WorldWideScience

Sample records for bogs

  1. Jobs Bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre.......Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre....

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  3. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  4. Distribution of bog and heath in a Newfoundland blanket bog complex: topographic limits on the hydrological processes governing blanket bog development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Graniero

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This research quantified the role of topography and hydrological processes within and, hence, the development of, blanket bogs. Topographic characteristics were derived from digital elevation models (DEMs developed for the surface and underlying substrate at three blanket bog sites on the southeastern lobe of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. A multinomial logit (MNL model of the probability of bog occurrence was constructed in terms of relevant topographic characteristics. The resulting model was then used to investigate the probabilistic boundary conditions of bog occurrence within the landscape. Under average curvatures for the sites studied, substrate slopes up to 0.065 favoured blanket bog development. However, steeper slopes could, theoretically, be occupied by blanked bog where water is concentrated by convergent curvatures or large contributing areas. Near community boundaries, bog and heath communities both occupied similar topographic conditions. Since these boundary locations are capable of supporting the hydrological conditions necessary for bog development, the heath is likely to be encroached upon by bog.

  5. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  6. Geoinformatics meets education for a peat bog information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulrich; Fiene, Christina; Plass, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Within the project "Expedition Bog: Young researchers are experimenting, exploring and discovering" a bog-information- system is developed by the Department of Geography (University of Education Heidelberg, Germany), the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (University of Osnabrueck, Germany; the NABU Umweltpyramide gGmbH. This information system will be available for schools and to the public. It is supplemented by teaching units on various topics around the bog via an online platform. The focus of the project, however, is the original encounter with the bog habitat. This is realized by a GPS scavenger hunt with small research tasks and observations, mapping and experiments. The project areas are the Huvenhoops bog and the Lauenbruecker bog in Rotenburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. Equipped with a researcher backpack, GPS device and a mobile bog book by means of a pocket PC, students can discover different learning stations in the project bogs. In our areas the students can learn more about different topics such as "the historical memory of the bog", "water", "peat moss and other plants" and "animals of the bog". Moreover small inquiry research projects can be executed. Experimenting on site helps students to develop important scientific findings and increases their curiosity and enthusiasm for nature. It also promotes a number of other basic skills such as literacy, language skills, social skills or fine motor skills. Moreover it also fosters the development of a positive attitude to science in general. The main objective of the project is to promote sustainable environmental education, as well as the development of environmental awareness. This will be accomplished through the imparting of knowledge but also through experiencing nature with all senses in the context of original encounters.

  7. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hommeltenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m. The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012, using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (−130 ± 31 and −300 ± 66 g C m−2 a−1 in the first and second year respectively than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (−53 ± 28 and −73±38 g C m−2 a−1. The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha−1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very

  8. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  9. Natural Communities of Yellow Bogs in Lewis, Bloomfield and Brunswick Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow Bogs in Essex County, Vermont is a unique ecological area characterized by boreal, lowland forests and extensive bog systems. Within the area, black spruce...

  10. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela;

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  11. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal...... species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron...

  12. Restoration of a Terrestrialized Soak Lake of an Irish Raised Bog: Results of Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Wirdum, van G.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soaks (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) add to the overall heterogeneity and biodiversity of raised bog landscapes due to the presence of flora and fauna communities not typically associated with acid bog systems. A field experiment was set up to investigate the potenti

  13. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragazza, L.; Freeman, C.; Jones, T.; Rydin, H.; Limpens, J.; Fenner, N.; Ellis, T.; Gerdol, R.; Hajek, M.; Hajek, T.; Iacumin, P.; Kutnar, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Toberman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, whi

  14. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Egmond, van E.; Li, B.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    1.Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may expla

  15. DATING RECENT PEAT ACCUMULATION IN EUROPEAN OMBROTROPHIC BOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, Johannes; Yeloff, Dan; van der Linden, Marjolein; van Geel, Bas; Brain, Sally; Chambers, Frank M.; Webb, Julia; Toms, Phillip; Hatté, C.; Jull, A.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the C-14 bomb peak, Pb-210, Cs-137, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, ther

  16. Dating recent peat accumulation in European ombrotrophic bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J.; Yeloff, D.; van der Linden, M.; van Geel, B.; Brain, S.; Chambers, F.M.; Webb, J.; Toms, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14C bomb peak, 210Pb, 137Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, there i

  17. Nutrient availability at Mer Bleue bog measured by PRSTM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.; Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs, covering ~0.7 million km2 in Canada, store a large amount of C and N. As nutrient deficient ecosystems, it's critical to examine the nutrient availabilities and seasonal dynamics. We used Plant Root Simulators (PRSTM) at Mer Bleue bog to provide some baseline data on nutrient availability and its variability. In particular, we focused on ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium and potassium, iron, sulphate and aluminum. We placed PRS probes at a depth of 5 - 15 cm in pristine plots and plots with long term N, P and K fertilization for 4 weeks and determined the availability of these nutrients, from spring through to fall. Probes were also placed beneath the water table in hummock and hollow microtopography and along a transect including part of the bog which had been drained through the creation of a ditch 80 years ago. The result showed that there was limited available ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in the bog, the seasonal variation of nutrient availabilities probably due to mineralization, an increase in the availability of some nutrients between different water table depths or as a result of drainage, and the relative availability of nutrients compared to the input from fertilization. We suggest that PRS probes could be a useful tool to examine nutrient availability and dynamics in wetlands, with careful consideration of installing condition, for example, proper exposure period, depth relative to water table etc.

  18. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Egmond, van E.; Li, B.; Holmgren, M.

    2013-01-01

    Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may explain

  19. Oribatid mite species numbers increase, densities decline and parthenogenetic species suffer during bog degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniczak, Anna; Seniczak, Stanisław; Maraun, Mark; Graczyk, Radomir; Mistrzak, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the oribatid mites in two natural and four industrially exploited bogs. One natural bog (Zakręt, Z) was located in northeastern Poland and the other one (Toporowy Staw Niżni, TSN), in southern Poland. The four exploited bogs were also located in southern Poland and can be ranked from least to most degraded as follows: Łysa Puścizna (LP), Baligówka (B), Puścizna Mała (PM) and Kaczmarka (K). In the natural bogs, the water pH was higher than in the degraded ones, but other parameters were lower (conductivity, colour value, oxygen demand, and concentration of chlorides). In the natural bogs, the Oribatida were highly abundant (average density was 169,100 ind./m(2)), but with low species diversity and one dominating species. In bog Z the most abundant was Limnozetes foveolatus that had dominance of 75 % and in bog TSN, located at higher altitude, Trimalaconothrus maior dominated (73 %). In two degraded bogs that had still good water conditions (LP and B) the oribatid communities resembled those from the natural bogs; in LP the most abundant species was Hydrozetes lacustris and in bog B, L. foveolatus. In contrast, in two more degraded bogs (PM and K) the abundance of mites was lower (average density was 17,850 ind./m(2)), species diversity of the Oribatida was higher, and no species achieved a high dominance like in the natural bogs. Additionally, in more degraded bogs the abundance of parthenogenetic species was lower than in the natural bogs.

  20. Ecohydrological analysis of a groundwater influenced blanket bog: occurrence of Schoenus nigricans in Roundstone Bog, Connemara, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Grootjans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960s, the occurrence of Schoenus nigricans in Irish blanket bogs has been attributed to inputs of salt spray to the blanket bogs, due to their proximity to the coast and the predominant westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. To test this hypothesis we carried out an ecohydrological field study at a large blanket bog in the western part of Connemara, Ireland. We described peat profiles in two transects and sampled pore water from peat at different depths. The water samples were analysed and their macro-ionic composition was used to locate possible inputs of calcareous groundwater to the system. We found clear evidence for inflow of calcareous groundwater at various sites and depths. Inflow of rather base-rich groundwater was indicated by high values of electrical conductivity (EC, high contents of calcium and bicarbonate, and high pH of the pore water. The peat profiles contained macro-remains of reed (Phragmites australis, in most cases only in deeper layers of peat, but at one location throughout the profile. This is another indication that the blanket bog was a groundwater-fed fen for quite some time. We conclude that the occurrence of S. nigricans in the blanket bog studied could be well explained by the hypothesis that S. nigricans is a relic from former more base-rich conditions. Relatively high base saturation could have persisted due to the prevailing groundwater flow in the upper layers preventing decalcification or other loss of cations from the whole soil profile including the topsoil.

  1. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  2. Carbon and Water Cycles in a New Zealand Peat Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Peat soils represent globally significant stores of carbon and an understanding of carbon exchange processes between peat wetland ecosystems and the atmosphere is important for understanding the effects of, and impacts upon, global climate change. Eddy covariance measurements of CO2, water vapour and energy fluxes were made during 1999 and 2000 at a remnant oligotrophic raised peat bog in North Island, New Zealand. The bog's hydrology has been modified by drainage of surrounding agricultural land, so that the water table is relatively deep compared to that of unmodified bogs in the region. Vegetation is dominated by two indigenous species of rush-like vascular plants belonging to the Southern hemisphere family Restionaceae. Maximum daytime CO2 fluxes were commonly -9 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 and averaged -1.3 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 over the 24-hour period in summertime. The ecosystem was a sink of atmospheric carbon for most of the year, with wintertime characterised by 12--15 weeks of carbon neutrality or slight carbon loss. Average carbon uptake by the ecosystem was 196 gC m-2 yr-1 for the two-year period. Modelling suggests that the key factor determining inter-annual variability of the carbon budget is seasonal soil temperature, whereas ecosystem respiration is relatively insensitive to the position of the lowered water table. The bog vegetation acts as a major control over water vapour loss and energy partitioning favors sensible heat production with mean summertime Bowen ratios of approximately 2.0. Water use efficiency was highest in the morning, indicating that the vegetation maximizes CO2 assimilation while the saturation vapour pressure deficit and transpiration rates are low. The dense canopy structure also restricts penetration of solar radiation to the peat surface, which minimizes evaporation and soil respiration.

  3. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  4. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, B.; Thiele, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

  5. Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.

  6. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  7. Dating Danish textiles and skins from bog finds by means of 14C AMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Possnert, Göran; Heinemeier, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 44 new 14C analyses of Danish Early Iron Age textiles and skins. Of 52 Danish bog finds containing skin and textile items, 30 are associated with bog bodies. Until now, only 18 of these have been dated. In this paper we add dates to the remaining finds....... The results demonstrate that the Danish custom of depositing clothed bodies in a bog is centred to the centuries immediately before and at the beginning of the Common Era. Most of these bodies are carefully placed in the bog - wrapped or dressed in various textile and/or skin garments....

  8. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antonović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog.

  9. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Reichart, G.J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasi

  10. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: A mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, J.F. van; Reichart, G.-J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasi

  11. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Dendrochronology in Sub-Fossil Bog Oak Tree Rings - A Preliminary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sass, U.G.W.; Poole, I.; Wils, T.; Helle, G.; Schleser, G.H.; Bergen, van P.

    2005-01-01

    Isotope dendroclimatology is a relatively new field investigating environmental factors that control the radial growth of trees. Tree-ring series of sub-fossil bog oaks can be dated from sites across northwest Europe indicating that the environmental change(s) were regional rather than local. Bog oa

  12. Long-term effects of climate change on vegetation and carbon dynamics in peat bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Mauquoy, D.; van Geel, B.; Berendse, F.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: What are the long-term effects of climate change on the plant species composition and carbon sequestration in peat bogs? Methods: We developed a bog ecosystem model that includes vegetation, carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics. Two groups of vascular plant species and three groups of Spha

  13. Ecological networks and nature policy in central Russia : peat bogs in central and northern Meshera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Otchagov, D.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.

    2001-01-01

    In central and northern Meshera, Russia, the habitat of many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. Peat mining and other human influences are the most important causes. As a result the potentials for viable populations ofcharacteristic peat bog species have decreased co

  14. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  15. The spider fauna of Scragh Bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland (Arachnida: Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The spider fauna of Scragh Bog, a quacking bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland, was investigated for the first time. The presence of 53 species could be established, two of which are new to Ireland (Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop), Porrhomma oblitum (O.P.-Cambridge)), while 30 represent new county recor

  16. Dissolved organic nitrogen dominates in European bogs under increasing atmospheric N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragazza, L.; Limpens, J.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of increased atmospheric N input on N availability in ombrotrophic peatlands, the relative concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were measured in bog waters along a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition. Six European bog

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 and vascular plants on evapotranspiration in bog vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Berendse, F.

    2001-01-01

    We determined evapotranspiration in three experiments designed to study the effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. Two experiments used peat monoliths with intact bog vegetation in containers, with one experiment outdoors and the other in a greenhouse. A t

  18. Expansion of Sphagnum fallax in bogs: striking the ballance between N and P availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Tomassen, H.B.M.; Berendse, F.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition may cause shifts in the Sphagnum species composition of bogs, ultimately affecting the conservation value of these systems. We studied the effects of N and P on the expansion of S. fallax and S. flexuosum in bogs. We related historical census data of S. fallax, S. flexuosum, and

  19. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the N budgets of an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen to quantify the importance of denitrification in peatlands and their watersheds. We also compared the watershed upland mineral soils to bog/fen peat; lagg and transition zone peat to central bog/fen peat; an...

  20. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) < input NO3- (-7.9 ‰) < peat porewater (-5.6 ‰) < Sphagnum (-5.0 ‰) < shallow peat (-4.2 ‰) < deep peat (-2.2 ‰) < runoff (-1.4 ‰) < porewater N2O (1.4 ‰). Importantly, N of Sphagnum was isotopically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001). If partial incorporation of reactive N from the atmosphere into Sphagnum was isotopically selective, the residual N would have to be isotopically extremely light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation

  1. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and Arc

  2. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible.

  3. Mass balance and nitrogen accumulation in hummocks on a south Swedish bog during the late holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmer, N.; Svensson, G.; Wallen, B. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Ecology, Plant Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Two peat cores from the Store Mosse mire in the central part of South Sweden have been analyzed for dry bulk density, carbon, and nitrogen. They cover the development of the peat mound from the time of the conversion of the initial fen to an ombrotrophic bog at 5450 BP through three different bog stages, the Fuscum, the Rubellum-Fuscum and the Magellanicum bog stages, each one chracterized by a specific macrofossil assemblage. All N supplied to the bog surface in assumed to be contained in the organic matter. At the beginning of the Magellanicum bog stage. 1000 BP, the nitrogen accumulation rate increased from an earlier value of ca 0.4 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} to 0.8 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. These accumulation rates for N have been used to establish time scales for the periods between the {sup 14}C-datings. The estimated litter deposition rate in the hummocks is 120 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} in the two older bog stages and 270 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} in the Magellanicum bog stage. The decay losses in the acrotelm increased, as a proportion of the addition, with time through each one of the bog stages. The range of variation in the cores for the acrotelm decay losses was 25-80%, and the annual input of organic matter to the catotelm, 30-130 g m{sup -2}. These ranges are greater than those found among recent bog hummocks in NW Europe and North America. The decay losses during 5000 yr in the catotelm may not have exceeded 20% of the original input. The over-all net rate of accumulation of C was highest, ca 40 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, at the beginning of the Fuscum bog stage. The changes in the macrofossil assemblages are all associated with rapid increased in the peat accumulation rate, but decreases in accumulation rate are not. At the conversion from fen to bog the increased input of organic matter to the catotelm depended on expansion of Sphagman fuscum which formed a decay resistant litter. Later increases depended on rapid rises of the mean water table, resulting in

  4. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned...... species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the Proteome...

  5. Regional patterns and controlling factors in plant species composition and diversity in Canadian lowland coastal bogs and laggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Howie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of natural assemblages of plant species are critical when planning ecological restoration of bogs. However, little is known about the regional variation in plant communities at the margins (laggs of bogs, even though they are an integral element of raised bog ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the regional patterns in the plant communities of bogs and laggs, and the factors that control them, for thirteen bogs in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Species richness was significantly higher in the bogs and laggs of the cooler, wetter Pacific Oceanic wetland region. Beta Diversity analyses showed that bogs in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region often shared species with their respective laggs, whereas half of the laggs in the warmer, drier Pacific Temperate wetland region had no species in common with the adjacent bogs and were thus more ecologically distinct from the bog. Primary climatic variables, such as mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and latitude, as well as climate-influenced variables, such as pH, peat depth, and Na+ concentrations were the main correlates of plant species composition in the studied bogs. Site-specific factors, particularly depth to water table, and fraction of inorganic material in peat samples, were as strongly related to lagg plant communities as climate, while hydrochemistry appeared to have less influence.

  6. Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Appleby, Peter G.; Bicalho, Beatriz; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Krachler, Michael; Magnan, Gabriel; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shannon, Bob; Bellen, Simon; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Peat cores were collected from six bogs in northern Alberta to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of Pb, a valuable tracer of human activities. In each profile, the maximum Pb enrichment is found well below the surface. Radiometric age dating using three independent approaches (14C measurements of plant macrofossils combined with the atmospheric bomb pulse curve, plus 210Pb confirmed using the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am) showed that Pb contamination has been in decline for decades. Today, the surface layers of these bogs are comparable in composition to the "cleanest" peat samples ever found in the Northern Hemisphere, from a Swiss bog ~ 6000 to 9000 years old. The lack of contemporary Pb contamination in the Alberta bogs is testimony to successful international efforts of the past decades to reduce anthropogenic emissions of this potentially toxic metal to the atmosphere.

  7. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gallego-Sala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of a mountain bog to climate change as a delayed effect of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. von Sengbusch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees of Pinus rotundata (bog pine characterise many bogs in the mid-altitude mountains of central Europe (Switzerland, East and South Germany, Czech Republic. The research described here focuses on recent changes in the growth of bog pine on the Ennersbacher Moor, a mountain mire in the Black Forest (south-west Germany. An increase in the cover of bog pine is usually caused by drainage and subsequent drawdown of the water table. However, this bog has not been drained or directly disturbed in any other way. One possible explanation is that a road constructed in 1983 along one margin of the bog has diverted part of its water supply. Even though the road was designed to conduct potentially salt-contaminated drainage water away from the bog, its construction did not cause an immediate vegetation response in the 1980s and 1990s. Therefore, I hypothesise that it enhanced the sensitivity of the bog to climatic stress, predisposing it to a succession that was eventually triggered by a series of drought years in 2009–2011. Data collected near the centre of the bog over the period 1998–2014 indicate not only a distinct change in the relationship between height and trunk circumference of the trees, but also an increase of dwarf shrub cover and changes in the composition of Sphagnum communities. Although the pH of near-surface water may have increased slightly over this period, pH and EC values remain within typical ranges for raised bogs in the Black Forest. Examination of peat profiles reveals that the peat is more highly humified now than it was in 2002, and water table records from 2012–2014 show a greater amplitude of fluctuation than water table data collected in 1998–2001. Even though its mean level is only 105 mm below the ground surface, the water table is now observed to fall rapidly to depths of at least 350 mm during both wet and dry summers. Mapping surface (mesotopography and flow lines from the adjacent slope shows that the

  9. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems.

  10. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  11. Spatial distribution and seasonal changes of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in a Western Balkan peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vilenica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii, while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.

  12. Anthropogenic degradation of mountainous raised bogs. Case study of the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Publications on the human impact on peat bogs pay a lot of attention to peat erosion, peat burning and changes in the physical and chemical properties of peat deposits that indicate pollution in the environment, but a more detailed analysis of current changes in the peat bog relief as a result of peat deposit extraction and drying is omitted. Compared to other areas of the world, the level of knowledge on anthropogenic changes in the relief of peat bogs in some areas of Poland may be considered advanced. This applies not only to peat bogs in northern Poland but also southern Poland, where peat bogs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes are also found. The best analyzed peat bogs in southern Poland are the raised bogs in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Basin (Western Carpathians) and in valleys in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Both areas are impacted by deep precipitation shadow. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to assess the rate of shrinkage in the surface area of peat domes in the mentioned areas, (2) to describe the rate of growth in the surface area of older and younger post-peat areas, (3) to explain current changes in peat bogs morphology, (4) to explain changes in water retention in peat deposit, (5) to separate phases in peat bogs relief changes. With that in mind, the direction and rate of change of landforms typical of younger post-peat areas, such as peat extraction scarps, post-extraction hollows, drainage systems including ditches and regulated stream channels, were analyzed. A special emphasis was placed on the period of time when the restoration of such areas has taken place. The paper is based on an analysis of maps produced over the last 230 years as well as on aerial photographs taken since 1965 and on LiDAR data. Fieldwork included the geomorphological and hydrographic mapping of specified landforms within peat bogs using GPS methods. In period prior to human activity peat domes were larger than today and were surrounded by lagg fens and were

  13. The hydrological and geochemical isolation of a freshwater bog within a saline fen in north-eastern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Scarlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the oil sands development region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, wetlands cover ~62 % of the landscape, and ~95 % of these wetlands are peatlands. A saline fen was studied as a reference site for peatland reclamation. Despite highly saline conditions, a freshwater bog was observed in the path of local saline groundwater flow. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydrological controls that have allowed the development and persistence of a bog in this setting. The presence of bog vegetation and its dilute water chemistry suggest that saline groundwater from the fen rarely enters the bog, which functions predominantly as a groundwater recharge system. Chloride (Cl– and sodium (Na+ were the dominant ions in fen water, with concentrations averaging 5394 and 2307 mg L-1, respectively, while the concentrations in bog water were 5 and 4 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations were reflected by salinity and electrical conductivity measurements, which in the fen averaged 9.3 ppt, and 15.8 mS cm-1, respectively, and in the bog averaged 0.1 ppt and 0.3 mS cm-1, respectively. A small ridge in the mineral substratum was found at the fen–bog margin, which created a persistent groundwater mound. Under the dry conditions experienced in early summer, groundwater flow was directed away from the bog at a rate of 14.6 mm day-1. The convex water table at the fen-bog margin impeded flow of saline water into the bog and instead directed it around the bog margin. However, the groundwater mound was eliminated during flooding in autumn, when the horizontal hydraulic gradient across the margin became negligible, suggesting the possibility of saline water ingress into the bog under these conditions.

  14. The growth of permafrost-free bogs at the southern margin of permafrost, 1947-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Connon, R.; Chasmer, L.

    2013-12-01

    In the high-Boreal region of NW Canada, permafrost occurs predominantly in the form of tree-covered peat plateaus within a permafrost-free and treeless terrain dominated by flat bogs. This region is experiencing unprecedented rates of thaw. Over the last several decades, such thaw has significantly expanded the permafrost-free, treeless terrain at the expense of the plateaus. This rapid change in land-cover has raised concerns over its impact on northern water resources, since remotely sensed data and ground observations indicate that the two major land-covers in this region have very different hydrological functions. Peat plateaus have a limited capacity to store water, a relatively large snowmelt water supply and hydraulic gradients that direct excess water into adjacent permafrost-free wetlands. As such, the plateaus function primarily as runoff generators. Plateaus also obstruct and redirect water movement in adjacent wetlands since the open water surfaces of the latter occupy an elevation below the permafrost table. By contrast, bogs are primarily water storage features since they are surrounded by raised permafrost and therefore less able to exchange surface and near-surface flows with the basin drainage network. Accurate estimate of the permafrost and permafrost-free areas is needed for accurate predictions of basin runoff and storage. This study examines the perimeter-area characteristics of bogs and permafrost plateaus, using fractal geometry as a basis for quantifying these properties. Image analyses are applied to aerial photographs and satellite imagery of Scotty Creek, NWT over the period 1947-2010. Preliminary analyses suggest that the expanding bogs and shrinking permafrost plateaus behave as fractals, meaning that their perimeter-area characteristics can be described by simple power equations. The area-frequency characteristics of bogs and plateaus have a hyperbolic distribution with relatively few large bogs and plateaus and numerous small ones

  15. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  16. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes.

  17. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12–16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%–31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  18. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  19. Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result

  20. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  1. A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

    2013-12-01

    Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an

  2. Towards sustainable ecological networks of peat bogs in central Russia; development of local environmental action program (LEAP) as a practical tool for protection and restoration of peat bogs in Egorievsk sub region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Bondartchuk, E.A.; Otchagov, D.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    In central and northern Meshera the habitats for many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. As a result, the potential for viable populations of characteristic peat bog species has decreased considerably. Peat-mining and other human influences are the most important rea

  3. Environmental monitoring in peat bog areas by change detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulrich; Mildes, Wiebke

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information supporting tasks such as urban and regional planning, natural resource management, agricultural studies and topographic or thematic mapping. Current and future remote sensing programs are based on a variety of sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation on a global scale. GIS offer efficient tools for handling, manipulating, analyzing and presenting spatial data that are required for sensible decision making in various areas. The Environmental Monitoring project may serve as a convincing example of the operational use of integrated GIS/remote sensing technologies. The overall goal of the project is to assess the capabilities of satellite remote sensing for the analysis of land use changes, especially in moor areas. These areas are recognized as areas crucial to the mission of the Department of Environment and, therefore, to be placed under an extended level of protection. It is of critical importance, however, to have accurate and current information about the ecological and economic state of these sensitive areas. In selected pasture and moor areas, methods for multisensor data fusion have being developed and tested. The results of this testing show which techniques are useful for pasture and moor monitoring at an operational level. A hierarchical method is used for extracting bog land classes with respect to the environmental protection goals. A highly accurate classification of the following classes was accomplished: deciduous- and mixed forest, coniferous forest, water, very wet areas, meadowland/farmland with vegetation, meadowland/farmland with partly vegetation, meadowland/ farmland without vegetation, peat quarrying with maximum of 50% vegetation, de- and regeneration stages. In addition, a change detection analysis is performed in comparison with the existing

  4. Antonio Beccadellis bog om kong Alfonso I af Napoli (1455) og reformationskongen Christian III af Danmark-Norge (1550)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    Præsentation af Beccadellis bog (1455) og redegørelse for, hvorledes den ukendte Erhard efter tilskyndelse fra Melanchthon kunne tilegne denne katolske humanistiske bog, ændret i lettere grad, til den lutherske konge Christian III (1550)....

  5. Modification of bog vegetation by power utility rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickerson, N.H.; Thibodeau, F.R.

    1984-10-01

    Wetland modification is strictly controlled by a number of state and federal statutes. This study documents the effects of construction and maintenance of power utility rights-of-way on shrub swamp-bog vegetation at Tewksbury, Massachusetts. While both activities cause at least temporary changes in natural vegetation, neither causes substantial long-term negative impact. Bog vegetation recovers naturally in four growing seasons from the effects of both activites. Such utility rights-of-way do not appear to be in conflict with the intent of wetland protection legislation.

  6. Interactions between Nitrogen Fixation and Methane Cycling in Northern Minnesota Peat Bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M. J.; Gaby, J. C.; Lin, X.; Morton, P. L.; Kostka, J. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's surface, yet store a third of soil carbon. Increasing global temperatures have the potential to change peatlands from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. N is a limiting nutrient in oligotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands and biological N2 fixation likely supplies a significant but unknown fraction of N inputs. Moreover, environmental controls on diazotrophic community composition in N-limited peatlands are poorly constrained. Thus, improved understanding of feedbacks between the CH4 and N cycles is critical for predicting future changes to CH4 flux from peat bogs. We coupled measurements of N2 fixation activity measured by the acetylene (C2H2) reduction assay (ARA) with molecular analyses of expression and diversity of nifH genes encoding the molybdenum (Mo)-containing nitrogenase from two peat bogs in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA. The top 10 cm of peat was sampled from the high CH4 flux S1 bog and the low CH4 flux Zim bog in April and June 2014. Despite similar N concentrations in the top 10 cm of both bogs (0.5-1.0 μM NO2-+NO3- and 2-3 μM NH4+), the S1 bog displayed variable ARA activity (1-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1) whereas the Zim bog had consistently low ARA activity (<1 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Highest ARA activity was measured in June from S1 bog hollows with higher moisture content incubated without O2 in the light (20-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Dissolved Fe (1-25 μM) was higher in hollow vs. hummock samples, and at S1 vs. Zim bog, while dissolved V (4-14 nM) was consistently higher than Mo (1-4 nM), suggesting that alternative V or Fe-containing nitrogenases might be present in these bogs. In contrast, Cu, an essential micronutrient for aerobic methanotrophs, was higher in hummocks (25-48 nM) than hollows (6-17 nM). The facultative methanotroph Methylocella was the dominant diazotroph in the S1 bog based on high throughput next generation sequencing of nifH cDNA amplicons. Given previous

  7. Hydrological instability of a Baltic raised bog during the last 1000 years in northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Galka, Mariusz; Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Goslar, Tomasz; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

    2010-05-01

    Our aim was to reconstruct the palaeohydrological of a Baltic raised bog located in northern Poland over the last 1000 years. We used several proxies: testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the bog surface wetness. We analysed two replicated monoliths collected from the same bog at high temporal resolution. We obtained a reliable chronology for both monoliths based on radiocarbon and lead 210 dating. We compared the inferred water table depth changes obtained from the quantitative reconstruction based on the testate amoebae transfer function with inference from plant remains and carbon isotopic composition of Sphagnum stems for both monoliths. Our data provide new insight on human impact on the hydrology of Baltic raised bogs and the sensitivity of these peatlands to various disturbances. We show an increasing hydrological instability of the studied peatland concomitant with the gradually increasing human impact over the landscape since the Medieval Period. However, climatic change also played an important role during the Little Ice Age period that overlapped with the anthropogenic disturbance. This palaeoenvironmental data provides useful baseline data for peatland management and restoration in Northern Poland and more generally illustrate the value of high-resolution multiproxy studies as tool for both palaeoenvironmental studies and current management.

  8. Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extende

  9. Hvordan jøderne blev til jøder i Esters bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2015-01-01

    persere, der ikke ”bliver jøder”. Denne kamp tolkes som udtryk dels for en fællesskabsskabende effervescens (Durkheim), der bedst forstås gennem Purimfestens karnevaleske karakter, dels for mimetisk rivalisering (Girard), personificeret gennem Haman og Mordokaj. Purim og Esters Bog står således i en...

  10. Pollution of bogs in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia as an indicator of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Mezhibor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in the climatic balance of our planet. Thus, their protection from anthropogenic pollution is an important target for sustainable development of environment. Wetlands have a special significance for the Siberian region of Russia where they take great territories. Peat bogs, being unique ecosystems among wetlands, have properties to save the history of atmospheric pollution. The particularity of peat bogs is determined by their nutrition - they receive chemical elements mostly from the atmosphere. Some peat bogs in Siberia (Tomsk region, Russia were studied to determine the degree of environment pollution during the last century and the change of geochemical composition of peat in time. These studies determined the increase of pollution in the region from the middle of 20th century because of the sharp industrial development. The data on the pollution of peat bogs allow concluding that the geochemical peculiarities of different parts of Tomsk region influenced by different types of industry: nuclear facility, coal-burning power stations and oil refineries. This method can be used together with other methods implemented for the detection of anthropogenic pollution and the results can be used as indicative parameters in environmental change. The results of the studies can be used for the development of recommendations in the decrease of the industry influence for the sustainable development of Siberian region.Keywords: upland peat, air pollution, Tomsk region, indicators of sustainable development

  11. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. Th

  12. Role and Responsibility of Board of Governors [BOG] in Ensuring Educational Quality in Colleges & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents in brief the need and importance of effective, imaginative and responsible governing boards in colleges and universities, so as to ensure educational quality. BOG should engage fruitfully with the principal and activities in college/ university. UGC, AICTE have now prescribed creation of effective boards for both government and…

  13. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  14. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat; Turvesoiden ja polttoturpeen radionuklidit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtovaara, J. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K) and radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to {sup 137}Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  15. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  16. Late Holocene palaeohydrological changes in a Sphagnum peat bog from NW Romania based on testate amoebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Cosmin Diaconu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of reconstructing the palaeohydrological changes in an active Sphagnum peat bog from north-western Romania using testate amoebae fauna and organic matter content determined by loss on ignition (LOI. In total 28 taxa of testate amoebae were identified of which 11 were frequent enough to present a remarkable ecological significance. Based on the relative abundance of these taxa nine zones were identified, crossing from very wet to dry climate conditions. The wet periods identified are characterized by taxa like Centropyxis cassis, Amphitrema flavum and Hyalosphenia papilio, while in the dry periods Difflugia pulex and Nebela militaris thrive. We showed that combining qualitative information regarding hydrological preferences with the quantitative percentage data from the fossil record it is possible to obtain information regarding major surface moisture changes from the peat bog surface. Furthermore we identified a link between distribution of testate amoebae assemblages, organic matter variation and minerogenic material.

  17. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in Early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Gleba, Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina

    2009-01-01

    A large systematic dye investigation of prehistoric Danish and Norwegian bog textiles was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection. After the selection of the most suitable protocol for dye extraction and HPLC analysis for this specific group...... of archaeological samples, the second part included the characterisation of the dyes detected in the whole series of the Early Iron Age textiles and the interpretation of the dyeing technology. Natural organic dyes were found from the three main categories of natural dyes, hence throwing new light on the use...... of biological dye sources in Early Iron Age Scandinavia. The results clearly indicate that most Scandinavian peat bog textiles originally were dyed and that already during the 1st millennium BC, the populations in Scandinavia were familiar with the dyeing technology....

  18. Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    been visualized from CT-scans using the Mimics software from Materialise. Extensive manual editing was necessary, as is common with bog bodies, since the bones were severely degraded and the ordinary range of Hounsfield Units (HU), used for clinical work, is not suitable. Only the cranium, the left...... ribs and the right auricular surface were 3D visualized. Based on these visualizations, the age was estimated by applying macroscopic methods routinely used for skeletal remains: the cranial sutures closure (Meindl & Lovejoy 1985), the sternal rib end (Iscan & Loth 1986) and the auricular surface...... was 16 to 24 years. Many problems had to be addressed. First of all, the degradation of the skeletal tissue does not allow a complete visualization: the bones are demineralized because of the acidic bog environment. Another problem is the subjectivity that can arise during manual editing, especially...

  19. Contributions to the knowledge of flora and vegetation of peat bog from Bihorului Mountains (NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The oligotrophic peat bog of Bihorului Mountains are quartered in the valleys with northern exposure, of siliceous substrate, forming habitats with high conservation value, which are home to over 10 rare relict species. The phytocoenoses of the associations Sphagnetum magellanici, Sphagno cuspidati – Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum limosae were analyzed by us in terms of floristic composition, ecological spectra of the type of life forms and floristic elements, in terms of chart ecological factors: moisture, soil temperature and chemical reaction.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  1. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  2. Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

  3. Late Holocene palaeoclimate variability: The significance of bog pine dendrochronology related to peat stratigraphy. The Puścizna Wielka raised bog case study (Orawa - Nowy Targ Basin, Polish Inner Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krąpiec, Marek; Margielewski, Włodzimierz; Korzeń, Katarzyna; Szychowska-Krąpiec, Elżbieta; Nalepka, Dorota; Łajczak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The results of dendrochronological and palynological analyses of subfossil pine trees occurring in the peat deposits of the Puścizna Wielka raised bog (Polish Carpathians, Southern Poland) - the only site with numerous subfossil pine trees in the mountainous regions of Central Europe presently known - indicate that the majority of the tree populations grew in the peat bog during the periods ca 5415-3940 cal BP and 3050-2560 cal BP. Several forestless episodes, dated to 5245-5155 cal BP, 4525-4395 cal BP and 3940-3050 cal BP, were preceded by tree dying-off phases caused by an extreme periodical increase in humidity and general climate cooling trends. These events are documented based on analyses of pollen and non-pollen palynomorph assemblages, dendrochronological analyses of the trees, as well as numerous radiocarbon datings of the sediment horizons occurring within the peat bog profile. The phases of germinations, and, in turn, of tree and shrub invasions of the peat bog areas have been closely connected to drying and occasional warming of the regional climate. The last of the forestless periods began about 2600 years ago and continued up to the very recent times. Currently, as a result of desiccation of the peat bog and the lowering of the groundwater level (due to improved water drainage system), pine trees have returned the peat bog again. These results demonstrate that studies of subfossil bog-pine trees are quite effective in documenting and reconstructing periods of humidity fluctuation that occurred within the Carpathian region over the last several millennia.

  4. Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat

  5. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  6. Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William

    2013-04-01

    A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn

  7. Could Poor Fens BE More Sensitive than Bogs to Elevated N Deposition in the Oil Sands Region of Northern Alberta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs and fens cover 29% of the 140,000 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area (OSAA) in northern Alberta, a region characterized by quite low background N deposition (1-2 kg/ha/yr). However, development of the oil sands resource has led to increasing emission of nitrogen oxides, which are then returned to regional ecosystems as elevated atmospheric N deposition. Given the nutrient deficient nature of bogs and poor fens, elevated N deposition from oil sands development could potentially affect peatland ecosystem structure and function. To evaluate the ecosystem-level effects of N deposition, since 2011, we have experimentally applied N to a bog and a poor fen near Mariana Lakes, Alberta, located far enough from the OSAA to be unaffected by oil sands emissions. Treatments include simulated rainfall equivalent to N deposition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg/ha/yr, plus control plots receiving no added water (3 replicate plots per site per N treatment). Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, and DON at the top of the peatland water table did not increase with increasing N deposition, averaging 0.61, 0.09, and 1.07 mg/L, respectively, in the bog, and 0.53, 0.10, and 0.81 mg/L, respectively, in the poor fen. Ericaceous shrub abundance increased with increasing N deposition in both the bog and the poor fen, although plot-scale greenness (hand-held spectral measurement of the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) index) increased with N deposition in the poor fen, but not in the bog. Segmented regression indicated that in the poor fen, at N deposition above 14-16 kg/ha/yr, total microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass in the top 5 cm of peat increased with N deposition, with no effect at lower N deposition. No effect of N deposition on microbial, bacterial, or fungal biomass was observed at 5-10 cm in the poor fen, or at either 0-5 or 5-10 cm in the bog. In the poor fen, microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass increased with NDRE, but the effect was not significant in the bog

  8. Spatial and temporal performance of the miniface (free air CO2 enrichment) system on bog ecosystems in northern and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglietta, F.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Foot, J.; Gigon, F.; Hassinen, A.; Heijmans, M.; Peressotti, A.; Saarinen, T.; Breemen, van N.; Wallen, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Bog Ecosystem Research Initiative (BERI) project was initiated to investigate, at five climatically different sites across Europe, the effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on the net exchange of CO2 and CH4 between bogs and the atmosphere, and to study the effects of elevated CO2 and N depos

  9. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winden, Julia F; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

  10. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F van Winden

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs. Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

  11. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  12. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  13. Unexpected DNA-fingerprinting pattern in a deep peat bog: evidence for methanotrophs at the bottom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, P.; Rossi, P.; Huon, S.; Eilrich, B.; Casati, S.

    2003-04-01

    With the goal of a better understanding of the fate of methane in the deep layers of peat bogs, we analysed the microbial 16S rDNA gene pool and measured the stable carbon isotope composition of bulk peat of a deep (6 m) peat bog profile (Etang de la Gruyère, Switzerland). Both Bacterial and Archaean communities were assessed using respectively TTGE (Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis) and SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism), with fragments of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA gene. The "relative diversity" shown in the TTGE AND SSCP gel patterns is presented using indices and band numbers per sample (Simpson evenness). PCA was calculated on the basis of the intensities of all bands found in the TTGE and SSCP fingerprinting profiles. These DNA fingerprinting patterns reveal the presence of a structured microbial community throughout the whole depth profile. Clear differences can be observed between the communities found in the near surface layers and those found at depth. Surprisingly, for both Archaean and Bacterial communities, the deepest samples display a high similarity level with those found in the first 20 centimeters. The δ13C values of the peat are relatively constant from the surface of the bog down to a depth of 5 m (values between 25.5 ppm and 26.5 ppm). Below 5 m the values decrease considerably with depth ( 28.5 ppm). As a working hypothesis to explain the two observations, we consider the possibility of the presence of methanotrophs in the deepest parts of the bogs. The electron acceptors needed for methane oxidation could be derived from lateral advection of less reducing groundwater. However, available pore water analyses suggest that neither molecular oxygen, nor sulfate or nitrate are present. One possible oxidising agent would be trivalent iron (solid or colloidal). Indeed are the iron concentrations in the deeper pore waters are elevated. Such deep methanotrophic microbial community could be similar to those found near

  14. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01 with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash

  15. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  16. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition Enhances the Net CO2 Sink Strength in Alberta Bogs along a Post-fire Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    About 30% of the landscape of northern Alberta, Canada is occupied by peatlands, which persist at the low end range of both mean annual precipitation (moss, was not affected by N addition, suggesting that the overall response of NEE to N addition is the result of enhanced growth of ericaceous shrubs. These findings suggest that while elevated N deposition in the AOSR may enhance the strength of the overall CO2 sink of bogs in the short term, in the longer term, increased shrub growth has the potential to shade Sphagnum mosses, compromising the future bog CO2sink strength across the region.

  17. Mapping raised bogs with an iterative one-class classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Benjamin; Roscher, Ribana; Stenzel, Stefanie; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Waske, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover maps are one of the most commonly used remote sensing products. In many applications the user only requires a map of one particular class of interest, e.g. a specific vegetation type or an invasive species. One-class classifiers are appealing alternatives to common supervised classifiers because they can be trained with labeled training data of the class of interest only. However, training an accurate one-class classification (OCC) model is challenging, particularly when facing a large image, a small class and few training samples. To tackle these problems we propose an iterative OCC approach. The presented approach uses a biased Support Vector Machine as core classifier. In an iterative pre-classification step a large part of the pixels not belonging to the class of interest is classified. The remaining data is classified by a final classifier with a novel model and threshold selection approach. The specific objective of our study is the classification of raised bogs in a study site in southeast Germany, using multi-seasonal RapidEye data and a small number of training sample. Results demonstrate that the iterative OCC outperforms other state of the art one-class classifiers and approaches for model selection. The study highlights the potential of the proposed approach for an efficient and improved mapping of small classes such as raised bogs. Overall the proposed approach constitutes a feasible approach and useful modification of a regular one-class classifier.

  18. Mid- and late Holocene human impact recorded by the Coltrondo peat bog (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnana, Michela; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Martino, Matteo; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs are ideal archives for the study of environmental changes, whether these are natural or human induced. Indeed, receiving water and nutrients exclusively from dry and wet atmospheric depositions, they are among the most suitable matrices for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The present study is focused on the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps, where we sampled the Coltrondo peat bog, in the Comelico area (ca. 1800 m a.s.l.) The knowledge of the human history in this area is rather scarce: the only pieces of archaeological evidence found in this area dates back to the Mesolithic and the absence of later archaeological finds makes it difficult to reconstruct the human settlement in the valley. With the main aim to obtain information about the human settlement in that area we selected a multi-proxy approach, combining the study of biotic and abiotic sedimentary components archived in the 7900 years-peat bog record. Pollen analysis is performed along the core registering human impacts on the area from ca. 2500 cal BP, when land-use changes are well evidenced by the presence of human-related pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), as well as by the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Periods of increased human impact are recorded at the end of the Middle Ages and later, at the end of the 19th century. The analysis of trace elements, such as lead, is performed by means of ICP-MS technique and its enrichment factor (EF) is calculated. A first slight increase of Pb EF during Roman Times is possibly related to mining activities carried out by the Romans. Mining activities carried out in the area are registered during the Middle Ages, while the advent of the industrialization in the 20th century is marked by the highest EF values registered on the top of the core. To help and support the interpretation of geochemical data, lead isotopes ratios are also measured using ICP-MS to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of lead. The 206Pb/207Pb

  19. Comparison of different methods to determine the degree of peat decomposition in peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, H.; Knorr, K.-H.; Schellekens, J.; Basler, A.; Hermanns, Y.-M.

    2014-05-01

    Peat humification or decomposition is a frequently used proxy to extract past time changes in hydrology and climate from peat bogs. During the past century several methods to determine changes in peat decomposition have been introduced. Most of these methods are operationally defined only and the chemical changes underlying the decomposition process are often poorly understood and lack validation. Owing to the chemically undefined nature of many humification analyses the comparison of results obtained by different methods is difficult. In this study we compared changes in peat decomposition proxies in cores of two peat bogs (Königsmoor, KK; Kleines Rotes Bruch, KRB) from the Harz Mountains (Germany) using C / N ratios, Fourier transform infrared spectra absorption (FTIR) intensities, Rock Eva® oxygen and hydrogen indices, δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures and UV-absorption (UV-ABS) of NaOH peat extracts. In order to explain parallels and discrepancies between these methods, one of the cores was additionally analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS). Pyrolysis-GC-MS data provide detailed information on a molecular level, which allows differentiation of both changes attributed to decomposition processes and changes in vegetation. Principal component analysis was used to identify and separate the effects of changes in vegetation pattern and decomposition processes because both may occur simultaneously upon changes in bog hydrology. Records of decomposition proxies show similar historical development at both sites, indicating external forcing such as climate as controlling the process. All decomposition proxies except UV-ABS and δ15N isotopes show similar patterns in their records and reflect to different extents signals of decomposition. The molecular composition of the KK core reveals that these changes are mainly attributed to decomposition processes and to a lesser extent to changes in vegetation. Changes in the molecular

  20. LNG加气站 BOG 用于站内生活用气的可行性探讨%Discussion on the feasibility of using BOG for life in a LNG filling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓梦; 张昀; 伍婷

    2016-01-01

    目前国内大多数LNG 加气站产生的BOG 都直接排放,造成能源浪费和安全风险。在LNG加气站工艺流程分析的基础上,探讨了LNG加气站内BOG的来源,对BOG回收作为站内自用气(采暖、做饭、淋浴)的可行性进行了研究,并通过实例计算,从经济角度论证了BOG回收作为站内自用气的可行性。结果表明,将LNG加气站BOG回收作为站内自用气的方案具有可行性,不仅能够带来可观的经济效益,而且对LNG站场运行安全具有重要意义。%Nowadays in China ,BOG generated in LNG filling station is released directly ,which leads to the waste of energy and the risk of safety .Based on the analysis of LNG filling station process flow ,the source of BOG in LNG filling station is discussed ,and the research on feasibility of using BOG for life (heating ,cooking ,showering) is carried out ,as well as a real station for an example , the practicability from economic angle is discussed .The results show that it is feasible to use BOG for life and has not only economic benefits but also an important meaning for the safety of a LNG filling station .

  1. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  2. The uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains isolated from a boreal nutrient-poor bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Lusa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains of Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus isolated from an acidic nutrient-poor boreal bog. The tests were run in two different growth media at two temperatures; +4 °C and +20 °C. All bacterial strains removed Ni2+ and Ag+ from the solution with highest efficiencies shown by one of the Pseudomonas sp. and one of the Paenibacillus sp. strains. Highest Ni2+ uptake was found in 1% Tryptone solution, whereas the highest removal of Ag+ was obtained using 1% Yeast extract. Temperature affected the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+, but statistically significant difference was found only for Ni2+. Based on tests carried out for the bacteria in nutrient broths and for fresh samples taken from varying depth up to seven meters from the ombrotrophic bog, from which the bacteria were isolated, we estimated that in in situ conditions of the bog the uptake of Ni2+ by bacteria accounts for approximately 0.02% of the total sorption in the uppermost moss layer, 0.01% in the peat layer, 0.02% in the gyttja layer and 0.1% in the bottom clay layer of the bog. For Ag+ the corresponding values were 2.3% in the moss layer, 0.04% in the peat layer, 0.2% in the gyttja and 0.03% in the clay layer.

  3. Relationships between anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem functions in UK blanket bogs: linking process understanding to ecosystem service valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, CD; Bonn, A; Holden, J; Reed, MS; Evans, MG; Worrall, F.; J. Couwenberg; Parnell, M

    2014-01-01

    Quantification and valuation of ecosystem services are critically dependent on the quality of underpinning science. While key ecological processes may be understood, translating this understanding into quantitative relationships suitable for use in an ecosystem services context remains challenging. Using blanket bogs as a case study, we derived quantitative 'pressure-response functions' linking anthropogenic pressures (drainage, burning, sulphur and nitrogen deposition) with ecosystem functio...

  4. Reintroduction of salt marsh vegetation and phosphorus fertilisation improve plant colonisation on seawater-contaminated cutover bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal bogs that are used for peat extraction are prone to contamination by seawater during storm events. Once contaminated, they remain mostly bare because of the combination of high salinity, low pH, high water table and low nutrient availability. The goal of this research was to investigate how plant colonisation at salt-contaminated bogs can be accelerated, in order to prevent erosion and fluvial export of the peat. At two seawater-contaminated bogs, we tested the application of rock phosphate and dolomitic lime in combination with five plant introduction treatments: transplantation of Carex paleacea; transplantation of Spartina pectinata; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in July; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in August; and no treatment (control. The effects of different doses of lime on the growth of C. paleacea and S. pectinata were also investigated in a greenhouse experiment. In the field, phosphorus fertilisation improved plant growth. Transplantation of C. paleacea resulted in the highest plant colonisation, whereas salt marsh diaspore transfer led to the highest species diversity. Lime applications did not improve plant establishment in either the field or the greenhouse. To promote revegetation of seawater-contaminated cutover bogs, adding P is an asset, Carex paleacea is a good species to transplant, and the transfer of salt marsh diaspores improves plant diversity.

  5. Ecophysiological mechanisms characterising fen and bog species: focus on variations in nitrogen uptake traits under different soil-water pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Motoka

    2012-04-01

    Although the productivity and nitrogen (N)-use traits of mire plants differ dramatically between fens and bogs, soil N richness does not necessarily differ, whereas the soil-water pH is distinctly lower in bogs than in fens. The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying these relations are unclear. To assess the relative availability of N forms in relation to soil-water pH, we focused on the net N uptake rate per unit root weight (NNUR), glutamine synthetase activity and nitrate reductase activity, and performed reciprocal transplant experiments with the seedlings of fen (Carex lyngbyei) and bog (C. middendorffii) sedge species in intact habitat sites. The soil-water pH was clearly lower at the bog site, but the NH(4) (+), NO(3) (-) or dissolved organic-N concentrations did not differ between the fen and bog sites. The activity of both enzymes for inorganic-N assimilation did not differ among the sites and species. However, the fen species grown at bog sites showed a drastic decrease in the NNUR, suggesting a suppression of organic-N uptake. The bog species showed no NNUR difference between the sites. These results indicate that inorganic-N availability does not differ between the two habitats, but organic-N availability is lowered in a low-pH bog, particularly in the case of fen species. Therefore, the relative availability of N forms shows species-specific variations that depend on the differences in the soil-water pH of root zone, even at similar N richness, which would play a key role in plant distribution strategies in relation to the fen-bog gradient.

  6. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  7. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  8. Peat bog records of dust deposition over the last 2000 years in the Dolomites (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Segnana, Michela; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Zaccone, Claudio; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of dust composition and fluxes is crucial to help to understand climate variability and climate changes. Dust fluctuations, linked to changes in dry and wet depositions, can indicate more humid or arid conditions, changes in temperature, vegetation cover and wind regimes. Peatlands are unique terrestrial archives that can capture changes in atmospheric deposition over time. Among them, ombrotrophic environments are hydrologically isolated from the surrounding landscapes receiving all the nutrients from precipitation and wind, with no influence from streams and groundwater. In recent decades biological and chemical proxies from peat bogs were extensively used to trace past climate changes, and rare earth elements (REE) in particular have been developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust input in the atmosphere that plays an important role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycle as source for both major and trace elements. Dust deposition in the Italian Alps during the last 2000 years is estimated from the geochemical signature of two ombrotrophic peatlands. The first bog is located in Danta di Cadore (Belluno province, 1400 m a.s.l.), the second one in Coltrondo (Belluno province, 1800 m a.s.l.): they both allow us to have new insights into climate variability in the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps. The REE and the lithogenic elements concentration, as well as the lead isotopic composition were determined by CRC-ICP-QMS along the first meter of each core. For both the archives chronology is based upon independent 14C and 210Pb measurements. Changes in REE concentration through the bogs were related with those of lithogenic elements in order to test the immobility of the REE. Moreover peat humification degree was used to evaluate the hydroclimatic conditions of the bogs and Pb isotopic signature were used to trace dust deposited at Danta di Cadore and Coltrondo bogs and to discriminate natural from anthropogenic source

  9. Summertime greenhouse gas fluxes from an urban bog undergoing restoration through rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting can promote the ecological recovery of disturbed peatland ecosystems and may help to revert these ecosystems to carbon dioxide (CO2 sinks. However, rewetting of disturbed peatlands can also cause substantial emissions of methane (CH4 and possibly nitrous oxide (N2O. This study quantified summertime emissions of the three major long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O; from undisturbed, disturbed and rewetted soils in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA, a 20 km2 urban bog located in Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Four sites were chosen that represent different stages before or after ecological recovery in the BBECA: (i a relatively undisturbed scrub pine / Sphagnum / low shrub ecosystem; (ii a Rhynchospora alba / Sphagnum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining more than 65 years ago; (iii a R. alba / Dulichium arundinaceum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining 50 years ago and rewetted five years ago; and (iv a disturbed and rewetted surface with little vegetation cover that was cleared of vegetation 16 years ago and rewetted two years ago. The GHG fluxes from soils and ground vegetation were measured at all sites during June–August 2014, using a portable non-steady-state chamber system for CO2 and syringe sampling and laboratory analysis for CH4 and N2O fluxes. All four sites exhibited net GHG emissions into the atmosphere, dominated by CH4, which contributed 81–98 % of net CO2 equivalent (CO2e emissions. Overall, the median CH4 flux for all measurements and sites was ~74 mg m-2 day-1 (~30–410 mg m-2 day-1, 25th–75th percentiles. Fluxes in the rewetted (water-saturated sedge ecosystem were highest, with a quarter of the values higher than 3,000 mg m-2 day-1 (median 78 mg m-2 day-1. Exchange of CO2 due to photosynthesis and respiration was of secondary importance compared to soil CH4 emissions. Continuous CO2 flux measurements using the eddy covariance approach in the disturbed and rewetted R

  10. Soil data for a thermokarst bog and the surrounding permafrost plateau forest, located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McGeehin, John P.

    2017-01-19

    Peatlands play an important role in boreal ecosystems, storing a large amount of soil organic carbon. In northern ecosystems, collapse-scar bogs (also known as thermokarst bogs) often form as the result of ground subsidence following permafrost thaw. To examine how ecosystem carbon balance changes with the loss of permafrost, we measured carbon and nitrogen storage within a thermokarst bog and the surrounding forest, which continues to have permafrost. These sites are a part of the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and are located within Interior Alaska. Here, we report on methods used for core collection analysis as well as the cores’ physical, chemical, and descriptive properties.

  11. Deciphering the environmental and landscape evolution of Sierra Nevada (S Iberia) from bog archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Ramos-Román, Maria J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Ruano, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Sierra Nevada is the southernmost mountain range in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the highest in Europe. Its geomorphology was the result of Pleistocene glaciations that carved out depressions, valleys and cirques at high elevations in the metamorphic basement. Depressions gave rise to lakes and wetlands during the Holocene. Geophysical and organic geochemical analyses of biomarkers (n-alkanes) and bulk sediment (C and N ratio and isotopes) from two high elevation bogs (locally called "Borreguiles"): Borreguiles de la Virgen (BdlV) and Borreguiles de la Caldera (BdlC), have allowed us to track the hydrological evolution of the area and its relationship to climatic fluctuations of the western Mediterranean during the Holocene. Most of the bogs of this area resulted from the natural evolution of former small lakes. The records are 56 cm and 169 cm long, respectively. Geophysical data suggest that we recovered the whole sedimentary record from BdlC; however, there are some post-glacial sediments remaining below the BdlV core that we could not recover due to hard-ground conditions. During the early and middle Holocene, aquatic conditions predominated in BdlV compared to the most recent part of the record (low C/N values and high proportion of aquatic plants (Paq) deduced from the n-alkanes) suggesting a lake environment whose water level gradually decreased until ˜5.5 cal ky BP. This aridity trend is also observed in nearby records such as at Laguna de Río Seco (LdRS), a result of the African Humid Period demise. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes were higher during this interval, which might suggest more algae activity, in agreement with the highest concentrations of the algae Pediastrum in the area. There is an important development of terrestrial plants, a real bog stage (C/N higher than 20, high TOC, lower Paq) in both records from ˜5.5 to 3.5-3.0 cal ky BP. Those hydrological changes in the landscape might be related to a possible change in the source of

  12. Variability of Pinus mugo Turra clones from Ostry Wierch peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at determining genetic structure of the Pinus mugo Turra population, growing at a peat bog, on Ostry Wierch slopes in the High Tatra mountains, in respect to the number of genotypes present in the population, and at defining variabilities of morphological and anatomical traits. In the examined plants, isoenzymatic analysis demonstrated existence of only two genotypes (A and B, which formed relatively vast clones. Mathematical-statistical analysis of 13 anatomical - morphological traits of the needles proved that the examined clump consisted of two clearly distinguishable groups, corresponding to the two earlier electrophoretically identified clones A and B. The obtained data allowed to conclude that the method based on anatomical-morphological measurements may, at least in some cases, permit identification of Pinus mugo clones

  13. The supply of trace elements from the atmosphere recorded in a natural archive by the example of the Ilas ombrotrophic bog in the White Sea drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Kusnetsov, O. L.; Politova, N. V.; Zaretskaya, N. E.; Kutenkov, S. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studies are presented for the elemental composition of peat from the Ilas ombrotrophic bog (White Sea drainage basin). The calculations of enrichment factors of trace elements over the section of the bog peat relatively to the average composition of the Earth's continental crust showed that the concentrations of most of chemical elements is determined by the contributions of lithogenic and biogenic sources, and the content of trace elements is equal to the background level. Enrichment growth since the beginning of intense development of European industry until the early 21th century was revealed only for Zn, Sb, Pb, and Cd. These elements were supplied to the bog resulting from long-range air transport and precipitation from the atmosphere. No pronounced heavy-metal contamination caused by the Arkhangelsk agglomeration was revealed for the peat in the Ilas bog.

  14. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  15. Erik Rasmussen, Niels Bohr og Værdirelativismen - i anledning af Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens bog om Erik Rasmussen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    En svaghed ved Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens i øvrigt udmærkede bog om Erik Rasmussen er, at den forbigår den sene Rasmussens bog om komplementaritet og statskundskab. Bogen var vigtig for Rasmussen, og den bør indgå i hans faglige eftermæle. Den rummer videnskabsteoretiske argumenter af stor relevans...... ikke mindst forholdet mellem normative og kognitive udsagn. Efter mødet med Niels Bohrs filosofi står Rasmussens værdirelativisme både skarpere og stærkere end før, og Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens karakteristik af denne position som et ubegrundet dogme i dansk politologi er ikke overbevisende....

  16. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric

  17. Overriding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a Southern Hemisphere, raised bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Campbell, D. I.; Roulet, N. T.; Clearwater, M. J.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-05-01

    There are still large uncertainties in peatland methane flux dynamics and insufficient understanding of how biogeochemical processes scale to ecosystems. New Zealand bogs differ from Northern Hemisphere ombrotrophic systems in climatic setting, hydrology, and dominant vegetation, offering an opportunity to evaluate our knowledge of peatland methane biogeochemistry gained primarily from northern bogs and fens. We report eddy covariance methane fluxes from a raised bog in New Zealand over 2.5 years. Annual total methane flux in 2012 was 29.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, whereas during a year with a severe drought (2013) it was 20.6 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, both high compared to Northern Hemisphere bogs and fens. Drier conditions led to a decrease in fluxes from ~100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 to ~20 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, and subsequent slow recovery of flux after postdrought water table rise. Water table depth regulated the temperature sensitivity of methane fluxes, and this sensitivity was greatest when the water table was within 100 mm of the surface, corresponding to the shallow rooting zone of the dominant vegetation. A correlation between daytime CO2 uptake and methane fluxes emerged during times with shallow water tables, suggesting that controls on methane production were critical in determining fluxes, more so than oxidation. Water table recession through this shallow zone led to increasing methane fluxes, whereas changes in temperature during these periods were not correlated. Models of methane fluxes should consider drought-induced lags in seasonal flux recovery that depend on drought characteristics and location of the critical zone for methane production.

  18. Relationships between anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem functions in UK blanket bogs: Linking process understanding to ecosystem service valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, C. D.; Bonn, A; Holden, J; Reed, M S; Evans, Martin; Worrall, F.; J. Couwenberg; Parnell, M

    2014-01-01

    Quantification and valuation of ecosystem services are critically dependent on the quality of underpinning science. While key ecological processes may be understood, translating this understanding into quantitative relationships suitable for use in an ecosystem services context remains challenging. Using blanket bogs as a case study, we derived quantitative ‘pressure-response functions’ linking anthropogenic pressures (drainage, burning, sulphur and nitrogen deposition) with ecosystem functio...

  19. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

    2013-02-01

    Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 ± 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 ± 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 ± 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 ± 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 ± 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1

  20. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beetz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs, depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O sources but methane (CH4 sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP by reducing GHG emissions.

    We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007–30 June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence. Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE measurements were carried out every 3–4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled.

    Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 in the first (2007/2008 and the second (2008/2009 measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to −129 ± 231 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr

  1. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

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    S. Beetz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of emission factors for many peatlands is difficult, and reliable data on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O between soil and atmosphere of these areas is particularly scarce. Reasons for this are the multitude of soil and land use combinations that control greenhouse gas exchange and the high effort associated with data acquisition.

    We investigated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (July 2007–June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in Northwest Germany. We set up three sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (no fertilizer or manure, maximal 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence.

    We obtained seasonal and annual estimates of greenhouse gas exchange based on closed chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, CO2 NEE determinations were carried out 3–4 weekly. To get annual sums the CH4 and N2O fluxes were interpolated linearly while NEE was modelled. The intensive grassland site emitted 548 ± 169 g CO2-C m−2 in the first and 817 ± 140 g CO2-C m−2 in the second year. The extensive grassland site showed a slight uptake in the first year (−148 ± 143 g CO2-C m−2, and a small emission of 88 ± 146 g CO2-C m−2 in the second year. In contrast to these agriculturally used sites, the near-natural site took up CO2-C in both years (−8 ± 68 g CO2-C m−2 and −127 ± 53 g CO2-C m−2. Under consideration of N2O and CH4 exchange, the total average greenhouse warming potential (GWP for 2008 amounts to 441

  2. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2016-10-25

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  3. Non-Pollen Palynomorphs from Mid-Holocene Peat of the Raised Bog Borsteler Moor (Lower Saxony, Germany

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    Shumilovskikh Lyudmila S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reconstruct regional vegetation changes and local conditions during the fen-bog transition in the Borsteler Moor (northwestern Germany, a sediment core covering the period be tween 7.1 and 4.5 cal kyrs BP was palynologically investigated. The pollen diagram demonstrates the dominance of oak forests and a gradual replacement of trees by raised bog vegetation with the wetter conditions in the Late Atlantic. At ~ 6 cal kyrs BP, the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP demonstrate the succession from mesotrophic conditions, clearly indicated by a number of fun gal spore types, to oligotrophic conditions, indicated by Sphagnum spores, Bryophytomyces sphagni, and testate amoebae Amphitrema, Assulina and Arcella, etc. Four relatively dry phases during the transition from fen to bog are clearly indicated by the dominance of Calluna and associated fungi as well as by the in crease of microcharcoal. Several new NPP types are described and known NPP types are identified. All NPP are discussed in the context of their palaeoecological indicator values.

  4. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Mohammed, E-mail: mallan@doct.ulg.ac.be [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Sonke, Jeroen E. [Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Universite de Toulouse 3, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Piotrowska, Natalia [Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Streel, Maurice [PPM, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Fagel, Nathalie [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium)

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. A chronological framework was established using radiometric {sup 210}Pb and {sup 14}C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 {+-} 1 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of Hg concentration in four cores from Belgian peat bog. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction of Hg deposition over last 1500 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranging from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} are recorded between 1930 and 1980 AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average Hg

  5. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  6. Holocene methane flux reconstruction from peat macrofossils at Siikaneva bog and fen, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Korrensalo, Aino; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Väliranta, Minna; Mellais, Annina

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a correlation exists between methane flux and peatland plant species abundance. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the composition of plant species or functional groups of species can be used as indicator for methane fluxes in peatlands, using weighted averaging. This method has the potential to be very useful in palaeoecological studies of peatlands as well. This method offers the possibility to reconstruct past methane flux based on vegetation remains still present in the peat archive and together with reconstructions of carbon accumulation can give a more complete picture of peatlands' carbon dynamics during the Holocene. Furthermore, effects of changes in hydrology or temperature on methane fluxes can be studied over much longer time scales, compared to what experimental setups allow for. For four peat cores from Siikaneva peatland in southern Finland, we reconstructed the methane flux during the Holocene. Two cores represent a part of the peatland that has currently a fen type vegetation. The other two cores were taken from a part of the peatland that has transformed into a bog, around 3.5 - 5.5 cal. year before present. The development of methane flux during the fen to bog transition is especially of interest. We used vegetation data and methane flux data from chamber measurement from all microtopographies found on Siikaneva and from a few similar peatlands in southern and central Finland as a training set. The plant species were classified into functional groups. Firstly, because it has been shown that usage of functional groups leads to better predictions of methane flux when compared to e.g. species or dominant species. Secondly, the information from the peat cores used as input for the reconstruction is based on progressively decomposed plant remains in subsequent peat layers, for which identification to species level is not always possible (most notably for sedges). We compare the predictive performance of two

  7. Vegetation drives belowground biogeochemical gradients and C accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Galka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Peat decomposition and C accumulation is determined by hydrology and climate and by concomitant changes in vegetation and changes in the quality of carbon inputs. Especially changes from moss dominated to vascular plant dominated vegetation affect belowground biogeochemistry and decomposition, as Sphagnum mosses provide refractory, nutrient poor litter, while vascular plants produce more labile litter and may have aerenchymatic rooting systems. In-site variability in moisture and vegetation, e.g. hummock-hollow structures, lawns, and medium scale surface topography, could thus cause large differences in decomposition and C accumulation within a site. In order to understand within-site variability and to see how C accumulation, common decomposition indices, and major biogeochemical parameters in the pore waters are affected by site specific conditions and vegetation, we investigated a moisture-vegetation gradient along a 800 m transect in an oceanic, ombrotrophic bog in Southern Patagonia. Along the transect, conditions changed from wet, Sphagnum dominated (S. magellanicum), to intermediate drier and wetter with Sphagnum/shrubs mixtures, sedges and rushes to more wind exposed, dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). We hypothesized that under arenchymatic vascular plants, decomposition is enhanced and C accumulation is decreased. Vegetation development was elucidated by plant macrofossils and carbon accumulation was attributed to the respective vegetation. The transect demonstrated a high variability of depth records within the bog. At the two most contrasting sites, the uppermost 1 meter persistently dominated by either Sphagnum magellanicum or Astelia pumila had accumulated over 2400 or 4200 years, respectively. Accordingly, the peat under cushion plants was much more decomposed, with C/N ratios of 20-50 compared to C/N ratios of 40-80 under Sphagnum patches. Mixed sites in between had C/N ratios of 30-90, depending on plant community, and

  8. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  9. Liquid chromatography determination of natural dyes in extracts from historical Scottish textiles excavated from peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Quye, Anita; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2006-04-21

    Textiles excavated from Scottish sites belonging now to the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, including seventeenth century textiles from peat bogs in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, were selected for analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (PDA HPLC) to detect whether any dyes remained and, if so, to identify their biological sources. Dye components were identified in 36 of the 81 samples analysed. Although it was not possible to identify the exact sources of the dyestuffs because of the wide-spread occurrence of these natural dyes components, the study has shown that textiles previously not thought to have been coloured had detectable traces of dye. Before the historical textiles were analyzed, an improved extraction procedure that combined the routine acid hydrolysis method with one using dimethylformamide (DMF) was applied. The DMF method enabled increased recovery of major flavonoid and anthraquinoid compounds, and very high efficiency of recovery of indigotin even in textiles with no colour visible, thereby complementing the acid hydrolysis method already in use. Extracts from historical thread samples were analysed by PDA HPLC using a reversed-phase gradient system comprising of a C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 25 +/- 1 degrees C) with water, methanol and o-phosphoric acid at an eluent flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. A preliminary investigation to improve the detection limits further for a selection of natural dyes was made by comparing results from the 4.6mm internal diameter (i.d.) column with a narrow bore C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.). An increase in the detector response was observed for narrow-bore column proving its possibility of enhancement of sensitivity.

  10. Responses of Bog Vegetation and CO2 Exchange to Experimental N and PK Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutinen, S.; Bubier, J. L.; Shrestha, P.; Smith, R.; Moore, T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of nutrient poor wetland ecosystems. It is important to quantify the effect of N input on ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration in these globally important C storages. We address this issue at the temperate Mer Bleue bog, ON, Canada. After 6 years of experimental fertilization, we saw that high N deposition can change mixed Sphagnum and dwarf shrub dominated communities to taller and denser dwarf shrub communities that are losing moss cover, and which might have even lower net C uptake. Now, after 8 years of fertilization and with new treatments we quantify the relationship between the plant community structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange. Three levels of N fertilization were applied with or without phosphorus and potassium (PK) into triplicate plots. We measured light saturated net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), and its components ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis using clear and dark chambers (May-August). Vegetation characteristics were quantified by measuring foliage cover (LAI), amount of woody and foliar biomass, and abundance of moss species (point interception technique), moss growth (cranked wires) and green area of vascular leaves and moss. Addition of PK fertilizer did not alter NEE or its components relative to the control. The 8-year low N addition alone and with PK, and the 4-year fertilization with high N levels resulted in the highest net ecosystem CO2 uptake relative to the control. The ecosystem respiration increased with increasing N input rate. All levels of N fertilization resulted in higher gross photosynthesis than the control, but there was no increasing trend with increasing N input. Vascular foliage increased, while moss cover drastically decreased with increasing levels of N fertilization. At the highest level of N (and PK) addition woody biomass increased at the expense of leaf increment. Dependencies of ecosystem CO2 exchange on the

  11. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development.

  12. Videographic Analysis of Eriophorum Vaginatum Spatial Coverage in an Ombotrophic Bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kalacska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS as well as newer automated unmanned aerial vehicles is becoming a standard method in remote sensing studies requiring high spatial resolution (<1 m and very precise temporal data to capture phenological events. In this study we use a low cost rotorcraft to map Eriophorum vaginatum at Mer Bleue, an ombrotrophic bog located east of Ottawa, ON, Canada. We focus on E. vaginatum because this sedge plays an important role in methane (CH4 gas exchange in peatlands. Using the remote controlled rotorcraft we were able to record, process, and mosaic 11.1 hectares of 4.5 cm spatial resolution imagery extracted from individual frames of video recordings (post georegistration RMSE 4.90 ± 4.95 cm. Our results, based on a supervised classification (96% accuracy of the red, green, blue image planes, indicate a total tussock cover of 2,417 m2. Because the basal area of the plant is more relevant for calculating its contribution to the CH4 flux, the tussock area was related to the basal area from field data (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.0001. Our final results indicate a total basal area of 1,786 ± 62.8 m2. Based on temporal measurements of CH4 flux from the peatland as a whole that vary over the growing season, we estimate the E. vaginatum contribution to range from 3.0% to 17.3% of that total. Overall, our low cost approach was an effective non-destructive way to derive E. vaginatum coverage and estimate CH4 exchange over the growing season.

  13. Spatio-temporal natural and anthropogenic environmental variability during the last 1500yrs in an ombrotrophic bog (East Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Allan, Mohammed; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Gerrienne, Philippe; Streel, Maurice; Luthers, Cédric; Hindrycks, Marie-Noëlle; Wastiaux, Cécile; Leclercq, Louis

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands cover ca. 3 % of the Earth's surface and provide crucial continental archives for deciphering past climatic changes and anthropogenic impacts on decadal to millennial timescales. Numerous studies have demonstrated that peat bogs are excellent archives to investigate past environmental and ecological changes during the Holocene. Studies which focus on intra-site variability at high resolution are rare however, despite their potential to provide constraints on the reliability of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and the influence of micro-scale variability. Such variability must be taken into account in any peatland restoration process linked with recent environmental changes, particularly human-derived impact such as peat cutting, drainage and tree cultivation. Four 1m-long Wardenaar monoliths were retrieved from the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes, East Belgium). The cores were investigated using chronological (radiocarbon AMS dating of plant macrofossils, 210Pb age modelling), biological (macrofossils, pollen content, testate amoebae), organic (humification level) and geochemical proxies (major and trace geochemistry, Nd and Pb isotopes). The aims of this research were to: (1) to assess whether the bog vegetation and other environmental indicators have changed simultaneously in time and space, (2) identify the most sensitive palaeoenvironmental indicator(s) and (3) assess to what extent variation in peat accumulation rates affects the record of each proxy. Preliminary interpretations show great variability (up to 50%) in peat development on a decimetre depth-scale as assessed by the variation in peat palynological and macrofossils zones from one core to another. In addition, our recent high-resolution records of environmental change have high applied palaeoecological value since they can be used to inform conservation management (‘natural' changes in the composition of the peat forming vegetation and the range of water table depth variability over a

  14. Nitrogen and sulphur deposition and the growth of Sphagnum fuscum in bogs of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. VILE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of ongoing development of the oil sands reserve in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada (56° 39' N, 111° 13' W is an increase in emissions of nitrogen (N and sulphur (S, with an attendant increases in regional atmospheric N and S deposition. Regional land cover across northeastern Alberta is a mixture of Boreal Mixedwood, Boreal Highlands, and Subarctic areas. Peatlands occupy between 22 and 66% of these natural regions, and the land cover of bogs varies between 6.7% in the Mixedwood Region to 46% in the Subarctic Region. Ombrotrophic bog ecosystems may be especially sensitive to atmospheric deposition of N and S. Across 10 ombrotrophic bog sites in the AOSR over four years (2005– 2008, we found no evidence of elevated deposition of NH4 +-N, NO3 –-N, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN; NH4 +-N plus NO3 –-N, or SO4 2–-S, with values measured using ion exchange resin collectors averaging 0.61 ± 04, 0.20 ± 0.01, 0.81 ± 0.04, and 1.14 ± 0.06 kg ha–1 y–1, respectively. Vertical growth and net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, an indicator of elevated deposition, did not differ consistently across sites, averaging 11.8 ± 0.2 mm y–1 and 234 ± 3.3 g m–2 y–1, respectively, over the four years. Neither vertical growth nor net primary production of S. fuscum was correlated with growing season atmospheric N or S deposition. Our data provide a valuable benchmark of background values for monitoring purposes in anticipation of increasing N and S deposition over a broader geographic region within the AOSR.

  15. Effect of fertilization on dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling in Scots pine on an ombrotrophic bog.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1991-01-01

    The effects of PK (plus Ca, Mg, S, Cl and B) and NPK (plus Ca, Mg, S, Cl and B) were studied (1984-87) in an 85-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand growing on a drained low-shrub pine bog in E. Finland. Fertilizer was applied in spring 1985. The amounts of elements applied (kg/ha) were: N 150, P 53, K 100, Ca 135, Mg 25, S 28, Cl 95 and B 2.4. The total dry mass of the stand before fertilizer application was 78 t/ha, of which above-ground compartments accounted for 69%. The annual abov...

  16. Dry mass and the amounts of nutrients in understorey vegetation before and after fertilization on a drained pine bog.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena; Nieminen, Mika

    1997-01-01

    Dry mass and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B) contents of field layer vegetation and a combination of bottom layer vegetation and litter (referred to as bottom/litter layer in the text) were studied one year before and three years after fertilization (NPK and PK) on a drained low-shrub pine bog in eastern Finland. The results of an earlier study on the tree layer were combined with those of this study in order to estimate the changes caused by fertilization in the total plant biomass and litter....

  17. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  18. Last millennium palaeoenvironmental changes from a Baltic bog (Poland) inferred from stable isotopes, pollen, plant macrofossils and testate amoebae

    OpenAIRE

    Lamentowicz, Mariucz; Cedro, A.; Gałka, M; Goslar, T; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, G.; Edward A. D. Mitchell; Pawlyta, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic coast of Northern Poland is an interesting region for palaeoclimatic studies because of the mixed oceanic and continental climatic influences and the fact that the dominance of one or the other of these two influences might have changed over time. Also, unlike many more intensively studied regions of Europe, human impact in the region was rather limited until the 19th century. We present a 1200-year high-resolution record from Stążki mire, an ombrotrophic bog located 35 km from the...

  19. Soil data for a collapse-scar bog chronosequence in Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2012-01-01

    Peatlands in the northern permafrost region store large amounts of organic carbon, most of which is currently stored in frozen peat deposits. Recent warming at high-latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw in peatlands, which will likely result in the loss of soil organic carbon from previously frozen peat deposits to the atmosphere. Here, we report soil organic carbon inventories, soil physical data, and field descriptions from a collapse-scar bog chronosequence located in a peatland ecosystem at Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

  20. Concepts of fen and bog re-examined in relation to bryophyte cover and the acidity of surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eville Gorham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of surface-water pH and bryophyte assemblages in 440 plots from five peatland regions across northern North America reveal a very distinct, two-fold division into fens with a pH mode at 6.76-7.00, in which Amblystegiaceae are prominent, and bogs with a pH mode at 4.01-4.25, in which Sphagnaceae are dominant. The relevance of the data to past and current views on peatland classification is explored.

  1. Holocene Landscape Dynamics in the Ammer Rv. Catchment (Bavarian Alps) - Influence of extreme weather events and land use on soil erosion using peat bogs as geoarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Manthe, Pierre; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation and the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by erosion events significantly influence soils and fertility as parts of the ecosystem services and play an important role with regard to global carbon dynamics. Soil erosion is strongly correlated with anthropogenic land use since the Neolithic Revolution around 8.000 BP. Likewise the effect of extreme weather events on soil erosion is of great interest with regard to the recent climate change debate, predicting a strong increase of extreme weather events. Aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene landscape dynamic as influenced by land use and climate conditions. In this study peat bogs containing layers of colluvial sediments directly correlated to soil erosion were used as geoarchives for landscape dynamics. A temporal classification of extreme erosion events was established by dating organic material via 14C within both, colluvial layers as well as their direct peat surroundings. Detection and characterization of peat bogs containing colluvial sediments was based on geomorphological mapping, the application of geophysical methods (ERT - electrical resistivity tomography, GPR - ground penetrating radar) and core soundings. Laboratory analysis included the analysis of particle sizes and the content of organic material. We investigated 16 peat bogs following the altitudinal gradient of the Ammer River from alpine and subalpine towards lowland environments. A deposition of colluvial material could be detected in 4 peat bogs, all situated in the lower parts of the catchment. The minerogenic entry into peat bogs occurred throughout the Holocene as revealed by radiocarbon dating. A distinct cluster of erosional events e.g. during the little ice age could not be detected. Therefore, soil erosion dynamics and the appearance of colluvial sediments within peat bogs must rather be regarded as an effect of land use, actually farming and crop cultivation, or small-scale morphodynamic like

  2. Atmospheric Pb deposition in Spain during the last 4600 years recorded by two ombrotrophic peat bogs and implications for the use of peat as archive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Cortizas, A.; Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Pontevedra Pombal, X.; Novoa Munoz, J.C. [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Faculdad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago, Campus Sur E-15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Weiss, D. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BP London (United Kingdom); Cheburkin, A. [EMMA Analytical Inc Canada, ON Elmvale (Canada)

    2002-06-20

    Two ombrotrophic peat bogs in Northwestern Spain provided a history of 4600 years of Pb accumulation. Highest Pb concentrations (84-87 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were found near the bogs' surface, but there were also other significant peaks (6-14 {mu}g g{sup -1}), indicating pre-industrial atmospheric pollution. The enrichment factors (EFs) in both cores show a remarkably similar record. Atmospheric Pb pollution dates back to at least approximately 2500 years ago, reaching a first maximum during the Roman period. For the last 300 years, Pb EFs significantly increased due to industrial development, but the uppermost samples of the bogs show decreasing Pb EFs, probably due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. These results are also supported by 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios, as they continuously decrease from ca. 3000 BP until 2000 BP (from 1.275 at 4070 14C years BP to 1.182), indicating the growing importance of non-radiogenic Pb released from Iberian ores by ancient mining. Peat samples at a 3-5-cm depth are even less radiogenic (206Pb/107Pb=1.157), indicating the strong influence of leaded gasoline. Despite the common history shared by the two bogs, striking differences were found for Pb enrichment, whether this was calculated by normalising to the Pb/Ti ratio of the upper continental crust or to the Pb/Ti ratios of peats from pre-anthropogenic times. This effect seems to be related to differences in Ti accumulation in both bogs, possibly due to physical fractionation of the airborne dust during wind transport. Enrichment has to be carefully considered when comparing the results obtained for different bogs, since our results suggest that normalising to crustal proportions is meaningless when the bulk of the deposition in an area is strongly influenced by short- and medium-range dust transport.

  3. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of “heavy metals”

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding 39 open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta (AB). 40 Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern 41 Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, 42 similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. Except for V, 43 compared to the “cleanest”, ancient peat sa...

  4. Contrasting species-environment relationships in communities of testate amoebae, bryophytes and vascular plants along the fen-bog gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; van der Knaap, Willem O; Gabka, Maciej; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2010-04-01

    We studied the vegetation, testate amoebae and abiotic variables (depth of the water table, pH, electrical conductivity, Ca and Mg concentrations of water extracted from mosses) along the bog to extremely rich fen gradient in sub-alpine peatlands of the Upper Engadine (Swiss Alps). Testate amoeba diversity was correlated to that of mosses but not of vascular plants. Diversity peaked in rich fen for testate amoebae and in extremely rich fen for mosses, while for testate amoebae and mosses it was lowest in bog but for vascular plants in extremely rich fen. Multiple factor and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed a stronger correlation of testate amoebae than of vegetation to water table and hydrochemical variables and relatively strong correlation between testate amoeba and moss community data. In RDA, hydrochemical variables explained a higher proportion of the testate amoeba and moss data than water table depth. Abiotic variables explained a higher percentage of the species data for testate amoebae (30.3% or 19.5% for binary data) than for mosses (13.4%) and vascular plants (10%). These results show that (1) vascular plant, moss and testate amoeba communities respond differently to ecological gradients in peatlands and (2) testate amoebae are more strongly related than vascular plants to the abiotic factors at the mire surface. These differences are related to vertical trophic gradients and associated niche differentiation.

  5. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation – a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW to an extensively managed (GE to an intensively managed grassland site (GI, all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10–60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by δ13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i conversion to grassland, (ii historical drainage as well as

  6. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Cloy, Joanna M; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of (210)Pb- and (14)C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 microg m(-2) y(-1) were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 microg m(-2) y(-1), recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27+/-15 microg m(-2) y(-1) during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the (210)Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this study.

  7. Methane production and oxidation patterns along a hydrological gradient in Luther Bog, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Methane emissions from natural peatlands contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric CH4. In the northern hemisphere, where climate models predict rising temperatures and precipitation rates, these emissions are likely to rise. So far, little is known about the change of processes of methane production and oxidation, which influence the total amount of methane emissions, in peatland soils under warmer and wetter climate conditions. Our work focuses on anaerobic CH4 production and aerobic CH4 oxidation processes along a hydrological gradient in an ombotrophic bog in Ontario, Canada that was induced by creation of a reservoir in 1952. Along this transect, four sites were established differing in hydrologic conditions and vegetation patterns. We examined depth profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentrations and delta 13C isotope ratios in the peat using silicon samplers, dialysis chambers and multi-level piezometers. Chamber flux measurements were used to determine carbon fluxes. Isotope mass balances were calculated based on 13C isotope ratios and concentration profiles. By this approach the contribution of anaerobic CH4 and CO2 production to the total ER flux and the amount of oxidised CH4 can be determined. In addition meteorological data, soil temperatures, moisture and water table levels were recorded. By raising data at different sites and dates and with the help of the additionally recorded parameters, we will be able to make predictions about changing CH4 production and oxidation processes due to changing climate conditions. Preliminary results show that CH4 concentrations in the soil profile are higher at the sites which are exposed to stronger water table fluctuations, whereas CO2 concentration levels are lower at these sites. At all sites, CO2 concentrations in the peat are increasing but CH4 profiles are fairly stable. Moreover, isotopic signatures of 13CH4 indicate that the importance of the production pathway changes with depth from acetoclastic

  8. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  9. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  10. The first record of the boreal bog species Drosera rotundifolia (Droseraceae) from the Philippines, and a key to the Philippine sundews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coritico, F.P.; Fleischmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drosera rotundifolia, a species of the temperate Northern Hemisphere with a disjunct occurrence in high montane West Papua, has been discovered in a highland peat bog on Mt Limbawon, Pantaron Range, Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, which mediates to the only other known tropical, Sou

  11. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and microbial processing of organic matter in northern bogs and fens reveals a common P limitation among peatland types

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared C, N, and P concentrations in atmospheric deposition, runoff, and soil standing stocks with microbial respiration (DHA) and ecoenzyme activity (EEA) in an ombrotrophic bog (S2) and a minerotrophic fen (S3) to investigate the environmental drivers of biogeochemical cyc...

  12. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  13. The spatial and temporal relationships between CO2 and CH4 exchange in a temperate ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the relationships between CO2 and CH4 fluxes across space and time at a temperate ombrotrophic bog in Canada to assess the coupling between plant production and CH4 emissions. Based on periodic manual chamber measurements, we show that maximum net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEEmax) was a good predictor of the spatial variations in CH4 flux among the wetter Eriophorum and lawn sites (r2 = 0.61-0.88), but not the drier hummock sites (r2 = 0.04-0.49). Also, we observed large interannual variability in the NEEmax-CH4 relationship at the Eriophorum and lawn sites, with a smaller regression slope in 2010 that had a seasonal mean water table 8 cm lower than in 2009. Results of cross-correlation of instantaneous gross ecosystem production (GEP) and CH4 flux from autochambers show a moderate relationship (σ = -0.31) in the Eriophorum community at a lag of 9-12 h, suggesting a rapid turnover of recent photosynthate for methanogenesis. On the other hand, we found in two Maianthemum-dominated chambers that the temperature-independent residuals of daily mean CH4 flux lagged behind GEP by 18-26 days at the seasonal scale. The lagged correlations between GEP and CH4 flux by month were particularly strong in the late growing season in the Eriophorum and Maianthemum/Ledum communities. Our results suggest the presence of spatial and temporal coupling of plant production and CH4 emissions in this bog, whose strength varies with species composition, water table position, and plant phenology.

  14. [Genetic variation and differentiation of peat-bog and dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra in the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Pirko, Ia V

    2002-09-01

    Based on electrophoretic analysis of 21 isozyme loci controlling 10 enzyme systems, the intra- and inter-population variation was studied in two peat-bog and three dry-meadow populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra from the highlands of the Ukrainian Carpathians. In the studied samples (a total of 164 trees), on average 62% of the studied genes were polymorphic; the mean heterozygosity was 21.3%. The dry-meadow populations differed from the peat-bog populations by allele and genotype diversity and by heterozygosity although the indices characterizing population heterogeneity (Fst and Gst) were small (0.027 and 0.032, respectively). Nei's genetic distances between the populations ranged of 0.011 to 0.032 with the mean of 0.018.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG. However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2 and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2 were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB and global warming potential (GWP balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2 varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from –201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m–2 a–1 due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (–118.8 ± 48.1 and −78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m–2 a–1. The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m–2 a–1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between –183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m–2 a–1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site –114.1 ± 48

  16. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-03-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between -183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site -114.1 ± 48.1 and -75.3 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1

  18. The Brenner Moor - A saline bog as a source for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Furchner, M.; Hoffman, A.; Lippe, S.; Kotte, K.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Brenner Moor is a small bog in the catchment area of the river Trave located in Schleswig-Holstein, North Germany, between Baltic and North Sea. The bog is fed by several saline springs with chloride concentrations up to 15 g/L. The high chloride concentrations and the high organic content of the peat make the Brenner Moor an ideal source for the abiotic formation of volatile organic halogenated compounds (VOX). VOX play an important role in the photochemical processes of the lower atmosphere and information on the atmospheric input from saline soils like the Brenner Moor will help to understand the global fluxes of VOX. Soil samples were taken in spring 2011 from several locations and depths in the vicinity of the Brenner Moor. The samples were freeze-dried, ground and incubated in water emphasising an abiotic character for the formation of volatile organic compounds. 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloromethane are the main halogenated compounds emitted from soils of the Brenner Moor. The abiotic formation of trichloromethane as well as other trihalomethanes has been part of intensive studies. A well known source is the decarboxylation of trichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetyl-containing compounds to trichloromethane [1]. Huber et al. discovered another pathway in which catechol, as a model compound for organic substances, is oxidised under Fenton-like conditions with iron(III), hydrogen peroxide and halides to form trihalomethanes [2]. Besides the halogenated compounds, the formation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide and several furan derivatives could be detected which also have an impact on atmospheric chemistry, especially particle formation of clouds. Furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran are compounds that can be obtained under Fenton-like oxidation from catechol, methyl- and dimethylcatechol and are known to be produced in natural soils [3]. A novel class of furan derivatives that are formed under abiotic conditions from

  19. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krachler, Regina, E-mail: regina.krachler@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Isotope Research and Nuclear Physics, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Johannesburg, Department of Zoology, P. O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a {sup 59}Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16–24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11–15 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350–470 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. - Highlights: • We report that peat-bogs are sources of bio-available iron to marine algae. • This iron is effectively chelated with aquatic humic acids. • The radiocarbon age of the iron-carrying aquatic humic acids was up to 550 years. • Analysis was focused on mixing experiments of iron-rich creek water with seawater. • Drained

  20. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  1. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L. were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized distances between them being nearly 50% significantly different from 0. The sample studied in this respect is distinctly different from pure stands of both putative parental species (i.e. Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris. Every plant studied shows a different combination of traits typical (or nearly typical for both the above-mentioned species and traits that are truly intermediate between them. The results support the frequently expressed opinion that the mountain pine population from the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem" is, in fact, a hybrid swarm formed by hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris.

  2. Isoenzymatic differentiation in putative hybrid swarm population (Pinus mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L. from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzyme variability of eight groups of individuals from different parts of putative hybrid swarm population (P. mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L. from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog complex was studied at ten enzymatic loci. Differences in allelic frequencies distribution among particular samples of the Zieleniec population were statistically significant at 9 loci, as shown by G2- statistics. Chi-square test indicated that in each of studied subpopulations frequencies of alleles at some loci (2-5 differed significantly from frequencies expected for a homogeneous population. Heterozygosity values and also a genotypic polymorphism in studied population confirmed the existence of large genetic variation. Wright's fixation indices (F showed some excess of homozygotes in majority studied groups of individuals, notably higher in some subpopulations. Gene diversity coefficient for 8 subpopulations was high (GST=9.4%. However, when MDH C locus was excluded from the calculation, its value decreased to 2.8%. Presented data demonstrated notable differentiation of subpopulations within studied pine population, comparable with the differentiation among different populations of coniferous species.

  3. Mid and late Holocene dust deposition in western Europe: the Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes – Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The Rare Earth Elements (REE and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes, were determined by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, in along a ~6 m peat section covering 5300 yr, from 30 BC to 5300 BC dated by the 14C method. Changes in REE concentration in the peat correlate with those of Ti, Al, Sc and Zr that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4.0 g m−2 yr−1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 800 to 600 BC and from 3200 to 2800 BC and correspond to cold periods. The εNd values show a large variability of −5 to −13, identifying three major sources of dusts: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles.

  4. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2016-04-01

    Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. Despite covering only 12 % of the UK land area, peatlands are estimated to store approximately 20 times more carbon than the UK's forests, which cover 13% of the land area. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of 4000 km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the 1980s, when over 670 km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning. Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers. Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland (17 years old); and a more recently restored site (12 years old). The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of 858 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of 501g C m-2 yr-1 and 575g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and

  5. Halogens in pore water of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Halogens are strongly enriched in peat and peatlands and such they are one of their largest active terrestrial reservoir. The enrichment of halogens in peat is mainly attributed to the formation of organohalogens and climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release of halogens from the peat substrate and the distribution of halogens in the peat pore water. In this study we have investigated the distribution of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water of three pristine peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat pore waters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth greater than 6m. Halogens and halogen species in pore water were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in pore water are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123 μg l−1, and 10–20 μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organobromine and organoiodine were the predominant species in pore waters, whereas chlorine in pore water was mostly chloride. Advection and diffusion of halogens were found to be generally low and halogen concentrations appear to reflect release from the peat substrate. Release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. It has been concluded that the release of halogenated dissolved organic matter (DOM is the predominant mechanism of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  6. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands.

  7. Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release.

  8. Nutrient Addition Leads to a Weaker CO2 Sink and Higher CH4 Emissions through Vegetation-Microclimate Feedbacks at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, J. L.; Arnkil, S.; Humphreys, E.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.; Moore, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands globally, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. Nutrient-limited boreal bogs are long-term sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, for 10-15 years with N as NO3 and NH4 at 5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition (0.6-0.8 g N m-2 y-1), with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration, and CH4 flux with climate-controlled chambers; leaf-level CO2 exchange and biochemistry; substrate-induced respiration, CH4 production and consumption potentials with laboratory incubations; plant species composition and abundance; and microclimate (peat temperature, moisture, light interception). After 15 years, we have found that NEE has decreased, and CH4 emissions have increased, in the highest nutrient treatments owing to changes in vegetation, microtopography, and peat characteristics. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new deciduous species. Simulated atmospheric N deposition has not benefitted the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant evergreen shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration, contributing to a weaker ecosystem CO2 sink. Loss of moss has led to wetter near-surface substrate, higher rates of decomposition and CH4 emission, and a shift in microbial communities. Thus, elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients may endanger C storage in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions among vegetation, microclimate, and microbial communities.

  9. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  10. Four thousand years of atmospheric Pb, Cd and Zn deposition recorded by the ombrotrophic peat bog of Penido Vello (northwestern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Novoa-Munoz, J.C.; Garcia-Rodeja, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostila, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1997-12-01

    The Northwest Iberian Peninsula is a mid-latitude oceanic region with areas where different types of bogs are frequent or abundant. The ombrotrophic nature of some bogs make them suitable for the study of accumulation patterns of heavy metals. One of these bogs, Penido Vello, was sampled to a depth of 2.5 m and analyzed in detail for its physico-chemical properties and Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations. Ash and organic carbon content, Ca/Mg molar ratios and a number of other characteristics support an ombrotrophic interpretation of the core. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were measured, showing important variations in the core. While Zn and Cd are concentrated mainly in the upper sections of the core with minor changes with depth, the Pb profile shows significant peaks in the deeper layers suggesting pre-industrial atmospheric pollution. Enrichment factors (EFs) calculated by normalising to Al correlated well with those calculated by normalising to Ti. Maximum EFs are 33.56 and 52 for Pb, Zn and Cd respectively. While for Pb these values are comparable to those obtained by other authors, maximum Zn EFs are greater than those mentioned in the literature and may be attributed to the emissions of a nearby coal-burning power plant. At least for Pb the accumulation pattern suggests that atmospheric pollution can be dated back some 2800 years, and that pollution increased steadily since the Iron Age to reach considerably elevated levels, up to 5 times the `background`, during the Roman Empire. Changes in Pb emissions through times are in good accord with the prehistorical and historical record of the Iberian Peninsula. 54 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and {sup 210}Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowska, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.piotrowska@polsl.p [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland); Vleeschouwer, Francois De; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Pawlyta, Jacek [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland); Fagel, Nathalie; Roux, Gael Le [Clays and Palaeoclimate Unit, Department of Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); Pazdur, Anna [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Radiocarbon and {sup 210}Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Slowinskie Blota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P{sub S}equence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to {sup 210}Pb measurements.

  12. Application of BOG compressor in Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%BOG压缩机在江苏LNG接收站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璨

    2012-01-01

    BOG压缩机是BOG处理的核心设备,其作用是处理过量的蒸发气,维持LNG储罐内的压力稳定.江苏LNG接收站选用的活塞立式压缩机,由于采用了迷宫密封,活塞和气缸为非接触,因此工作表面没有磨损,可以选择较高的活塞速度;由于采用了卸荷阀和余隙阀控制相结合的方式,因此使得负荷可以在更大的可控范围变化.在压缩机运行过程中,压缩机在启机时发生了跳车现象,为此,结合生产实际,灵活变化压缩机的联锁值及负荷增减的时间点,对压缩机冷却水系统及压缩机的隔离吹扫进行优化,满足了工艺要求,提高了安全系数.%Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal generally adopts recondenser process to utilize the cool energy of LNG to liquefy BOG and recover BOG. BOG compressor is the key equipment in BOG treatment, which can dispose redundant gas and maintain the tank's pressure of LNG. Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal uses vertical piston compressor (Swiss Burkhardt Company). Due to the adoption of the labyrinth seal, the piston and cylinder are not contacted, so, the work surface is abrasion free, and a high piston speed is better choice. Because the unloading valve control and clearance valve control become a set of combination, the load can be kept in a wide controllable range. During running of compressor, compressor has to shut down in staring up. Referring to actual operation, the interlock value compressor and time-point of load fluctuation are changed. Optimization on the cooling water system of compressor and isolation/purging for compressor is carried out, which meets the needs of technology requirements and increases safety.

  13. Non-destructive methods for peat layer assessment in oligotrophic peat bogs: a case study from Poiana Ştampei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Practices currently employed in the investigation and characterisation of peat deposits are destructive and may irremediable perturb peat bog development even in cases when exploitation is not carried out. We investigated the correlation between vegetation characteristics in the active area of Poiana Ştampei peat bog, Romania, and the underlying peat layer depth, aiming at establishing a non-destructive method of peat layer depth estimation. The presence of the Sphagneto-Eriophoretum vaginati association, dominated by Sphagnum fimbriatum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris and Betula verrucosa was found to predict the existence of the peat layer but not its depth. Out of the seven identified vegetation types, one type was associated with a very thin or no peat layer, one type was characterised by the presence of a thick (over 100 cm peat layer and five types indicated the presence of variable average depths of the peat layer. pH values correlated with peat layer depth only within the vegetation type associated with thick peat layers.

  14. Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiproxy investigation of climatic changes and human activities in a Baltic bog (N. Poland) during the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Pawlyta, Jacek; Cheburkin, Andriy; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Pazdur, Anna; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie

    2010-05-01

    We present a multiproxy study carried out on a peat core retrieved from Słowińskie Błota bog (Pomerania, N-Poland). Several organic (palynology, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, d13C) and inorganic (elemental geochemistry, lead isotopes) proxies were coupled to 210Pb-14C age-modelling in order to discriminate climatic and anthropogenic signals. Reconstruction of dust fluxes through time has remained a challenge, especially for tracing the nature of climatic changes. Although the idea of enhanced erosion conditions and storminess is commonly discussed, the conditions for dust deposition in peatlands over Europe during, for example, the ‘Little Ice Age' (LIA), are rarely favourable. Indeed the natural forest cover over Europe was much more important than nowadays, preventing dust deposition. Northern Poland, near the Baltic shore, was deforested just before the LIA (around AD 1100), and therefore constitutes a key area for the reconstruction of LIA climatic change. Our study of organic proxies evidences the LIA and is combined to our inorganic geochemical approach to validate our dust record. Overall, both organic and inorganic proxies show that LIA climatic changes are in good agreement with other records from Poland and NE Europe within a ca. 50yrs uncertainty. The severity of the LIA does however not affect the dynamism of mining activities over the last millennium. Indeed, during the LIA, Poland is experiencing its economical and cultural apogee, which can be seen by an increase in lead enrichment factors interpreted as an increase in mining activities. Lead, Zn, Cu, Ni concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, as well as other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland until the industrial revolution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb input over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries

  16. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects

  17. Potentials and problems of building detailed dust records using peat archives: An example from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylander, Malin E.; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; Bindler, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Rauch, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust deposition is a process often overlooked in northern mid-latitudes, despite its potential effects on ecosystems. These areas are often peat-rich, providing ample material for the reconstruction of past changes in atmospheric deposition. The highly organic (up to 99% in some cases) matrix of atmospherically fed mires, however, makes studying the actual dust particles (grain size, mineralogy) challenging. Here we explore some of the potentials and problems of using geochemical data from conservative, lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Rb, Sc, Y, Zr, Th, Ti and REE) to build detailed dust records by using an example from the 8900-yr peat sequence from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), which is the largest mire complex in the boreo-nemoral region of southern Sweden. The four dust events recorded at this site were elementally distinct, suggesting different dominant mineral hosts. The oldest and longest event (6385-5300 cal yr BP) sees a clear signal of clay input but with increasing contributions of mica, feldspar and middle-REE-rich phosphate minerals over time. These clays are likely transported from a long-distance source (<100 km). While dust deposition was reduced during the second event (5300-4370 cal yr BP), this is the most distinct in terms of its source character with [Eu/Eu∗]UCC revealing the input of plagioclase feldspar from a local source, possibly active during this stormier period. The third (2380-2200 cal yr BP) and fourth (1275-1080 cal yr BP) events are much shorter in duration and the presence of clays and heavy minerals is inferred. Elemental mass accumulation rates reflect these changes in mineralogy where the relative importance of the four dust events varies by element. The broad changes in major mineral hosts, grain size, source location and approximated net dust deposition rates observed in the earlier dust events of longer duration agree well with paleoclimatic changes observed in northern Europe. The two most recent dust events are much

  18. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  19. Holocene climate dynamics in the Eastern Italian Alps: a multi-proxy study from ice and peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Segnana, Michela; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Italian Alps are located near one of the areas in the world with some of the longest records of extreme environmental use by human activity. In this area, paleo-climate studies are hampered by the lack of high-resolution multi-proxy records with adequate chronological control. With this project, we propose to reconstruct Holocene climatic and environmental variations in the Eastern Italian Alps using terrestrial and glaciological archives. We aim to study the characteristics of different climate stages in this sector of the Alps using an ice core drilled on the top of the Ortles glacier (46°30' N, 10°32 E, 3850 m a.s.l.) and ombrotrophic peat bog records from the Dolomites (Danta di Cadore, 46°34' N, 12°33 E, 1400 m a.s.l. and Coltrondo 46°39'28.37''N 12°26'59.17''E, 1800 m a.s.l., Belluno province). The study of global climatic change require a holistic and multi-proxy approach to better understand several complex and often non-linear relationships. In the Italian Alps our study on peat cores represents the first attempt where a multi-proxy approach is applied, and here we report our first results. A 7.0 m peat sequence was extracted in Danta di Cadore. The depth-age scale, based upon independent 14C and 210Pb dates and modeled with the Clam method (Blaauw, 2010), demonstrates that the archive covers more than 13,200 years (cal BP). We determined physical proprieties, Ca and Ti trends, pore water pH, conductivity, and Ca/Mg ratios to identify changes in trophic conditions. The results confirm that the uppermost 400 cm are composed of ombrotrophic peat representing the longest Eastern Alpine ombrotrophic record yet obtained, covering the last 7,000 years. The oldest radiocarbon age (13,200 years cal BP) provides evidence that, during the Bölling-Alleröd interstadial, the upper part of the Piave Glacier was ice-free up to 1400 m a.s.l.. At that time pollen assemblages show that a conifer forest characterized the local vegetation. This forest was

  20. Fra bog til film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelern, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Efter en historisk oversigt over samspillet mellem film og litteratur i dansk film, opstilles en råkke begreber, som filmatiseringer kan analyseres ud fra. Der ses pa det litteråre vårks status — evt. som klassiker eller bestseller. Der ses pa de centrale filmatiseringsproblemer, forhold som pråg...

  1. Unveiling exceptional Baltic bog ecohydrology, autogenic succession and climate change during the last 2000 years in CE Europe using replicate cores, multi-proxy data and functional traits of testate amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałka, Mariusz; Tobolski, Kazimierz; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Ersek, Vasile; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; van der Knaap, Willem O.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of high-resolution, multi-proxy palaeoecological investigations of two parallel peat cores from the Baltic raised bog Mechacz Wielki in NE Poland. We aim to evaluate the role of regional climate and autogenic processes of the raised bog itself in driving the vegetation and hydrology dynamics. Based on partly synchronous changes in Sphagnum communities in the two study cores we suggest that extrinsic factors (climate) played an important role as a driver in mire development during the bog stage (500-2012 CE). Using a testate amoebae transfer function, we found exceptionally stable hydrological conditions during the last 2000 years with a relatively high water table and lack of local fire events that allowed for rapid peat accumulation (2.75 mm/year) in the bog. Further, the strong correlation between pH and community-weighted mean of testate amoeba traits suggests that other variables than water-table depth play a role in driving microbial properties under stable hydrological conditions. There is a difference in hydrological dynamics in bogs between NW and NE Poland until ca 1500 CE, after which the water table reconstructions show more similarities. Our results illustrate how various functional traits relate to different environmental variables in a range of trophic and hydrological scenarios on long time scales. Moreover, our data suggest a common regional climatic forcing in Mechacz Wielki, Gązwa and Kontolanrahka. Though it may still be too early to attempt a regional summary of wetness change in the southern Baltic region, this study is a next step to better understand the long-term peatland palaeohydrology in NE Europe.

  2. Nutrient load can lead to enhanced CH4 fluxes through changes in vegetation, peat surface elevation and water table depth in ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutinen, Sari; Bubier, Jill; Larmola, Tuula; Humphreys, Elyn; Arnkil, Sini; Roy, Cameron; Moore, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands, particularly in temperate areas, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. It is vital to understand the temporal scales and mechanisms of the changes, because peatlands are long-term sinks of C, but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. Rainwater fed (ombrotrophic) bogs are considered to be vulnerable to nutrient loading due to their natural nutrient poor status. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, now for 11-16 years with N (NO3 NH4) at 0.6, 3.2, and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1 (~5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition during summer months) with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured CH4 fluxes with static chambers weekly from May to September 2015 and peat samples were incubated in laboratory to measure CH4 production and consumption potentials. Methane fluxes at the site were generally low, but after 16 years, mean CH4 emissions have increased and more than doubled in high nitrogen addition treatments if P and K input was also increased (3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2yr-1 with PK), owing to drastic changes in vegetation and soil moisture. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new species, typical to minerogenic mires, which together with increased decomposition have led to decreased surface elevation and to higher water table level relative to the surface. The trajectories indicate that the N only treatments may result in similar responses, but only over longer time scales. Elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients to peatlands may increase loss of C not only due to changes in CO2 exchange but also due to enhanced CH4 emissions in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions

  3. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded

  4. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach

  5. An attempt to compare variations of carbon stable isotopes composition in two replicate cores from a Baltic bog in N Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Goslar, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    Two one-meter long monolith cores were taken from Stążki mire. Stążki mire is well preserved Baltic type raised bog with a very small evidence of exploitation. Stable isotopic composition of carbon (13C) was investigated in the bulk organic matter of Sphagnum. One centimetre resolution sampling was chosen for the investigation. Only carefully selected, leaf-free Sphagnum stems were collected for the study. Isotopic composition was determined using elemental analyser coupled to isotopic ratio mass spectrometer. For the correlation purposes age-depth models were established for both monoliths. Radiocarbon dating and 210Pb dating results were used to obtain the age-depth model for one monolith. Age-depth model for the second monolith was based on radiocarbon dating only. Both cores covered the last 1200 years of Stążki mire history. We will present a detailed comparison of correlate isotopic signal from Sphagnum in both cores.

  6. Tree-like pines on the Mshana peat bog in the Gorgany Mountains: a trace of Pinus uliginosa migration in the East Carpathians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic position of the population of tree-like, mostly polycormic individuals of pines from the Mshana peat bog in the Gorgany Mountains (East Carpathians, Ukraine has been studied on the basis of the morphological characteristics of cones and needles, and anatomical characteristics of the needles. These features have been compared with the surrounding Pinus mugo population as well as P. uliginosa, P. mugo, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata from natural populations of the taxa. Tree-like individuals were found to have the most similar needles to P. uliginosa, but most similar cone characteristics to P. mugo. It was concluded, that the tree-like population has a relic character and can present the trace of the early migration of P. uliginosa from the West and its hybridisation with P. mugo.

  7. Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation.

  8. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, K.; Xia, W.; Lu, X.; Wang, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology & Environment

    2010-09-15

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The {sup 210}Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the {sup 137}Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric {sup 210}Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1} with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 {mu} g g{sup -1}. The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.

  9. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, K; Xia, W; Lu, X; Wang, G

    2010-09-01

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the (137)Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric (210)Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m(-2)y(-1), which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m(-2)y(-1) with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 microg g(-1). The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.

  10. Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005–2009: a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fofonov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan–Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15′ N, 82°25′ E and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47′ N, 70°52′ E, in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (ΔCH4 and ΔCO2 during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d−1 higher than the climatological 1979–1998 base. Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005–2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2 calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT, showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr−1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

  11. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  12. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    OpenAIRE

    Field, C; van Dijk, N.; S. R. Leeson; I. D. Leith; L. J. Sheppard; Levy, P

    2012-01-01

    Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia...

  13. Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (47°48' N; 11°19' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half

  14. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

    2015-02-01

    Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 °C and differential air warming of ~ 6 °C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained

  15. Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

    2003-02-01

    Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European

  16. Effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas emissions in different microtopes in a cut-over drained bog in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybornova, Olga; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    In peatlands, all biogeochemical processes and the amount of exported carbon and nitrogen compounds are strongly influenced by changes in the water table. Peatland drainage leads to increased peat oxidization and changes peatlands from carbon sinks to net carbon sources. Especially, the emissions of the important greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are increased due to drainage. The currently ongoing restoration in the bog Himmelmoor (N 53° 44'20", E 9° 51'00", Quickborn) with an extent of about 6 km2 one of the largest raised bogs in Schleswig-Holstein, offers the possibility to characterize and to document the development of the fluxes at different sites before, during and after rewetting, using a method of small-scale closed chambers. Six subsites with differing water level and land use were identified: an area that was rewetted 30 years ago with Sphagnum vegetation, an area rewetted in 2009, an area with on-going peat extraction, deep peat cutting ditches refilled with peat with and without Eriophorum angustifolium vegetation and a comparatively dry peat dam. We determined that in the course of years 2014-2015 the measured N2O and CO2 fluxes varied between -0,1 and 1,9 mg m-2 h-1 and between -0,12 and 1,09 g m-2 h-1, respectively, and the highest nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide fluxes are typical for the dry peat dam study site. The measured CH4 fluxes were between -1,8 and 22,7 mg m-2 h-1, where the highest rates were found on the area rewetted 30 years ago and on the peat cutting ditches with Eriophorum angustifolium. Accounting for the different global warming potentials (GWP) of the measured greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions from all study sites ranged between 5,2 and 36 t CO2-eq ha-1 year-1 and were dominated by high emissions of CO2 (2,5 up to 25,5 t CO2-eq ha-1 year-1). Highest emission rates were found at the dry peat dam site and at the area rewetted 30 years ago. The peat dams and

  17. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois, E-mail: fdevleeschouwer@gmail.com [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Fagel, Nathalie [Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Cheburkin, Andriy [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mattielli, Nadine [Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Renson, Virginie [Department of Geology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Fialkiewicz, Barbara [Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection from the University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Piotrowska, Natalia [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Le Roux, Gael [Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  18. Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Thuens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD. We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool, and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs. ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene.

  19. Evaluations of the TiO2/simulated solar UV degradations of XAD fractions of natural organic matter from a bog lake using size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the changes in compositions of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) during photocatalytic degradation. The HAs and FAs were obtained from the XAD-resin fractionation of natural-organic matter (NOM) from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany). Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a suspension and a solar UV simulator (batch reactor) were used in the experiments. The photocatalytic degradation of the HAs and FAs were monitored using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) equipped with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV254) detection (SEC-DOC and SEC-UV254) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The evolutions of the photocatalytic degradations of the HA and FA fractions were selective. The photocatalytic degradation started with the degradations of high molecular weight compounds with relatively high UV254 absorbances in the HA and FA fractions to yield low molecular weight compounds showing less specific UV254 absorbances. Observance of the same tendency for the original NOM from Lake Hohloh indicates that these XAD-fractions still having complex compound mixtures. However, the larger molecular weight fractions of the FAs showed higher preferential adsorptions onto TiO2, which caused their faster degradation rates. Furthermore, FAs showed a greater reduction of the total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and the organic halogen compounds adsorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP), in comparison with the HAs.

  20. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  1. Atmospheric Environmental Changes Records from Peat Bogs: a Review%大气环境变化的泥炭地质档案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍锟山; 赵红梅; 于晓菲; 吕宪国; 王国平

    2011-01-01

    An ombrotrophic peat bog is a domed peatland in which the surface peat layers are hydrologically isolated from the influence of local ground and surface water, and are fed exclusively by atmospheric deposition consisting of both soi1d particles and mineral substances dissolved in rain water. It has proven to be a good continental geochemical archive, and has the unique advantage of a wide global distribution. It preserves intact atmospheric environmental changes' signatures including sea-salt aerosol,soil-dust, acid deposition, heavy metals, and organic pollutants. An efficient method to reconstruct a history of atmospheric environmental variation includes a chronological framework using geological dating techniques followed by biogeochemical analysis of a wide range of proxies. This paper reviews the approaches used to establish depth-age relationships in peat chronologies, and summarizes a large number of informed studies relative to deducing historical influence of ocean, rock-soil and human society on atmosphere. Finally, the slightly insufficient parts as well as the prospect of peat bog archives towards atmospheric variations are put forward.%雨养泥炭沼泽是一种重要的泥炭沼泽类型,具有全球广泛分布的特点,其养分补给主要源于大气降水(包括雨、雪和空气尘埃).它是一个记录大气环境变化的积极的信息储备系统,记录有大气输入的海盐气溶胶、沙尘颗粒、酸沉降、重金属和有机污染物等信息.采用地质定年技术将泥炭深度剖面转化到年代坐标上,并结合泥炭生物地球化学指标检测分析,提取反映这些信息的代用指标,是重建大气环境的变化历史的有效方法.本文讨论了泥炭沉积地球化学行为对沼泽定年和地质记录研究的意义,综述了泥炭沼泽常用的定年方法,总结了大量利用泥炭地质档案反演海洋、岩石-土壤及人类社会对大气环境变化的影响历史的研究,并在此基础上展

  2. Concentration and grain-size distribution of aeolian sands in peat bogs as an indicator of past storminess in coastal areas of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandel, Egert; Vaasma, Tiit; Tõnisson, Hannes; Sugita, Shinya; Vilumaa, Kadri; Anderson, Agnes; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Kangur, Mihkel; Pensa, Margus; Küttim, Martin; Umbleja, Liisa; Puusepp, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    Storminess in the Baltic Sea region has significantly increased over the last 50 years. As we do not have meteorological data beyond 20th century, therefore the long-term changes in storminess (e.g., frequency and magnitude of the storms) and its impact on the coastal evolution are mostly unknown. This study aims to reconstruct the extreme storm events along the coast of Estonia in late Holocene, inferred from changes in grain-size distribution and concentration of aeolian sands preserved in peat deposits. Four cores in total were collected from bogs of coastal Estonia; three from west Estonian archipelago (Hiiumaa Island and Saaremaa Island); one from the northern coast of the mainland (Juminda Peninsula). Core from Saaremaa (166 cm) covers the last 2700 years, cores from Hiiumaa (171 cm and 330 cm) cover ca 4000 years, and core from Juminda (465 cm) covers ca 8500 years. All AMS dates (77) are converted to cal yrs BP. Analyses of LOI and grain size are carried out at every centimetre in order to obtain data for mineral matter content and concentration of sand particles. The Juminda core shows a consistently low content of mineral matter (LOI < 2%) without clear peaks over the last 8000 years. The LOI results at both Hiiumaa sites show that mineral matter content gradually decreases from 4000 to 1500 cal yrs BP and then becomes the lowest in the period of 1500-1000 cal yrs BP; since then, it becomes higher (up to 10%) with fluctuations and has a clear peak around 700 cal yrs BP. At Saaremaa, the overall trend of mineral matter content is similar to that at the Hiiumaa sites: gradual decline from 2700 to 1500 cal yrs BP, lowest in 1500-1000 cal yrs BP, and relatively high over the last millennium. Concentration of mineral particles reveal clear peaks of aeolian sands at each site. At northern Hiiumaa, concentration has peaks around 3500, 3000 and 2500 cal yrs BP and is relatively high over the last 700 years. At Saaremaa, concentration has peaked at 2100, 1600 and

  3. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting

  4. High soil solution carbon und nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 yr of rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frank

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial drainage of peatlands causes dramatic changes in the release of greenhouse gases and in the export of dissolved carbon (C and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting anthropogenically altered peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases over a period of 1 yr and 4 month, respectively. The peeper technique was used to receive a high vertical sampling resolution. Within one Atlantic bog complex a near natural site, two drained grasslands sites with different mean water table positions, and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 yr ago were chosen. Our results clearly indicate that drainage increased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON compared to the near natural site. Drainage depth further determined the release and therefore the concentration level of DOC and N species, but the biochemical cycling and therefore dissolved organic matter (DOM quality and N species composition were unaffected. Thus, especially deep drainage can cause high DOC losses. In general, DOM at drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties as indicated by SUVA280 and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio compared to the near natural site. At the drained sites, equal C to N ratios of uppermost peat layer and DOC to DON ratio of DOM in soil solution suggest that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOC to DON ratios and SUVA280 values with depth furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely unchanged. DON and ammonia contributed most to the total dissolved nitrogen (TN. The subsoil concentrations of nitrate were negligible due to strong decline in nitrate around mean water table depth. Methane production during the winter months at

  5. High soil solution carbon und nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 yr of rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2013-10-01

    Artificial drainage of peatlands causes dramatic changes in the release of greenhouse gases and in the export of dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting anthropogenically altered peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases over a period of 1 yr and 4 month, respectively. The peeper technique was used to receive a high vertical sampling resolution. Within one Atlantic bog complex a near natural site, two drained grasslands sites with different mean water table positions, and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 yr ago were chosen. Our results clearly indicate that drainage increased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near natural site. Drainage depth further determined the release and therefore the concentration level of DOC and N species, but the biochemical cycling and therefore dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and N species composition were unaffected. Thus, especially deep drainage can cause high DOC losses. In general, DOM at drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties as indicated by SUVA280 and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near natural site. At the drained sites, equal C to N ratios of uppermost peat layer and DOC to DON ratio of DOM in soil solution suggest that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOC to DON ratios and SUVA280 values with depth furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely unchanged. DON and ammonia contributed most to the total dissolved nitrogen (TN). The subsoil concentrations of nitrate were negligible due to strong decline in nitrate around mean water table depth. Methane production during the winter months at the drained

  6. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  7. Turfeiras da Serra do Espinhaço Meridional - MG: I - caracterização e classificação Peat bogs of the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional - Minas Gerais, Brazil: I - characterization and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christófaro Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As turfeiras são ambientes especiais para estudos relacionados com a dinâmica da matéria orgânica, evolução das paisagens, mudanças climáticas e ciclos de poluição atmosférica locais, regionais e globais. Elas contribuem para o sequestro global de carbono, funcionam como reservatórios de água e constituem o ambiente de uma biodiversidade endêmica. A Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (SdEM, "Reserva da Biosfera Terrestre", apresenta uma área significativa formada por diferentes tipos de turfeira, que foram descritas em três perfis, situados a 1.250 m (P1, 1.800 m (P2 e 1.350 m (P4 de altitude e classificados respectivamente como Organossolo Háplico Sáprico térrico (P1, Organossolo Háplico Fíbrico típico (P2 e Organossolo Háplico Hêmico típico (P4, de acordo com o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Os três perfis foram caracterizados morfologicamente e, nas amostras coletadas, foram realizadas análises químicas, físicas e microbiológicas. Verificou-se que a localização, a altitude e a drenagem influenciaram os atributos morfológicos, físicos, químicos e microbiológicos das turfeiras da SdEM. O estádio de decomposição da matéria orgânica é mais avançado com a melhoria da drenagem nas turfeiras. O teor de metais pesados está relacionado com o teor e a composição granulométrica da fração mineral e com a localização das turfeiras. O perfil P1 apresentou os mais elevados teores médios de Ti, Zr e Pb; em P2 foram detectados os teores médios mais elevados de Mn, Zn e Cu; e o teor médio de Fe é mais elevado em P4. A intensidade da atividade microbiológica das turfeiras P2 e P4 relacionou-se com sua drenagem e com o teor de metais pesados de suas camadas.Peat bogs are a special environment for studies related with the dynamics of organic matter, landscape evolution and climatic changes and with local, regional and global cycles of atmospheric pollution. Peat bogs contribute to the global C

  8. The Systime iBog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a method for critical analysis of design contributions and the material properties of digital textbooks aimed at tertiary schools, in the transition to digital publishing and from paper-based books to digitally available learning materials. The suggested method, adapted from...

  9. The systime iBog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a method for critical analysis of design contributions and the material properties of digital textbooks aimed at tertiary schools, in the transition to digital publishing and from paper-based books to digitally available learning materials. The suggested method, adapted from...

  10. Integrating the EMPD with an Alpine altitudinal training set to reconstruct climate variables in Holocene pollen records from high-altitude peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Giulia; Badino, Federica; Brunetti, Michele; Champvillair, Elena; De Amicis, Mattia; Maggi, Valter; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Vallé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Temperatures and precipitation are the main environmental factors influencing vegetation and pollen production. Knowing the modern climate optima and tolerances of those plants represented in fossil assemblages and assuming that the relationships between plants and climate in the past are not dissimilar from the modern ones, fossil pollen records offer many descriptors to reconstruct past climate variables. The aim of our work is to investigate the potential of high-altitude pollen records from an Alpine peat bog (TBValter, close to the Ruitor Glacier, Western Italian Alps) for quantitative paleoclimate estimates. The idea behind is that high-altitude ecosystems are more sensitive to climate changes, especially to changes in July temperatures that severely affect the timberline ecotone. Meantime, we met with difficulties when considering the factors involved in pollen dispersal over a complex altitudinal mountain pattern, such as the Alps. We used the EMPD-European Modern Pollen Database (Davis et al., 2013) as modern training set to be compared with our high-altitude fossil site. The EMPD dataset is valuable in that it provides a large geographic coverage of main ecological and climate gradients (at sub-continental scale) but lacks in sampling of altitudinal gradients and high-altitude sites in the Alps. We therefore designed an independent altitudinal training set for the alpine valley hosting our fossil site. 27 sampling plots were selected along a 1700m-elevational transect. In a first step, each plot was provided with (i) 3 moss polsters collected following the guidelines provided by Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2009) and analyzed separately to account for differences in pollen deposition at small scale, (ii) morphometrical parameters obtained through a high-resolution DEM, and (iii) temperature and precipitation were estimated by means of weighted linear regression of the meteorological variable versus elevation, locally evaluated for each site (Brunetti et al

  11. High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic drainage of peatlands releases additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting drained peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases, over a period of 1 year and a period of 4 months. We chose four sites within one Atlantic bog complex: a near-natural site, two drained grasslands with different mean groundwater levels and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 years ago. Our results clearly indicate that long-term drainage has increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near-natural site. DON and ammonium contributed the most to the total dissolved nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations below the mean groundwater table were negligible. The concentrations of DOC and N species increased with drainage depth. In the deeply-drained grassland, with a mean annual water table of 45 cm below surface, DOC concentrations were twice as high as in the partially rewetted grassland with a mean annual water table of 28 cm below surface. The deeply drained grassland had some of the highest-ever observed DOC concentrations of 195.8 ± 77.3 mg L-1 with maximum values of >400 mg L-1. In general, dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near-natural site. At the drained sites, the C to N ratios of the uppermost peat layer were the same as of DOM in the peat profile. This suggests that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOM quality through the profile furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely biogeochemically unchanged. Unlike DOM concentration, DOM

  12. Changes of the content of oil products in the oil-polluted peat soil of a high-moor bog in a field experiment with application of lime and fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenova, M. I.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Aptikaev, R. S.; Lazarev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    A field model experiment on stimulating the activity of native oil microorganisms-decomposers was performed on an oil-polluted area in a high-moor bog under its total flooding in the northern taiga (Western Siberia). For two summer months, the doses of lime and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers applied have caused a decrease in the oil products (OP) content by 54% relative to their initial amount. The decrease of the OP content in the soil profiles was nonuniform, and at the depth of 30-50 cm it was accompanied by the acidification of peat. The stimulation of the activity of aboriginal microorganisms by applying lime and mineral fertilizers led to the development of migration processes with the participation of oil and products of its transformation. These processes differed from those in the soil without application of lime and fertilizers. An original technology of applying lime and fertilizers providing minimal disturbances the upper 50-cm peat layer is suggested.

  13. The prospects for the survival of the population of a boreal relict species, Betula humilis Schrk., in a small isolated peat bog in the Łęczna - Włodawa Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to identify the major risks to the population of Betula humilis Schrk. existing in a small isolated transitional peat bog near Lake Bikcze, in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. The biometric features of 40 Betula humilis individuals were measured as well as the growth of shoots, flowering and fruiting were observed. Habitat conditions were characterized by making measurements of selected abiotic and biocenotic environmental factors. The obtained results allowed us to identify two main threats to the proper functioning of the study population. The first one is the possible loss of genetic identity of the species as a result of probable ongoing introgression by the potential crossing of Betula humilis with other species of the genus Betula, which are numerous in the flora of the studied area. Another threat is a change in habitat conditions (mainly light and water conditions, which is due to the accelerated secondary succession manifested by the expansion of common species such as Salix cinerea, Betula pendula, and Phragmites australis.

  14. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Field

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions, 56 kg N ha−1 yr−1, depended on the N form. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation, enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

  15. Research on the energy saving technology of BOG compressor of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%江苏LNG接收站BOG压缩机的节能降耗措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段碧君

    2012-01-01

    介绍了LNG接收站工艺流程,阐述了活塞式压缩机的工作原理与技术特点,给出了各能耗参数的计算方法,包括排气量、供气量、容积系数、排气压力与级数、压缩比、排气温度、功率、效率等.分析了LNG接收站BOG压缩机的能耗问题,确定了能耗的主要影响因素,包括进气温度、进气压力、气相介质携液率、压缩比以及驱动电机的性能.基于此,提出了节能降耗措施:降低进气温度、控制进气压力、降低气相携液率、将电机改造为变频电机、在电动机拖动系统中加装功率因数控制器、经常更换冷却水系统的冷却液.%This article introduces the process flow of LNG receiving terminal, and also elaborates the working principle and technical characteristics of piston compressors. It also gives the calculating method of the energy consumption parameters, including the exhaust gas volume, the volume coefficient, discharge pressure and progression, the compression ratio, exhaust temperature, power, efficiency, and so on. It identifies the main factors of energy consumption of LNG receiving terminal BOG compressor, including the intake air temperature, inlet pressure, compression ratio and the drive motor performance. So, the energy saving measures are as follows, that is, reducing intake air temperature, controlling the inlet pressure, reducing the gas medium carrying liquid ratio, transforming the motor to frequency conversion motor, installing power factor controllers, regularly replacing of the cooling water coolant system.

  16. Peat power: fuel by the bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, R.B.

    1979-10-11

    The article reviews harvesting techniques and the use of peat in Europe, especially Russia, Ireland, and Finland. US peat reserves are estimated at 240 billion barrels of oil equivalent and DOE is researching new techniques for its harvesting and use. Advantages of peat are its low sulfur content (about 1%) and the fact that it is highly reactive, making it suitable for gasification. Disadvantages occur in reducing the water content from over 90% to below 50% and its low heating value relative to its bulk. Ash content varies from 2 to 70%. It looks at the first major attempt in the US to commercially harvest peat for fuel on about 150,000 acres near Creswell, NC.

  17. Bog rodom iz detstva / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Eldar Rjazanovi eluloofilm muinasjutuvestja Hans Christian Anderseni elust "Andersen. Elu ilma armastuseta" ("Andersen. Zhizn bez ljubvi"): stsenarist Irakli Kvirikadze : operaatorid Jevgeni Guslinski ja Vadim Alissov : helilooja Aleksei Rõbnikov : nimiosas Vanja Haratjan, Stanislav Rjadinski, Sergei Migitsko

  18. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermentation layers. These results confirm the feasibility of using morphogenetic structure of litter for the purposes of classification, reflecting the rate of substances turnover, parcel structure and production potential of forest peat soils. The obtained materials are important for the prediction of the transformation of Kuznetsk Alatau forest wetland depressions in connection with global and local climate fluctuations.

  19. On the ecology of a Sphagnum Bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas Becking, L.G.M.; Nicolai, E.

    1934-01-01

    For the ecologist systematic units are actors in a play. Whatever their christian- and family-names may be — it is their role, whether master or servant, whether villain or hero — which determines the character of the performance. This performance has, moreover, the property of being both continuous

  20. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    focused on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, especially radiography and CT scanning with advanced 3D visualizations. Indeed, the development of commercially available CT scanners in the 1970s meant that for the first time the 3D internal structure of mummies...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  1. Ny bog: Den farvede franske general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af: Tom Reiss: 'Den sorte greve. Napoleons rival og den virkelige greve af Monte Cristo', Informations Forlag, 517 s.......Anmeldelse af: Tom Reiss: 'Den sorte greve. Napoleons rival og den virkelige greve af Monte Cristo', Informations Forlag, 517 s....

  2. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous...... MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned...

  3. Engaging Students in World History with a Bog Body Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Getting students involved in the process of inquiry takes much more than pointing out a problem, offering sources, and setting them on their way. Fortunately, there are a number of teaching strategies that can be instrumental in engaging students in the process of inquiry. As a teacher of world history in the seventh grade, House of Avalon, at…

  4. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere(1). This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbia...

  5. The effect of increased temperature and nitrogen deposition on decomposition in bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Berendse, F.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their low primary production, ombrotrophic peatlands have a considerable potential to store atmospheric carbon as a result of their extremely low litter decomposition rates. Projected changes in temperature and nitrogen (N) deposition may increase decomposition rates by their positive effect

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in inactive cranberry bogs of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 1996 Baseline Contaminants Investigation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s (Service) Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR) revealed elevated...

  7. Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turlure, C.; Radchuk, V.; Baguette, M.; Meijrink, M.; Burg, van den A.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Duinen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by r

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrocarbon Refrigerants-Based Ethylene BOG Re-liquefaction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boumedienne M Beladjine; Ahmed Ouadha; and Yacine Addad

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system’s performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  9. Snow cover manipulation effects on microbial community structure and soil chemistry in a mountain bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroek, B.J.M.; Heijboer, A.; Jassey, V.E.J.; Hefting, M.M.; Rouwenhorst, T.G.; Buttler, A.; Bragazza, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Alterations in snow cover driven by climate change may impact ecosystem functioning, including biogeochemistry and soil (microbial) processes. We elucidated the effects of snow cover manipulation (SCM) on above-and belowground processes in a temperate peatland. Methods In a Swiss

  10. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS, humic (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves were established for the number of lateral roots growing from the main plant axis of tomato seedlings. The bioactivity of HA was greatest (highest response in lateral roots at lowest concentration while FA did not intensify root growth. Both HS and HA stimulated root hair formation. At low concentrations, HS and HA induced root hair formation near the root cap, a typical hormonal imbalance effect in plants. Transgenic tomato with reporter gene DR5::GUS allowed the observation that the auxin-related signalling pathway was involved in root growth promotion by HA.

  11. Effects of climate change and nitrogen deposition on vegetation and decomposition in bog ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    De hoofdvraag binnen deze studie was: hoe zal klimaatverandering de vegetatie en het functioneren van hoogvenen beïnvloeden. Daarbij is onderzocht wat het effect van temperatuurverhoging, N depositie en waterstandsfluctuatie op competitie tussen verschillende Spagnum soorten en op de complete hoogve

  12. Impact of long-term wetting on belowground respiration and methanogenesis in Luther Bog, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Marie; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands play a major role in the global carbon cycle. They store one-third of total world soil carbon, sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) and release CO2 and methane (CH4). Climate and land-use change are predicted to cause either wetter winters and wetter summers or wetter winters and drier summers in the area where northern peatlands are located. Feedback on processes in the peat is poorly understood on the time scale of decades. In this study, we investigated impacts of long-term wetting and long-term fluctuating water table on potential CO2 and CH4 production rates and organic matter quality of the fractions bulk peat, pore water and leachate. Bulk peat potential CO2 production rates of 2.38 to 25.55 μmol g-1 d-1 (aerobic) and 1.53 to 7.33 μmol g-1 d-1 (anaerobic) decreased with depth along with a decrease in organic matter quality. Potential CH4 production rates (0.002 to 2.60 μmol g-1 d-1) increased with anaerobic conditions and a lack of electron acceptors rather than being dependent on the availability of labile organic matter. This pattern was less evident in solute fraction samples where labile compounds in top layers were probably either too labile to be detected or water movement obscured differences between depths. Bulk peat potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production increased through long-term wetting. As wetting did not change organic matter quality or aerobic production rates, increased anaerobic production rates likely originate from microorganisms adapted to anaerobic conditions. All indicators of organic matter quality, FTIR ratios, SUVA254, E2:E3, HIX, FI and PARAFAC, provided similar results. Other than expected, wetting did not result in higher organic matter quality in bulk peat and leachate. Drier conditions in summer led to reduced organic matter quality. In pore water, long-term wetter conditions resulted in a higher organic matter quality. Slow-down of decomposition due to anaerobic conditions is unlikely, as this was not the case with respect to the other fractions. Mixing with groundwater could have transported organic matter of high quality to the wetted site. Potential CO2 production rates were not affected by long-term water table change. Organic matter quality of the wetted site may have been also overestimated in our study as vegetation change may have changed litter and peat quality as well. This study revealed that long-term wetting probably does not change organic matter quality as decisively as expected. Potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production rates rather increased as long as conditions were more constantly anoxic. Long-term lowered or fluctuating water table could potentially result in smaller future emissions due to a reduced organic matter quality, but also to less carbon sequestration.

  13. A 19-year long energy budget of an upland peat bog, northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth; Moody, Catherine; Burt, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    This study has estimated the long term evaporation record for a peat covered catchment in northern England. In this study, 19 years of daily evaporation were estimated for rain-free periods using White's methods. Net radiation was measured over the study period; soil heat flux was calculated from temperature profiles; and sensible heat flux was calculated assuming the energy budget was closed. The calculated time series was compared to available environmental information on the same time step and over the same time period. Over a 19-year period it was possible to calculate 1662 daily evaporation rates (26% of the period). The study showed that the energy flux to net primary productivity was a small, long-term sink of energy but this sink was a virtue of high carbon accumulation in peat catchments: in catchments where there is no long-term dry matter accumulation, net primary productivity must be a small net source of energy. The study showed that evaporation increased over the study period whilst sensible heat flux significantly declined with the ecosystem became a stronger heat sink reflecting an increased use of sensible heat energy to meet evaporative demand. The relatively small change in evaporative flux compared to other energy fluxes suggests that this system is a "near-equilibrium" system and not a "far-from-equilibrium" system.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants-based ethylene BOG re-liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladjine, Boumedienne M.; Ouadha, Ahmed; Addad, Yacine

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system's performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  15. Gene flow rise with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descimon Henri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main components of the spatial genetic structure of the populations are neighbourhood size and isolation by distance. These may be inferred from the allele frequencies across a series of populations within a region. Here, the spatial population structure of Proclossiana eunomia was investigated in two mountainous areas of southern Europe (Asturias, Spain and Pyrenees, France and in two areas of intermediate elevation (Morvan, France and Ardennes, Belgium. Results A total of eight polymorphic loci were scored by allozyme electrophoresis, revealing a higher polymorphism in the populations of southern Europe than in those of central Europe. Isolation by distance effect was much stronger in the two mountain ranges (Pyrenees and Asturias than in the two areas of lower elevation (Ardennes and Morvan. By contrast, the neighbourhood size estimates were smaller in the Ardennes and in the Morvan than in the two high mountain areas, indicating more common movements between neighbouring patches in the mountains than in plains. Conclusion Short and long dispersal events are two phenomena with distinct consequences in the population genetics of natural populations. The differences in level of population differentiation within each the four regions may be explained by change in dispersal in lowland recently fragmented landscapes: on average, butterflies disperse to a shorter distance but the few ones which disperse long distance do so more efficiently. Habitat fragmentation has evolutionary consequences exceeding by far the selection of dispersal related traits: the balance between local specialisation and gene flow would be perturbed, which would modify the extent to which populations are adapted to heterogeneous environments.

  16. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    and inhumated ancient human skeletal remains, and fossil animal bones. Knowledge of the typical HU range for the different tissues in mummies may help to avoid misinterpretation of increased or reduced radiodensity as evidence of paleopathological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the practical benefit...... of using our re-defined HU ranges by showing the improved results of 3D visualization from automatic segmentation in an Inca mummy from Mount Llullaillaco....

  17. Genesis of Spodic Material underneath Peat Bogs in a Danish Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag;

    2010-01-01

    illuviation under a fluctuating water table, or (ii) degradation of a former Fe-rich, well-drained spodic horizon. Methods included soil surveys, wet chemical analyses, micromorphology, pollen analysis, and radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter (OM) fractions. Aquods, and soil material with spodic...

  18. Investigating carbon dynamics in Siberian peat bogs using molecular-level analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Total hydrolysable carbohydrates, and lignin and cutin acid compounds were analyzed in peat cores collected 56.8 N (SIB04), 58.4 N (SIB06), 63.8 N (G137) and 66.5 N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland to investigate vegetation, chemical compositions and the stage of decomposition. Sphagnum mosses dominated peatland vegetation in all four cores. High-resolution molecular analyses revealed rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years in the southern cores Sib4 and Sib6. Syringyl and vanillyl (S/V) ratios and cutin acids indicated these vegetation changes were due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm and root material. In the G137 and E113 cores lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants. Molecular decomposition indicators used in this study tracked the decomposition of different organic constituents of peat organic matter. The carbohydrate decomposition index was sensitive to the polysaccharide component of all peat-forming plants, whereas acid/aldehyde ratios of S and V phenols (Ac/AlS,V) followed the lignin component of vascular plants. Low carbohydrate decomposition indices in peat layers corresponded well with elevated (Ad/Al)S,V ratios. This suggested both classes of biochemicals were simultaneously decomposed, and decomposition processes were associated with extensive total mass loss in these ombrotrophic systems. Selective decomposition or transformation of lignin was observed in the permafrost-influenced northern cores G137 and E113. Both cores exhibited the highest (Ad/Al)S,V ratios, almost four-fold higher than measured in peat-forming plants. The extent of decomposition in the four peat cores did not uniformly increase with age, but showed episodic extensive decomposition events. Variable decomposition events independent of climatic conditions and vegetation shifts highlight the complexity of peatland dynamics.

  19. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their anatomic and functional differences. Bryophytes are more sensitive to environmental and climatic parameters whilst vascular plants are mostly ubiquitous in the relevées with a greater ecological plasticity.

  20. Skarp og præcis bog om præstationsløn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Rewarding Performance: Guiding principles, custom strategies, Robert J. Greene, Routledge......Anmeldelse af Rewarding Performance: Guiding principles, custom strategies, Robert J. Greene, Routledge...

  1. Zero methane emission bogs : extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, Christian; Pancotto, Veronica A.; Elzenga, Josephus T.M.; Visser, Eric J.W.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Pol, Arjan; Iturraspe, Rodolfo; Roelofs, Jan G.M.; Smolders, Alfons J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxy

  2. Soil CO2 efflux in a degraded raised bog is regulated by water table depth rather than recent plant assimilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.H. Kritzler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climatic and biological factors that regulate soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux is crucial in peatlands because they contain a large proportion of terrestrial carbon (C. We predicted that rainfall reduction would increase soil CO2 efflux, and that cessation of below-ground allocation of recent plant assimilate would reduce soil CO2 efflux. These predictions were tested in the field using rainfall shelters that allowed a maximum of 40 % of rainfall onto 2 × 2 m plots by diverting rainwater from the shelter roofs with guttering, and by girdling stems of the dominant plant, Calluna vulgaris, for two years. We also used 13CO2-pulse labelling of intact monoliths at ambient CO2 concentrations to trace recent assimilate from plant shoots to roots, bulk soil, leachate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and soil CO2 efflux . Soil CO2 efflux in the sheltered plots increased in Year 1 but not in Year 2, and we found a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and water table depth. Our data indicate that lowering the water table below a critical threshold (15–20 cm affects soil CO2 efflux. Girdling of C. vulgaris shoots resulted in no measurable reduction in soil CO2 efflux, while only ~3 % of 13C fixed by shoots was recovered in soil CO2 efflux and DOC in the 20 days after labelling. Our findings show that below-ground allocation of recent assimilate from C. vulgaris plants > 6 years old has little impact on soil CO2 efflux.

  3. Soil CO2 efflux in a degraded raised bog is regulated by water table depth rather than recent plant assimilate

    OpenAIRE

    U.H. Kritzler; Artz, R. R. E.; Johnson, D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the climatic and biological factors that regulate soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux is crucial in peatlands because they contain a large proportion of terrestrial carbon (C). We predicted that rainfall reduction would increase soil CO2 efflux, and that cessation of below-ground allocation of recent plant assimilate would reduce soil CO2 efflux. These predictions were tested in the field using rainfall shelters that allowed a maximum of 40 % of rainfall onto 2 × 2 m plots by diver...

  4. 77 FR 2970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Elba BOG Compressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... horsepower electric-motor driven reciprocating gas compressor; flow metering modifications; underground... associated with fabrication, parking, and staging areas, which have been previously disturbed....

  5. Between Bog Bodies and High Halls. Changes in Spatial Focus and Religious Conceptions in the Pre-Christian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract prepared and accepted for The Sixteenth International Saga Conference: Sagas and Space, Zürich 2015. Due to personal reasons, the actual paper was not presented at the conference, but at a Saga Seminar in Aarhus later the same year. Published in the Preprints of Abstracts for the Saga Co...

  6. Flight Morphology, Compound Eye Structure and Dispersal in the Bog and the Cranberry Fritillary Butterflies: An Inter- and Intraspecific Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Van Dyck, Hans; Seymoure, Brett; Rutowski, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Understanding dispersal is of prime importance in conservation and population biology. Individual traits related to motion and navigation during dispersal may differ: (1) among species differing in habitat distribution, which in turn, may lead to interspecific differences in the potential for and costs of dispersal, (2) among populations of a species that experiences different levels of habitat fragmentation; (3) among individuals differing in their dispersal strategy and (4) between the sexes due to sexual differences in behaviour and dispersal tendencies. In butterflies, the visual system plays a central role in dispersal, but exactly how the visual system is related to dispersal has received far less attention than flight morphology. We studied two butterfly species to explore the relationships between flight and eye morphology, and dispersal. We predicted interspecific, intraspecific and intersexual differences for both flight and eye morphology relative to i) species-specific habitat distribution, ii) variation in dispersal strategy within each species and iii) behavioural differences between sexes. However, we did not investigate for potential population differences. We found: (1) sexual differences that presumably reflect different demands on both male and female visual and flight systems, (2) a higher wing loading (i.e. a proxy for flight performance), larger eyes and larger facet sizes in the frontal and lateral region of the eye (i.e. better navigation capacities) in the species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitat compared to the species inhabiting rather continuous habitat, and (3) larger facets in the frontal region in dispersers compared to residents within a species. Hence, dispersers may have similar locomotory capacity but potentially better navigation capacity. Dispersal ecology and evolution have attracted much attention, but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of dispersal. Unfortunately, for many species we lack detailed information on the role of behavioural, morphological and physiological traits for dispersal. Our novel study supports the existence of inter- and intra-specific evolutionary responses in both motion and navigation capacities (i.e. flight and eye morphology) linked to dispersal.

  7. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment... construction and operation of facilities by Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG) in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This... encourage them to comment on their areas of concern. Summary of the Proposed Project Cameron LNG plans...

  8. Methane cycling in peat bogs: Environmental relevance of methano-Trophs revealed by microbial lipid chemistry. LPP Contribution Series (35)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is continuing without delay and this is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, 25 times stronger compared to CO2. The increase in methane concentrations in the atmosphere is largely the result of human influences, but ther

  9. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that although species-specific differences in Collembola feeding behavior appear to exist, species are very plastic in their diet. This implies that changes in C turnover rates with vegetation shifts, might well be due to diet shifts of the present decomposer community rather than by changes in species composition.

  10. Erik Rasmussen, Niels Bohr og Værdirelativismen - i anledning af Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens bog om Erik Rasmussen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , ikke mindst med hensyn til værdirelativismen. Rasmussen viser, at komplementaritetsbegrebet i Bohrs vigtige men oversete filosofi kan bidrage væsentligt til at afklare teoretisk-metodiske problemer i statskundskab, herunder forholdet mellem struktur og handling og mellem mikro- og makroanalyse, samt...... ikke mindst forholdet mellem normative og kognitive udsagn. Efter mødet med Niels Bohrs filosofi står Rasmussens værdirelativisme både skarpere og stærkere end før, og Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens karakteristik af denne position som et ubegrundet dogme i dansk politologi er ikke overbevisende....

  11. Analysis of the Peiting Woman Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerochse, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy was applied to the skeletal remains of 13 bog bodies and their bog burial environments. The objective was to create a better understanding of Northern European bog environmental chemistry and its diagenetic effects on interred bog bodies, determine bog body geographic disparity and/or origin, and identify if post-discovery preservation procedures were applied to the bog body remains. This paper summarizes the findings for one of those 13 bog bodies: the Peiting Woman from Bavaria, Germany. The elements analyzed include Antimony, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Lead, Strontium, Titanium, Zinc, and Zirconium.

  12. Performing Translation as Practice-led Research: The Case of Carr’s “By the Bog of Cats…” in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Balduino P. Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    an individual task, originating in the complex act of reading the play-text, its final trajectory is deeply influenced by the creative insights of the production team. The overarching objectives of this article are, therefore: firstly to account for the overall process of translating for the stage, from the early drafts of the translation to the rehearsal process, and ultimately to the staged reading of the play; and secondly, to offer a narrative for how the cultural encounter between the exporting and importing cultures has taken place through translation and theatrical performance.

  13. Response to Comment on "Sphagnum Mosses from 21 Ombrotrophic Bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Show no Significant Atmospheric Contamination of “Heavy Metals”"

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; Duke, John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; ZACCONE Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2015-01-01

    Blais and Donahue (2015) draw attention to many contemporary environmental issues and concerns regarding the industrial development of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS), most of which are outside of the scope of our original study (Shotyk et al., 2014). Here we restrict our response to the remarks they made which actually apply to our paper. The focus of our paper was the abundance and spatial variation in concentrations of “heavy metals” (selected chalcophile elements namely Ag, Cd, Pb...

  14. The short-term effects of ecological restoration on carbon dioxide fluxes from a Molinia caerulea dominated marginal upland blanket bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatis, Naomi; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Hartley, Iain; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard E.

    2014-05-01

    Peat soils in the UK represent a significant long-term carbon store. Despite this the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The shallow marginal peatlands of Exmoor, southwest England, have historically been subject to extensive drainage and are known to be vulnerable to future changes in climate as they lie at the southern edge of the ombrotrophic peatland climatic envelope. However little is known about the processes that drive CO2 fluxes from degraded Molinia caerulea dominated upland mires or the potential effect that restoration through drainage blocking will have. The Mires-on-the-Moors project (www.upstreamthinking.org), funded by South West Water aims to restore the eco-hydrological functionality to over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. We hypothesised that such mire restoration will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. Partitioned below-ground respiration fluxes as well as biotic and abiotic variables, were collected on various dates in 2012 and 2013 along six transects adjacent to three pairs of drainage ditches. One of each pair was restored by blocking with peat dams in spring 2013 whilst the other remained unrestored to act as a control. Monitoring locations were arranged along transects to investigate the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to the drainage ditches. By partitioning below-ground fluxes it was possible to monitor root-derived (autotrophic) and more importantly soil-derived (heterotrophic) respiration providing an insight to the effects of ditch blocking on the long term carbon store. Here we present CO2 fluxes for the growing seasons at two critical stages in the restoration process: (a) immediately pre-restoration and (b) immediately post- restoration, and discuss the temporally and spatially variable processes driving below-ground CO2 fluxes. Respiration rates were comparatively low in these shallow humified peats, with daily mean total, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration reached 1.34, 0.60 and 0.23 μmolCm-2s-1 respectively. As expected soil temperature had a significant control on respiration rates, once this was accounted for water level showed a weak effect on total and heterotrophic respiration. Distinguishing the effects of ecological restoration between a wetter baseline period and a drier post-restoration period had its challenges. However, by expressing the respiration rates in the restored sites as a proportion of that observed in the control sites, the confounding effect of climate variability could be accounted for. This allowed us to determine that heterotrophic respiration decreased at the restored sites comparative to the control sites following restoration, indicating the immediate effect of restoration was to reduce decomposition of the peat store, with implications for carbon sequestration rates.

  15. How a Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog changed into a calcareous fen : the unique Holocene history of a Slovak spring-fed mire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajkova, Petra; Grootjans, A. B.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Rybnickova, Eliska; Madaras, Mikulas; Opravilova, Vera; Michaelis, Dierk; Hajek, Michal; Joosten, Hans; Wolejko, Leslaw; Rybníčková, Eliška; Madaras, Mikuláš; Opravilová, Věra; Wołejko, Lesław; Hajkova, T.

    2012-01-01

    In general, mires develop by autogenic succession from more groundwater-fed to more rainwater-fed. This study from a calcareous mire in the West Carpathians (Slovakia) describes a similar development in the Early Holocene, followed by a reverse development in the Middle and Late Holocene. Pollen, ma

  16. Enzyme activity in forest peat soils

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the activity of dehydrogenases and urease in forest peat soils of different fertility. There were selected 23 experimental plots localised in central and northern Poland. The research was conducted on forest fens, transition bogs and raised bogs. The biggest differences in soil physical and chemical properties were detected between fen and raised bog soils while raised bog soils and transition bog soils differed the least. Statistically significant dif...

  17. Peat; La tourbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervio, J.M. [Federation des Conservatoires regionaux d' espaces Naturels, 45 - Orleans (France); Millet, M.; Taborin, J.; Barthelemy, F.; Richard, H.; Begeot, C.; Magny, M.; Bossuet, G.; Megnien, C.; Buffetaut, E.; Duffaut, P.

    1999-09-01

    Peat bogs represent 4 millions of km{sup 2}, i.e. 3% of the Earth's surface. 90% are located in temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere mainly in Russia, Canada, USA and Scandinavia. This dossier is entirely devoted to peat. After a recall of the historical development of peat uses, the different types of peat bogs are presented (mires or fen peats, raised bogs). Then, different aspects of peat bogs are presented successively: natural resources and fragile ecosystems of humid regions (peat bogs, peat, deposits, formation, typology, geographical distribution, physico-chemical characteristics and uses, production, prices, market and fluxes, evolution and perspectives); peat bogs as todays environmental models of humic coals (generalities, composition of peat, degradation and preservation of plants, the lignin bio-marker, geological evolution of peat); peat and the recording of climatic changes; the French national strategy of peat bogs conservation; the origin of peat bogs in Jura (France); Baupte: a French peat bog in exploitation; the Cerin lake peat bog (southern Jura, France); the Blackwater bog (Offaly county, Ireland): industrial exploitation, the ancient artisanal exploitation, cross section and archaeological discoveries; the tropical peat bogs (continental-type: genesis and evolution, mangrove-type); the Pleistocene Megaloceros deer; peat and the manufacturing of whisky; the paleontological study of a Canadian peat bog; the archaeological discoveries of Northern Europe peat bogs; the problem of building onto peat. (J.S.)

  18. Design med mislyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    En ny bog om lydens rolle i produktdesign ender som en teknisk gennemgang, hvor selve design-aspektet forsvinder.......En ny bog om lydens rolle i produktdesign ender som en teknisk gennemgang, hvor selve design-aspektet forsvinder....

  19. Kant's Theory of virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)......Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)...

  20. Evaluering af lokale udviklingsprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasbech Nielsen, Mie; Jensen, Bente

    Arbejdspapir udviklet til HPA-projektet 2007. Revideret, nyt forord, ISBN nummer og udgivet som e-bog......Arbejdspapir udviklet til HPA-projektet 2007. Revideret, nyt forord, ISBN nummer og udgivet som e-bog...

  1. Dansk sang som identitetshistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Georg Metz' bog med kultur- og identitetshistoriske kommentarer til 117 danske sange, salmer og viser. Udgivelsesdato: 201108......Anmeldelse af Georg Metz' bog med kultur- og identitetshistoriske kommentarer til 117 danske sange, salmer og viser. Udgivelsesdato: 201108...

  2. Characterisation of Sanguinhal Mire, Terceira Island (Azores: a protected quaking bog habitat Caracterização da Turfeira do Sanguinhal, ilha Terceira (Açores um habitat protegido de turfeira ondulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. Sanguinhal mire was originally a lake that evolved through paludification into a peat habitat. It is located inside Nature 2000 (European Union for Protection of Nature and Biodiversity, Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, Habitat Directive Annex I(b habitat 7140 area of Santa Bárbara and Pico Alto Mountains on the island of Terceira, and it is a good example of a basin peatland type that was first discovered in 1998. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure, surface hydrology and chemistry. Forty-one plant species including six Sphagnum species and ten endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and eight plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is 2.5 m. The mire receives flowing water from its margins, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. After precipitation, water drains through several placic rupture points. Both pH and water conductivity were measured, with some ecological tendencies observed. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from cattle pasture and a walking trail that constrains natural surface water movement.O Arquipélago dos Açores no Atlântico Norte é uma área importante em biodiversidade, rica em espécies e habitats raros em estado selvagem. A turfeira do Sanguinhal foi originalmente uma lagoa que evoluiu por paludificação para um habitat de turfa. Esta localiza-se na Rede Natura 2000 (União Europeia para a Proteção da Natureza e Biodiversidade, Directive do Conselho 92/43/EEC de 21 de Maio 1992 sobre a concervação de habitats naturais e da fauna e flora, Diretiva de Habitat Anexo I(b habitat 7140 da Serra de Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto e é um bom exemplo de um tipo de turfeira de bacia, descoberto pela primeira vez em 1998. Este trabalho provê informações iniciais sobre a flora, as comunidades vegetais, a estrutura, as caracteristicas químicas da água e o regime hidrológico de superfície. Foram identificadas 41 espécies vegetais, incluindo 6 espécies do género Sphagnum, e 10 espécies de plantas vasculares endêmicas, forma identificadas oito comunidades vegetais. A profundidade máxima de turfa é de 2,5 m. A turfeira recebe água superficial de suas margens, além da precipitação interceptada e da névoa. Depois das chuvas, a água é drenada por vários pontos da turfeira onde o placic se rompeu. O pH e a condutividade das água foram medidos tendo-se verificado algumas tendências. O estado de conservação da turfeira é bom embora esteja sujeita a um crescente pastoreio por gado selvagem e a abertura de trilhos de forma desordenada altera o natural movimento de água na turfeira.

  3. 笃斯越桔多酚提取物成分分析及其抗氧化活性的研究%Composition analysis and antioxidant activity of bog bilberry polyphenol extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳嘉; 赵竞; 景浩

    2009-01-01

    研究笃斯越桔(Vaccinium uliginosum Linn)多酚提取物的成分、花青素组分和抗氧化能力.采用Bradford法和苯酚-硫酸法分别测定提取物中蛋白质和总糖的含量,Folin-ciocaheu法测定总多酚含量.进一步采用RP-HPLC分析笃斯越桔多酚提取物中花青素组分.结果表明,笃斯越桔多酚提取物中多酚含量占干质量的61.7%,花青素组分为5种,矢车菊素-3-葡萄糖苷为其主要成分.采用ABTS法和DPPH法评价提取物的抗氧化活性.结果显示,笃斯越桔多酚提取物清除ABTS和DPPH自由基的能力随提取物剂量的增加而升高,且EC50分别为114.1 μg/mL和1 16.0μg/mL,而标准品Trolox的EC50分别为129.0 μg/mL和130.6μg/mL.笃斯越桔多酚提取物多酚含量高,抗氧化能力强,是一种有效的天然抗氧化剂.

  4. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    OpenAIRE

    L. J. Sheppard; I. D. Leith; S. R. Leeson; van Dijk, N.; Field, C; Levy, P

    2013-01-01

    Peatlands represent a vast carbon reserve that has accumulated under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Given the strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, we need to establish the consequences of the increase in reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability of peatlands, and whether the form in which the nitrogen is deposited makes a difference. We have addressed these questions using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammon...

  5. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  6. Active-Reserve Force Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the “BOG” (Boots-on- Ground) duration. A “ MOB ” (mobilized but not deployed) setting does not contribute to operational capability. Any period during...the availability period that is not categorized as “BOG” is “ MOB .” No phase structure is required for strategic or deployed units, since their...Dwell 1 6 Dwell 2 12 Dwell 3 12 Dwell 4 6 Dwell 5 0 Dwell 36 Mob 1 Bog 12 Mob 2 Bog 0 Mob 3 Bog 0 Mob 1:3.0 12 Bog 1:3.0 12 Available 48 Rotational

  7. 40 CFR 230.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... harms aquatic organisms, consumers of aquatic organisms, or users of the aquatic environment, and... saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas....

  8. 76 FR 59835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... conduct a species status review, which we subsequently summarize in our 12-month finding. Petition History... aenigmaticus (hornwort), Phaeophyscia ] leana (Lea's bog lichen), Plagiochila caduciloba (Gorge leafy...

  9. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  10. Profeten Jeremias og genopbyggelsen af national identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2010-01-01

    Jeremias' Bog kan læses som et bidrag til kampen for at genopbygge den eksilsk-eftereksilske nation Israel. Baseret på social-antropologiske teorier om flygtninges livsvilkår, præsenteret af den amerikanske gammeltestamentler Daniel Smith-Christopher, beskrives Jeremias' Bog som en polyfone  teks...

  11. Hitler og Stalin arm i arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Levende fortalt bog om pagten mellem Hitler og Stalin, som udløste krigen og kastede lange skygger over Europas historie.......Levende fortalt bog om pagten mellem Hitler og Stalin, som udløste krigen og kastede lange skygger over Europas historie....

  12. At prædike tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Kritisk diskussion af Thomas Bredsdorff og Lasse Horne Kjældgaards bog Tolerance - eller hvordan man lærer at leve med dem, man hader (København: Gyldendal 2008).......Kritisk diskussion af Thomas Bredsdorff og Lasse Horne Kjældgaards bog Tolerance - eller hvordan man lærer at leve med dem, man hader (København: Gyldendal 2008)....

  13. Ambiguous chair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2011-01-01

    Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol.......Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol....

  14. Armillaria ectypa, a rare fungus of mire in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria ectypa is a saprotroph that occurs on active raised bogs and alkaline fens, as well as Aapa mires and transitional bogs. It is a very rare and threatened Eurasian species and one of the 33 fungal species proposed for inclusion into the Bern Convention. Its distribution in Poland, ecological notes and morphology of basidiocarp based on Polish specimens are presented.

  15. Ved vejen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Per; Dalsgaard, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    iBogs-udgave af Herman Bang: Ved Vejen, inkl. 646 ordforklaringer, 4 introduktioner, 4 anmeldelser, opgaver, 4 videoklip, 1 lydfil, 48 illustrationer, 3 stilesæt, litteraturliste......iBogs-udgave af Herman Bang: Ved Vejen, inkl. 646 ordforklaringer, 4 introduktioner, 4 anmeldelser, opgaver, 4 videoklip, 1 lydfil, 48 illustrationer, 3 stilesæt, litteraturliste...

  16. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E

    1985-01-01

    the presence of BOG was ruled out (diagnoses: irritable bowel syndrome, 8; chronic diarrhoea, 6; and lactose malabsorption, 1). These patients were used as controls. The other 22 of the 60 patients could not be placed in either group owing to the presence of factors known to predispose for BOG; none of them...

  17. Test Area C-62 Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    bog or pitcher plant bog is a small, grass/ sedge /forb dominated wetland occurring along a gentle slope intersection of the horizontal water table...Pluchea rosea Godfrey CYPERACEAE Carex spp. Fuirena breviseta (Coville) Coville in Harper Fuirena spp. CYRILLACEAE Cliftonia monophylla (Lam

  18. Distance Education Report, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on distance education in the California Community College. This is the seventh report to the California Community Colleges Board of Governors (BOG) per BOG Standing Order 409 (b) "that evaluates the effectiveness of distance education and education technology system wide and provides analysis of data demographically (by age,…

  19. Den levende sangfugl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2009-01-01

    Kronik om Harper Lee's roman "Dræb ikke en sangfugl" (1960) og den store indflydelse bog og film har haft på amerikansk kultur. Udgivelsesdato: 30. juli......Kronik om Harper Lee's roman "Dræb ikke en sangfugl" (1960) og den store indflydelse bog og film har haft på amerikansk kultur. Udgivelsesdato: 30. juli...

  20. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    occidentalis (Buttonbush) Cladium jamaicense (Sawgrass) Cyperus strigosus (Redroot cyperus) Echinochloa walteri (Walter’s millet) Eleocharis obtusa (Spikerush...4 C-,L 27 Echinochica walteri (Walter’s millet) Eleocharis obtusa (Spikerush) Eleocharis quadrangulata (Spikerush) Leersis spp. (Cutgrass) Panicum...c) Atlantic White Cedar Bog (dominated by Chamaecyparis ), and (d) Pocosin-Bay Forest (upland bogs in pine Savannahs). These plant communities are

  1. Kapitalens mysterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian Bech; Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Hernando de Soto's bog "The mystery of capital" forklares ejendomsregistreringens betydning som generator til økonomisk vækst og samfundsmæssig stabilitet.......Med udgangspunkt i Hernando de Soto's bog "The mystery of capital" forklares ejendomsregistreringens betydning som generator til økonomisk vækst og samfundsmæssig stabilitet....

  2. En verden uden ende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2017-01-01

    Multivers. Er der kun ét, eller er der utallige universer med hver sine naturlove? Det er emnet for en nyoversat bog af fysikeren Stephen Hawking og forfatteren Leonard Mlodinow.......Multivers. Er der kun ét, eller er der utallige universer med hver sine naturlove? Det er emnet for en nyoversat bog af fysikeren Stephen Hawking og forfatteren Leonard Mlodinow....

  3. 1807 Københavns bombardement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2014-01-01

    Bog udgivet i anledning af Folkeuniversitetets Århundredets Festival, der sætter spot på 1800-tallet i perioden 7. - 16. marts 2014.......Bog udgivet i anledning af Folkeuniversitetets Århundredets Festival, der sætter spot på 1800-tallet i perioden 7. - 16. marts 2014....

  4. D. Larsen: Fortrængt Grusomhed (Dänische SS-Wächter 1941-45)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Dennis Larsens bog "Fortrængt grusomhed. Danske SS-vagter 1941-45" for H-Soz-u-Kult......Anmeldelse af Dennis Larsens bog "Fortrængt grusomhed. Danske SS-vagter 1941-45" for H-Soz-u-Kult...

  5. Bra stadsplanering i Västra Hamnen, Malmö

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Et forarbejde/seminar om bæredygtighed. Artikel til bog fra Formas i Sverige om bæredygtig udvikling i udstillingsområdet. Bogen publiceres i 2004.......Et forarbejde/seminar om bæredygtighed. Artikel til bog fra Formas i Sverige om bæredygtig udvikling i udstillingsområdet. Bogen publiceres i 2004....

  6. Capability Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Jensen, Hans Iskov

    2010-01-01

    En kort og introducerende bog om Martha Nussbaums ti centrale kapabiliteter i relation til unge med særlige behov......En kort og introducerende bog om Martha Nussbaums ti centrale kapabiliteter i relation til unge med særlige behov...

  7. The Race Memory and Poetry Meditation bencath ghe Bog:A Cultural Construing to The Tollund Man%沼泽下的民族记忆与诗意沉思--西默斯·希尼《托兰人》的文化解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰; 尚婷

    2005-01-01

    是1995年诺贝尔文学奖得主西默斯·希尼的著名诗作之一.沼泽为诗人的文学创作提供了极其重要的精神资源,而在沼泽地发现的"托兰人"尸体则寄托了诗人对北爱尔兰长期的宗教战争、民族冲突的关切与困惑.从民族、宗教文化面对进行深入解读,可深切领会到诗人悲悯、迷茫、焦灼而痛苦的内心世界.

  8. The effects of different substrates on flowering of kohleria (Kohleria amabilis Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Hetman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the effects of different substrates on flowering of Kohleria amabilis Hook. belonging to Gesneriaceae family. Substrates used were: white peat, white peat + bark (1:1, white peat +perlite (1:1, white peat + sand (1:1, coir, low-bog peat, low-bog peat + bark (1:1. Substrates caused effects on flowering of a kohleria. The best of them occured low-bog peat + bark (1:1. Plants bloomed the earliest, for the longest time and plentyfully. Moreover they were hight and nicely leafy. The least useful was white peat.

  9. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  10. Helium extraction and nitrogen removal from LNG boil-off gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Peng, N.; Liu, L.; Gong, L.

    2017-02-01

    The helium bearing boil off gas (BOG) from liquid natural gas (LNG) storage tank in LNG plant, which has a helium concentration of about 1%, has attracted the attention in China as a new helium source. As the BOG is usually reused by re-condensing to recover methane, it is likely to cause continuous accumulation of nitrogen in the unit, thus a nitrogen removal process must be integrated. This paper describes a conceptional cryogenic separation system aiming at recovering methane, helium and nitrogen from BOG based on cryogenic distillation and condensation process.

  11. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  12. Exercise Helps Ease Arthritis Pain and Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain, and helps combat fatigue. Of course, when stiff and painful joints are already bogging you down, ... can make your joints even more painful and stiff. That's because keeping your muscles and surrounding tissue ...

  13. 39 CFR 776.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. ... UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES General... determined by the operations organization within the Postal Service. Wetlands means those areas that...

  14. CRISIS FOCUS Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression, the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery. The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank’s monthly report, Global Focus,

  15. O sallingmo'l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Inger Schoonderbeek

    2005-01-01

    Anmeldelsen har til formål kort at beskrive Jens Ejsings nyeste bog, som beskriver sallingmålets grammatik meget detaljeret. Anmeldelsen er informativ snarere end kritisk. Udgivelsesdato: december...

  16. 76 FR 14984 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Penobscot, Kennebec, and Waldo Counties, ME, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-southwest orientation and, with its six tributaries, creates a diversity of wetland communities. The bog and... been listed by the Partners-in-Flight organization as species that are declining. Slender blue...

  17. På Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Michael Würtz

    Beskrivelse: Undervisningsmateriale til redskabsaktiviteter og grundlæggende springgymnastik med hensyntagen til børns forskellige aktivitetsniveau. Materialet består af en bog med tilhørende CD rom...

  18. Испытанные временем / Тийна Кольк

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кольк, Тийна

    2011-01-01

    Ajaproovile vastupannud klassikalise disainiga toodetest: viini tool, Alvar Aalto taburet ja vaas "Savoy", Arne Jacobseni tugitool "Muna" jt. Kaidi Ploomipuu kavandatud Euroopa disainiauhinna Red Dot pälvinud vaip «Bog 4053»

  19. Boganmeldelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet.......De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet....

  20. Gul udenpå - privilegeret svensker indeni - Anmeldelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2014-01-01

    Et forsøg på kritik af svensk racisme og vestlige maskulinitetsforestillinger bliver til dels en bekræftelse af begge dele i en ny bog af og om en adopteret, der migrerer tilbage til Korea......Et forsøg på kritik af svensk racisme og vestlige maskulinitetsforestillinger bliver til dels en bekræftelse af begge dele i en ny bog af og om en adopteret, der migrerer tilbage til Korea...

  1. En alkymist fra Amerika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2013-01-01

    Sean Wilentz skriver sig uden om storladne myter og smålig nyfigenhed i sin bog om Bob Dylan. Forfatteren har fantastisk godt fat i manden som kunstner og led i den amerikanske musiks kæde......Sean Wilentz skriver sig uden om storladne myter og smålig nyfigenhed i sin bog om Bob Dylan. Forfatteren har fantastisk godt fat i manden som kunstner og led i den amerikanske musiks kæde...

  2. Den, som protesterer, er gået i fælden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Johnny Johansen

    2007-01-01

    En litteraturhistorisk kommentar til Knud Romer Jørgensens bog "Den som blinker er bange for døden" (2006), der sammenblander to læserpagter: fiktionspagten ("roman") og referentialitetspagten (selvbiografi).......En litteraturhistorisk kommentar til Knud Romer Jørgensens bog "Den som blinker er bange for døden" (2006), der sammenblander to læserpagter: fiktionspagten ("roman") og referentialitetspagten (selvbiografi)....

  3. Paludification and Forest Retreat in Northern Oceanic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the treeline in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discuss...

  4. Social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Arbejdspapir som er udarbejdet i forbindelse med HPA-projektet og brugt i en anden udgivelse fra 2007. Nu genudgivet med nyt forord og ISBN nummer, samt udgive via DPU's forlag som e-bog......Arbejdspapir som er udarbejdet i forbindelse med HPA-projektet og brugt i en anden udgivelse fra 2007. Nu genudgivet med nyt forord og ISBN nummer, samt udgive via DPU's forlag som e-bog...

  5. Æstetik er tilbage som nøgle til at forstå samtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Devika

    2013-01-01

    Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" .......Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" ....

  6. Needle anatomy suggests hybridization between the relict turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris L. from the Gązwa peat bóg and typical Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Polok

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris from the Gazwa peat bog reserve in terms of 16 anatomical needle traits and to determine whether pines with a typical morphotype inhabiting the peat bog have been so successful thanks to hybridization with the unique tufosa ecotype. Investigations were conducted on three phenotypic groups of Scots pine growing in the peat bog. The first two groups consisted of 30 tufosa trees at the age of 117-217 years and 20 trees at the age of 30-85 years. The third group consisted of typical pines represented by 10 trees at the age of 20-55 years. In total 30 trees of typical pine, surrounding the peat bog, at the age of 100-150 years served as outgroup. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance with the F test, Tukey's test, and a number of multivariate analyses were used to estimate differences between the studied groups of trees based on 16 anatomical needle characteristics. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve proved to be a unique and relict peat bog pine, as it was shown by the differences in 10 analyzed needle traits in comparison to pine with a typical morphotype growing in the areas surrounding the peat bog. The young typical pines have adapted to conditions found in the peat bog owing to hybridization with the turfosa forms. The young turfosa trees differed from the old turfosa trees and also they have probably been of a hybrid origin. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve is a threatened ecotype due to its hybridization with pines from the population surrounding the peat bog.

  7. Ross - for altid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2011-01-01

    Med baggrund i Jens Ewalds bog om Alf Ross omtaler artiklen en række de problemstillinger, som bogen behandler, samt vurderer den betydning, Ross har haft og måske fortsat har. Afslutningsvis betones den juridiske biografis betydning.......Med baggrund i Jens Ewalds bog om Alf Ross omtaler artiklen en række de problemstillinger, som bogen behandler, samt vurderer den betydning, Ross har haft og måske fortsat har. Afslutningsvis betones den juridiske biografis betydning....

  8. Sten fra himlen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Meteoritter. Veloplagt bog har samlet historien om de mest berømte af dem – fra Yucatan-meteoritten, som ændrede livet på Jorden, til Maribo-meteoritten, der landede i Danmark i 2009.......Meteoritter. Veloplagt bog har samlet historien om de mest berømte af dem – fra Yucatan-meteoritten, som ændrede livet på Jorden, til Maribo-meteoritten, der landede i Danmark i 2009....

  9. Sphagnum Moss in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Reveals No Significant Atmospheric Contamination by "Heavy Metals"

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphagnum moss were collected from three sites at each of twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs in the vicinity of and surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta. Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from multiple sites at each of four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany, the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. ...

  10. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  11. Impact of long-term drainage on summer groundwater flow patterns in the Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Kopp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term impacts of drier conditions on the hydrology of northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used long-term drainage near a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological processes and groundwater flow patterns in an area now forested and an area that maintained a bog-like character. Groundwater flow patterns alternated between mostly downward flow and occasionally upward flow in the bog area and were mostly upward-orientated in the forested area, which suggested that there the flow pattern had shifted from bog- to fen-like conditions. Flow patterns were in agreement with changes in post-drainage hydraulic conductivities, storage capacity of the peat and water table levels. Compared to the bog, hydraulic conductivities in the forested area were one to three orders of magnitude lower in the uppermost 0.75 m of peat (paired t test, p < 0.05. Bulk density had increased and the water table level was lower and more strongly fluctuating in the forested area. Our findings suggest hydraulic gradients and flow patterns have changed due to increased evapotranspiration and interception with the emergence of a tree cover. The smaller size of the now-forested area relative to the remaining bog area appeared to be important for the hydrological change. With the main Mer Bleue bog as hinterland, enhanced runoff to the drainage channel had little effect on hydrologic and vegetation patterns. In the cut-off, smaller, now forested area pervasive changes in vegetation and hydrologic processes occurred. The difference in response to local drainage raises questions about tipping points with respect to the impact of drying on peatland ecosystems that need to be addressed in future research.

  12. Calculation of Flare Load in LNG Terminal%LNG接收站火炬负荷的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万山; 卢超; 吕俊

    2015-01-01

    LNG接收站运行会产生BOG,当遇到特殊情况时会额外产生大量BOG,从安全角度考虑需要设计火炬系统.以某LNG接收站为例,结合国外成熟的计算模型,探讨火炬负荷计算方法.在卸船期间(返回气无法正常返回LNG船而需要火炬处理BOG),台风过境引起大气压力急剧变化(引起储罐气相空间气体膨胀和液相空间过热液体气化产生BOG)、压缩机无法正常工作(停电或故障,储罐、管道及各设备产生BOG),在此工况下需要火炬处理的BOG量最大.

  13. Impact of Oils Sands Mining on Nitrogen-Limited Peatland Ecosystems in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Scott, K.; Prsa, T.; Quinn, J.; Vitt, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands of boreal Canada represent large reservoirs of sequestered carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Cycling of C and N in peatlands is intrinsically linked, especially in bogs - peatlands isolated from ground- and surface-water inputs, receiving nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere, which in the absence of N pollution, ensures an N-limited, nutrient-poor ecosystem. A growing concern associated with the development of Alberta’s Oil Sands Mining (OSM) is the potential for regionally elevated deposition of N-compounds (NOx). Prior to OSM, N inputs to bogs were limited exclusively to (1) biological N fixation, and (2) bulk atmospheric deposition. Currently, data examining the effect of purported increases in N and S deposition in this region are limited. Our goal was to determine patterns in atmospheric N deposition on N concentrations in bog porewaters at 5 sites spanning varying distances from the OSM region: Mildred, McKay, McMurray, Anzac and Utikuma bog (14, 24, 51, 71 and 300 km, respectively). Specifically, we wanted to test the hypothesis that OSM results in higher N deposition leading to elevated N in porewaters. Deposition of N was greatest at Mildred, followed by McKay, McMurray, and Anzac, and significantly lowest at Utikuma Bog (F4,49 = 5.9, p resin samplers placed at each site (n=50 total; 10 per site) and porewaters were collected using a modified sipper design (n=15; 3 per site; 10-10cm depth intervals per sipper).

  14. Estimating exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish to mercury in California lakes using prey fish monitoring: a predictive tool for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davison, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous water bodies in California are listed under the Clean Water Act as being impaired due to mercury (Hg) contamination. The Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP), via the Bioaccumulation Oversight Group (BOG), has recently completed statewide surveys of contaminants in sport fish tissue from more than 250 lakes and rivers in California and throughout coastal waters. This effort focused on human health issues but did not include beneficial uses by wildlife. Many piscivorous birds such as grebes, terns, cormorants, and mergansers eat fish smaller than those that were sampled by BOG, and sport fish Hg concentrations are not always indicative of wildlife exposure to Hg; therefore, the BOG surveys could not address whether wildlife were at risk due to Hg-induced reproductive impairment in these lakes.

  15. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustár, Rozália; Molnár, Dávid; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sávai, Szilvia

    2016-06-01

    The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well. The bog is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which aeolian sand and thick lake sediment deposited from the Late Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human occupations, the natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake choked up. The pollen and quartermalacological analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.

  16. THE ROLE OF THE LANDSLIDE LAKES (WETLANDS IN TRANSFORMATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER ON THE EXAMPLE VELKE OSTURNIANSKE JAZERO, SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Molenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article a role of the flow bog in the transformation of the physical-chemical properties of waters was described. They demonstrated that in the water flowing out of the bog a fall in the mineralization and concentrations of selected ions take place towards feedwaters. The species stated within the bog of plants, mainly Carex rostrata, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Equisetum fluviatile, Juncus effusus, Menyanthes trifoliata can be found the under construction application of sewage treatment plant on highlands of the Western Carpathians (to 900 m.n.p.m., the average annual air temperature > of 5 °C and the time of lying of the snowy lid of 90 days in the year.

  17. Comparison between reverse Brayton and Kapitza based LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction systems in LNG carrier ships uses refrigeration devices which are based on reverse Brayton, Claude, Kapitza (modified Claude) or Cascade cycles. Some of these refrigeration devices use nitrogen as the refrigerants and hence nitrogen storage vessels or nitrogen generators needs to be installed in LNG carrier ships which consume space and add weight to the carrier. In the present work, a new configuration based on Kapitza liquefaction cycle which uses BOG itself as working fluid is proposed and has been compared with Reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC) on sizes of heat exchangers and compressor operating parameters. Exergy analysis is done after simulating at steady state with Aspen Hysys 8.6® and the comparison between RBC and Kapitza may help designers to choose reliquefaction system with appropriate process parameters and sizes of equipment. With comparable exergetic efficiency as that of an RBC, a Kaptiza system needs only BOG compressor without any need of nitrogen gas.

  18. Biochar influences the microbial community structure during tomato stalk composting with chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liu; Shutao, Wang; Jin, Zhang; Tong, Xu

    2014-02-01

    A batch composting study was performed to evaluate effects of biochar addition on dynamics of microbial community and changes of key physic-chemical properties during composting of tomato stalk and chicken manure. As a comparison, two amendments of peat bog and zeolite were selected. The results indicated that biochar addition for composting showed a shorter time to enter thermophilic phase (3 d) and a higher temperature (56°C) and longer duration of thermophilic phase compared to that of peat bog addition, zeolite addition and raw composts. The highest C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids' concentration with biochar addition were obtained. Biochar addition also showed more influence on bacterial community changes than that of peat bog and zeolite. Thus, biochar addition could significantly affect physic-chemical process and microbial community diversity on tomato stalk and chicken manure composting. This study provides valuable information for improving composting and a better understanding of biodegradation processes.

  19. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs.

  20. Mapping of mires in Switzerland - starting point and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettel, M. [Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape, Bern (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Modern mapping of Swiss mires aims at nature conservation and is based on a phyto-ecological approach to mire definition, which recognizes certain plant associations as being mire vegetation. In particular, apart from societies of raised bogs (Oxycocco-Sphagnetea) and transitional bogs (Scheuchzerietalia palustris), the Phragmition, Magnocaricion, Coercion Norse, Caricion davallianae as well as Molinion and Filipendulion/ Calthion alliances also form part of mire vegetation, regardless of the presence of a peat layer or its thickness. Mires in Switzerland are, therefore, primarily wetlands. Accordingly approximately 14.70 km{sup 2} of raised and transitional bogs (only 1/3 in a primary stage) and approximately 184.70 km{sup 2} of fens of national importance have been mapped and placed under protection. Total mire area has been estimated to be about 224.10 km{sup 2}. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  1. The ability of contrasting ericaceous ecosystems to buffer nitrogen leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Field

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been given to the carbon balance of peatland and heathland ecosystems and their role as global carbon stores. They are also important as buffers for atmospheric nitrogen (N pollution, locking N into the soil and vegetation through tight nutrient cycling and preventing the leaching of soluble N into freshwater ecosystems. We compared mean annual soil exchangeable N, mineralisation and soil solution nitrogen at three contrasting ericaceous-dominated ecosystems: a lowland heath, an upland heath and an ombrotrophic raised bog at intermediate altitude, all of which were sites of long-term N-manipulation experiments. We expected that soil leachate N would be associated with soil C/N and total soil C, and that sites with higher C % and soil C/N would have greater ability to buffer N deposition before N saturation and leaching began. However, although soil solution N responded to N deposition at all the sites, we found that only the heathland sites were consistent with this expectation. The bog, with the highest C/N and largest C pool, was not the most strongly buffered. The upland heath was most effective at retaining N (extractable NH4+-N +3900 % from control compared to the lowland heath (extractable NH4+-N +370 % from control and the bog (extractable NH4+-N, +140–240 % from control. We concluded that the absence of a definable Calluna litter layer at the lowland heath and the bog, and the anoxic conditions at the bog, explained the earlier onset of leaching and that carbon and nitrogen cycles appeared more closely coupled in the heathlands but became decoupled at the bog due to the strong controlling effect of hydrology.

  2. Impact of long-term drainage on summer groundwater flow patterns in the Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Kopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term impacts of a drier climate on coupled hydrology and carbon cycling in northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological processes and groundwater flow patterns in an area now wooded and an area that maintained bog character. Groundwater flow patterns alternated between downward flow and upward flow in the bog area and were mostly upward orientated in the wooded area. Flow patterns were in agreement with changes in post-drainage hydraulic conductivities, storage capacity of the peat and hydraulic gradients. Compared to the bog, hydraulic conductivities in the wooded area were one to three orders of magnitude lower in the uppermost 0.75 m (paired t-test, p<0.05 of peat but partly higher below. Bulk density had increased and the water table level was lower and more strongly fluctuating. Our findings suggest hydraulic gradients and flow patterns have changed due to increased evapotranspiration and interception with the emergence of a tree cover. The smaller size of the now-forested area relative to the remaining bog area appeared to be important for the hydrological change. When water supply from undisturbed areas was large, enhanced runoff to the drainage channel had little effect on hydrologic patterns and vegetation pattern, whereas in the smaller, now forested area pervasive changes in vegetation and hydrologic processes occurred. This finding raises questions about tipping points with respect to the impact of drying on bog ecosystems that need to be addressed in future research.

  3. Effects of permafrost aggradation on peat properties as determined from a pan-Arctic synthesis of plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, C.C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Camill, P.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Garneau, M.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, G.; Klein, E.S.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuhry, P.; Loisel, J.; Mathijssen, J.H.; O'Donnell, J.A.; Oksanen, P.O.; Ronkainen, T.M.; Sannel, A.B.K.; Talbot, J. J.; Tarnocal, C.M.; Valiranta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics play an important role in high-latitude peatland carbon balance and are key to understanding the future response of soil carbon stocks. Permafrost aggradation can control the magnitude of the carbon feedback in peatlands through effects on peat properties. We compiled peatland plant macrofossil records for the northern permafrost zone (515 cores from 280 sites) and classified samples by vegetation type and environmental class (fen, bog, tundra and boreal permafrost, and thawed permafrost). We examined differences in peat properties (bulk density, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and organic matter content, and C/N ratio) and C accumulation rates among vegetation types and environmental classes. Consequences of permafrost aggradation differed between boreal and tundra biomes, including differences in vegetation composition, C/N ratios, and N content. The vegetation composition of tundra permafrost peatlands was similar to permafrost-free fens, while boreal permafrost peatlands more closely resembled permafrost-free bogs. Nitrogen content in boreal permafrost and thawed permafrost peatlands was significantly lower than in permafrost-free bogs despite similar vegetation types (0.9% versus 1.5% N). Median long-term C accumulation rates were higher in fens (23 g C m−2 yr−1) than in permafrost-free bogs (18 g C m−2 yr−1) and were lowest in boreal permafrost peatlands (14 g C m−2 yr−1). The plant macrofossil record demonstrated transitions from fens to bogs to permafrost peatlands, bogs to fens, permafrost aggradation within fens, and permafrost thaw and reaggradation. Using data synthesis, we have identified predominant peatland successional pathways, changes in vegetation type, peat properties, and C accumulation rates associated with permafrost aggradation.

  4. Red list plants: colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, B; Haselwandter, K

    2004-08-01

    Since information concerning the mycorrhization of endangered plants is of major importance for their potential re-establishment, we determined the mycorrhizal status of Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae), Betonica officinalis (Lamiaceae), Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae) and Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae), occurring at one of two wetland sites (fen meadow and peat bog), which differed in soil pH and available P levels. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was quantified. Colonization by AMF appeared to be more frequent in the fen meadow than in the peat bog, and depended on the host plant. Roots of S. tinctoria and B. officinalis were well colonized by AMF in the fen meadow (35-55% root length) and both arbuscules and vesicles were observed to occur in spring as well as in autumn. In the peat bog, L. inundata showed a low level of root colonization in spring, when vesicles were found frequently but no arbuscules. In roots of D. intermedia from the peat bog, arbuscules and vesicles were observed, but AMF colonization was lower than in L. inundata. In contrast, the amount of AMF spores extracted from soil at the peat bog site was higher than from the fen meadow soil. Spore numbers did not differ between spring and autumn in the fen meadow, but they were higher in spring than in autumn in the peat bog. Acaulospora laevis or A. colossica and Glomus etunicatum were identified amongst the AMF spores extracted from soil at the two sites. S. tinctoria and B. officinalis roots were also regularly colonized by DSE (18-40% root length), while L. inundata was only rarely colonized and D. intermedia did not seem to be colonized by DSE at all.

  5. Humanismens grænser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen handler om opfattelser af lov og straf i Steen Steensen Blichers fortælling "Præsten i Vejlbye". Der tages udgangspunkt bla. i Peter Brooks' bog om falske tilståelser ("Troubling Confessions" fra 2000) og herudfra analyseres både præstens og herredsfogedens bekendelser.......Artiklen handler om opfattelser af lov og straf i Steen Steensen Blichers fortælling "Præsten i Vejlbye". Der tages udgangspunkt bla. i Peter Brooks' bog om falske tilståelser ("Troubling Confessions" fra 2000) og herudfra analyseres både præstens og herredsfogedens bekendelser....

  6. Flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Flora var en romersk gudinde for blomstring og frugtbarhed. I overensstemmelse med renæssancens genbrug af antikke guder anvendte P.G.B. Ferrari i 1633 Floras navn på en bog om havebrug og Simon Pauli kaldte i 1648 en bog om danske nyttige planter for Flora Danica, begge med reference til den...... romerske blomstergudinde. Herfra spores ordet "flora" til det moderne brug som globalt anvendt betegnelse for en regionalt begrænset håndbog om planter....

  7. Contributions of palynology in the reconstruction of livestock impact on the surroundings of Rascafria (Madrid) during the recent Holocene; Aportaciones de la palinologia en la reconstruccion del impacto ganadero, en los alrededores de Rascafria (Madrid), durante el Holoceno reciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, C.; Ruiz Zapata, M. B.; Lopez-Saez, J. A.; Gil Garcia, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    We present the results obtained from the palaeocological studies about human impact on the vegetal landscape of a peat bog located in Resurface (Lozoya Valley, Madrid, Central Spain). Palynomorph analysis allows to identify the kind and intensity of human activity and its relation to the trophic changes in the peat bog during the late Holocene (2455{+-}35 BP). Pollen record reveals an anthropic Mediterranean landscape mainly composed by pastures used for grazing. Non Pollen Palynomorphs (NPP) and pH and conductivity sediment have revealed as useful tools for detection of trophic conditions and land use changes. (Author)

  8. Darwin på arabisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien.......Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien....

  9. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  10. Ledere i aktion og udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Carl Ry; Ry, Morten

    Denne artikel er et uddrag af endnu ikke publiceret bog om lederes hverdagsliv. Bogen bygger i meget høj grad på interviews. Vi har således interviewet 27 ledere to gange i perioden maj 2005 oktober 2006......Denne artikel er et uddrag af endnu ikke publiceret bog om lederes hverdagsliv. Bogen bygger i meget høj grad på interviews. Vi har således interviewet 27 ledere to gange i perioden maj 2005 oktober 2006...

  11. Mellem tiderne - Fem dialektiske teologer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I denne bog præsenteres Karl Barth, Friedrich Gogarten, Edu­ard Thurneysen, Emil Brunner og Rudolf Bultmann. Fem bidrag belyser deres teologiske anliggender, opgør og afgørelser, samt virkningshistorie og perspektiver for en nutidig teologi.......I denne bog præsenteres Karl Barth, Friedrich Gogarten, Edu­ard Thurneysen, Emil Brunner og Rudolf Bultmann. Fem bidrag belyser deres teologiske anliggender, opgør og afgørelser, samt virkningshistorie og perspektiver for en nutidig teologi....

  12. Monitoring Western Siberian Wetlands from satellite observations and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E. A.; Kouraev, A. V.; Kolmakova, M. V.; Bazanov, V. A.; Skugarev, A. A.; Berezin, A. E.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Zemtsov, V. A.; Mognard, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Western Siberia is a large region with mostly flat relief. Most of its territory comprises the watershed of the Ob' river, and much smaller part in the north - watersheds of Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers. Flat relief significantly affects the hydrographical network, creating a multitude of interconnected natural objects - large and small rivers streams, large floodplains, lakes, bogs etc. The region is also abundant with lakes, mainly small ones with surface area less than 1 km2 and depths of 2-5 m. Flooded areas and bogs also act as a buffer zone, providing a dampening "sponge" effect on the water redistribution within the river system. Large area covered by rivers and wetlands results in high rate of evaporation compared to any other large boreal watershed. Contrasting processes are occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the Western Siberian Plain. In the south, bogs are expanding in the taiga zone and there is progressive swamping which leads to forest death. These bogs act as a carbon sink due to carbon sequestration in their peat layers. Among the bogs of this part of Western Siberia there is the Great Vasiugan Bog - world's largest peatland with a total area of 6.78 million hectares. Bogs of Vasyugan have appeared about 10 000 years ago and since then are constantly growing. 75% of the actual surface of the Great Vasyugan Bog have appeared during the last 500 years. The situation in the northern part (affected by permafrost) is different. The bogs there are reducing their surface and the forest-tundra regions are being subjected to thermokarst activity and colonisation of bogs by trees. Two contrast processes are observed here - a) increase of lake surface due to melting of lakes' coasts, and b) decrease of surface area or disappearance of lakes due to water drain downstream the hydrological network. We combine in situ observations with satellite remote sensing to monitor hydrological regime of the Western Siberian wetlands. Radar altimetry (TOPEX

  13. Kampen om erhvervslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2010-01-01

    På grundlag af Carl Gustav Johannsens bog "Firmabiblioteker i Danmark 1945-2007" beskriver artiklen, hvordan danske firmabibliotekers historie peger på et lavt konfliktniveau i forhold til forskningsbibliotekerne. Til gengæld rivaliserede forskningsbibliotekerne med folkebibliotekerne i slut-80'e...

  14. Indledning til Maple for Lineær Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Denne rapport er en undersoegelse af hvordan og hvor vidt Maplesindbyggede kommandoer passer til Jens Eisings bog "Lineaer Algebra" (1997).Maalet er at beskrive, hvordan man bedst kan brugeMaple V Release 5.1i kurset,i viden om mulige problemer, saa man kan undgaa faelder,og svare paa studerendes...

  15. Indledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Tilknytning, tab og tilblivelse har en central betydning i menneskelivet, i udviklingspsykologi, i den kliniske psykologi og i den psykoanalytiske psykoterapi. Denne bog omhandler tilknytning, tab og tilblivelse i forhold til psykoterapi med børn, voksne med personlighedsforstyrrelser eller skizo...

  16. Forord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Tilknytning, tab og tilblivelse har en central betydning i menneskelivet, i udviklingspsykologi, i den kliniske psykologi og i den psykoanalytiske psykoterapi. Denne bog omhandler tilknytning, tab og tilblivelse i forhold til psykoterapi med børn, voksne med personlighedsforstyrrelser eller skizo...

  17. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  18. Det frivillige Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    Der er store forventninger til den frivillige sektors rolle for velfærden og demokratiet i Danmark. Denne bog giver svar på en række af de spørgsmål, som i den forbindelse er rejst: - Hvem er det, som engagerer sig i frivilligt arbejde? - Hvorfor er de etniske minoriteter mindre aktive i frivilli...

  19. The cultural evolution of religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulbulia, Joseph; Geertz, Armin W.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2013-01-01

    I dette bidrag til en bog om kulturel evolution beskriver forfatterne religionens kulturel evolution. Kapitlet forsøger ved anvendelsen af en bred vifte af metoder og data at forklare kompleksiteten og variationen i religion inden for og på tværs of grupper gennem historien....

  20. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekter...

  1. Venstrefløjen vender det blinde øje til bagsiden af indvandringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2016-01-01

    Lektor i samfundsvidenskab Torben Bech Dyrberg fra Roskilde Universitet er en af de 15 akademikere, som i en ny bog gør op med, hvad de betegner som multikulturalismen og venstrefløjens tendens til ukritisk at acceptere etniske minoriteters kultur og særrettigheder....

  2. Velkommen til gældens hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet. Anmeldelse af: Atif Mian og Amir Sufi: "House of Debt. How They (and You) Caused the Great Recession, and How We Can Prevent...

  3. Computer Cache. Wildlife on the Web: Connections to Animals, Biomes, Environments, and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Follow the migration of monarch butterflies, explore Yellowstone National Park, find out about endangered species in the Everglades, or learn about the wildlife dependent upon a bog for existence. This article describes how students can learn these things and many more through the numerous resources available on the World Wide Web that feature…

  4. MATLAB syntaksen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide

    MATLAB er et matematik-program som fokuserer på anvendelsen af matricer og vektorer. Deraf navnet MATrix LABoratory. Denne bog er en praktisk vejledning i at forstår og anvende MATLAB syntaksen og fungerer som en hurtig genvej til dig, der skal i gang med at anvende MATLAB i forbindelse med fx dit...

  5. Kortlægning af områder med forøget sandsynlighed for landsænkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Niels Henrik; Vognsen, Karsten; Steffensen, Frands

    (Littorina deposits, young marine deposits and reclaimed areas) and lowlands (bogs, meadows and marsh). Low lying areas (0–3 m a.s.l.) have been identified using the national digital elevation model (DK-DEM) and landfill areas around major harbours have been digitized using the most recent available...

  6. 76 FR 77162 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, potholes, wet meadows, river overflows... commencement of the lease term. If HUD or the grantee does not want to obtain flood insurance for the leased... regulations that reduce future flood damages. Participation in the NFIP is based on an agreement...

  7. Fra "en rigtig pige" til "en gravid mand"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2012-01-01

    Nedslag i to eksempler på "transreproduktion": Lili Elbe, en transkvinde, der i 1931 døde efter en række kønsskifteoperationer og Thomas Beatie, en transmand, der i 2008 fødte et barn udgav en bog om det....

  8. Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Deprerssion,the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery.The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank's monthly report,Global Focus,published on February 2,offered some analysis on the outlook of the global economy this year.

  9. Systemteori og didaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    Didaktikbegrebet har i de senere år spredt sig fra grundskoleområdet til hele uddannelsesfeltet, fra børnehaven over gymnasiet til de videregående uddannelser. Denne bog præsenterer didaktikken i en systemteoretisk belysning. Systemteorien indbyder til nye perspektiver på undervisning og læring o...

  10. 76 FR 71300 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... species. Also, since publication of the April 12, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR 20464), we have new... brief descriptions of the revised Boneyard Bog Springs Unit and the new Boneyard Creek Springs Unit, and... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV84 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and...

  11. 40 CFR 117.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Wetlands generally included playa lakes, swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, prairie... the ebb and flow of the tide; (2) Interstate waters, including interstate wetlands; (3) All other..., and wetlands, the use, degradation or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate...

  12. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... of Neskowin, Oregon. Neskowin Marsh incorporates unique freshwater wetland and bog habitats and... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz...

  13. 14 CFR 1216.203 - Definition of key terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and... Floodplain and Wetlands Management § 1216.203 Definition of key terms. (a) Action—any NASA activity including... wetlands. (i) Floodproofing—the modification of individual structures and facilities, their sites,...

  14. 40 CFR 116.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas; the term... adjacent wetlands; the term wetlands as used in this regulation shall include those areas that are... States, including adjacent wetlands; (3) Interstate waters, including wetlands; and (4) All other...

  15. 40 CFR 122.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs... subject to the ebb and flow of the tide; (b) All interstate waters, including interstate “wetlands;” (c..., sandflats, “wetlands,” sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the...

  16. 23 CFR 777.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas. Wetlands or habitat... WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.2 Definitions. In addition to those contained in 23 U.S.C. 101(a), the..., enhancement, creation, and under exceptional circumstances, preservation, of wetlands, wetland buffer...

  17. Selecting parameters for the environmental interpretation of peat molecular chemistry - A pyrolysis-GC-MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.F.P.; Buurman, P.; Pontevedra Pombal, X.

    2009-01-01

    A number of samples from a deep peat bog in Tierra del Fuego were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in order to extract parameters that might be used to interpret the peat chemistry in terms of vegetation change, anaerobic and aerobic decomposition, and fire in

  18. Sokrates giver sygeplejerskerne arbejdsglæden tilbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Sygeplejersker skal lære at åbne sig for og undre sig over hverdagens eksistentielle spørgsmål. Gør de det, genopdager de arbejdsglæden. Lektor Finn Thorbjørn Hansen fra DPU gør i ny bog op med glædesløsheden. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  19. Narrative Normativity in Diasporic Jeremiah-and Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2011-01-01

    Jeremias' bog kan betragtes som et redskab til at give normative svar i den kaotiske politisk/national/religiøse situation, som eksiltiden udgjorde. Artiklen undersøger, hvordan denne normativitet formidles gennem såvel prosa som poetiske dele af bogen og rejser afsluttende spørgsmålet, om den ko...

  20. Sundhedspædagogik i børnehaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anette; Pedersen, Ulla

    Denne bog en den første i serien "Pædagogik og sundhed". Det er en kopi- og arbejdsbog, der præsenterer en lang række redskaber, som det pædagogiske personale i institutionen kan anvende i et sundhedsfremmende og inkluderende perspektiv. Bogen giver indledningsvis et indblik i relevant baggrundsv...... Det nationale videncenter KOSMOS....

  1. Kvantemekanik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølmer, Klaus

    enorm succes, men fortolkningen af den splittede samtidig tidens største videnskabsmænd, særligt Niels Bohr og Albert Einstein. Denne bog gennemgår kvantemekanikkens og fysikkens udvikling i det 20. århundrede - og giver indblik i de nyeste opdagelser af, hvordan den atomare verden fungerer...

  2. Modelling evaporation from a drained and rewetted peatland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieksma, JFM; Moors, EJ; Dolman, AJ; Schouwenaars, JM

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation from a cutover raised bog in The Netherlands was modelled using a detailed, physically based evaporation model for heterogeneous vegetation and unsaturated soil water how ''SWAPS''. The model enables a quantification of the role of heterogeneity on evaporation. Micro-meteorological measu

  3. Environmental Assessment of Construction of a Security Perimeter Road and Fence at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    pallida), vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus ), and black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla). Birds that might use the habitat provided by the Base...bogs. Does not occur on Base. Hooked crowfoot Ranunculus recurvatus S1 Wooded ravines, swampy woods. Does not occur on Base. Lesser-panicled

  4. SEMP Integration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-24

    bogs; seasonal depression ponds; and gum/oak ponds. Table 4 lists the classes of the forest inventory data that were also included as wetlands... microbiota to mineralize carbon; quality of soil carbon stocks Undisturbed soil will have higher overall respiration than eroded soils, but may have

  5. Konventionen von Fachtextsorten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    Emnet for denne bog er faste vendinger i den juridiske sprogbrug, som er karakteristiske for genren "landsretsdom". Til at undersøge denne genstand udvikler forfatteren et tekstlingvistisk analyseapparat, som er specielt tilpasset landsretsdomme som en stærkt standardiseret tekstgenre. Den egentl...... bogen slutter med en diskussion af forskellige måder at gengive de faste vendinger på....

  6. Det entreprenante Selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Sociologen Ulrich Bröcklings bog om ’Det Entreprenante Selv’ analyserer det neoliberale samfund og dets menneskeideal. Ifølge Bröckling erstatter normen om Det Entreprenante Selv både 1950ernes pligtmenneske og 1970ernes autenticitetsmenneske. Erstatningen er effektiv, fordi den sammenkobler de...

  7. Ejeraftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhl, Martin Christian

    Denne bog er den første samlede og dybdegående afhandling om ejeraftaler på dansk. Ejeraftaler (tidligere 'aktionær- eller anpartsoverenskomster') spiller i praksis en væsentlig rolle som det aftalemæssige grundlag for de indbyrdes rettigheder og forpligtelser mellem kapitalejere i små og mellems...

  8. Råhus + Teknik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    Sigtet med denne bog er at anskueliggøre samspillet mellem bygninger og deres tekniske installationer. Bogens tre dele analyserer udviklingen i forholdet mellem råhus og teknik. Den giver et bud på fremtidens kontorbygning, hvor decentrale facadeintegrerede føringsveje anvendes til at skabe innov...

  9. Dansk selskabsret 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Krenchel, Jens Valdemar

    Dansk selskabsret er et værk i 3 bind, der giver et samlet overblik over de forskellige selskabsformer, den erhvervsdrivende kan vælge som juridisk ramme for sin virksomhed. Denne tredje bog i serien gennemgår interessentskabet, der omfatter en række forskellige former for erhvervsdrivende virkso...

  10. Biobeschikbaarheid in de hond van anorganisch arseen uit ijzeroerhoudende grond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen K; Vaessen HAMG; Kliest JJG; de Boer JLM; van Ooik A; Timmerman A; Vlug R

    1992-01-01

    In some parts of the Netherlands, bog-ore containing soils prevail which naturally contain arsenic concentrations that exceed, by a factor of ten, existing standards for maximum allowable concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil. These standards are based on the assumption that in humans the bio

  11. Goetheov Faust, deizam i masonerija

    OpenAIRE

    Pederin, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    Rad se bavi analizom Goetheova Fausta kao katekizma slobodnog zidarstva pri čemu se pravila usporedba sa masonskim konstitucijama. Rad je pokazao da Je Goetheov Faust zapravo nacrt slike suvremenog svijeta iz kojeg se Bog povukao. Mephistopheles nije davao, a s nestankom Boga i đavla iz svijeta nestaje i pojam grijeha, kajanja i pokore.

  12. Preservation status and priorities for in situ monitoring of the weapon sacrifice in Illerup Ådal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjelldén, A.K.E.; Kristiansen, S.M.; Botfeldt, Knud Bo

    2012-01-01

    Excavations of the southern part of a very rich sacrificial bog in Illerup Ådal, Denmark between 1950 and 1985 recovered approximately 15,000 Iron Age artefacts. At the time, 60 per cent of the area was left unexcavated and thousands of objects are now preserved in situ, but the present preservati...

  13. Dialogue-based teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Nana; Dysthe, Olga; Esbjørn, Line

    Hvad er dialogbaseret undervisning, og hvordan kan den udfolde sig på et kunstmuseum? I denne bog viser forfatterne, hvordan erfarne museumsundervisere møder børn og unge på syv museer og udfordrer dem til nysgerrigt og kreativt at udforske temaer, udveksle synspunkter og udvikle nye tanker og id...

  14. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  15. Askese som social/politisk mobilisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Der flere historiske eksempler på askese som middel til social og politisk mobilisering. Gandhis brug af faste og seksuel afholdenhed i sin kamp for national selvstændighed er et kendt eksempel fra nyere tid. Joseph Alters bog Gandhi’s Body: Sex, Diet, and the Politics of Nationalism fra 2000 er en...

  16. Læringsmiljø på hhx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Arnt Louw; Brown, Rikke; Simonsen, Birgitte

    Denne bog præsenterer resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet: Læringsmiljø på hhx - kvaliteter og udfordringer (2008-2010), som Center for Ungdomsforskning, DPU / AU har foretaget i samarbejde med Danske Erhvervsskoler - Lederne, støttet af undervisningsministeriet, Foreningen af Unge Handelsmænds ...

  17. A preliminary study on the behavior of trace elements in sediment cores from Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State) by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Andre Luiz [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2002-07-01

    The present work aims to identify atmospheric and marine inputs of 9 metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Zn), 8 rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb e Lu), 2 actinides (U, Th) and 3 non-metals (As, Sb, Se) in sediment cores from a remote area, the Biological Reserve of Praia do Sul, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sediment cores were sampled in a peat bog (out of the tidal reach) and in a mangrove, downstream of the peat bog. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated for 16 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN. The measurements of the induced gamma-ray activity were carried out by high resolution gamma spectrometry, with an hyperpure Ge detector. A preliminary sediment dating with Po-210 was also carried out by applying radiochemical procedures and measurements were done in an Alfa spectrometer The results indicate that the peat bog core present a slight surface enrichment that can be attributed to atmospheric inputs. Increasing concentrations of metals with age is probably due to history of soil occupation. In the mangrove core, no significant increase in concentration could be detected in the surface sediments (except for Zn) confirming the suitability of the peat bog core as a tracer for atmospheric inputs. (author)

  18. Harry S. Truman Dam and REservoir, Missouri, Mitigation of the Adverse Effects upon the Local Paleontological Resources. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Machura pomifera). Pollen recovered from the ipper portion of the lower peat unit include 20-30% pine, 10% oak, high percentages of sedge ( Cyperaceae ...alpine and sub-alpine meadows with muskeg, heaths and sedges in boreal Canada and the northeasternmost United States. The Southern bog lemming

  19. Natural Setting and Vegetation of the Florida Panhandle. An Account of the Environments and Plant Communities of Northern Florida, West of the Suwannee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    flatwoods). An increase in sedges ( Cyperaceae ) accounts for part of that increase, and much of the rest comes from miscellaneous monocot families (e.g...Grass- Sedge Seepage Bogs ....................... 378 6. Grass- Sedge Savannahs .......................... 379 33. ACID SWAMP SYSTEM... sedge . Survival was high on humus or ash derived from pine straw, oak leaves, or broomsedge. These results accentuate the need for fire to prepare

  20. Software og kvalitativ dataanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren

    Denne bog handler om brug af softwareprogrammer til håndtering og analyse af kvalitative data. Den gengiver og diskuterer nogle af de væsentligste problemstillinger, muligheder og perspektiver, som knytter sig til indførelsen af softwareredskaber til analyse af kvalitative data med udgangspunkt i...

  1. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  2. Byg og hold bøtte!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af en bog, der gennemgår forskellige receptioner af Ludwig Mies van der Rohes arkitektur ud fra forskellige filosofiske og kulturkritiske vinkler. Bogen har som særlig dagsorden af genoverveje den kritiske teoris status på feltet mellem arkitektur og kulturkritik og følger de rene...

  3. Berlins Alexanderplatz mellem opbrud og erindring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian

    Denne bog undersøger den byarkitektoniske idékonkurrence i 1993 for Berlins Alexanderplatz. I hidtidige arkitekturfaglige og videnskabelige artikler og værker er konkurrencen blevet udlagt som en bestræbelse på at annullere DDR-tiden og vende tilbage til den byrumlige situation, der herskede i fø...

  4. De professionelle i velfærdsstaten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne bog handler om de professionelle i den del af den offentlige sektor, der beskæftiger sig med serviceproduktion. Der er mange forskellige professioner, der beskæftiger sig med serviceproduktion i den offentlige sektor. De professioner man i første omgang tænker på er lærere, pædagoger, sygep...

  5. Det er systemet den er gal med

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Klaus Buster Jensen og Jakob Mathiassen: Kamppladser. Østarbejdere og social dumping i byggeriet. Informations forlag. En fremragende bog om social dumping evner at udfolde det store problem uden at gøre hverken østeuropæerne eller arbejdsgiverne til karikerede skurke...

  6. How to DO Projects? A Nordic Flavour to Managing Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Thuesen, Christian; Oehmen, Josef

    Hvis du mangler inspiration til alternative måder at lede projekter på, så hjælper denne bog dig med at udvikle din egen "opskrift" på projektledelse. Bogen viser dig, hvordan du bruger de velkendte projektledelsesteorier i praksis, og hvordan du i samarbejde med andre kan skabe meningsfulde form...

  7. Politisk Psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Jonatan Kolding

    Politisk psykologi er feltet mellem psykologi og samfundsfag. Hovedspørgsmålet i min bog er: Hvor kommer holdninger fra? Holdninger er dog mere end blot et individuelt anliggende. Der er mange aktører som påvirker – politiske ledere, store grupper eller medierne. Bogen vil her give hver part sit...

  8. Innovation systems as patent networks : The Netherlands, India and nanotech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    Research in the domain of 'Innovation Studies' has been claimed to allow for the study of how technology will develop in the future. Some suggest that the National and Sectoral Innovation Systems literature has become bogged down, however, into case studies of how specific institutions affect innova

  9. Innovation systems as patent networks: the Netherlands, India and nanotech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the domain of 'Innovation Studies' has been claimed to allow for the study of how technology will develop in the future. Some suggest that the National and Sectoral Innovation Systems literature has become bogged down, however, into case studies of how specific institutions affect innova

  10. Transformation Studio 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    What if the vacant radio station at Skamlebæk became the new visitor center and gateway to the Geopark Odsherred? How can landscape design communicate the finding place of the sun chariot in the Trundholm bog? And can we rework the water system of the reclaimed Lammefjord for sustainable farming...

  11. Temperature Responses to Infrared-Loading and Water Table Manipulations in Peatland Mesocosms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiquan Chen; Scott Bridgham; Jason Keller; John Pastor; Asko Noormets1and; F. Weltzin

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a multi-factor global change experiment to explore the effects of infrared heat loading (HT) and water table level (WL) treatment on soil temperature (T) in bog and fen peatland mesocosms. We found that the temperature varied highly by year, month, peatland type, soil depth, HT and WL manipulations. The highest effect of HT on the temperature at 25 cm depth was found in June for the bog mesocosms (3.34-4.27℃) but in May for the fen mesocosms (2.32-4.33℃) over the 2-year study period. The effects of WL in the bog mesocosms were only found between August and January, with the wet mesocosms warmer than the dry mesocosms by 0.48-2.03 ℃ over the 2-year study period. In contrast, wetter fen mesocoams were generally cooler by 0.16-3.87℃. Seasonal changes of temperatures elevated by the HT also varied by depth and ecosystem type, with temperature differences at 5 cm and 10 cm depth showing smaller seasonal fluctuations than those at 25 cm and 40 cm in the bog mesocosrns. However, increased HT did not always lead to warmer soil, especially in the fen mesocosms. Both HT and WL manipulations have also changed the length of the non-frozen season.

  12. The Influence of Vegetation Canopy Structure on Active Layer Thaw Within the Sub-Arctic Discontinuous Permafrost Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W.; Hopkinson, C.; Petrone, R.; Whittington, P.

    2009-05-01

    Much of the sub-arctic discontinuous permafrost zone is dominated by a range in peatland ecosystems, each with their own characteristic soil frost dynamics. Soil thaw within the discontinuous permafrost zones of the Canadian sub-arctic is driven by the surface energy balance. The following study examines the influence of canopy structure on frost table (FT) depth and rates of thaw by: 1. relating measurements of FT depth to canopy structure using airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) and hemispherical photographs taken below vegetated canopies; and 2. quantifying the spatial influences of canopy structural characteristics on the radiation balance (direct and diffuse incident radiation) within raised peat plateaus, connected bogs, fens, and isolated bogs. The results of this study indicate that peat plateaus, being characterised by greater vegetation fractional cover, typically have shallower FT depths (r2 = 0.5, p = 0.03) than locations with lower biomass. Further, average ground surface elevation and canopy height are related to rates of FT thaw (r2 = 0.73, p indicates that rates of thaw at the edges of peat plateaus and areas surrounding isolated bogs will be exacerbated by increased incident radiation and less shadowing by the canopy, leading to the conversion of peat plateaus to fens or bogs. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the change in peat plateau area coverage in 2000 and 2008 using classified IKONOS imagery (2000) and airborne lidar (2008).

  13. Matter Composition and Two Stage Evolution of a Liangshan Super High-Sulfur Coal Seam in Kaili, Eastern Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Tong-sheng; QIN Yong; ZHANG Jing; WU Yan-yan; LI Zhuang-fu

    2007-01-01

    Super-high sulfur coal resultes in serious coal-derived pollution but might have a particular genesis. Thus, a columnar section of an Early Permian Liangshan Formation coal seam. weight average sulfur content 5.80%, from Kaili, eastern Guizhou, was studied using the methods of coal petrology and geochemistry. The results show that the seam was apparently formed in seawater-effected peat bogs that developed in two distinct stages. During the first stage various layers were formed in a supratidal bog and have a composition characteristic of a bog with a gradually decreasing seawater effect, decreasing water dynamics, and an increasingly reductive environment. Layers in the upper seam formed during a second stage in an intertidal bog. These layers are very high in total and inorganic sulfur, the ratios of organic/inorganic sulfur and V/I drop, they are high in coal ash yield and have a high ash component index, considerable barkinite, oxidized and detrital macerals, have a porphyroclatic micro-structure and are rich in pyrite, all of which indicate the coal-forming environment had higher oxidation potential, strong and roiling water dynamics, and intermittent exposure to a sulfur rich environment.

  14. Normalitet og afvigelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse ad Ivar Morkens bog:" Normalitet og afvigelse", der tager udgangspunkt i kontrasten mellem visionerne om inklusion, empowerment og anerkendelse og de faktiske forhold, hvor menneskelig afvig stadig diagnosticeres. Kontrasterne defineres og forsøges imødegået med forskellige former for ...

  15. Response of an ombrotrophic peat to a regional climatic event revealed by macrofossil, molecular, and isotopic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Pancost, R.D.; Baas, B.; Geel, B. van

    2003-01-01

    We examined the variations in vegetation, organic carbon isotopic compositions and biomarker distributions spanning a well-constrained climatic shift in a Sub-Boreal Dutch raised bog. The macrofossils record a vegetation shift from a predominance of degraded Ericaceae rootlets to a predominance of w

  16. At Lede Efter Læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne bog handler om skolen. Den handler specielt om de forestillinger, forventninger og forhåbninger, der rettes mod skolen, og om, hvad de i praksis betyder for de mennesker, der til daglig færdes i og omkring skolen. Skolen præges ligesom resten af den offentlige sektor af en dagsorden, som do...

  17. AMAMM - All Media Are Mixed Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    All Media Are Mixed Media Alle medier er blandingsmedier. Alle kunstarter er kompositte. Alle sanser er sammensatte. Alle medialiteter er miksede og mangfoldige. Alle er AMAMM. Denne påstand står centralt i ord-, billed- og medie-teoretikeren W.J.T. Mitchells forfatterskab. I hosstående bog tager...

  18. Forskning og undervisning i skriftsprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Bettina

    Bettina Perregaard giver i denne bog en introduktion til L.S. Vygotskys kulturhistoriske teori og afdækker den videnskabshistoriske baggrund for forskning i forholdet mellem social interaktion og skriftsproglig udvikling. Bogen diskuterer begreber som internalisering, udviklingszone, social praksis...

  19. Nanoteknologiske Horisonter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanoteknologi er en relativt ny tværfaglig forskningsdisciplin, der forventes at få stor økonomisk og teknologisk betydning for vores samfund. ‘Nanoteknologiske Horisonter’ er en bog om nanoteknologi skrevet til elever og lærere ved gymnasieuddannelserne samt andre interesserede. Bogen gennemgår ...

  20. Forvist til omsorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelsen refererer til en netop udgivet bog af Grønbæk Jensen & Knigge og udbygger dennes problemstilling ved at tilføje en diskussion om forholdet mellem faglighed og nærhed/hjemstavn. Udgivelsesdato: December 2008...

  1. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 4, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP12- 15-000... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish,...

  2. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  3. "Hvem er som jeg blandt Guder?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2004-01-01

    En hymne fra Dødehavsrullerne beskriver en persons opstigning til himlen, hvor den pågældende får tildelt overmenneskelig indsigt, som giver ham autoritet til at belære sine tilhængere på jorden. Hymnen analyseres, og der foretages en kritisk gennemgang af Israel Knohls bog "The Messiah Before Je...

  4. Dyp tæerne i skriftsproget!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Klara Aalbæk

    2012-01-01

    I denne bog argumenterer forskere og erfarne praktikere for, hvorfor det lille barn bør inviteres til at udforske og kommunikere via skriftsproget. Der bliver også lagt vægt på, hvordan skrivning kan indgå i børnehaven på en legende og støttende måde....

  5. Ensenanza basada en el diálogo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Nana; Dysthe, Olga; Esbjørn, Line

    Hvad er dialogbaseret undervisning, og hvordan kan den udfolde sig på et kunstmuseum? I denne bog viser forfatterne, hvordan erfarne museumsundervisere møder børn og unge på syv museer og udfordrer dem til nysgerrigt og kreativt at udforske temaer, udveksle synspunkter og udvikle nye tanker og id...

  6. Kvalitet I dagtilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kira Saabye; Petersen, Mimi; Tireli, Üzeyir;

    Denne bog er en grundbog til den specialiseringen Dagtilbudspædagogik på den nye pædagoguddannelse. Bogen bidrager til at udvikle den studerendes generelle vidensgrundlag, studieaktivitet og professionalisering. I bogen anlægges et etisk og videnskabeligt perspektiv på dagtilbudspædagogik og pæda...

  7. Recent pollen spectra from the deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests of Northeastern Minnesota: a study in pollen dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1966-01-01

    Pollen samples were taken along nine transects across local vegetational belts bordering bogs or ponds in overall deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forest regions. Three types of pollen rain are distinguished: local, extralocal, and regional. Local pollen rain is derived from plants that grow at or

  8. Mediedidaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    at lære eleverne at producere og analysere tekster knyttet til forskellige medier, teknologier, repræsentationsformer og genrer. En forudsætning for at eleverne kan udtrykke sig er, at de lærer at beherske teknologierne bag medierne. Derfor har denne bog et praktisk fokus, som med trin for trin...

  9. Fat teknologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    konferencer, udgivet bøger, lanceret MOOCs, udarbejdet forskningsrapporter og meget mere. Denne bog giver en hurtig indføring i nogle af de projekter og problemstillinger, der er blevet arbejdet med. På projektets hjemmeside – www.ucsj.dk/viol – kan du læse meget mere samt finde relevante links til det øvrige...

  10. Halmhuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Huse bygget af halmballer, ler og muslingeskaller er så småt ved at finde vej i det danske nybyggeri til boliger. For at sikre at kvalitet, sikkerhed og sundhed er i orden i halmhusene, har By og Byg udarbejdet denne bog, der gennemgår halmhuset fra gulv til tag med hensyn til udformning af konst...

  11. Nuevas organizaciones en comunidades campesinas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    Denne bog analyserer: 1) hvorledes to indianske landsbyer i Perus højland har reformeret ejendomsretten til jord og estableret landbrugskoorporativer og 2) hvorledes de to landsbyer deltager i to større landsbrugskollektiver. Bogen bygger på et års etnografisk feltarbejde i Peru fra 1983-84 og fo...

  12. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  13. En dronning kom til byen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    2009-01-01

    Det er ganske rigtig et af dansk håndbolds mest dramatiske kapitler Dan Philipsen beskriver i sin bog om Anja Andersens eventyr i Slagelse: 'En dronning kom til byen'. Bogen er velskrevet, og er i sin form en velsignet god gang underholdning til natbordet. Problemet er bare, at man kan have svært...

  14. "A Scrapbook of You + Me"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen læser det eksperimentende bog-værk S. (2013), af Doug Dorst og J.J. Abrams, som en refleksion over, og et udtryk for den trykte romans forandrede status i en digital tidsalder. Som en eksperimenterende roman med gulnede sider og håndskrift i marginen synes S. at reflektere en materiel ve...

  15. Ordspil og/eller ildspor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Stefan Kjerkegaards Ildspor - Ordspillet og dets funktion i Per Højholts, Simon Grotrians og Peter Laugesens digtning.   Stefan Kjerkegaard har bedrevet et stykke fremragende forskning om ’ordspil’ og om Højholt, Grotrian og Laugesen (i én bog!), men der mangler lidt lacaniansk kabb...

  16. I hvis tjeneste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Mikkel Bolt & Das Beckwerks I sammenbruddets tjeneste – samtaler ved Peder Holm-Pedersen.   Anmelderen gider ikke være anmelder, gider ikke mene noget, alt sammen på grund af en snurrigt urovækkende bog om identitet og revolution.    ...

  17. Oplysning på trods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    Første bog på dansk om sociologen Karl Mannheim (1893-1947). Let revideret udgave af Ph.d.-afhandling udarbejdet ved Institut for Idéhistorie ved Aarhus Universitet. I bogen undersøges aktualiteten af Mannheims videnssociologi. Der skelnes mellem på den ene side aktualitet som en relation mellem ...

  18. مدخل الى الوساطة التسهيلية في مجال الأسرة

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne bog er blevet til i et samarbejde mellem kollegaer i Marokko og Danmark, fra henholdsvis Institut Superiur de la Magistrature og Statsforvaltningen som gennem samarbejdet i projektet: Strengthening Women Rights and the Acces to Justice in the Moroccan Legal System: Mediation in Moroccan...

  19. Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, R.

    2012-01-01

    KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lip

  20. Strategisk ledelse - tilbage til basis - og videre!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Anders

    2003-01-01

    kulturen i de nye forretninger, som skabes. Den direkte anledning til den herværende artikel er forfatterens bog - Strategic Management and Core Competencies - som i sommeren 2002 blev udgivet på det amerikanske forelag Quorum og som indeholder en række overvejelser om hvordan fagområdet strategisk ledelse...

  1. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic propert

  2. Otter Lutra lutra Predating Dragonflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bailley M.P.

    2000-01-01

    In June 2000, the author found spraints and other signs indicating that at least one otter had been eating quantities of adult Four-Spotted Chasers (Libellula quadrimaculata) common at the location, on the coastal raised bog of Cors Fochno in west Wales.

  3. The use of Tithonian oolitic limestones from the Lorraine especially Morley, in construction and restoration in the Netherlands, 1840-1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands have only limited resources of dimension stone within the own borders, viz. local bog iron ore in the middle and east of the country, erratics from the Saalian ice age used in a few churches in the north, and Carboniferous sandstone and Cretaceous limestones in the south of Limburg (

  4. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition : effects on C and N metabolism and growth of the peat moss Sphagnum recurvum P. Beauv. var. mucronatum (Russ.) Warnst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, E; Verbeek, SK; Kuiper, PJC

    2000-01-01

    Sphagnum bogs play an important role when considering the impacts of global change on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Sphagnum recurvum P. Beauv. var. mucronatum (Russ.) was grown at 360 (ambient) and 700 mu L L-1 (elevated) atmospheric [CO2] in combination with different nitrogen deposition rate

  5. Klinisk Fysiologi - en basisbog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger

    Klinisk fysiologi – en basisbog er en bearbejdet og afkortet udgave af den svenske bog ”Klinisk fysiologi”. Vores mål med bogens 11 kapitler har været at præsentere de mest benyttede klinisk fysiologiske metoder og den bagved liggende fysiologi og patofysiologi. Bogen er skrevet i et letforståeli...

  6. Law & Religion in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En nordisk bog om forholdet mellem stat, kirker og trossamfund; mellem religion og ret; mellem flertal og mindretalsreligioner i det post-sekulære og post-lutherske Norden. Bogen påviser, hvor og hvordan de nordiske modeller har behov for at blive justeret. Men det fremgår også klart, at nordiske...

  7. Toxicity and Fate Comparison between Several Brass and Titanium Dioxide Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE POWDERS 00.𔃻. 0 1993 bOG 93~Mark V. Haley Carl W. Kurnas RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE July 1993 Approved for public...84-09-7350-M76 6. AUTI4OR(S) Haley, Mark V., and Kurnas , Carl W. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMIE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  8. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. 75 FR 47031 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Commerce DCGS00218 Director, Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship to the Assistant Secretary for... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... June 2010. Office of Management and Budget BOGS10021 Confidential Assistant to the General...

  10. A Mechanical Image: Heinrich Hertz's Principles of Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Heinrich Hertz's bog Die Prinzipien der Mechanik in neuem Zusammenhange dargestellt var nyskabende inden for både fysik, matematik og filosofi. I fysik lagde den det første fundament til en fysik, som undgår kraftbegrebet som et basalt begreb; i matematik præsenterede den en ny geometrisering af ...

  11. Military Geography for Professionals and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    country mobility over gravelly ground is consistently feasible, whereas bogs and swamps are impassable to all but small amphibians . Off-the-road...of Korea, Madagascar, China India, Brazil, Madagascar Mexico Rep. of South Africa, France, Gabon, Brazil Australia, Jamaica, Guinea, Suriname

  12. Bogsalonen: Anmeldelse: Ayse Zarakol, After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Er det irrationelt, når nationalistiske tyrkere kalder forfatteren Orhan Pamuk for forædder? Sådan spørger Zarakol i sin fremragende bog om, hvordan det vestlige statssystem blev udbredt til hele kloden. Bogen er en dybt fascinerende historie om ikke-vestlige staters kamp for at passe ind i...

  13. Diglossi i moderne arabisk skønlitteratur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen ser nærmere på to forfatteres brug af dialekt i litteraturen, dvs. på fænomenet diglossi i arabisk. De to forfatteres tilgang til dilemmaet holdes op i mod dels Dan Diners bog om den arabisk verdens tilbageståenhed som han bla. ser diglossien som et symptom, dels Sidney Pollock artikel o...

  14. Development of dangerous geological processes in the Hankaisky Region of Primorskiy Krai (Russian Far East)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V. Selivanova

    2006-01-01

    Hankaisky Region is the most densely populated and economic developed part of the Primorskiy Krai. It is promoting development of dangerous geological processes there. In the article the reasons of formation and intensive development in Hankaisky Region of the following dangerous geological processes lateral, winder and ground erosive, sill, floods, taluses, bogging, slope wash, karts, rebound of ground are considered.

  15. Surface mapping, organic matter and water stocks in peatlands of the Serra do Espinhaço meridional - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are soil environments that store carbon and large amounts of water, due to their composition (90 % water, low hydraulic conductivity and a sponge-like behavior. It is estimated that peat bogs cover approximately 4.2 % of the Earth's surface and stock 28.4 % of the soil carbon of the planet. Approximately 612 000 ha of peatlands have been mapped in Brazil, but the peat bogs in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (SdEM were not included. The objective of this study was to map the peat bogs of the northern part of the SdEM and estimate the organic matter pools and water volume they stock. The peat bogs were pre-identified and mapped by GIS and remote sensing techniques, using ArcGIS 9.3, ENVI 4.5 and GPS Track Maker Pro software and the maps validated in the field. Six peat bogs were mapped in detail (1:20,000 and 1:5,000 by transects spaced 100 m and each transect were determined every 20 m, the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates, depth and samples collected for characterization and determination of organic matter, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification. In the northern part of SdEM, 14,287.55 ha of peatlands were mapped, distributed over 1,180,109 ha, representing 1.2 % of the total area. These peatlands have an average volume of 170,021,845.00 m³ and stock 6,120,167 t (428.36 t ha-1 of organic matter and 142,138,262 m³ (9,948 m³ ha-1 of water. In the peat bogs of the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, advanced stages of decomposing (sapric organic matter predominate, followed by the intermediate stage (hemic. The vertical growth rate of the peatlands ranged between 0.04 and 0.43 mm year-1, while the carbon accumulation rate varied between 6.59 and 37.66 g m-2 year-1. The peat bogs of the SdEM contain the headwaters of important water bodies in the basins of the Jequitinhonha and San Francisco Rivers and store large amounts of organic carbon and water, which is the reason why the protection and preservation

  16. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland – the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb and arsenic (As attributed to atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC in these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre-conditions favor their export. This study combines one year continuous monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge, DOC, As and Pb stream concentrations and fluxes. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L−1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L−1 for As and 1.3 to 12 μg L−1 for Pb with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40% of As and 43% of Pb were exported by the upper 10% of discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of heavy rain and high discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase of the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer gets hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag in comparison to Pb. Our data indicates a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s−1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold element concentration do not further increase and discharge gets diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are not only dependent on the amount of precipitation and discharge, but on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more mobilized than Pb, with annual fluxes accounting for 0.85 and

  17. Efecto de la disciplina deportiva sobre valores hematológicos en hombres deportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristancho Mejía Edgar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron los volúmenes sanguíneos y la masa de Hb (método de retoma de CO y el consumo de oxígeno máximo (VO2max en 15 individuos sedentarios de Bogotá (UT-Bog, 17 deportistas de diferentes disciplinas residentes en Bogotá (TR-Bog, divididos por deporte (marcha, cinco; patinaje, siete; triatlón, cinco y cuatro deportistas provenientes de Sao Paulo (Brasil, que permanecieron ocho semanas en Bogotá, Colombia y a los que se les efectuaron dos medidas, a las dos (Brasil 1 y a las siete (Brasil 2 semana. Hubo diferencia significativa en el VO2max entre TR-Bog (65,4 +/- 7,9, Brasil 1 y 2 (56,2 +/- 1,7, y 55,8 +/- 2,8, p<0,1, y UT-Bog (41,7 +/- 5,7 p< 0,01. La [Hb] fue significativamente mayor en Ut-Bog (17,4 +/- 0,84 que en marcha (15,4 +/- 0,67, p<0,05 y Brasil 1 (15,3 +/- 0,53. El Hct presentó el mismo patrón. El Hct y [Hb] mostraron una relación negativa con el volumen plasmático (PV y el VO2max, pero no con el volumen de eritrocitos (EV o la masa de HB. El PV fue mayor en TR-Bog (59,3 +/- 5,4 que en UT-Bog (46,7, p< 0,01, y este fue menor que el registrado por Brasil 1 (58,8 +/- 4,2, p< 0,05, sin embargo este
    no mostró diferencia con Brasil 2. El volumen sanguíneo (BV mostró un patrón similar. El PV y BV mostraron una relación positiva con el VO2max. Los valores de masa de Hb y EV no mostraron diferencia estadística entre los diferentes grupos ni tampoco relación con el VO2max. Se propone que el aumento del PV y BV se deben al estímulo deportivo; la homogeneidad en los valores de EV y masa de Hb se propone puede encontrarse relacionado a un límite en la respuesta de estos parámetros.

  18. Differential response of carbon fluxes to climate in three peatland ecosystems that vary in the presence and stability of permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Edgar, C.W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and soil properties following permafrost degradation and thermokarst development in peatlands may cause changes in net carbon storage. To better understand these dynamics, we established three sites in Alaska that vary in permafrost regime, including a black spruce peat plateau forest with stable permafrost, an internal collapse scar bog formed as a result of thermokarst, and a rich fen without permafrost. Measurements include year-round eddy covariance estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and energy fluxes, associated environmental variables, and methane (CH4) fluxes at the collapse scar bog. The ecosystems all acted as net sinks of CO2 in 2011 and 2012, when air temperature and precipitation remained near long-term means. In 2013, under a late snowmelt and late leaf out followed by a hot, dry summer, the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog were sources of CO2. In this same year, CO2 uptake in the fen increased, largely because summer inundation from groundwater inputs suppressed ecosystem respiration. CO2 exchange in the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog was sensitive to warm air temperatures, with 0.5 g C m−2 lost each day when maximum air temperature was very warm (≥29°C). The bog lost 4981 ± 300 mg CH4 m−2 between April and September 2013, indicating that this ecosystem acted as a significant source of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere in 2013. These results suggest that boreal peatland responses to warming and drying, both of which are expected to occur in a changing climate, will depend on permafrost regime.

  19. A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, Merritt R; Kotowska, Agnieszka; Bubier, Jill; Dise, Nancy B; Crill, Patrick; Hornibrook, Ed R C; Minkkinen, Kari; Moore, Tim R; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Nykänen, Hannu; Olefeldt, David; Rinne, Janne; Saarnio, Sanna; Shurpali, Narasinha; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Waddington, J Michael; White, Jeffrey R; Wickland, Kimberly P; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Here, we assess controls on methane flux using a database of approximately 19 000 instantaneous measurements from 71 wetland sites located across subtropical, temperate, and northern high latitude regions. Our analyses confirm general controls on wetland methane emissions from soil temperature, water table, and vegetation, but also show that these relationships are modified depending on wetland type (bog, fen, or swamp), region (subarctic to temperate), and disturbance. Fen methane flux was more sensitive to vegetation and less sensitive to temperature than bog or swamp fluxes. The optimal water table for methane flux was consistently below the peat surface in bogs, close to the peat surface in poor fens, and above the peat surface in rich fens. However, the largest flux in bogs occurred when dry 30-day averaged antecedent conditions were followed by wet conditions, while in fens and swamps, the largest flux occurred when both 30-day averaged antecedent and current conditions were wet. Drained wetlands exhibited distinct characteristics, e.g. the absence of large flux following wet and warm conditions, suggesting that the same functional relationships between methane flux and environmental conditions cannot be used across pristine and disturbed wetlands. Together, our results suggest that water table and temperature are dominant controls on methane flux in pristine bogs and swamps, while other processes, such as vascular transport in pristine fens, have the potential to partially override the effect of these controls in other wetland types. Because wetland types vary in methane emissions and have distinct controls, these ecosystems need to be considered separately to yield reliable estimates of global wetland methane release.

  20. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  1. Understanding Carbon Storage in Permafrost Peatlands: Examples from Thermokarst Landscapes in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Harden, J. W.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Manies, K.; Jorgenson, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the climate at high latitudes continues to warm, permafrost is becoming increasingly vulnerable to thaw, particularly in the zone of discontinuous permafrost where mean annual air temperatures hover close to zero. Permafrost thaw has dramatic consequences on local hydrology, ecology, and the carbon (C) balance of these ecosystems. The degree to which permafrost peatlands become C sources or sinks following permafrost thaw remains a topic of much debate, owing to the difficulty in accurately dating cores from collapse-scar bogs and in understanding the vulnerability of the formerly forested peat to decomposition immediately following thaw and inundation. Here we use a combination of a chronosequence, paleoenvironmental, and modeling approaches from a permafrost peat plateau interspersed with collapse-scar bogs in Interior Alaska to address how C storage is impacted on timescales from decades to millennia following permafrost thaw. Our initial results indicate that C stocks are lowest in young (years to decades) and intermediate (decades to centuries) collapse-scar bogs, but that net C stocks in old (centuries to millennia) bogs can be as high as in permafrost plateaus. Thawed forested plateau peat is subject to rapid decomposition in the years to decades following thaw, but that rate of loss slows over time. We hypothesize that this is because the labile C pool is preferentially consumed and quickly exhausted by soil microbes. Meanwhile, post-thaw collapse-scar bog peat accumulates rapidly at the surface, and our data show that on longer centennial to millennial timescales, this near-surface C may offset initial post-thaw losses at depth. Collapse-scar bog peat accumulation rates outpace the former-plateau peat loss in a matter of years to decades. Older landscapes (i.e., those that began accumulating peat many thousands of years ago), are subject to greater C loss following thaw than are younger landscapes(i.e., those that initiated only a couple thousand years

  2. ASPEN PLUS对天然气运输船再液化流程的模拟与优化%ASPEN PLUS simulation and optimization on the process flow of reliquefaction in LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 方江敏; 李敏; 曹光贵

    2013-01-01

    为了降低LNG船BOG再液化流程的功耗,在ASPEN PLUS中选择合适的热力学方法和设备模块对LNG船BOG再液化装置进行建模.通过对丙烯的预冷换热器出口温度、压缩机出口压力、节流阀出口压力以及BOG压缩机出口压力等工艺设备运行参数的模拟计算,得到各参数对BOG再液化流程功耗的影响规律.以工艺系统最低功耗为优化目标,采用变量轮换法对优化参数进行优化计算,得出在一定海水温度和液货舱BOG压力变化范围内,BOG再液化系统中重要节点的相关参数、压缩机和换热器最优化性能参数和设备设计参数,优化后流程总功耗比优化前降低了8.82%.%To reduce the power consumption in the BOG reliquefaction process of a LNG carrier,appropriate thermodynamic method and equipment modules are selected by means of ASPEN PLUS for modeling of BOG reliquefaction process in a LNG carrier.Through simulation calculation of operating parameters of the process equipment,including outlet temperature of propylene pre-cooling exchanger,outlet pressure of compressor,outlet pressure of throttle valve and outlet pressure of BOG compressor,the rules of parameter impact upon power consumption of BOG reliquefaction process have been obtained.Targeting at the process system optimization,the optimized parameters are calculated for optimization by use of cyclic variable method.As a result,the relevant parameters at the key nodes of the BOG reliquefaction system,the parameters for optimized performances of compressors and heat exchangers and parameters for equipment design at certain sea water temperature in given range of BOG pressure in the cargo tank have been obtained.The total power consumption post optimization is reduced by 8.82 % than that prior to optimization.

  3. Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, ≤100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation......, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic...... historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. The RDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor...

  4. Selecting the best anaerobic biomass for treating leachates; Seleccion de la mejor biomasa anaerobia para el tratamiento de lixiviados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, R.; Vazquez Borges, E.; Febles Hernandez, J.

    2004-07-01

    The aim was to determine the best biomass, depending on the biogas output, for treating the leachate from an urban waste sanitary landfill. Three types of biomass were-used ruminal contents, pig slurry and bog sludge-and combined in equal parts. Each types of biomass was used in four different proportions: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The mixture was fed into nine 2-litre anaerobic acrylic reactors with slow, constant stirring. At the end of each trial, the total volume of biogas produced was determined using water displacement gasometers. The order in which the conditions were evaluated was established at random to ensure that the results would be statistically reliable. the largest amount of biogas was obtained when the leachate was in contact with a total volume of 800 ml of ruminal contents. No biogas whatsoever was produced with bog sludge even at the highest proportion (40% of biomass). All the trials were carried out at ambient temperature. (Author) 16 refs.

  5. Plan og virkelighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, E.

    Der er dén bagside ved altid at se fremad og lægge planer, at man ikke rigtigt får tid til at se bagud og lære af sine fejl. I denne bog er det imidlertid forsøgt at se tilbage på to mindre planer, som blev lagt for 20 år siden. Hvordan svarer virkelighed til plan?......Der er dén bagside ved altid at se fremad og lægge planer, at man ikke rigtigt får tid til at se bagud og lære af sine fejl. I denne bog er det imidlertid forsøgt at se tilbage på to mindre planer, som blev lagt for 20 år siden. Hvordan svarer virkelighed til plan?...

  6. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  7. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Formel/uformel organisationsstruktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Murphy, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Bogen samler klassiske og nyere tekster om organisationer. Forfattere som Weber, Taylor, March, Schein, Mintzberg og Weick indgår mange steder som fast pensum på organisationsfag, og her er de samlet i een bog. Tilsammen tilbyder teksterne afsæt for analyser af en lang række aspekter af organisat......Bogen samler klassiske og nyere tekster om organisationer. Forfattere som Weber, Taylor, March, Schein, Mintzberg og Weick indgår mange steder som fast pensum på organisationsfag, og her er de samlet i een bog. Tilsammen tilbyder teksterne afsæt for analyser af en lang række aspekter af...

  9. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  10. Reproductive strategies of Caltha palustris L. under various living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Werpachowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive effort and strategies of Caltha palustris were compared for four phytocoeno­ses located in the southern Biebrza basin: sedge reedswamp (Caricetum gracilis, sedge-moss community (Caricetum limoso-diandrae, willow-birch brushwood (Salix cinerea-Betula pubescens, and alder-bog forest (Carici elongatae-Alnetum, The individuals of analysed populations were found to differ with respect to their biomass allocation to generative and vegetative reproduction. Three types of reproductive strategies were distinguished: generative (G, vegetative (V and intermediate (G/V. The individuals growing in the alder-bog forest had the highest reproductive effort (V strategy, while those from sedge reedswamp - the lowest (G strategy.

  11. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  12. Globally synchronous climate change 2800 years ago: Proxy data from peat in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Frank M.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Brain, Sally A.; Blaauw, Maarten; Daniell, John R. G.

    2007-01-01

    Initial findings from high-latitude ice-cores implied a relatively unvarying Holocene climate, in contrast to the major climate swings in the preceding late-Pleistocene. However, several climate archives from low latitudes imply a less than equable Holocene climate, as do recent studies on peat bogs in mainland north-west Europe, which indicate an abrupt climate cooling 2800 years ago, with parallels claimed in a range of climate archives elsewhere. A hypothesis that this claimed climate shift was global, and caused by reduced solar activity, has recently been disputed. Until now, no directly comparable data were available from the southern hemisphere to help resolve the dispute. Building on investigations of the vegetation history of an extensive mire in the Valle de Andorra, Tierra del Fuego, we took a further peat core from the bog to generate a high-resolution climate history through the use of determination of peat humification and quantitative leaf-count plant macrofossil analysis. Here, we present the new proxy-climate data from the bog in South America. The data are directly comparable with those in Europe, as they were produced using identical laboratory methods. They show that there was a major climate perturbation at the same time as in northwest European bogs. Its timing, nature and apparent global synchronicity lend support to the notion of solar forcing of past climate change, amplified by oceanic circulation. This finding of a similar response simultaneously in both hemispheres may help validate and improve global climate models. That reduced solar activity might cause a global climatic change suggests that attention be paid also to consideration of any global climate response to increases in solar activity. This has implications for interpreting the relative contribution of climate drivers of recent 'global warming'.

  13. HPLC Analysis of alpha and beta Acids in Hops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danenhower, Travis [Kutztown University; Force, Leyna [Kutztown University; Petersen, Kenneth [Kutztown University; Betts, Thomas [Kutztown University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Early in brewing history, a variety of herbs and spices (such as coriander, rosemary, yarrow, and bog myrtle) were used to flavor beer (1). It is evident, from the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516, that a major shift in beer flavoring occurred around the middle of the second millennium. This law declared that only three ingredients could be used to brew beer: barley, water, and hops (1), thus eliminating other spices from German beer. (The importance of yeast had not yet been uncovered.)

  14. Det langsomme spejl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    Det langsomme spejl – den billedskabte erindring i familien – er en bog der kan læses på mange måder. Man kan læse den som en levnedsskildring om en dreng i 1950’erne der lever i en lille familie i en provinsby, til han flytter fra det første hjem og familie. Man kan læse bogen som en slags case ...

  15. Adaptability: Time to Start Thinking about Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Iraqi population began to bog down 1 R. W. Komer, Bureaucracy Does Its Thing (Santa Monica...mind works and the brain’s limitations in regard to deliberately changing behavior. According to Field Manual (FM) 6-22, Leadership Development, to...adaptability and agility to manage change.”20 Koutstaal identifies the kind of conscious modification in thinking suggested by the Army’s leadership

  16. Bøgerne om alt – fortalt af mange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    I 2006 påbegyndte Lene Andersen et af de mest besynderlige værker længe i dansk litteratur. Under pseudonymet Jesper Knallhatt udsendte hun bogen Baade Og som et forsøg, der skulle vise sig at bringe fire bind mere med sig over blot fire år. Første bog skulle kunne stå for sig selv, men skulle og...

  17. Retfærdiggørelse, ideologi, kritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Denne artikel har tre formål. For det første er det hensigten at udrede forbindelserne mellem begreberne retfærdiggørelse, ideologi og kritik, som de foreligger hos Luc Boltanski og Ève Chiapello i Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme  (1999) (NEC i det følgende) og denne bogs forudsætninger. For det ...

  18. Den økonomiske teoris rødder - fra Aristoteles til Lucas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Finn; Pedersen, Kurt

    I denne bog, "Den økonomiske teoris rødder - fra Aristoteles til Lucas", belyses den økonomiske teoris udvikling fra de første spæde græske forsøg godt 400 år f. Kr. helt op til vores egen samtid med en præsentation af moderne makroteori. Samtidig forsøger fremstillingen at sætte den økonomiske...

  19. Hyperstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    Stress er et stort problem i vores moderne hverdag med det moderne arbejdsliv, der konstant kræver omstillingsparathed. Alligevel forsøger vi at finde 'gamle' og traditionelle løsninger på, hvordan vi skal bekæmpe stress. Denne bog forslår i stedet, at vi finder en ny, fremadrettet forståelse af...

  20. Three novel herpesviruses of endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Newton, Alisa L; Chang, Tylis Y; Zarate, Brian; Whitlock, Alison L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rich diversity of the world's reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta) and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata) turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204) and smaller numbers of positive wood (5) and spotted (1) turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts.

  1. Ledelse af Netværk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Engelbrecht, Bent

    Vi er alle stærkt præget af de relationer, vi har, både professionelt og privat. Uanset om vi er klar over det eller ej, påvirker de vores muligheder og er algørende for, hvordan organisationer fungerer. Med denne bog sætter Christian Waldstrøm og Bent Engelbrecht fokus på virksomhedens netværk o...

  2. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Midwest Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    blue-joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), bog reed-grass (C. stricta), and big bluestem. Sedges ( Carex spp.), such as woolly sedge (C. pellita...communities are dominated by sedges (e.g., Carex spp., Eleocharis spp.) as opposed to the native grasses of wet prairie communities. Soil saturation and...Sparganium eurycarpum), broad-leaved arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), slough sedge ( Carex atherodes), lake sedge (C. lacustris), three-square bulrush

  3. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), rushes (Juncus spp.), and sedges ( Carex spp.). The Gulf coastal plain in Texas was originally prairie laced with hardwood...sunlight produce highly diverse understory assemblages of grasses, sedges , and other herbaceous plants. Pitcher plants (Sarracenia spp.), other carnivorous...typical bog vegetation containing pitcher plants, grasses, sedges , orchids, and yellow-eyed grass (Xyris spp.), surrounded or broken by areas of shrubs

  4. Morphological variability of Carex dioica L. (Cyperaceae Juss.) in Polissya region

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana V. Izmestieva

    2012-01-01

    Morphological variability of Carex dioica L. generative individuals in 4 habitats on the territory of Polissya has analysed. It is established that antropogenic influence and biotope heterogenity determine the highest level of morphological changeability of individuals in one of the localities on the bog Koza. The length of leaves and stems are the most variable traits which depend on the environmental conditions. Stability of such characteristics, as a width of leaves and a length of spikes ...

  5. Musik som medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2005-01-01

    Den første bog, der beskriver bredden inden for området MusikMedicin, starter helt ved begyndelsen, ved ”cellernes sang”, og går derefter videre til at berette om et utal af undersøgelser og teorier om, hvordan musik påvirker både foster og mor, planter og dyr, krop og følelser, immunsystem og...

  6. Formelle krav (kap.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta Kusk

    2015-01-01

    Et opslagsværk for studerende til støtte for bacheloropgaveskrivning. Klæd dine studerende på til at skrive den store afsluttende opgave. De studerende får med denne bog et gedigent opslagsværk, som giver svar på alle de spørgsmål, det typisk trænger sig på, når bacheloropgaven skal påbegyndes. B...

  7. At Forberede sig til den mundtlige prøve ( kap12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta Kusk

    2015-01-01

    Et opslagsværk for studerende til støtte for bacheloropgaveskrivning. Klæd dine studerende på til at skrive den store afsluttende opgave. De studerende får med denne bog et gedigent opslagsværk, som giver svar på alle de spørgsmål, det typisk trænger sig på, når bacheloropgaven skal påbegyndes. B...

  8. Bacheloropgaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Med denne bog får du et opslagsværk, som giver svar på alle de spørgsmål, det typisk trænger sig på, når bacheloropgaven og den 4. praktik skal påbegyndes. I en enkel form beskriver vi alle projektets faser – fra de indledende overvejelser og gruppedannelse over problemformulering, informationssø...

  9. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  10. Med literacy i bagagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Friis

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer kort literacybegrebet, og det fremhæver, hvorfor læringsmål er så vigtige for barnets literacykompetencer og literacylyst – både i hjemmet, i dagtilbuddet og i børnehaveklassen. Tankerne bag denne bog introduceres således her. Indholdet i de øvrige kapitler beskrives des...

  11. A Literature Survey on the Wetland Vegetation of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    which may succeed to various forest or bog types. g 4 : 48 i - -" - - - Worley, 1972 No bryophytes grow in habitats submerged by tidal waters. However... bryophyte species grow on rocks near salt water but beyond the influence of waves and tides (p. 12). [Other bryophyte species known from similar habitats ...published information on wqtlands qg~a- tion of Alaska prior to September, 1977. The literature review and suntre are organized under the broad habitat

  12. Inddragelse af børn - hvorfor og hvordan?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette Magne; Pedersen, Ulla; Larsen, Henrik M.

    Denne bog er en fortælling om, hvordan otte udviklingsprojekter i København har medinddraget og samarbejdet med børn og unge for at øge deres handlekompetence og aktivitet. Bogen giver ideer til dem, der ønsker at blive klogere på, hvordan man i højere grad kan inddrage børn i den daglige praksis...

  13. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Gavin L.

    2007-01-01

    Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT) transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with i...

  14. Relationship Between Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Northern Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, S. E.; Bubier, J. L.; Moore, T. R.; Ball, T.; Bellisario, L. M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Carroll, P.; Crill, P. M.; Lafleur, P. M.; McCaughey, J. H.; Roulet, N. T.; Suyker, A. E.; Verma, S. B.; Waddington, J. M.; Whiting, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and irradiance (as photosynthetic photon flux density or PPFD), using published and unpublished data that have been collected during midgrowing season for carbon balance studies at seven peatlands in North America and Europe, NEE measurements included both eddy-correlation tower and clear, static chamber methods, which gave very similar results. Data were analyzed by site, as aggregated data sets by peatland type (bog, poor fen, rich fen, and all fens) and as a single aggregated data set for all peatlands. In all cases, a fit with a rectangular hyperbola (NEE = alpha PPFD P(sub max)/(alpha PPFD + P(sub max) + R) better described the NEE-PPFD relationship than did a linear fit (NEE = beta PPFD + R). Poor and rich fens generally had similar NEE-PPFD relationships, while bogs had lower respiration rates (R = -2.0 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and -2.7 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) for fens) and lower NEE at moderate and high light levels (P(sub max)= 5.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and 10.8 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for fens). As a single class, northern peatlands had much smaller ecosystem respiration (R = -2.4 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) and NEE rates (alpha = 0.020 and P(sub max)= 9.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) than the upland ecosystems (closed canopy forest, grassland, and cropland). Despite this low productivity, northern peatland soil carbon pools are generally 5-50 times larger than upland ecosystems because of slow rates of decomposition caused by litter quality and anaerobic, cold soils.

  15. Reconstruction of Holocene carbon dynamics in a large boreal peatland complex, southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul J. H.; Väliranta, Minna; Korrensalo, Aino; Alekseychik, Pavel; Vesala, Timo; Rinne, Janne; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-06-01

    Holocene peatland development and associated carbon (C) dynamics were reconstructed for a southern boreal Finnish peatland complex with fen and bog areas. In order to assess the role of local factors and long-term allogenic climate forcing in peatland development patterns, we studied a total of 18 peat cores and reconstructed vertical peat growth and lateral peat area expansion rates, the C accumulation rate (CAR), past vegetation composition and past methane (CH4) fluxes. We combined fossil plant data with measured contemporary CH4 flux - vegetation relationship data to reconstruct CH4 fluxes over time. When these reconstructions were added to the CAR estimations, a more complete picture of Holocene-scale C dynamics was achieved. Basal peat ages showed that expansion of the peat area was rapid between 11,000 and 8000 cal. BP, but decreased during the dry mid-Holocene and is probably currently limited by basal topography. A similar pattern was observed for peat growth and CAR in the fen core, whereas in the bog core CAR increased after ombrotrophication, i.e. after 4400 cal. BP. The effect of fire on vegetation and CAR was more conspicuous at the bog site than at the fen site. The CH4 flux reconstructions showed that during the Holocene CH4 emissions at the fen site decreased from 19 ± 15 to 16 ± 8 g CH4 m-2 yr-1 and at the bog site from 20 ± 15 to 14 ± 8 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. Our results suggest that a combination of changing climate, fire events and local conditions have modified the autogenic peatland development and C dynamics.

  16. Environmental Assessment of Interim Flight Training Authority at Airfields in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    WILDLIFE SERVICE STATE AGENCY Pennsylvania U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species & Herpetology Coordinator Pennsylvania Field Office...agency 10 RECOGNJ(ZED QUAJLJIJF[JED BOG TUR’lf1LlE SURVEYORS The following list includes individuals experienced in field herpetology that the U.S...Leeds Road Pomona, New Jersey 08240 Home: (609) 965-9089 Work: (609) 652-4432 Tessa Mai Bickhart Michael Torocco Herpetological Associates, Inc

  17. Charring temperatures are driven by the fuel types burned in a peatland wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Hudspith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands represent a globally important carbon store; however, the human exploitation of this ecosystem is increasing both the frequency and severity of fires on drained peatlands. Yet, the interactions between the hydrological conditions (ecotopes, the fuel types being burned, the burn severity, and the charring temperatures (pyrolysis intensity remain poorly understood. Here we present a post-burn assessment of a fire on a lowland raised bog in Co. Offaly, Ireland (All Saints Bog. Three burn severities were identified in the field (light, moderate, and deeply burned, and surface charcoals were taken from 17 sites across all burn severities. Charcoals were classified into two fuel type categories (either ground or aboveground fuel and the reflectance of each charcoal particle was measured under oil using reflectance microscopy. Charcoal reflectance shows a positive relationship with charring temperature and as such can be used as a temperature proxy to reconstruct minimum charring temperatures after a fire event. Resulting median reflectance values for ground fuels are 1.09 ± 0.32%Romedian, corresponding to estimated minimum charring temperatures of 447°C ± 49°C. In contrast, the median charring temperatures of aboveground fuels were found to be considerably higher, 646°C ± 73°C (3.58 ± 0.77%Romedian. A mixed-effects modelling approach was used to demonstrate that the interaction effects of burn severity, as well as ecotope classes, on the charcoal reflectance is small compared to the main effect of fuel type. Our findings reveal that the different fuel types on raised bogs are capable of charring at different temperatures within the same fire, and that the pyrolysis intensity of the fire on All Saints Bog was primarily driven by the fuel types burning, with only a weak association to the burn severity or ecotope classes.

  18. Indledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjer, Jo; Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk

    2012-01-01

    Denne bog følger spor af de væsentlige, sociale forandringer, der tog fart med den nye kvindebevægelse, og undersøger, hvor de førte hen og hvordan, de er blevet fulgt op, tegnet om eller visket ud. På den måde bidrager vi med bogen til at forstå nutiden bedre i lyset af den nærmeste fortid. Når vi...

  19. Udsyn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes

    formåede ØK at præge Danmarkshistorien, selvom det var en periode, hvor dansk og international økonomi blev stadig mere tillukket og protektionistisk. Da globaliseringen tog fart, mistede ØK sin livskraft. I denne bog fortælles hele historien gennem nøglepersonerne i ledelsen, bl.a. H.N. Andersen, prins...

  20. Møder der kommer os i møde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    (Bagsidetekst) Hvis man skal arrangere et større møde med oplæg, ender det tit med at blive et tæppebombardement af PowerPoint-præsentationer. Denne bog giver ideer til, hvordan man kan involvere deltagerne og lade dem bearbejde og anvende dagens input – under mødet, i samtale med de andre...

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Weiss Building & Development, Downers Grove, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This single-family home built in a peat bog has underground storage tanks and drainage tanks, blown fiberglass insulation, coated rigid polyisocyanurate, and flashing. The 3,600-square-foot custom home built by Weiss Building & Development LLC is the first home in Illinois certified to the DOE Challenge Home criteria, which requires that homes meet the EPA Indoor airPlus guidelines.The builder won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  2. Mapping of flood dynamics and spatial distribution of vegetation in the Amazon floodplain using multitemporal SAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Jean-Michel; Le Toan, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the use of time series of SAR images to map the flood temporal dynamics and the spatial distribution of vegetation over a large Amazonian floodplain. The region under study (3500 km(2)) presents a diversity of landscape units with open lakes, bogs, large meadows, savannahs, alluvial forests and terra firma forest, covered by 21 images acquired by J-ERS between 1993 and 1997. Ground data include in situ observations of vegetation structure and flood extent as well as water ...

  3. Guide to Commensal Rodent Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Madison, WI 53704 Central Soya Co., ;nc. Regulatory Compliance Dept, Bog 1400, Fort Wayne , IN 46801-1400 J.7. Eato~n &Co., Inc. 1393 F. Highland Rd...Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service 2320 South DuPont Hwy 131 Towson Hall Dover, Delaware 19901 University of Delaware 302-739-4811 Newark, Delaware...Agriculture Building Room 111 Connor Hall (Dr. Wayne Jordan) 19 Martin Luther Kin Blrd University of Georgia Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Athens, Georgia 30602

  4. Seasonal methane dynamics in three temperate grasslands on peat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Carolyn; Elsgaard, Lars; Hoffmann, Carl Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Drained peatlands are considered to be insignificant CH4 sources, but the effect of drainage on CH4 dynamics has not been extensively studied. We investigated seasonal dynamics of CH4 in two fen peat soils and one bog peat soil under permanent grassland in Denmark. Methods Soil...... of aerenchymous plants should be considered before dismissing grasslands on peat as CH4 sources....

  5. Distribución de elementos traza en el registro de la Turbera de Roñanzas (Asturias, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    2009-01-01

    The Pb, Zn and Hg concentrations in the peat-bog samples of the Roñanzas record, that covers the last 8000 cal. BP, reveal a relationship with natural processes (climate, vulcanism) together with the atmospheric pollution linked to ancient minning, industrial activities, and agricultural development in northern Spain. There are metal enrichments along the peat profile probably related to the Roman Period, after 1700 AD and the Industrial Revolution and, in some cases, during the V...

  6. Une idée simple. Une grande idée! Réflexions sur Björn Larsson: La place et le sens des adjectifs épithètes de valorisation positive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    1997-01-01

    En review-artikel af Björn Larssons bog om det attributive adjektivs stilling på fransk. Efter grundige empiriske undersøgelser af en lang række autentiske eksempler fremsætter Björn Larsson en hyopotese om, at adjektivets ekstention spiller en en afgørende rolle for dets placering: Jo større adj...

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Proposed High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Picea mariana Bog blueberry Vaccinium Labrador tea Ledwn groenlandicum Sedges Cyperaceae Sphagnum moss Sphagnum sp. Tamarack Larix laricina White...of 25 to 60%. A wet herbaceous vegetation association occurs in wet areas with grasses and sedges and is analogous to Cowardin et al.’s (1979...wetlands dominated by sedges and rushes. Minimal amounts of palustrine aquatic bed are present. Forested wetlands (equivalent to palustrine forested

  8. Forest responses to late Holocene climate change in north-central Wisconsin: a high- resolution study from Hell's Kitchen Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, M. A.; Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Minckley, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Forest dynamics at centennial to millennial timescales can be identified using paleoecological records with high spatial, temporal, and taxonomic resolution. These dynamics are linked to climate changes by comparing the paleoecological records with independent paleoclimate records of complementary sensitivity and temporal resolution. We analyzed plant macrofossils at contiguous 1cm intervals (representing 5 to 35 yr/cm) from late Holocene sediments of Hell's Kitchen Lake (3 ha) in north-central Wisconsin. Most of the plant macrofossils derive from trees growing on the slopes directly adjacent to the lake, and were identified to the species. We also analyzed pollen at an approximately100 year resolution to provide a regionally integrated record of forest composition. We then compared the macrofossil and pollen records with independent records of climate change in the region, particularly paleohydrological records from kettle bogs. The most notable feature of the late Holocene record occurs between 2300-2000 cal yr BP. During this period yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) macrofossils first appear in the record, along with a corresponding increase in pollen percentages. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) macrofossils and pollen also show a marked increase at this time. These changes coincide with a major transition towards wetter conditions recorded in the testate amoebae record of Hornet Bog (~200km northwest) and in a number of other kettle bog records from the region. Directly following this transition, tamarack (Larix laricina) and Sphagnum macrofossils at Hell's Kitchen Lake increase dramatically, likely representing the initiation of bog-mat growth along the southwest margin of the lake during the wet period. . We are continuing our high-resolution sampling downcore at Hell's Kitchen Lake. This will permit us to examine additional ecologic and climatic events in the early and mid-Holocene.

  9. 2000 Years of Grazing History and the Making of the Cretan Mountain Landscape, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy-Bapicot, Isabelle; Vannière, Boris; Iglesias, Virginia; Debret, Maxime; Delarras, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that led to the recent evolution of Mediterranean landscapes is a challenging question that can be addressed with paleoecological data. Located in the White Mountains of Crete, Asi Gonia peat bog constitutes an exceptional 2000-years-long sedimentary archive of environmental change. In this study, we document the making of the White Mountains landscape and assess human impact on ecosystem trajectories. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on high-resolution analyses of sediment, pollen, dung fungal spores and charcoal obtained from a 6-m core collected from the bog. Multiproxy analyses and a robust chronological control have shed light on anthropogenic and natural processes that have driven ecological changes, giving rise to the present-day Mediterranean ecosystem. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began during the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period, likely due to watershed management. The evolution of the peat bog as well as vegetation dynamics in the surrounding area were linked to past climate changes but were driven by human activities, among which breeding was of great importance. Charcoal analysis reveals that fire was largely used for the construction and maintenance of sylvo-agropastoral areas. Pollen data allow the identification of three main vegetation assemblages: 1) evergreen oak forest (before ca. 850 AD), 2) heather maquis (ca. 850 to 1870 AD), 3) phrygana/steppe landscape. Rapid changes between phases in vegetation development are associated with tipping-points in ecosystem dynamics resulting from anthropogenic impact. The modern ecosystem did not get established until the 20th century, and it is characterized by biodiversity loss along with a dramatic drying of the peat bog. PMID:27280287

  10. Unges motivation og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Katznelson, Noemi; Hutters, Camilla

    Uddannelse er en helt central del af det moderne ungdomsliv, men en del unge har svært ved at tage sig sammen, og resultatet er ofte problemer med fravær, frafald og skoletræthed. I denne bog belyses unges motivation for læring og uddannelse set i lyset af de forandringer, der præger samfundet...

  11. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  12. Innovation med brugerne i fokus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia;

    Denne bog præsenterer og diskuterer en række metoder indenfor brugerdreven innovation. Formålet er dels at inspirere læseren og dels at introducere metoder til brugerdreven innovation på en anvendelsesorienteret måde, der kan facilitere opstart og gennemførsel af spændende innovationsprojekter. B....... Bogen tager udgangspunkt i de erfaringer, der er gjort igennem det praksisorienterede forskningsprojekt InnoDoors....

  13. En ny undersøgelse viser - eller gør den?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kresten; Friis, Lars

    Danske medier præsenterer næsten dagligt resultater af undersøgelser, hvor et antal borgere er blevet spurgt om deres mening. Desværre er mange undersøgelser både dårligt gennemtænkt, halvhjertet udført og mangelfuldt analyseret. Det råder denne bog bod på. Uanset om du skal lave egne rundspørger...

  14. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter;

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...

  15. Lecture Notes on Differential Forms

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is a series of lecture notes, with embedded problems, aimed at students studying differential topology. Many revered texts, such as Spivak's "Calculus on Manifolds" and Guillemin and Pollack's "Differential Topology" introduce forms by first working through properties of alternating tensors. Unfortunately, many students get bogged down with the whole notion of tensors and never get to the punch lines: Stokes' Theorem, de Rham cohomology, Poincare duality, and the realization of various t...

  16. DCERP Annual Technical Report 4: March 2010 - February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    management of overall avian diversity in longleaf pine habitats. Portions of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5...the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), savannas, and pocosins (shrub bog) that dominate MCBCL’s terrestrial environments. Variation in the biota and...on existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat that are being restored to longleaf pine habitat by MCBCL natural resources managers to support

  17. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Annual Technical Report IV: March 2010-February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    management of overall avian diversity in longleaf pine habitats. Portions of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5...the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), savannas, and pocosins (shrub bog) that dominate MCBCL’s terrestrial environments. Variation in the biota and...on existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat that are being restored to longleaf pine habitat by MCBCL natural resources managers to support

  18. Fødevareetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fødevareetik er en grundbog, der beskriver fødevarer, mad og måltider i et etisk perspektiv. De etiske spørgsmål diskuteres i dag ikke kun i forbindelse med madindkøb, madlavning, omkring bordet og i medierne. Også forskerne har taget området til sig. I denne bog præsenterer førende danske forske...

  19. 'All I have to do is dream?' Re-greening Irish integrationism

    OpenAIRE

    LENTIN, RONIT

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Contemporary Ireland had moved from the discovery ? during the 1997 European Year against Racism ? that racism is indeed an Irish problem, to euphemisms such as interculturalism, transculturalism, integration and cultural diversity. Up until the last throes of Celtic capitalism, the dominant narrative was one of failed European multiculturalism and the suggestion that `we? were getting it right while other EU states were getting bogged down in assimilationism and m...

  20. Vold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Žižek, Slavoj

    Vold er ikke blot kriminalitet og terrorisme, som forstyrrer den normale og rolige orden. Der er nemlig en større vold bygget ind i selve denne orden. Med udgangspunkt i denne påstand og ved hjælp af Kant, Lacan, vittigheder og Hollywood-film diskuterer Slavoj Žižek i denne bog både aktuelle...