apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages

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    Kämmerer Ines

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs stimulate cholesterol removal from macrophages through PPAR-dependent up-regulation of liver × receptor α (LXRα and subsequent induction of cholesterol exporters such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the hydroxylated derivative of linoleic acid (LA, 13-HODE, which is a natural PPAR agonist, has similar effects in RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were treated without (control or with LA or 13-HODE in the presence and absence of PPARα or PPARγ antagonists and determined protein levels of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, PPARα and PPARγ and apolipoprotein A-I mediated lipid efflux. Results Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 13-HODE increased PPAR-transactivation activity and protein concentrations of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI when compared to control treatment (P Conclusion 13-HODE induces cholesterol efflux from macrophages via the PPAR-LXRα-ABCA1/SR-BI-pathway.

  2. 青藤碱对LPS、IL-4诱导的小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞极化的影响%Effect of sinomenine on mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells line polarization induced by LPS or IL-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗进芳; 朱瑞丽; 易浪; 董燕; 王培训

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate sinomenine (Sinomenine,SIN) effect on RAW264.7 cells polarization to M1 or M2 phenotype induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-4 (IL-4) .Methods:RAW264.7 cells were induced to polarize to M1 by LPS ,and to M2 by IL-4.Sinomenine effects on LPS or IL-4 induced macrophages:TNF-αand IL-10 secretion induced by different condition were detected by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA);The expression level of mRNA of Arginase1(Arg-1),Nitric oxide synthase(iNOS),suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-2(SOCS2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-3(SOCS3) of M1/M2 phenotypes were detected by real time PCR respectively.Results:Sinomenine inhibited the increase of TNF-αsecretion,iNOS and SOCS3 mRNA expression level induced by LPS.Sinomenine inhibited the increase of IL-10 secretion and Arg-1 mRNA expression level induced by IL-4,but SOCS2 mRNA expression level was not affected by Sinomenine.Conclusion: Sinomenine can inhibite the macrophage polarization to M1 and M2 induced by LPS and IL-4.Sinomenine plays a regulatory role on imbalance of M1/M2,and is conducive to maintain the dynamic balance.%目的:探讨青藤碱(Sinomenine,SIN)对脂多糖(LPS)以及白细胞介素4(IL-4)诱导的RAW264.7细胞向M1、M2型极化的影响。方法:以LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞诱导M1型极化,IL-4刺激RAW264.7细胞诱导M2型极化;青藤碱作用于LPS或IL-4诱导的巨噬细胞后:用酶联免疫法( ELISA)检测不同诱导状态下RAW264.7细胞TNF-α和IL-10的分泌量;荧光定量PCR检测与巨噬细胞极化相关的精氨酸酶-1(Arg-1)、一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)、细胞因子信号转导抑制蛋白-2(SOCS2)和细胞因子信号转导抑制蛋白-3(SOCS3)的mRNA表达水平。结果:青藤碱能抑制LPS诱导下细胞TNF-α的分泌量,抑制细胞iNOS和SOCS3的mRNA表达水平的升高。青藤碱能抑制IL-4诱导下细胞IL-10

  3. Study of three methods on joint toxicity of diazinon,propoxur and bisphenol A on proliferation of mouse RAW264.7 cell%三种方法评价敌匹硫磷、残杀威与双酚A对小鼠RAW264.7细胞增殖的联合效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小华; 杨杏芬; 黄琼; 李宁; 郝卫东; 黄俊明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible joint toxic effects of diazinon, propoxur and bisphenol A (BPA)on proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro.Methods Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay.The median inhibiting concentration values (ICs0) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of diazinon, propoxur and BPA individually and in mixture (mixed according to ratio of IC50 ) were established by weighted probit method.The types of toxic interaction of diazinon & BPA and propoxur & BPA were assessed by three methods commonly used for binary mixtures, which were Additional Index Method, Equivalent Effect Curve Method and Logistic Regression Method.Results After 24-hour expoxure, the IC50 and 95% CI of diazinon, propoxur and BPA to RAW264.7 cells were 194.1μg/ml ( 173.4μg/ml - 217.4μg/ml ), 448.4mg/L ( 358.2μg/ml - 573.2μg/ml ), and 37.5μg/ml (35.3μg/ml - 39.9μg/ml), respectively.Those of mixtures of diazinon & BPA and propoxur & BPA were 168.8μg/ml ( 160.1μg/ml - 178.2μg/ml ) and 253.4μg/ml ( 236.0 - 273.0μg/ml ).In the interaction assessment, three methods all demonstrated an antagonistic action of diazinon & BPA and an addition action of propoxur & BPA.Conclusion It is concluded that the interaction of diazinon & BPA on proliferation of RAW264.7 cells is antagonistic, and that of propoxur & BPA is additive.%目的 探讨农药敌匹硫磷和残杀威以及环境内分泌干扰物双酚A对小鼠RAW264.7细胞增殖活性的联合毒作用类型.方法 采用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测细胞活性.通过加权机率单位法计算敌匹硫磷、残杀威与双酚A以及它们的混合物(受试物按等毒性比混合)各自的半数生长抑制浓度(IC50)及其95%CI.采用Marking相加指数法、等效应线图解法和Logistic回归分析法判断敌匹硫磷与双酚A、残杀威与双酚A的联合细胞毒作用类型.结果染毒24h后,敌匹硫磷、残杀威与双酚A对RAW264.7细胞的IC50及其95%CI分别为194.1μg/ml(173.4~217.4μg/ml)、448.4mg

  4. BCG对小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞miR-203、miR-142-3p、miR-21表达的影响%Effect of BCG on expression of miR-203, miR-142-3p and miR-21 in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆波; 魏军; 汤建中; 赵志军; 张一琳; 张瑞芹; 徐广贤

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测卡介苗(Bacillus Calmette-Guerin,BCG)刺激巨噬细胞后miR-203、miR-142-3p、miR-21表达量的变化,为研究microRNA(miRNA)在巨噬细胞抗结核分枝杆菌免疫应答中的调控作用提供依据.方法:利用浓度为1.0 ×107ml-1的BCG刺激培养的小鼠RAW264.7细胞,分别在4、8、12、24小时提取细胞small RNA,并利用相应的茎环反转录引物,反转录成cDNA,同时构建成熟miR-203、miR-142-3p、miR-21的T载体,绘制标准曲线,利用Real-Time PCR检测miR-203、miR-142-3p、miR-21的表达量.结果:BCG作用RAW264.7细胞4、8、12、24小时后,miR-21表达显著性上调(10倍以上,P<0.05),miR-142-3p表达显著性下调(20倍以上,P<0.05),miR-203在4、8、12小时表达下调(3倍以上,P<0.05),24小时后表达上调(2倍以上,P<0.05).结论:BCG刺激RAW264.7巨噬细胞后,miR-203、miR-142-3p、miR-21的表达发生显著性变化,说明这些miRNA可能通过调控免疫相关基因在巨噬细胞抗结核分枝杆菌的免疫应答中发挥着重要的作用.%Objective: To detect the influence of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on the expression of miit-203, miR-142-3p and miR-21 in the macrophages and provide the basis to study the regulation of miRNA in the immune response of macrophages to My-cobacterium tuberculosis. Methods:Small RNA was extracted at different times after stimulated with a concentration of 1.0 × 107 ml"1 of BCG in cultured mouse RAW264. 7 cells. After using stem-loop reverse transcription primers to reverse transcribed into cDNA, the expression of miR-203, miR-142-3p and miR-21 was detected by Real-time PCR. At the same time, building the T vector of mature miR-203, miR-142-3p and miR- 21 to make the standard curve. Results:After RAW264.7 cells was treated by BCG for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, miR-21 expression was up-regulated significantly (More than 10 times, P < 0. 05). However, miR-142-3 p was significantly down-regulated at the same time( More than 20 times, P <0. 05

  5. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

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    Woan Sean Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL. Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator’s production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Dong, Ningning; Ouyang, Ping; Pu, Jiaqian; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one (HY), Artocarpin (AR), Dadahol A (DA), Morachalcone A (MA), Artoheterophyllin B (AB), Cycloheterophyllin (CY) and Moracin C (MC) were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)). Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy. PMID:27463712

  7. Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one (HY, Artocarpin (AR, Dadahol A (DA, Morachalcone A (MA, Artoheterophyllin B (AB, Cycloheterophyllin (CY and Moracin C (MC were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs (including p38, ERK and JNK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy.

  8. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors are Involved in the Protection of RAW264.7 Macrophages Against the Oxidative Stress: An in Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Gugliandolo, Agnese; Trubiani, Oriana; Pollastro, Federica; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Research in the last decades has widely investigated the anti-oxidant properties of natural products as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and the treatment of oxidative-stress related disorders. In this context, several studies were aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa. Here, we examined the anti-oxidant ability of Cannabigerol (CBG), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, still little known, into counteracting the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, we tested selective receptor antagonists for cannabinoid receptors and specifically CB1R (SR141716A) and CB2R (AM630) in order to investigate through which CBG may exert its action. Taken together, our in vitro results showed that CBG is able to counteract oxidative stress by activation of CB2 receptors. CB2 antagonist pre-treatment indeed blocked the protective effects of CBG in H2O2 stimulated macrophages, while CB1R was not involved. Specifically, CBG exhibited a potent action in inhibiting oxidative stress, by down-regulation of the main oxidative markers (iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP-1), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation and translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and also via the modulation of MAP kinases pathway. On the other hand, CBG was found to increase anti-oxidant defense of cells by modulating superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) expression and thus inhibiting cell death (results focused on balance between Bax and Bcl-2). Based on its anti-oxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.

  9. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-03-13

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  10. Comparison of cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with silicon micron-sized particles in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghoon; Zhang, Qin; Reipa, Vytas; Wang, Nam Sun; Stratmeyer, Melvin E; Hitchins, Victoria M; Goering, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles have a bright and stable fluorescence and are promising candidates for bio-imaging, cell staining and drug delivery. With increasing development of nanotechnology applications for biomedicine, an understanding of the potential toxicity of nanoparticles is needed to assess safety concerns for clinical applications. The objective of this study was to compare biological responses of silicon nanoparticles (SNs, 3 nm diameter) with silicon microparticles (SMs, approximately 100-3000 nm diameter) in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) using standard protocols for assessing cytotoxicity/cell viability and inflammatory responses developed for micron-sized particles. SNs and SMs were exposed to macrophages with and without addition of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a positive inducer of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO). Cytotoxicity was assayed using the dye exclusion and MTT assays. Cell supernatants were assayed for production TNF-alpha, IL-6 and NO. SNs at concentrations 20 and 200 microg ml(-1), respectively, increased cytotoxicity compared with controls. SMs induced concentration-related increases in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production; in contrast, the production of these cytokines was shown to decrease with increasing concentrations of SNs. NO production was not induced by SNs or SMs alone. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that SNs were associated with the macrophages, either internalized or attached to cell membranes. In conclusion, evaluating differences in biological responses for nanoparticles compared with microparticles of the same material may help improve tests to assess biological responses of nanoparticles that may be used in biomedical applications.

  11. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  12. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni, Marcella [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng [PUB, 40 Scotts Road, Singapore 228231 (Singapore); Xie, Jianping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Ong, Choon Nam [Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549 (Singapore); NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Leong, David Tai, E-mail: cheltwd@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Ultralow levels of common nanoparticles exist in environment and consumer products. • Common nanoparticles at ultralow levels induce mild pro-inflammation by macrophages. • The nanoparticles are cytotoxic only at high doses. - Abstract: To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10{sup −6}–10{sup −3} μg mL{sup −1}. However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 μg mL{sup −1}, through the level of NF-κB and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10{sup −7} μg mL{sup −1}. This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general.

  13. Inflammatory mediator release byBrugia malayi from macrophages of susceptible hostMastomys coucha andTHP-1 andRAW 264.7 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiv Kumar Verma; Vikas Kushwaha; Vijaya Dubey; Kirti Saxena; Aakanksha Sharma; Puvvada Kalpana Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate which life stage of the parasite has the ability to stimulate release of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators from macrophages.Methods: The human macrophage/monocyte cell lineTHP-1, the mouse macrophage cell lineRAW 264.7 and naive peritoneal macrophages(PM)from the rodent hostMastomys coucha (M. coucha)were incubated at37 ℃in 5% CO2atmosphere with extracts of microfilariae(Mf), third stage infective larvae(L3) and adult worms (Ad)ofBrugia malayi. After48 hr post exposure,IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and nitric oxide (NO) in cell-free supernatants were estimated.Results: Extracts of all the life stages of the parasite were capable of stimulating pro-(IL-1β, IL-6 andTNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10)cytokines in both the cell lines and peritoneal macrophages ofM. coucha. Mf was the strongest stimulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by L3 and Ad; however, Ad was a strong stimulator ofIL-10 release. Mf was found to have potential to modulateLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. Ad-inducedNO release was concentration dependent with maximum at 20 μg/mL in bothRAW andPMs.Conclusions:The results show that parasites at all life stages were capable of stimulating pro- (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory(IL-10) cytokines andNO release from macrophages of susceptible hostM. coucha, human and mouse macrophage cell lines.Mf can suppress theLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. The findings also show that the two cell lines may provide a convenientin vitro system for assaying parasite-induced inflammatory mediator release.

  14. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by the norsesterterpene peroxide, epimuqubilin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Park, Eun-Jung; Rostama, Bahman; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2010-03-01

    Seven norsesterterpene peroxides: epimuqubilin A (1), muqubilone B (2), unnamed cyclic peroxide ester (3), epimuqubilin B (4), sigmosceptrellin A methyl ester (5), sigmosceptrellin A (6), and sigmosceptrellin B methyl ester (7), isolated from the marine sponge Latrunculia sp., were examined with regard to their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The results indicated epimuqubilin A (1) possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide release with an IC(50) value of 7.4 microM, a level three times greater than the positive control, L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate, followed by 6 (sigmosceptrellin A, IC(50) = 9.9 microM), whereas other compounds exhibited only modest activity (Table 1). These compounds did not show appreciable cytotoxicity at their IC(50) values for NO-inhibitory activity. The structure-activity upon NO inhibition could be summarized as follows: (1) a monocyclic carbon skeleton framework was essential for activity, (2) free acids gave higher activity, (3) the orientation of H3-22 with an equatorial position increased activity, and (4) a bicyclic structure reduced activity. This is the first report of a norsesterterpene peroxide with NO-inhibitory activity. In addition, compounds 1-7 were also evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. In summary, several norsesterterpene peroxides showed novel biological activities of inhibition in NO production, suggesting that these might provide leads for anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents.

  15. An HST proper-motion study of the optical jet in 3C 264: Direct Evidence for the Internal Shock Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Perlman, Eric S.; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, S. Tony; Biretta, John A.; Norman, Colin Arthur; Chiaberge, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most energetic phenomena in the Universe involve highly relativistic flows, in which particles are accelerated up to TeV energies. In the case of relativistic jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), these flows can carry enough energy to significantly influence both galactic and cluster evolution. While the exact physical mechanism that accelerates the radiating particles within the jet is not known, a widely adopted framework is the internal shock model, invoked to explain high-energy, non-thermal radiation from objects as diverse as microquasars, gamma-ray bursts, and relativistic jets in AGN. This model posits an unsteady relativistic flow that gives rise to components in the jet with different speeds. Faster components catch up to and collide with slower ones, leading to internal shocks. Despite its wide popularity as a theoretical framework, however, no occurance of this mechanism has ever been directly observed. We will present evidence of such a collision in a relativistic jet observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the nearby radio galaxy 3C 264 (Meyer et al., 2015, Nature). Using images taken over 20 years, we show that a bright ‘knot’ in the jet is moving at an apparent speed of 7.0 +/- 0.8c and is in the incipient stages of a collision with a slow-moving knot (1.8 +/- 0.5c) just downstream. In the most recent epoch of imaging, we see evidence of brightening of the two knots as they commence their kiloparsec-scale collision. This is the behaviour expected in the internal shock scenario and the first direct evidence that internal shocks are a valid description of particle acceleration in relativistic jets.

  16. Surface-Displayed IL-10 by Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Reduces Th1 Responses of RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Poly(I:C) or LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruopeng; Jiang, Yanlong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wentao; Shi, Shaohua; Shi, Chunwei; Hu, Jingtao; Gu, Wei; Ye, Liping; Zhou, Fangyu; Gong, Qinglong; Han, Wenyu; Yang, Guilian; Wang, Chunfeng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, poly-γ-glutamic acid synthetase A (pgsA) has been applied to display exogenous proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, which results in a surfacedisplayed component of bacteria. However, the ability of carrying genes encoded by plasmids and the expression efficiency of recombinant bacteria can be somewhat affected by the longer gene length of pgsA (1,143 bp); therefore, a truncated gene, pgsA, was generated based on the characteristics of pgsA by computational analysis. Using murine IL-10 as an exogenous gene, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum was constructed and the capacity of the surface-displayed protein and functional differences between exogenous proteins expressed by these strains were evaluated. Surface expression of IL-10 on both recombinant bacteria with anchorins and the higher expression levels in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10 were confirmed by western blot assay. Most importantly, up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with Poly(I:C) or LPS was exacerbated after co-culture with L. plantarum-pgsA. By contrast, IL-10 expressed by these recombinant strains could reduce these factors, and the expression of these factors was associated with recombinant strains that expressed anchorin (especially in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10) and was significantly lower compared with the anchorin-free strains. These findings indicated that exogenous proteins could be successfully displayed on the surface of L. plantarum by pgsA or pgsA', and the expression of recombinant bacteria with pgsA' was superior compared with bacteria with pgsA.

  17. Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. for Environmental Health

    2007-03-15

    We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

  18. Role of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 microphage%血管紧张素Ⅱ1型受体在脂多糖诱导RAW264.7巨噬细胞促炎性细胞因子产生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰; 陈旭林; 王飞; 王永杰; 孙业祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1receptor in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) in RAW264. 7 microphage and characterize the mechanism. Methods RAW264. 7 macrophages were randomly divided into four groups: control group,ZD7155 group, LPS group and ZD7155 + LPS group. The protein and mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor α ( TNF-α ) and interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ) in the cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay ( EMSA ) was preformed to determine the activities of nuclear factor kappaB ( NF-KB ) and activator protein 1 ( AP-1 ). Results Compared with control group,supernatant TNF-β and IL-1β of ZD7155 group were not found statistically significant difference ( P >0. 05 ). However, LPS stimulation increased the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the supernatant which were significantly higher than control group ( P <0. 01 ) and ZD7155 group ( P <0. 05 ). However, administration of LPS not only enhanced the mRNA expressions of TNF-αand IL-1β to 2. 19-fold ( P <0. 01 ) and 1. 77-fold ( P <0. 01 ) of control group, but also elevated the activities of NF-KB and AP-1 to 1. 43-fold ( P <0. 01 ) and 1. 90-fold ( P <0. 01 ) of control group. But compared with LPS group, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was inhibited significantly by the preincubation with ZD7155, intracellular TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression decreased by 34. 7% ( P <0. 01 ) and 49. 72% ( P <0. 01 ). Furthermore, compared with LPS group, the intracellular NF-KB and AP-1 activity of ZD7155 + LPS group decreased by 46. 15% ( P <0. 05 ) and 48. 42% ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Angiotensin n i receptor mediates the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-αand IL-1β in macrophages induced by LPS via the activation of transcription factor NF

  19. An Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Heterogeneity within Entrepreneurial Team on Entrepreneurial Performance--A Case of 264 Enterprises in Seven Provinces and Cities%创业团队异质性对创业绩效的影响--基于对七省市264家创业企业的调研分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娥; 孙中博; 王冰

    2013-01-01

      团队创业比个人创业更具优势,成功机率更大。在组建团队过程中,选择具有异质性特征的成员能够形成互补优势,提升创业企业应对风险的能力,促进创业绩效,但也有学者指出,创业团队异质性不能直接转化为生产力。为解决创业团队异质性对绩效影响机制的“黑箱”,文章引入团队氛围变量,通过对264家创业企业的实证研究证明了创业团队异质性一方面对创业绩效具有直接的正向影响,另一方面通过作用于团队氛围对绩效具有间接的正向影响,有效地破解了“黑箱”的内容。%  The team has more advantages and bigger success rate than person in the process of starting a new venture. Some schol⁃ars agreed that the heterogeneity of the entrepreneurial team members could create the complementary advantages to enhance the ability of risk replying and improve the performance of entrepreneurship. However,there are some scholars argued that the hetero⁃geneity of entrepreneurial team cannot directly translated into productivity. In order to open the “black box” in the influence mechanism of heterogeneity,which is critical for entrepreneurial team to improve entrepreneurial performance,this paper intro⁃duces the variables of team climate,based on the empirical study of 264 enterprises,proves that heterogeneity of entrepreneurial team has a directly impact on performance on the one hand,and an indirectly impact by team climate on the other hand.

  20. The nucleotide receptor P2X7 mediates actin reorganization and membrane blebbing in RAW 264.7 macrophages via p38 MAP kinase and Rho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Zachary A; Aga, Mini; Prabhu, Usha; Watters, Jyoti J; Hall, David J; Bertics, Paul J

    2004-06-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate macrophage function via P2X nucleotide receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels. In particular, P2X7 activation is characterized by pore formation, membrane blebbing, and cytokine release. P2X7 is also linked to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Rho-dependent pathways, which are known to affect cytoskeletal structure in other systems. As cytoskeletal function is critical for macrophage behavior, we have tested the importance of these pathways in actin filament reorganization during P2X7 stimulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We observed that the P2X7 agonists adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP (BzATP) stimulated actin reorganization and concomitant membrane blebbing within 5 min. Disruption of actin filaments with cytochalasin D attenuated membrane blebbing but not P2X7-dependent pore formation or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and p38 activation, suggesting that these latter processes do not require intact actin filaments. However, we provide evidence that p38 MAPK and Rho activation but not ERK1/ERK2 activation is important for P2X7-mediated actin reorganization and membrane blebbing. First, activation of p38 and Rho was detected within 5 min of BzATP treatment, which is coincident with membrane blebbing. Second, the p38 inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 reduced nucleotide-induced blebbing and actin reorganization, whereas the MAPK kinase-1/2 inhibitor U0126, which blocks ERK1/ERK2 activation, had no discernable effect. Third, the Rho-selective inhibitor C3 exoenzyme and the Rho effector kinase, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, inhibitor Y-27632, markedly attenuated BzATP-stimulated actin reorganization and membrane blebbing. These data support a model wherein p38- and Rho-dependent pathways are critical for P2X7-dependent actin reorganization and membrane blebbing, thereby facilitating P2X7 involvement in macrophage inflammatory responses.

  1. Acetylcholine Inhibits LPS-Induced MMP-9 Production and Cell Migration via the a7 nAChR-JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 has been found in several inflammatory diseases. Previous studies have shown that acetylcholine (ACh reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased tissue damage. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the potential effects and mechanisms of ACh on MMP-9 production and cell migration in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 cells. Methods: MMP-9 expression and activity were induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells, and examined by real-time PCR, western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. ELISA was used to determine the changes in MMP-9 secretion among the groups. Macrophage migration was evaluated using transwell migration assay. Knockdown of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7 nAChR expression was performed using siRNA transfection. Results: Pre-treatment with ACh inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 production and macrophage migration in RAW264.7 cells. These effects were abolished by the a7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA and a7 nAChR siRNA. The a7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 was found to have an effect similar to that of ACh. Moreover, ACh enhanced the expression of JAK2 and STAT3, and the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 and the STAT3 inhibitor static restored the effect of ACh. Meanwhile, ACh decreased the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and this effect was abrogated in the presence of MLA. In addition, the JAK2 and STAT3 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effects of ACh on phosphorylation of NF-κB. Conclusions: Activation of a7 nAChR by ACh inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 production and macrophage migration through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of ACh.

  2. Synthesis of New Tricyclic and Tetracyclic Fused Coumarin Sulfonate Derivatives and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and PGE2 Productions in RAW 264.7 Macrophages: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Lee, Woo-Seok; Shin, Ji-Sun; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jungseung; Myoung, Nohsun; Baek, Daejin

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of a new series of 21 fused coumarin derivatives is described, and the biological evaluation of their in vitro antiinflammatory effects as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The target compounds 1a-u were first tested for cytotoxicity to determine a non-toxic concentration for antiinflammatory screening, so that the inhibitory effects against NO and PGE2 production would not be caused by cytotoxicity. Compounds 1f and 1p were the most active PGE2 inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.89 and 0.95 µM, respectively. Western blot and cell-free COX-2 screening showed that their effects were due to inhibition of both COX-2 protein expression and COX-2 enzyme activity. Their IC50 values against the COX-2 enzyme were 0.67 and 0.85 µM, respectively, which is more potent than etoricoxib. The selectivity indexes of compounds 1f and 1p against COX-2 compared to COX-1 were 41.1 and 42.5, respectively. Compound 1f showed strong inhibitory effects at 5 µM concentration on COX-2 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the tricyclic compounds 1l and 1n as well as the tetracyclic analog 1u were the most potent NO inhibitors, with one-digit micromolar IC50 values. They showed dose-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. The tetracyclic derivative 1u was the most potent inhibitor of NO production. It also exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on iNOS mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  3. Rifampicin Inhibits the LPS-induced Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 via the Suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding Activity in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Young Mi; Yeum, Chung Eun; Jin, Song-Hyo; Chae, Gue Tae; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2009-12-01

    Rifampicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic which is used extensively for treatment against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the immune-regulatory effects of rifampicin. Therefore, we hypothesized that rifampicin may influence the TLR2 expression in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we determined that rifampicin suppresses LPS-induced TLR2 mRNA expression. The down-regulation of TLR2 expression coincided with decreased production of TNF-alpha. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor that regulates genes for TLR2 and TNF-alpha, we examined the effect of rifampicin on the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. Rifampicin inhibited NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, while it did not affect IKKalpha/beta activity. However, rifampicin slightly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. In addition, rifampicin increased physical interaction between pregnane X receptor, a receptor for rifampicin, and NF-kappaB p65, suggesting pregnane X receptor interferes with NF-kappaB binding to DNA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that rifampicin inhibits LPS-induced TLR2 expression, at least in part, via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, the present results suggest that the rifampicin-mediated inhibition of TLR2 via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity may be a novel mechanism of the immune-suppressive effects of rifampicin.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Neoechinulin A from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through the Suppression of NF-кB and p38 MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Su Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a bioassay-guided study of metabolites from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989, two diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids, neoechinulins A and B, were isolated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulins A (1 and B (2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Neoechinulin A (1 markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose dependent manner ranging from 12.5 µM to 100 µM without affecting the cell viability. On the other hand, neoechinulin B (2 affected the cell viability at 25 µM although the compound displayed similar inhibitory effect of NO production to neoechinulin A (1 at lower doses. Furthermore, neoechinulin A (1 decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. We also confirmed that neoechinulin A (1 blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB-α. Moreover, neoechinulin A (1 decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation. Therefore, these data showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulin A (1 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, suggesting that neoechinulin A (1 might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  5. A VLSI Architecture Evaluation of a Syntax Element Level Parallel Arithmetic Entropy Coder for Parallel H.264 Encoder%一种用于并行H.264编码器的语法元素级分组并行算术编码器体系结构的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜刚; 陈书明; 谷会涛; 刘尧

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种语法元素指令流驱动的全流水CABAC(Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding)熵编码VLSI结构,并对提出的语法元素级分组并行算术编码器的体系结构进行了设计和开销评估.该并行方法可以与现有符号级并行算法正交,可同时使用,适合大规模片上并行视频编码器;相比标准CABAC,增加约55%的晶体管即可实现2倍以上的符号处理加速比和>1Gbin/s的吞吐率.%This paper proposes a new CABAC pipeline driving by syntax element instructions and a GABAC-based parallel arithmetic entropy coder for on-chip large-scale parallel H.264 video coders is also presented in this paper. Furthermore, the hardware architecture and transistor cost of the new parallel entropy coder are evaluated. This new parallel entropy coder can cooperate with the traditional symbol-level parallel algorithms and it suits the manycore platform well.Compared with the traditional CABAC hardware,the new parallel entropy coder can double its throughput to > 1Gbins/s by a cost of 55% transistors.

  6. The effects of curcumin on the 19000 Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein-induced inflammatory and apoptotic reaction and the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in WBC264-9C macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective By using the cell wall component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19 000 lipoprotein(P19)and curcumin(CUR)acting on the human macrophage cell line WBC264-9C,and by the blocking of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases(p38 MAPK)signaling pathway,we wanted to investigate the effect of curcurmin on P19-induced inflammatory responses and apoptosis in human macrophages and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms.Methods P19 and CUR were used to

  7. 丝裂原活化蛋白激酶通路对脂多糖诱导RAW264.7细胞肿瘤坏死因子α基因表达的协同调节作用%Synergetic effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway on expression of tumor necrosis factor α gene in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜勇; 刘爱华; 秦清和; 殷志敏

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨脂多糖(LPS)诱导RAW264.7细胞肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)基因表达过程中丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(MAPK)通路的协同调节作用及其分子机制.方法用蛋白激酶活性测定分析LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞引起的激酶活性变化;用报告基因技术和反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法研究LPS诱导的TNF-α基因转录的分子机制.结果 LPS刺激RAW264.7细胞可引起细胞外信号调节激酶1(ERK1)、c-Jun氨基末端激酶1(JNK1)和p38 MAPK的一过性激活;用MAPK上游激酶的活性突变体分别转染RAW264.7均可不同程度地诱导TNF-α启动子转录活性;而且,这些MAPK通路激活诱导的TNF-α启动子转录活性表现出明显的协同效应;三种MAPK的无活性突变体均显示出对LPS刺激引起的TNF-α启动子转录激活的抑制效应;RT-PCR的结果证实,ERK、JNK和p38 MAPK的特异性抑制剂对TNF-α mRNA表达具有不同程度的抑制作用.结论 LPS刺激引起的TNF-α启动子转录活性增加,可能涉及了ERK、p38和JNK三条通路的激活;这些通路通过协同效应共同发挥对TNF-α基因表达的调控.

  8. Neuroprotection of Neuro2a cells and the cytokine suppressive and anti-inflammatory mode of action of resveratrol in activated RAW264.7 macrophages and C8-B4 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Nicole; Balez, Rachelle; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lind, Joanne M; Münch, Gerald; Ooi, Lezanne

    2016-05-01

    Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and cytotoxic levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines can initiate neuronal death pathways. A range of cellular assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective action of resveratrol using murine microglial (C8-B4), macrophage (RAW264.7) and neuronal-like (Neuro2a) cell lines. We examined the release of NO by Griess assay and used a Bioplex array to measure a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in response to the inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Resveratrol was a potent inhibitor of NO and cytokine release in activated macrophages and microglia. The activity of resveratrol increased marginally in potency with longer pre-incubation times in cell culture that was not due to cytotoxicity. Using an NO donor we show that resveratrol can protect Neuro2a cells from cytotoxic concentrations of NO. The protective effect of resveratrol from pro-inflammatory signalling in RAW264.7 cells was confirmed in co-culture experiments leading to increased survival of Neuro2a cells. Together our data are indicative of the potential neuroprotective effect of resveratrol during nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation.

  9. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G. elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G. elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G. elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G. elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G. elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  11. Distribution of HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphic alleles SDF-1-3′A, CCR2-64I and CCR5-32 in diverse populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. V. Ramana; A. Vasanthi; M. Khaja; B. Su; V. Govindaiah; L. Jin; L. Singh; R. Chakraborty

    2001-12-01

    Polymorphic allelic variants of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5, as well as of stromal-derived factor-1 SDF-1, the ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4, are known to have protective effects against HIV-1 infection and to be involved with delay in disease progression. We have studied the DNA polymorphisms at the loci that encode these proteins in 525 healthy individuals without any history of HIV-1 infection from 11 diverse populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The two protective alleles SDF-1-3′A and CCR2-64I at the SDF-1 and CCR2 loci, respectively, are present in all populations studied, although their frequencies differ considerably across populations (from 17% to 35% for the SDF-1-3′A allele, and from 3% to 17% for CCR2-64I). In contrast the CCR5-32 allele is observed only in three populations (Yamani, Pathan and Kamma), all in low frequencies (i.e. 1% to 3%). The mean number of mutant alleles (for the three loci together) carried by each individual varies from 0.475 (in Vizag Brahmins) to 0.959 (in Bohra Muslims). The estimated relative hazard values for the populations, computed from the three-locus genotype data, are comparable to those from Africa and Southeast Asia, where AIDS is known to be widespread.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of 6'-O-acetyl mangiferin from Iris rossii Baker via NF-κb signal blocking in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hun; Lee, Ki-Ho; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tae-Muk; Woo, Kyeong-Wan; An, Byeong-Kwan; Cho, Jung-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Woo

    2016-09-25

    A series of acylated xanthone C-glucosides were identified from the methanolic extract of whole Iris rossii Baker. The major constituent was characterized as 6'-O-acetyl mangiferin (OAM), and complete structure elucidation was carried out using 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and LC-IT-TOF-MS analyses. The present study is the first to report the anti-inflammatory effects of 6'-O-acetyl mangiferin from Iris rossii Baker on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. OAM strongly suppressed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, OAM inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38, which led to the blockade of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of OAM may be attributed to the downregulation of COX-2 and iNOS via the suppression of NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages.

  13. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methylpenicinoline from a Marine Isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5995: Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages and BV2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1 was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 μM to 80 μM without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β. In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB-α, thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. 异丙酚对内毒素诱导小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞P2X7受活化和IL-1β蛋白合成的影响%Effects of propofol on P2X7 receptor activition and IL-1β production induced by endotoxin in murine RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红亮; 刘玉华; 戴体俊

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨异丙酚对内毒素诱导小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞P2X7受体活化和IL-1β蛋白合成的影响.方法 RAW264.7巨噬细胞经1 μmol/L亮蓝G(BBG)或1~100 μmol/L异丙酚孵育20 min,随后经1 μg/ml LPS孵育4 h,采用ELISA法测定IL-1β的释放量,采用Western blot法测定胞内IL-1β前体蛋白和成熟体蛋白含量,并计算异丙酚抑制IL-1β释放的半数有效浓度(IC_(50)).采用全细胞膜片钳记录模式,RAW264.7巨噬细胞经1 mmol/L ATP孵育5s,以诱发P2X7受体门控离子通道电流,分别经1~1 000μmol/L异丙酚孵育4 min后记录电流峰值,计算异丙酚抑制P2X7受体门控离子通道电流峰值的IC_(50).结果 异丙酚可抑制LPS诱导的IL-1β的释放,其IC_(50)为(24±3)μmol/L.异丙酚可抑制P2X7受体门控离子通道电流峰值,其IC_(50)为(33±5)μmol/L.LPS可上调胞内IL-1β前体蛋白表达(P<0.01),而3~100μmol/L异丙酚可抑制LPS介导的胞内IL-1β前体蛋白表达上调.结论 异丙酚抑制LPS诱导的小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞IL-1β的释放可能与抑制P2X7受体的活化和胞内IL-1β前体蛋白的合成有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of propofol on P2X7 receptor activition and IL-1β production induced by endotoxin in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macruphages were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) for 4 h to induce the production and release of IL-1β, and pretreated with BBG (specific P2X7 receptor antagonist) 1 μmol/L or propofol 1-100 μmol/L for 20 min before LPS stimulation, and IL-1β release was measured using ELISA kit. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the P2X7-gated currents induced by 1 mmol/L ATP, the cells were exposed to propofol with 1-1 000 -μmol/L for 4 min, and the IC_(50) level of propofol was achieved. Western blot technique was used to measure the production of pro-lL-1β protein and IL-1β protein intracellularly after LPS treatment for 4 h under different concentrations of propofol. Results

  16. 基于双核铜簇和[β-Mo8O26]4-阴离子的杂化化合物的合成及结构%Synthesis and Structure of One Hybrid Constructed by Dimeric Copper Clusters and [β-Mo8O26]4-Polyanions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓迪; 李春阳; 王振领; 常加忠; 金刚

    2012-01-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid [Cu2(1,4-bth)3(H2O)(β-Mo8O26)] (1) (1,4-bth=4-(6-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)hexyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole)) based on dimeric copper clusters [Cu2(1,4-bth)3]4+ and [β-Mo8O26]4-polyanions has been synthesized and characterized by element analysis,IR spectra,single-crystal X-ray diffraction,thermal analysis.The crystallographic data shows that complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic space group P1 with a=1.195 1 (2) nm,b =1.252 0(2) nm,c=2.146 0(4) nm,α=85.893(3)°,β=76.229(3)°,γ=62.714(3)°,V=2.769 0(8) nm3,C30H50Cu2Mo8 N18O27,Mr=1989.48,Dc=2.386 g·cm-3,μ(Mo Kα)=2.598 mm-1,F(000)=1 932,GOF=1.001,Z=2,the final R1=0.062 0 andwR2=0.153 4 for I>2σ(Ⅰ).In complex 1,each 1,4-bth ligand acted as a tridentate-linker to bridge three Cu2+ ions and dimeric copper clusters [Cu2(1,4-bth)3]4+ were formed.Each dimeric copper cluster is connected to four same clusters forming parallel two dimensional (2D) sheets [Cu2(1,4-bth)3]n4n+.Then the [β-Mo8O26]4-anions through bonded to the Cu2+ ions as the pillars to construct a three dimensional (3D) framework,with the pcu alpha-Po primitive cubic topology; the thermal analysis illustrate that compound 1 retains a comparatively good thermal stability.CCDC:865416.%通过水热合成方法得到了一个基于双核铜簇[Cu2(1,4-bth)3]4+和[β-Mo8O26]4-阴离子的有机-无机杂化化合物,[Cu2(1,4-bth)3(H2O)(β-Mo8O26)] (1)(1,4-bth=4-(6-(1H-1,2,4-三氮唑-1-基)正己烷)-4H-1,2,4-三氮唑),并通过元素分析、红外光谱、X-射线单晶衍射、热分析等测试对其进行了表征.晶体数据表明该化合物属于三斜晶系,P(1)空间群.在化合物1中,1,4-bth配体都以三齿配体的形式与3个铜离子相连,形成双核铜簇[Cu2(1,4-bth)3]4+,每个簇单元进一步和其相邻的4个同类型单元相连形成了相互平行的层状结构[Cu2(1,4-bth)3]n4n+,层与层之间又通过[β-Mo8O26]4-阴离子相连构筑成1个三维框架结构,其拓扑类型为pcu alpha-Po 简单

  17. Compound FLZ inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory effects via down-regulation of the TAK-IKK and TAK-JNK/ p38MAPK pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan PANG; Gang LIU; Gengtao LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the squamosamide derivative FLZ (N-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) on.lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflam-matory mediator production and the underlying mechanism in RAW264.7 macrophages.Methods: RAW264.7 cells were preincubated with non-toxic concentrations of compound FLZ (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) for 30 min and then stimulated with 10 μg/L LPS.The production of nitric oxide (NO),the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2),and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined.Results: FLZ significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO,as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2 at both the RNA and the protein levels in RAW264.7 cells.The LPS-induced increase in the DNA binding activity of NF-κBand activator protein I (AP-1),the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65,the degradation of the inhibitory κBα protein (IκBα)and the phosphorylation of IκBα,IκB kinase (IKK) α/β,c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPKs were all sup-pressed by FLZ.However,the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was not affected.Further study revealed that FLZ inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1),which is an upstream signaling molecule required for IKKα/β,JNK and p38 activation.Conclusion: FLZ inhibited the LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators at least partly through the downregula-tion of the TAK-IKK and TAK-JNK/p38MAPK pathways.

  18. Zinc-dependent metalloprotease 1 promotes apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages%锌依赖的金属蛋白酶1促进巨噬细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 何永林; 张继明; 方陈城

    2015-01-01

    目的 构建锌依赖的金属蛋白酶1(zmp1)基因的真核表达质粒,探讨其对巨噬细胞凋亡的影响.方法 以卡介苗(BCG)基因组DNA为模板,采用PCR法扩增zmp1基因;克隆到真核表达质粒pEGFP-N1的多克隆位点中,构建真核表达质粒pEGFP-N1-zmp1并转染RAW264.7细胞,荧光显微镜观察绿色荧光蛋白表达,实时定量PCR(qRT-PCR)检测zmp1 mRNA的水平;藻红蛋白标记的膜联素V/7-氨基放线菌素D(annexinV-PFE/7-AAD)双染色结合流式细胞术检测Zmp1蛋白对细胞凋亡影响.结果 扩增出zmp1基因;真核表达质粒经过XhoⅠ和BamH Ⅰ双酶切及基因测序鉴定构建成功;转染细胞24h后,经荧光倒置显微镜观察到绿色荧光;qRT-PCR结果显示转染pEGFP-N1-zmp1的RAW264.7细胞zmp1 mRNA的表达显著升高;转染后48 h,细胞早期凋亡率有所增加.结论 在RAW264.7细胞中成功表达了Zmp1并能促进巨噬细胞凋亡.

  19. Ascofuranone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via NF-kappaB and AP-1, p-ERK, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Young; Chung, Tae-Wook; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Abekura, Fukushi; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Young-Choon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Magae, Junji; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The natural fungal compound ascofuranone (5-chloro-3-[(2E,6E)-7-[(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-3-methyl-octa-2,6-dienyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-benzaldehyde, MW 420.93) (AF) isolated from Ascochyta viciae has been known to promote cell cycle arrest and inhibit invasion of tumor cells. We have previously studied a structurally similar compound ascochlorin (ASC; MW 404.93) with regard to its anti-inflammatory activity in LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In order to examine the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activities and the molecular differences between AF and ASC, the activity of AF is herein studied, because ASC has a unique trimethyl oxocyclohexyl structure, while AF has a unique dimethyl-oxo-tetrahydrofuran structure. AF dose-dependently inhibited the production of NO and iNOS and the COX-2 mRNA and protein levels in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, AF suppressed mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, as assessed by RT-PCR. AF (30-50 μg/ml) treatment clearly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, AP-1 (p-c-Jun) from the cytosolic space. Phosphorylation of IκB, which functions to maintain the activity of NF-κB, was decreased by AF treatment. Moreover, AF suppressed the binding of NF-κB (p65). Inhibition of IkBa phosphorylation and degradation inhibits nuclear translocation of p65. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analysis also revealed that translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 (p-c-Jun) was decreased upon AF treatment. AF specifically decreased the expression level of p-ERK, but not the expression level of p-p38 or p-JNK. Given these results, we suggest that AF suppresses the inflammatory response by targeting p-ERK. This indicates that AF is a negative regulator of LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 (p-c-Jun) in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and specifically it targets p-ERK. Therefore, AF and ASC exert their effects in different ways, most probably because

  20. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N., E-mail: snkabir@iicb.res.in

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2–Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • α-DHC isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium has significant antioxidant potential. • α-DHC inhibits NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates of COX-2, iNOS expression in LPS

  1. A honeycomb network based on hybrid lanthanum complexes encircling a [β-Mo8O26]4- isomer: Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of [La (η2-NO3) (dmso)7]2 [β-Mo8O26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khélifa, Arbia Ben; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Belkhiria, Mouhamed Salah

    2016-10-01

    A novel isopolymolybdates functionalized by rare earth complexes namely, [La (η2-NO3) (dmso)7]2 [β-Mo8O26] (1) has been successfully synthesized and characterized by routine methods: IR, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Visible absorption and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound is crystallized in monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 11.566 (2) Å, b = 28.522 (6) Å, c = 12.644 (3) Å, β = 91.94 (3)°. The structural feature of 1 is that lanthanum complexes form a honeycomb network, in which resides the [β-Mo8O26]4- isomer. The cohesion structure is ensured by non typical hydrogen bonding interactions causes a 3D supramolecular network. Absorption spectrum, optical band gap energies have been investigated.

  2. The Role of Selected Flavonols in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor–1 (TRAIL-R1 Expression on Activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Warat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptors (TRAIL-R are an important factor of apoptosis in cancer cells. There are no data about the effect of flavonols on the receptor expression on a surface of macrophage like cells. In this study, the expression level of TRAIL-R1 on murine RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence of selected flavonols: galangin, kaempferol, kaempferide and quercetin, which differ from their phenyl ring substituents, were studied. The expression of TRAIL-R1 death receptors on non-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined using flow cytometry. The results suggested that compounds being tested can modulate TRAIL-R1 expression and can enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Hb Lansing (HBA2: c.264C > G) and a new β promoter transversion [-52 (G > T)]: an attempt to define the phenotype of two mutations found in the Omani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Suha M; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Bakker, Engbert; Giordano, Piero C

    2015-01-01

    We report two examples showing how problematic it can be to define the phenotype of new or rare globin genes mutations. We describe two mutations observed for the first time in the Omani population: the first was found in the consanguineous parents of a deceased newborn with hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly and severe hemolytic anemia, putatively homozygous for the rare Hb Lansing (HBA2: c.264C > G) variant. The second is a novel β-globin gene promoter mutation [-52 (G > T)] observed in four independent patients. Two with borderline/elevated Hb A2, α-thalassemia (α-thal) and hypochromic red cell indices, and two heterozygotes for Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T), α-thal and with Hb A/Hb S ratios possibly indicating a very mild β(+)-thalassemia (β(+)-thal) mutation.

  4. Morin, a Bioflavonoid Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Inflammatory Immune Response in RAW 264.7 Macrophages through the Inhibition of Inflammatory Mediators, Intracellular ROS Levels and NF-κB Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Dhanasekar

    Full Text Available Our previous studies had reported that morin, a bioflavanoid exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effect against adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In this current study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of morin against monosodium urate crystal (MSU-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, an in vitro model for acute gouty arthritis. For comparison purpose, colchicine was used as a reference drug. We have observed that morin (100-300 μM treatment significantly suppressed the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF, inflammatory mediators (NO and PEG2, and lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D in MSU-crystals stimulated macrophage cells. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κBp65 was found downregulated in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells by morin treatment, however, the mRNA expression of hypoxanthine phospho ribosyl transferse (HPRT was found to be increased. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that morin treatment decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells. The western blot analysis clearly showed that morin mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the MSU crystal-induced COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression through the inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells similar to that of BAY 11-7082 (IκB kinase inhibitor. Our results collectively suggest that morin can be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders like acute gouty arthritis.

  5. α-Solanine Isolated From Solanum Tuberosum L. cv Jayoung Abrogates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses Via NF-κB Inactivation in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Endotoxin-Induced Shock Model in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Lee, Hae Jun; An, Hyo-Jin; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-10-01

    α-Solanine, a trisaccharide glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-solanine isolated from "Jayoung" a dark purple-fleshed potato by examining its in vitro inhibitory effects on inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and its in vivo effects on LPS-induced septic shock in a mouse model. α-Solanine suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 both at protein and mRNA levels and consequently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. α-Solanine also reduced the production and mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by LPS. Furthermore, molecular mechanism studies indicated that α-solanine inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing nuclear translocation of p65, degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα), and phosphorylation of IκB kinaseα/β (IKKα/β). In an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia, treatment with α-solanine suppressed mRNA expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and the activation of NF-κB in liver. Importantly, α-solanine increased the survival rate of mice in LPS-induced endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis models. Taken together, our data suggest that the α-solanine may be a promising therapeutic against inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2327-2339, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen, E-mail: d93548008@ntu.edu.tw; Chen, Chung-Ming, E-mail: chung@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Hsieh, Wen-Yuan, E-mail: hsiehw@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs (China); Chen, Ching-Yun, E-mail: chingyun523@gmail.com; Liu, Chia-Ching, E-mail: d95548005@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  7. Euscaphic acid isolated from roots of Rosa rugosa inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses via TLR4-mediated NF-κB inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Ryu, Suran; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2012-06-01

    As an attempt to search for bioactive natural products exerting anti-inflammatory activity, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of euscaphic acid (19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids, EA) isolated from roots of Rosa rugosa and its underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. EA concentration-dependently reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 macgophages. Consistent with these data, expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA were inhibited by EA in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, EA attenuated LPS-induced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which was accompanied by a parallel reduction of degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) and consequently by decreased nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Pretreatment with EA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), p38, and JNK, whereas the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was unaffected. Furthermore, EA interfered with the LPS-induced clustering of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) with interleukin receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Taken together, these results suggest that EA inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by interference with the clustering of TRAF6 with IRAK1 and TAK1, resulting in blocking the activation of IKK and MAPKs signal transduction to downregulate NF-κB activations.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi YH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yung Hyun Choi,1,2 Gi-Young Kim,3 Hye Hyeon Lee4 1Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 2Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan, 3Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju, 4Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: Cordycepin is the main functional component of the Cordyceps species, which has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine. This compound possesses many pharmacological properties, such as an ability to enhance immune function, as well as antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin using a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell model. Our data demonstrated that cordycepin suppressed production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 by inhibiting inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Cordycepin also inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-beta, through downregulation of respective mRNA expression. In addition, pretreatment with cordycepin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and attenuated nuclear translocation of NF-κB by LPS, which was associated with abrogation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation. Furthermore, cordycepin potently inhibited the binding of LPS to macrophages and LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages are associated with suppression of mitogen-activating protein kinases and activation of NF-κB by inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Keywords

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Su Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1 and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2, were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  10. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-12-19

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  11. The Effect of Curcumin Loaded mPEG-PLGA Nanoparticles on Reversing Corticosteroid Resistance Induced by Cigarette Smoke Extract in Macrophages RAW264.7%姜黄素mPEG-PLGA纳米粒对香烟提取物刺激巨噬细胞RAW264.7所致激素抵抗现象逆转作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帝; 崔志磊; 郭雪君

    2016-01-01

    目的 制备以单甲氧基聚乙二醇-聚乳酸羟基乙酸共聚物(mPEG-PLGA)为载体的姜黄素纳米粒(CUR-NPs),探讨姜黄素(CUR)和CUR-NPs逆转香烟提取物(CSE)暴露所致的激素抵抗现象,比较C-UR-NPs和CUR生物学作用的差异.方法 采用乳化溶剂挥发法制备CUR-NPs,激光粒度测定仪和透射电子显微镜分别对CUR-NPs的粒径分布和形貌进行表征.脂多糖(LPS)刺激巨噬细胞RAW264.7,布地奈德(BUD)(10-10 ~ 10-5 mol/L)干预.LPS+ CSE刺激巨噬细胞RAW264.7,BUD(10-10~10-5 mol/L)、CUR(10-10 ~ 10-5 mol/L)、CUR(10-7 mol/L)+ BUD(10-9~10-5 mol/L)、CUR(10-9~10-5 mol/L)+ BUD(10-7 mol/L)、CUR-NPs(10-9~10-5 mol/L)+BUD(10-7 mol/L)干预,酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测巨噬细胞RAW264.7所分泌的IL-8.CES刺激巨噬细胞RAW264.7,BUD(10-7 mol/L)、CUR(10-7、10-6 mol/L)和CUR-NPs(10-7、10-6 mol/L)干预,实时定量PCR检测细胞中组蛋白去乙酰化酶2(HDAC2) mRNA的表达,蛋白免疫印迹(Western blot)检测细胞中HDAC2蛋白的表达.共聚焦显微镜检测巨噬细胞RAW264.7对CUR和CUR-NPs内CUR的摄取量.结果 CUR-NPs外观呈圆形或类圆形,平均粒径为(356.4±146.6)nm.与LPS刺激相比,LPS+ CSE共刺激时BUD(10-10~10-5 mol/L)对IL-8分泌的最大抑制率显著降低(P<0.05),半数抑制浓度(IC50)显著增高(P<0.05).LPS+ CSE共刺激时,与BUD(10-10~ 10-5 mol/L)组相比,CUR(10-7 mol/L)+ BUD(10-9-10-5mol/L)组BUD对IL-8分泌的最大抑制率显著增高(P<0.05),IC50显著降低(P<0.05).在LPS+ CSE共刺激,CUR和CUR-NPs浓度梯度同为10-9、10-8和10-7 mol/L时,CUR-NPs+BUD(10-7 mol/L)组对IL-8分泌的抑制率显著高于CUR+ BUD(10-7 mol/L)组(P<0.05).CSE刺激后细胞中HDAC2的mRNA和蛋白表达量显著降低(P<0.05);与CSE组相比,CUR(10-7、10-6 mol/L)组及CUR-NPs(10-7、10-6 mol/L)组细胞中HDAC2的mRNA和蛋白表达量显著增高(P<0.05).浓度梯度同为10-7 mol/L时,CUR-NPs组细胞中HDAC2的mRNA

  12. 芦荟及其复方提取物对RAW264.7细胞炎症因子的影响%Effects of Aloe vera and Compound Extract of Aloe vera on Inflammatory Factors in RAW264.7 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘苗苗; 刘学华; 佟书娟; 詹臻; 董伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察芦荟及其复方提取物对小鼠巨噬细胞炎症因子的影响.方法:RAW264.7细胞按2×105/mL稀释,100μL/孔接种入96孔板,药物质量浓度为250,125,62.5 g?L-1下采用噻唑蓝比色法(MTT法)作用4h,检测芦荟及其复方提取物对小鼠巨噬细胞的毒性作用;药物质量浓度为50,25,12.5 g?L-1下采用硝酸还原酶法作用24 h,测定小鼠巨噬细胞一氧化氮(N0)含量,并用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA法)测定其在单纯药物及脂多糖(LPS)1 mg?L-1诱导情况下小鼠巨噬细胞肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白介素-10(IL-10)的含量.结果:芦荟及其复方提取物具有促进巨噬细胞释放NO的作用,并与药物浓度成正相关(P<0.01);芦荟有促进TNF-α分泌(P<0.01)和抑制IL-10分泌(P<0.05)的作用,其复方在LPS诱导下则对TNF-α和IL-10都有抑制作用(P<0.01).结论:芦荟在250~7.8 g?L-1下对臣噬细胞无细胞毒性,其复方则有一定毒性;芦荟及其复方对小鼠巨噬细胞炎症因子的释放有一定影响.%Objective: To observe effect of the Aloe vera and its compound extract on inflammatory factors. Method: Cells diluted by 2 × 10 /mL were inoculated into 96-well plates, 100 μL Per well, concentrations of druds was 250, 125, 62.5 g ? L-1 , MTT method was assay to test the toxic effects of macrophages. When the concentrations was 50, 25, 12. 5 g ? L-1 macrophage nitric oxide (NO) levels was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) were used to measure tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) and interleukin-10 ( IL-10) levels in pure drug and lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) -induced murine macrophage.Result: Aloe vera and its compound extract promoted releasing of NO, with a concentration dependent manner ( P < 0. 01) ; Aloe vera could promote TNF-α secretion ( P < 0. 01 ) and inhibition of IL-10 secretion ( P < 0. 05 ) , the compound inhibited LPS induced releasing of TNF-α and IL-10 (P <0. 01). Conclusion; Aloe in 250-7. 8 g ? L-1

  13. Study on application of electrochemical microsensor detecting NO released from macrophage stimulated by Escherichia coli%电化学微传感器实时检测大肠埃希菌激活的RAW264.7细胞释放NO的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汪泽; 汤纪路; 甘甜; 卢忠心; 乔治

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply nitric oxide(NO) electrochemical microsensor in the real time detection of NO released from RAW 264 .3 cells infected by E .coli ,and to explore the application value of this NO microsensor in the research area of infection im‐munity against bacterium .Methods Taking NO microsensor to detect NO released from RAW 264 .3 cells respectively stimulated by E .coli of different densities and of 1 × 107 mL -1 for different time .Results The level of NO released from RAW 264 .3 cells was enhanced obviously when incubated with E .coli as compared with that of normal cells and the extent of incersase depended on the density of E .coli (P<0 .01) .The released level of NO increased gradually from the beginning and reached its peal at the time of 12 h then decreased slowly when incubated with E .coli of 1 × 107 mL -1 .Conclusion The electrochemical microsensor was applied in the real time detection of NO released from macrophages activated by E .coli successfully .%目的:探讨NO电化学微传感器在抗细菌感染免疫研究中的应用价值。方法应用前期制备的基于纳米金(nano‐Au)修饰玻璃纤维的新型NO电化学微传感器实时检测大肠埃希菌(E .coli)不同浓度刺激组、不同时间刺激组的小鼠巨噬细胞(RAW264.7细胞)NO的释放水平。结果与对照组相比,RAW264.7细胞受到E .coli刺激后,NO的释放水平明显上调( P<0.01),且对E .coli的刺激具有浓度依耐性。随着E .coli作用时间的延续,RAW264.7细胞的 NO释放水平逐渐上升,作用12 h时达到高峰,然后开始下降。结论 NO电化学微传感器成功应用于E .coli激活的巨噬细胞释放NO过程的实时检测。

  14. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)κB, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents.

  15. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Yen, Feng-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Wei-Chun; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages and exerts hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride-treated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kai Tseng

    Full Text Available In addition to the previous investigations of bioactivity of aqueous extract of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT against H2O2-induced DNA damage and hepatitis C virus replication, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of AEGT against inflammation and hepatotoxicity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute hepatitis model in rats. AEGT concentration-dependently inhibited the elevated RNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, thereby reducing nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels, respectively. Moreover, AEGT significantly suppressed the production of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by AEGT in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of AEGT in a rat model of CCl4-intoxicated acute liver injury, which was evident from reduction in the elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as amelioration of histological damage by pre-treatment or post-treatment of AEGT. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that AEGT may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention or amelioration of inflammatory diseases.

  17. 基于HLS和压缩域运动检测的监控系统设计%Video Surveillance System Based on HLS and Compressed Domain Motion in H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑腾飞; 秦兴; 杨奉阳; 陈浩

    2016-01-01

    网络视频监控日渐盛行,但不同厂商的视频协议互不相同,需要安装不同的软件才能播放.在现有的网络监控基础上提出了一种基于HTTP Live Streaming(HLS)协议和压缩域实时运动检测的监控设计方法.使用HLS协议和FFM-peg开源库将现有的网络监控转换为可以在iOS、Android等支持HTML5的平台上播放的流媒体,实现传统监控在Web上的兼容转换.通过减小视频切片时长来减小视频延时,并通过对H.264压缩域中运动矢量和宏块类型的实时分析来检测监控场景中的运动,实现HLS监控系统的实时监测报警功能.

  18. Oleifolioside A, a New Active Compound, Attenuates LPS-Stimulated iNOS and COX-2 Expression through the Downregulation of NF-κB and MAPK Activities in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Yang; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-01-01

    Oleifolioside A, a new triterpenoid compound isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (D. morbifera), was shown in this study to have potent inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, oleifolioside A was further shown to suppress the expression of LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner at both the protein and mRNA levels and to significantly inhibit the DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in response to LPS. These results were found to be associated with the inhibition of the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by oleifolioside A was also shown to be mediated through the prevention of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that oleifolioside A has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent capable of targeting both the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  19. Oleifolioside A, a New Active Compound, Attenuates LPS-Stimulated iNOS and COX-2 Expression through the Downregulation of NF-κB and MAPK Activities in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleifolioside A, a new triterpenoid compound isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (D. morbifera, was shown in this study to have potent inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, oleifolioside A was further shown to suppress the expression of LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner at both the protein and mRNA levels and to significantly inhibit the DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in response to LPS. These results were found to be associated with the inhibition of the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by oleifolioside A was also shown to be mediated through the prevention of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that oleifolioside A has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent capable of targeting both the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of tricin 4′-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether, a novel flavonolignan compound isolated from Njavara on in RAW264.7 cells and in ear mice edema

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    Jung, Young-Suk [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hwan; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Yun, Na Young [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Hee [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Han, Sang Bae; Hwang, Bang Yeon [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon Soon [College of Agriculture, Life and Environments, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Heon-Sang [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jin Tae, E-mail: jinthong@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Although recent study has shown tricin 4′-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (TTGE), an isolated compound from Njavara rice, to have the most potent anti-inflammatory effects, the action mechanism has not been fully understood. Here, we examined the effect of TTGE on the inflammation and elucidated the potential mechanism. We demonstrated that TTGE significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO and ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells, which was correlated with the down-regulating effect of TTGE on the iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-κB and STAT3. TPA-induced ear edema was also efficiently inhibited by the TTGE treatment. TTGE blocked the induction of iNOS and COX-2 through the regulation of NF-κB and STAT3, which could explain the reduced TPA-induced edema symptoms. Moreover, the introduction of ERK inhibitor abrogated the anti-inflammatory effect of TTGE via the recovery of NF-κB and STAT3 signalings. Taken together, these results suggest that TTGE has anti-inflammatory properties through down-regulation of NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. - Highlights: • TTGE inhibited expression of iNOS and COX-2, NF-kB activity and ear edema through inhibition of ERK pathway.