WorldWideScience

Sample records for bogs

  1. Jobs Bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre.......Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre....

  2. Ruths Bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Indledningen sætter Ruths Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre.......Indledningen sætter Ruths Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre....

  3. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  4. Project Bog Turtle

    OpenAIRE

    North Carolina Herpetological Society

    2007-01-01

    Project Bog Turtle South was started by the Conservation Committee of the North Carolina Herpetological Society in 1995 to protect the bog turtle and its habitat throughout the southeastern US. This is being done through leases, purchases or easements on bog turtle habitats, habitat restoration, scientific research, and education. The project is currently providing bog turtle protection for six sites in the Georgia and North Carolina areas.

  5. Lowland Bogs, Fens and Reedswamps

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Smiddy, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews the current and historical studies of the bird communities of lowland bogs, fens and reedswamps in Ireland. The habitat types and bird communities described include raised bogs, cutover and cutaway peatlands and reedswamps.

  6. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... contours are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  7. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation (238U, 235U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K) and radiocaesium (137Cs, 134Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium (210Pb, 210Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210Pb and 210Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  8. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Nicolai S. Panikov; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arran...

  9. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    and bog bodies could be studied non-destructively. This article describes the history of mummy radiography and CT scanning, and some of the problems and opportunities involved in applying these techniques, derived for clinical use, on naturally and artificially preserved ancient human bodies. Unless...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  10. The peat bogs of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabassa, J.; Coronato, A. [Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas, Ushuaia (Argentina); Roig, C. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia, Ushuaia (Argentina). Catedra de Geograffa Fisica

    1996-12-31

    The peat bogs and peat deposits of Argentina are briefly described, with emphasis on the island of Tierra del Fuego, where the vast majority of the bogs are concentrated, due to environmental and climatic conditions. The Fuegian bogs are a source of peaty materials, presently used in soil-improving techniques. Further studies are needed to establish other technological possibilities. From the scientific point of view, the Fuegian bogs are outstanding palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental data banks, due to their uninterrupted continuity since Late Glacial times and their exceptional pollen record and subfossil wood remains. (orig.) (9 refs.)

  11. Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2013-04-01

    Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram

  12. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  13. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  14. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hommeltenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m. The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012, using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (−130 ± 31 and −300 ± 66 g C m−2 a−1 in the first and second year respectively than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (−53 ± 28 and −73±38 g C m−2 a−1. The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha−1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very

  15. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  16. Communities of larger fungi of ombrotrophic bogs in West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bogs are common ecosystems in the Taiga of West Siberia. Little is known about mycological diversity in these important ecosystems. This article summarises the results of a two-year study of the macrofungi in two bogs near the town of Khanty-Mansiysk. Sporocarps were collected in 20 plots (about 300 m2 established in Mukhrino Bog as well as during random walks in Mukhrino Bog and Chistoe Bog in the late summer–autumn of 2012 and 2013. The plots were established in two common bog habitats representing the Ledo-Sphagnetum fusci (LS and Scheuchzerio palustris-Sphagnetum cuspidati (SS plant community associations. A total of 59 distinct fungal taxa were collected from the two bogs, with the LS association having a higher species richness and diversity than the SS association (50 taxa vs. 16 taxa and 30–40 taxa per 1000 m2 vs. 6–10 taxa per 1000 m2, respectively. Each of the two plant community associations has its own characteristic fungal taxa, with the LS association having 13 characteristic taxa and the SS association having five. Nearly two thirds of the fungal taxa are saprotrophic, mainly of Sphagnum spp., while others are mycorrhizal, mainly with Pinus spp. Most taxa were collected fewer than ten times during the study period and, hence, are considered rare and may need to be recognised for conservation programmes in this region.

  17. The ins and outs of Burns Bog: A water balance study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yue-Ching Obimin

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of forest encroachment on the water balance of Burns Bog in Delta, British Columbia by determining the differences in the evapotranspiration and interception losses between a forested and non-forested (open) bog site. Throughfall in the forested bog site was 88% of the precipitation. During the growing season (June 15 – September 15, 2009), average evaporation in the open bog site, was 0.9 mm/day. The average evapotranspiration from the forested bog site was...

  18. Lichens as indicators of bog-community degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Fałtynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lichen flora of raised and transition-bogs in West Pomerania (N Poland is poor and characterized by dominance of acidophilous epiphytes associated with pine bark, and of humus-loving lichens. Lichens are not good indicators of the degradation of transition and raised-bog phytocoenoses, mainly because it is difficult to properly determine their response - whether it is caused by natural or anthropogenic factors. U does not seem possible to create a lichenoindicative system for bogs, similar to that used in studies of the pollution of the atmospheric air. Lichens can successfully be used in analyses of changes in thc vegetation of isolated bogs; this should, however, be done at the most in addition to other procedures used to determine the degree of naturalness of plant communities.

  19. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela;

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  20. Natural Communities of Yellow Bogs in Lewis, Bloomfield and Brunswick Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow Bogs in Essex County, Vermont is a unique ecological area characterized by boreal, lowland forests and extensive bog systems. Within the area, black spruce...

  1. DATING RECENT PEAT ACCUMULATION IN EUROPEAN OMBROTROPHIC BOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, Johannes; Yeloff, Dan; van der Linden, Marjolein; van Geel, Bas; Brain, Sally; Chambers, Frank M.; Webb, Julia; Toms, Phillip; Hatté, C.; Jull, A.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the C-14 bomb peak, Pb-210, Cs-137, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, ther

  2. Dating recent peat accumulation in European ombrotrophic bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Plicht; D. Yeloff; M. van der Linden; B. van Geel; S. Brain; F.M. Chambers; J. Webb; P. Toms

    2013-01-01

    This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14C bomb peak, 210Pb, 137Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, there i

  3. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillant, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sheppard, M.I. [ECOMatters, P.O. Box 430, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Echevarria, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: Guillaume.Echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Denys, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Villemin, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Tekely, P. [Laboratoire de Methodologie RMN, FRE CNRS 2415, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, Faculte des Sciences, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Morel, J.L. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-05-15

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K {sub d} = 37.6 L kg{sup -1}) than at the bottom (K {sub d} = 5.1 L kg{sup -1}), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K {sub d} values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]{sub sedgeleaves} is up to 283 mg kg{sup -1})

  4. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K d = 37.6 L kg-1) than at the bottom (K d = 5.1 L kg-1), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K d values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]sedgeleaves is up to 283 mg kg-1)

  5. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colak, N.; Torun, H.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Ayaz, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, JUN 15 (2016), s. 339-349. ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Vaccinium uliginosum * Bog bilberry * Phenolic acid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2014

  6. Ecology of the peat-bogs of Quebec-Labrador; Ecologie des tourbieres du Quebec-Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payette, S.; Rochefort, L. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The 24 chapters are arranged into five parts. The structure of peat bogs covers physical and geographical environment, types of peat bogs, mosses, vegetation gradients, hydrology, diversity and distribution of birds, and arthropods. Functioning of peat bogs describes biochemical processes, gases emitted, drainage, climate change, glaciation; and organic sols. Fossil analysis, morphology, entomology, pollen, diatoms, and ligneous fossils are discussed in the section on methods for bog reconstitution. In the evolution of peat bogs in the Holocene, stratigraphy and paleohydrology are described. The utilization of peat bogs contains chapters on history of the landscape transformed by harvesting, economics and value of peat, agricultural use of bogs, forestry, restoration, and conservation. 2000 refs.

  7. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries. PMID:26868586

  8. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied

  9. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation rates in ombrotrophic peat bogs. We note that high energy is required to break the triple bond of the N2 molecule, and hence, microrganisms will tend to fix N2 only at relatively low inputs of reactive nitrogen.

  10. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  11. Chemical records of environmental pollution in ombrotrophic peat bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cloy, Joanna Marie

    2006-01-01

    Human activity has affected metal emissions to the atmosphere on a global scale for several thousand years, resulting in widespread contamination of the environment with toxic heavy metals such as Pb and Hg, thereby threatening both human and environmental health. In recent years ombrotrophic peat bogs have been used to study the changing rates and sources of atmospheric metal deposition, as they receive all their water and nutrients from the atmosphere by dry and wet deposition alone. Cores ...

  12. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  13. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on bog vegetation in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Heijmans, M. M. P. D.

    2000-01-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs are important long-term sinks for atmospheric carbon. Changes in species composition of the bog plant community may have important effects on carbon sequestration, because peat mosses ( Sphagnum ) contribute more to peat accumulation than vascular plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and increased nitrogen (N) deposition on bog vegetation in the Netherlands, with special attention to the relationship betw...

  15. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  16. Key plant species and succession patterns associated to past fen-bog transitions - perspective to future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väliranta, Minna; Luoto, Miska; Juutinen, Sari; Korhola, Atte; Tuittila, Eeva-stiina

    2016-04-01

    Minerotrophic fens and ombrotrophic bogs differ in their hydrology, vegetation and carbon dynamics and their geographical distribution seems to be linked to certain climate parameters, such as temperature and effective precipitation. Currently bogs dominate the southern boreal zone but the climate warming with altered temperature and effective precipitation may shift the distribution of bog zone northwards. In this study, we first used plant macrofossil method and radiocarbon analysis to identify and date past fen-bog transitions. These transitions were compared to major Holocene climate phases. Subsequently, palaeoecological data were associated to ecological and environmental data collected along the current fen-bog ecotone in Finland. We identified three successional phases 1) initial minerotrophic fen phase 2) Eriophorum vaginatum-dominated oligotrophic fen phase which was followed by 3) ombrorophic bog phase. Duration of these phases varied but late Holocene timing of fen-bog transition showed some consistency. Based on palaeoecological data 57 % of the modern ecotone peatlands were classified to be in a fen phase, 10 % were in an Eriophorum-dominated phase and 33 % were going through a transition from fen to bog. The study showed that regime shifts are driven by autogenic succession and climate but also fires may efficiently control succession pathways. Our results support the hypothesis that climate change can promote the ombrotrophication process in the southern border of the fen-bog ecotone due to changes in hydrology balance.

  17. Features of water chemical composition of oligotrophic and eutrophic bogs in the South of the Tomsk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naymushina, O.

    2016-03-01

    On the basis of the actual material the analysis of chemical composition of bog waters in the territory of the South of the Tomsk region is carried out. The data on average concentration of macro and trace components, organic matter, pH of bog waters are obtained. Significant distinctions in a chemical composition of surface water for different types of bogs are revealed. The composition and macrostructure of humic acids by the example of eutrophic bogs is studied.

  18. Peculiarities of 137Cs biogeochemistry in ecosystems of forest sphagnous bogs: approach to creation of conceptual scheme of the model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual scheme of the model describing the 137Cs cycling in ecosystems of sphagnous bogs was adduced. Compartments of forest-bog ecosystem were united into five main blocks: peat, tree canopy, moss (sphagnous) layer, understory vegetation, bog water. Radioecological peculiarities of elements of this ecosystem were shown as well as the vertical profile of sphagnous-peat cover. The functional connection among vegetation macroblocks, peat and bog water realises due to special block of mycorrhizal

  19. Desmid flora from four peat bogs in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovran Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to report the desmid taxa identified from four Serbian peat bogs: Pešter, Daić Lake on Mt. Golija, Crvene pode on Mt. Tara and Horgoš. Samples were collected in the period from 2007 to 2011. In total, 220 desmid taxa from 22 genera were identified. The most species-rich genera are Cosmarium (81, Staurastrum (38 and Closterium (31. Of the total number, 66 desmid taxa are new for the Serbian desmid flora. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 037009

  20. Annual CO2 balance of a temperate bog

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Magnus; Lindroth, Anders; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Peatlands are generally small sinks for atmospheric CO2. However, the sustainability of this sink functioning is threatened in a changing climate. We measured the CO2 exchange in a temperate bog between August 2005 and July 2006 using the eddy covariance technique. During this period, the CO2 balance was –78.6 ± 20.0 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, which is a lower uptake than others have reported for comparable ecosystems, but in accordance with average Holocene uptake rates. Average winter emissions were s...

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 and vascular plants on evapotranspiration in bog vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Berendse, F.

    2001-01-01

    We determined evapotranspiration in three experiments designed to study the effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. Two experiments used peat monoliths with intact bog vegetation in containers, with one experiment outdoors and the other in a greenhouse. A t

  2. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Galan, P.R.; Johanson, K.J. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Soil Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  3. Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Knaap, Y.A.M.; Holmgren, M.; Limpens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work sugge

  4. 77 FR 2970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Elba BOG Compressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Elba BOG Compressor Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues; Southern LNG Company, L.L... Environmental Assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Elba BOG Compressor Project... Chatham County, Georgia (Terminal). The Elba BOG Compressor Project would supplement the existing...

  5. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs. PMID:26220310

  6. Determination of Arsenic and Arsenic Species in Ombrotrophic Peat Bogs from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Jutta

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate how faithful arsenic (As) has been preserved in ombrotrophic peat bogs from Finland. The changing rates of atmospheric As deposition have been reconstructed using peat cores from three Finnish bogs: Harjavalta (Har), nearby a Copper (Cu) - Nickel (Ni) smelter, Outokumpu (Out), near a famous Cu-Ni mine, and a peat bog at Hietajärvi (Hie) which is remote from industrial activity. To study the preservation of As within these cores, firstly several new ...

  7. Mass balance and nitrogen accumulation in hummocks on a south Swedish bog during the late holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two peat cores from the Store Mosse mire in the central part of South Sweden have been analyzed for dry bulk density, carbon, and nitrogen. They cover the development of the peat mound from the time of the conversion of the initial fen to an ombrotrophic bog at 5450 BP through three different bog stages, the Fuscum, the Rubellum-Fuscum and the Magellanicum bog stages, each one chracterized by a specific macrofossil assemblage. All N supplied to the bog surface in assumed to be contained in the organic matter. At the beginning of the Magellanicum bog stage. 1000 BP, the nitrogen accumulation rate increased from an earlier value of ca 0.4 g m-2 yr-1 to 0.8 g m-2 yr-1. These accumulation rates for N have been used to establish time scales for the periods between the 14C-datings. The estimated litter deposition rate in the hummocks is 120 g m-2 yr-1 in the two older bog stages and 270 g m-2 yr-1 in the Magellanicum bog stage. The decay losses in the acrotelm increased, as a proportion of the addition, with time through each one of the bog stages. The range of variation in the cores for the acrotelm decay losses was 25-80%, and the annual input of organic matter to the catotelm, 30-130 g m-2. These ranges are greater than those found among recent bog hummocks in NW Europe and North America. The decay losses during 5000 yr in the catotelm may not have exceeded 20% of the original input. The over-all net rate of accumulation of C was highest, ca 40 g m-2 yr-1, at the beginning of the Fuscum bog stage. The changes in the macrofossil assemblages are all associated with rapid increased in the peat accumulation rate, but decreases in accumulation rate are not. At the conversion from fen to bog the increased input of organic matter to the catotelm depended on expansion of Sphagman fuscum which formed a decay resistant litter. Later increases depended on rapid rises of the mean water table, resulting in shorter residence times and smaller decay losses from the acrotelm. The

  8. Mineral content of Sphagnum mosses in Belgian bog ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembrechts, J.F.M.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    The concentrations of 11 elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, P, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were determined in nine Sphagnum species, collected in minerotrophic and ombrotrophic bogs in northern (De Antwerpse Kempen) and eastern (Les Hautes Fagnes) Belgium. The concentrations of all elements, except Ca, Zn, and Mn, were positively related to the moistness of the habitat. Differences in the behavior of the individual elements are explained by differences in origin, physical properties, and biological importance. The Ca and Cu levels were lower in Les Hautes Fagnes due to differences in air pollution (Cu) or trophic status of the sampling sites (Ca). The concentrations of all elements, except Ca, Mg, and Mn, exceeded those of Sphagnum from Canada and Scandinavia, probably indicating a higher trophic status or a higher industrial and agricultural pollution level in the areas investigated.

  9. Bog ground aquifer system as a natural analogue for future redox conditions in flooded underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the future redox milieu caused by natural degradation of wood in flooded mines, the aquifer of a highland bog ground was studied as a natural analogue site. Going from the surface to a depth of one meter in the bog water, the redox potential measured with a platinum electrode changes from 593 mV to -95 mV. From the depth-water analyses and analyses of bog gas extracted from the ground, an Eh value of -119±5 mV could be calculated. Methane and hydrogen sulfide were found in the gas, characterizing the strongly reducing condition in the bog ground. From that, the conclusion for the future mine situation can be drawn that uranium(VI) and arsenic(V) will be reduced and precipitated as U(OH)4 and As2S3. In that way, decontamination of the mine water takes place as a consequence of a natural attenuation process. (author)

  10. The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, water seeping through the bog body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

  11. Enhanced sensitivity of a mountain bog to climate change as a delayed effect of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. von Sengbusch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees of Pinus rotundata (bog pine characterise many bogs in the mid-altitude mountains of central Europe (Switzerland, East and South Germany, Czech Republic. The research described here focuses on recent changes in the growth of bog pine on the Ennersbacher Moor, a mountain mire in the Black Forest (south-west Germany. An increase in the cover of bog pine is usually caused by drainage and subsequent drawdown of the water table. However, this bog has not been drained or directly disturbed in any other way. One possible explanation is that a road constructed in 1983 along one margin of the bog has diverted part of its water supply. Even though the road was designed to conduct potentially salt-contaminated drainage water away from the bog, its construction did not cause an immediate vegetation response in the 1980s and 1990s. Therefore, I hypothesise that it enhanced the sensitivity of the bog to climatic stress, predisposing it to a succession that was eventually triggered by a series of drought years in 2009–2011. Data collected near the centre of the bog over the period 1998–2014 indicate not only a distinct change in the relationship between height and trunk circumference of the trees, but also an increase of dwarf shrub cover and changes in the composition of Sphagnum communities. Although the pH of near-surface water may have increased slightly over this period, pH and EC values remain within typical ranges for raised bogs in the Black Forest. Examination of peat profiles reveals that the peat is more highly humified now than it was in 2002, and water table records from 2012–2014 show a greater amplitude of fluctuation than water table data collected in 1998–2001. Even though its mean level is only 105 mm below the ground surface, the water table is now observed to fall rapidly to depths of at least 350 mm during both wet and dry summers. Mapping surface (mesotopography and flow lines from the adjacent slope shows that the

  12. Hydrologic analysis of the wetland habitat of the federally threatened bog turtle

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Kelly E.; O'Leary, Daniel J.; Buckley, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    Protecting the natural environment while fostering local development is one of the main challenges that engineers face today. New species are added to the federally threatened and endangered species lists as their habitats are altered or destroyed by development. The bog turtle (clemmys muhlenbergii) is threatened by new development that damages not only its wetland habitat, but the upland areas that store and discharge water into the wetlands. The bog turtle is one of the smallest North Amer...

  13. Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface in two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic. Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ) is an upland bog located in an industrial area, Cervene blato (CB) is a lowland bog located in a rural area. Metal concentrations were monitored seasonally over 3 years (2002-2005) at both sites. Higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd and lower concentrations of Mn, Fe and Co were found at the less polluted CB compared to VJJ. No clear-cut seasonality was observed in metal concentrations in bog waters, despite seasonal differences in industrial emission rates of pollutants (more coal burning in winter than in summer). This contrasts with an earlier observation of distinct seasonality in sulfate concentration and isotope composition in these stagnating bog waters. Peat substrate 40 cm below current bog surface represented pre-industrial low-pollution environment, yet pore waters at such depths contained the same metal concentrations as surface waters. The only exception was Pb, whose concentration in water solutes increased with increasing depth. Lack of vertical stratification in pore-water contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co indicated vertical mobility of these metals

  14. The structure of soil mezofauna in the ecosystems of forests and bogs of Ignalina NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents data on Ignalina NPP influence on macrofauna from the soils of forests and bogs. In 10 years in pinery forests changes in earthworm cenoses, the increase of eudominantes, the decrease of species number were observed. The most negative on the insect larvae complexes was observed in bogs: the eudominante degree increased and the composition of species decreased 2-3 times. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab

  15. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. PMID:27110977

  16. Modeling of the carbon dioxide fluxes in European Russia peat bogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Shalukhina, N; Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Li, C, E-mail: kurbatova.j@gmail.co [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A process-based model (Forest-DNDC) was applied to describe the possible impacts of climate change on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from a peat bog in European Russia. In the first step, Forest-DNDC was tested against CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the eddy covariance method on an oligotrophic bog in a representative region of the southern taiga (56 deg. N 33 deg. E). The results of model validations show that Forest-DNDC is capable of quantifying the CO{sub 2} fluxes from the bog ecosystem. In the second step, the validated model was used to estimate how the expected future changes of the air temperature and water table depth could affect the C dynamics in the bogs. It was shown that a decrease in the water table and an increase in temperature influence significantly the CO{sub 2} exchange between our bog ecosystem and the atmosphere. Under elevated temperature and deepened water table the bog ecosystems could become a significant source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  17. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  18. Anthropogenic degradation of mountainous raised bogs. Case study of the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Publications on the human impact on peat bogs pay a lot of attention to peat erosion, peat burning and changes in the physical and chemical properties of peat deposits that indicate pollution in the environment, but a more detailed analysis of current changes in the peat bog relief as a result of peat deposit extraction and drying is omitted. Compared to other areas of the world, the level of knowledge on anthropogenic changes in the relief of peat bogs in some areas of Poland may be considered advanced. This applies not only to peat bogs in northern Poland but also southern Poland, where peat bogs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes are also found. The best analyzed peat bogs in southern Poland are the raised bogs in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Basin (Western Carpathians) and in valleys in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Both areas are impacted by deep precipitation shadow. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to assess the rate of shrinkage in the surface area of peat domes in the mentioned areas, (2) to describe the rate of growth in the surface area of older and younger post-peat areas, (3) to explain current changes in peat bogs morphology, (4) to explain changes in water retention in peat deposit, (5) to separate phases in peat bogs relief changes. With that in mind, the direction and rate of change of landforms typical of younger post-peat areas, such as peat extraction scarps, post-extraction hollows, drainage systems including ditches and regulated stream channels, were analyzed. A special emphasis was placed on the period of time when the restoration of such areas has taken place. The paper is based on an analysis of maps produced over the last 230 years as well as on aerial photographs taken since 1965 and on LiDAR data. Fieldwork included the geomorphological and hydrographic mapping of specified landforms within peat bogs using GPS methods. In period prior to human activity peat domes were larger than today and were surrounded by lagg fens and were

  19. The growth of permafrost-free bogs at the southern margin of permafrost, 1947-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Connon, R.; Chasmer, L.

    2013-12-01

    In the high-Boreal region of NW Canada, permafrost occurs predominantly in the form of tree-covered peat plateaus within a permafrost-free and treeless terrain dominated by flat bogs. This region is experiencing unprecedented rates of thaw. Over the last several decades, such thaw has significantly expanded the permafrost-free, treeless terrain at the expense of the plateaus. This rapid change in land-cover has raised concerns over its impact on northern water resources, since remotely sensed data and ground observations indicate that the two major land-covers in this region have very different hydrological functions. Peat plateaus have a limited capacity to store water, a relatively large snowmelt water supply and hydraulic gradients that direct excess water into adjacent permafrost-free wetlands. As such, the plateaus function primarily as runoff generators. Plateaus also obstruct and redirect water movement in adjacent wetlands since the open water surfaces of the latter occupy an elevation below the permafrost table. By contrast, bogs are primarily water storage features since they are surrounded by raised permafrost and therefore less able to exchange surface and near-surface flows with the basin drainage network. Accurate estimate of the permafrost and permafrost-free areas is needed for accurate predictions of basin runoff and storage. This study examines the perimeter-area characteristics of bogs and permafrost plateaus, using fractal geometry as a basis for quantifying these properties. Image analyses are applied to aerial photographs and satellite imagery of Scotty Creek, NWT over the period 1947-2010. Preliminary analyses suggest that the expanding bogs and shrinking permafrost plateaus behave as fractals, meaning that their perimeter-area characteristics can be described by simple power equations. The area-frequency characteristics of bogs and plateaus have a hyperbolic distribution with relatively few large bogs and plateaus and numerous small ones

  20. Factors affecting the sorption of cesium in a nutrient-poor boreal bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    135Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3 My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium (134Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5–1.0 m peat layer (50 L/kg DW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of 133Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040 L/kg DW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase. - Highlights: • pH and the type of the bog layer affect the sorption

  1. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  2. The hydrological and geochemical isolation of a freshwater bog within a saline fen in north-eastern Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Scarlett; J.S. Price

    2013-01-01

    In the oil sands development region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, wetlands cover ~62 % of the landscape, and ~95 % of these wetlands are peatlands. A saline fen was studied as a reference site for peatland reclamation. Despite highly saline conditions, a freshwater bog was observed in the path of local saline groundwater flow. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydrological controls that have allowed the development and persistence of a bog in this setting. The presence of bog veget...

  3. The hydrological and geochemical isolation of a freshwater bog within a saline fen in north-eastern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Scarlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the oil sands development region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, wetlands cover ~62 % of the landscape, and ~95 % of these wetlands are peatlands. A saline fen was studied as a reference site for peatland reclamation. Despite highly saline conditions, a freshwater bog was observed in the path of local saline groundwater flow. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydrological controls that have allowed the development and persistence of a bog in this setting. The presence of bog vegetation and its dilute water chemistry suggest that saline groundwater from the fen rarely enters the bog, which functions predominantly as a groundwater recharge system. Chloride (Cl– and sodium (Na+ were the dominant ions in fen water, with concentrations averaging 5394 and 2307 mg L-1, respectively, while the concentrations in bog water were 5 and 4 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations were reflected by salinity and electrical conductivity measurements, which in the fen averaged 9.3 ppt, and 15.8 mS cm-1, respectively, and in the bog averaged 0.1 ppt and 0.3 mS cm-1, respectively. A small ridge in the mineral substratum was found at the fen–bog margin, which created a persistent groundwater mound. Under the dry conditions experienced in early summer, groundwater flow was directed away from the bog at a rate of 14.6 mm day-1. The convex water table at the fen-bog margin impeded flow of saline water into the bog and instead directed it around the bog margin. However, the groundwater mound was eliminated during flooding in autumn, when the horizontal hydraulic gradient across the margin became negligible, suggesting the possibility of saline water ingress into the bog under these conditions.

  4. Peat Bogs as Hotspots for Organoarsenical Formation and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Rothwell, James J

    2016-04-19

    Peatlands have received significant atmospheric inputs of As and S since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, but the effect of S deposition on the fate of As is largely unknown. It may encompass the formation of As sulfides and organosulfur-bound As, or the indirect stimulation of As biotransformation processes, which are presently not considered as important As immobilization pathways in wetlands. To investigate the immobilization mechanisms of anthropogenically derived As in peatlands subjected to long-term atmospheric pollution, we explored the solid-phase speciation of As, Fe, and S in English peat bogs by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, we analyzed the speciation of As in pore- and streamwaters. Linear combination fits of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data imply that 62-100% (average: 82%) of solid-phase As (Astot: 9-92 mg/kg) was present as organic As(V) and As(III). In agreement with appreciable concentrations of organoarsenicals in surface waters (pH: 4.0-4.4, Eh: 165-190 mV, average Astot: 1.5-129 μg/L), our findings reveal extensive biotransformation of atmospheric As and the enrichment of organoarsenicals in the peat, suggesting that the importance of organometal(loid)s in wetlands subjected to prolonged air pollution is higher than previously assumed. PMID:27034028

  5. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  6. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  7. Regulation of nitrogen removal and retention in sphagnum bogs and other peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen concentrations range from 0.3-l.3% in ombrotrophic peat of raised bogs. Within ombrogenous bogs, the N concentration of the peat increases in oceanic regions, with the highest concentrations found in blanket bogs on Southern Hemisphere islands. In minerotrophic peat, N concentrations increase with age (depth) as in upland humus. In this paper, I propose that N immobilization is truncated at low levels in ombrotrophic peat because 1) microbial activity is reduced well below that determined by environmental conditions, and 2) N is not limiting decay, in spite of low N concentrations. Consequently, net mineralization of N occurs at C:N quotients 80 to over 100 in inland raised bogs. Nutrient deficiency, probably P deficiency, appears to limit microbial activity and N immobilization. The increased N immobilization in oceanic bogs is attributed to higher Mg inputs that stimulate the biochemical release of P by enzymatic catalysis, and hence increase microbial activity. In ombrotrophi bogs, peat formed during periods of slow accumulation and long residence in the acrotelm has the highest N concentrations but, paradoxically, has also lost more of its original N content than peat that accumulated rapidly. Irregular changes in the anaerobic peat reflect conditions of decay when the peat was in the acrotelm. In a dated profile, N losses were largest during the last 2000 yr. This indicates a change in environmental conditions in the surface peat. Presumably, during this period the bog reached its maximum elevation with respect to the water mound that can be maintained in the peat under the present climatic conditions, and N losses increased as peat accumulation decreased. (author)

  8. Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result

  9. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  10. Natural and artificial radionuclides in forest and bog soils: tracers for migration processes and soil development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide distributions in undisturbed forest and bog soils, mostly situated in Saxony, Germany (Erzgebirge), were studied. Low concentrations of naturally-occurring U and Th decay series nuclides, including 210Pb, and artificial radioisotopes (125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 241Am) were determined using low-level γ-spectrometry. In addition, the activities of 238Pu and 239,240Pu were determined by radiochemical separation and α-spectrometry. 14C and excess 210Pb dating methods were used to date the sampled bog profiles. The different radionuclides show characteristic depth distributions in the forest and bog soil horizons, which were sub-sampled as thin slices. 125Sb, 241Am, 238Pu and 239,240Pu are strongly fixed in soil organic matter. In spruce forest soils, the influence of soil horizons with distinct properties dominates the vertical time-dependent distribution. In ombrotrophic bogs, the peak positions correlated with the year of maximum input of each nuclide. The Sb, Am and Pu ''time markers'' and the 14C and 210Pb dating results correspond very well. Although Cs seems to be relatively mobile in organic as well as mineral forest soil horizons, it is enriched in the organic material. In ombrotrophic bogs, Cs is very mobile in the peat deposit. In Sphagnum peat, Cs is translocated continuously towards the growing apices of the Sphagnum mosses, where it is accumulated. (orig.)

  11. Estimating methane production rates in bogs and landfills by deuterium enrichment of pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.I.; Chanton, J.P.; Glaser, P.H.; Chasar, L.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Raised bogs and municipal waste landfills harbor large populations of methanogens within their domed deposits of anoxic organic matter. Although the methane emissions from these sites have been estimated by various methods, limited data exist on the activity of the methanogens at depth. We therefore analyzed the stable isotopic signature of the pore waters in two raised bogs from northern Minnesota to identify depth intervals in the peat profile where methanogenic metabolism occurs. Methanogenesis enriched the deuterium (2H) content of the deep peat pore waters by as much as +11% (Vienna Standard Mean Sea Water), which compares to a much greater enrichment factor of +70% in leachate from New York City's Fresh Kills landfill. The bog pore waters were isotopically dated by tritium (3H) to be about 35 years old at 1.5 m depth, whereas the landfill leachate was estimated as ~ 17 years old from Darcy flow calculations. According to an isotopic mass balance the observed deuterium enrichment indicates that about 1.2 g of CH4m-3 d-1 were produced within the deeper peat, compared to about 2.8 g CH4 m-3 d-1 in the landfill. The values for methane production in the bog peat are substantially higher than the flux rates measured at the surface of the bogs or at the landfill, indicating that deeper methane production may be much higher than was previously assumed.

  12. Genesis of Spodic Material underneath Peat Bogs in a Danish Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag;

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of wet Spodosols (Aquods) differs from well-drained Spodosols. Two different hypotheses have been suggested to explain the contrasting genesis of wet spodic horizons. This study attempted to determine whether Aquods at a Danish peat-bog wetland site are a result of (i) in situ...... features, were exclusively found in sandy material at the margins of or underneath sphagnum peat bogs, whereas Inceptisols were found on well-drained sandy deposits only. Aluminum content was very high and Fe low in spodic materials with ortstein properties. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR....... Radiocarbon ages of bulk soil C in the spodic horizons had mean residence times of 4500 to 4400 yr. Accordingly, the spodic B horizon was probably formed by strong in situ illuviation of Al-OM complexes before the sphagnum peat bog formation. This suggests that spodic material formation and thus strong C...

  13. Distribution of 35 Elements in Peat Cores from Ombrotrophic Bogs Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2004-01-01

    In ombrotrophic bogs the surface peat layer is supplied with chemical substances only from the atmosphere. Peat cores from these bogs therefore can be used to study temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. In this work epithermal neutron activation analysis was applied for the first time to study the distribution of 35 elements in peat profiles from ombrotrophic bogs. The selected examples were from Finnmark county in northern Norway: one pristine site far from any local pollution source, and another strongly affected by long-term operation of Russian copper-nickel smelters located close to the border. The elements are classified with respect to their behavior in the uppermost 40 cm of the peat, and similarities and differences between the two profiles are discussed. As compared with other more commonly used analytical techniques based on acid decomposition of the sample ENAA has the advantage of providing the total concentrations of the elements.

  14. Hydrology controls methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in swamp and bog forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Pärn, Jaan; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Salm, Jüri-Ott; Sohar, Kristina; Teemusk, Alar

    2016-04-01

    We used data from a global soil, and N2O and CH4 gas sampling campaign. The objective was to analyse N2O and CH4 emissions related to peat conditions in swamp and bog forests. Altogether, we studied 21 swamp and bog forest sites under various climates: 3 alder swamps and 3 artificially drained bog pine forests in Estonia (Jan.-Dec. 2009), 2 bog forests in Transylvania/Romania (Apr. 2012 & June 2014), 3 cypress swamps in the Everglades (Apr. & Dec. 2013), 2 bog forests in West Siberia (July 2013) and a bog forest in Tasmania (Jan.-Feb. 2014). The N2O and CH4 effluxes were measured during 5-6 days with 8-10 opaque static chambers per site. Soil samples were taken for further analysis of pHKCl, NO3-N, NH4-N, soluble P, K, Ca and Mg, totN and C. Groundwater was measured from sampling wells. The most significant independent factor for site average CH4 fluxes was groundwater depth - an exponential relationship; R2=0.42; p=0.0007; n=21. The N2O fluxes showed a decreasing (power) relationship with the C/N ratio - R2=0.53; p<0.0001; n=21. Related to groundwater level, the N2O fluxes peak at around -40cm. Variation in greenhouse gas fluxes was largest at the more favourable conditions - at optimal water table (+5 to -20cm) for CH4 and at low C/N for N2O. The results agree with previous literature but they are the first to draw such conclusions from a global campaign following a uniform protocol.

  15. The core microbiome bonds the Alpine bog vegetation to a transkingdom metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Bog ecosystems fulfil important functions in Earth's carbon and water turnover. While plant communities and their keystone species Sphagnum have been well studied, less is known about the microbial communities associated with them. To study our hypothesis that bog plants share an essential core of their microbiome despite their different phylogenetic origins, we analysed four plant community plots with 24 bryophytes, vascular plants and lichen species in two Alpine bogs in Austria by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses. The overall bog microbiome was classified into 32 microbial phyla, while Proteobacteria (30.8%), Verrucomicrobia (20.3%) and Planctomycetes (15.1%) belonged to the most abundant groups. Interestingly, the archaeal phylum Euryarcheota represented 7.2% of total microbial abundance. However, a high portion of micro-organisms remained unassigned at phylum and class level, respectively. The core microbiome of the bog vegetation contained 177 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (150 526 seq.) and contributed to 49.5% of the total microbial abundance. Only a minor portion of associated core micro-organisms was host specific for examined plant groups (5.9-11.6%). Using our new approach to analyse plant-microbial communities in an integral framework of ecosystem, vegetation and microbiome, we demonstrated that bog vegetation harboured a core microbiome that is shared between plants and lichens over the whole ecosystem and formed a transkingdom metacommunity. All micro- and macro-organisms are connected to keystone Sphagnum mosses via set of microbial species, for example Burkholderia bryophila which was found associated with a wide spectrum of host plants and is known for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26335913

  16. North-West European bogs show that Little Ice Age climate changes may have been driven by changes in solar activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauquoy, D.; Geel, van B.; Blaauw, M.; Plicht, van der J.; Berendse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Bog mosses (Sphagnum species) are sensitive to the position of local water-tables on intact raised peat bogs. These peat bogs are rain-fed, receiving all their water through precipitation alone. After death, the mosses are remarkably well preserved, since they are resistant to decay, and micro-organ

  17. Boil off gas (BOG) management in Spanish liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, E.; Gonzalez-Regueral, B.; Garcia-Torrent, J.; Garcia-Martinez, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Combustibles, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c. Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Spain is a country with six LNG terminals in operation and three more scheduled for 2011. At the same time an increasing number of LNG tanks are under construction to compensate the Spanish lack of underground storage. A method for evaluating the daily boil off generated is presented in this paper. This method is applied to evaluate the increase of BOG to be handle by LNG terminals in 2016, studying the best commercially available solution to be installed. Finally, as a solution to tackle with the BOG a cogeneration plant is suggested. This option will reduce terminal's operational costs increasing its availability. (author)

  18. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in Early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Gleba, Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina

    2009-01-01

    A large systematic dye investigation of prehistoric Danish and Norwegian bog textiles was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection. After the selection of the most suitable protocol for dye extraction and HPLC analysis for this specific group of ar...... of biological dye sources in Early Iron Age Scandinavia. The results clearly indicate that most Scandinavian peat bog textiles originally were dyed and that already during the 1st millennium BC, the populations in Scandinavia were familiar with the dyeing technology....

  19. A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

    1974-01-01

    A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

  20. Pollution of bogs in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia as an indicator of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Mezhibor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in the climatic balance of our planet. Thus, their protection from anthropogenic pollution is an important target for sustainable development of environment. Wetlands have a special significance for the Siberian region of Russia where they take great territories. Peat bogs, being unique ecosystems among wetlands, have properties to save the history of atmospheric pollution. The particularity of peat bogs is determined by their nutrition - they receive chemical elements mostly from the atmosphere. Some peat bogs in Siberia (Tomsk region, Russia were studied to determine the degree of environment pollution during the last century and the change of geochemical composition of peat in time. These studies determined the increase of pollution in the region from the middle of 20th century because of the sharp industrial development. The data on the pollution of peat bogs allow concluding that the geochemical peculiarities of different parts of Tomsk region influenced by different types of industry: nuclear facility, coal-burning power stations and oil refineries. This method can be used together with other methods implemented for the detection of anthropogenic pollution and the results can be used as indicative parameters in environmental change. The results of the studies can be used for the development of recommendations in the decrease of the industry influence for the sustainable development of Siberian region.Keywords: upland peat, air pollution, Tomsk region, indicators of sustainable development

  1. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. Th

  2. Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918–1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918–1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires. -- Highlights: •We reconstruct the subrecent ecological variables using transfer functions. •Calibration was based on long-term averages and modern diatom sampling. •Herbarized bryophytes were used as a source of historic diatom samples. •Bogs were influenced by grazing in the period 1918–1947. •We provide clear evidence of bog pollution by aerial liming in early 90-ies. -- We provide clear evidence that the recent pH/calcium gradient appeared ca 20 years ago owing to aerial liming of forests

  3. Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extende

  4. Do patches of alder bog forest enhance the myriapod diversity in the Carpathians?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wytwer, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Lamorski, T.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Sterzyńska, M.

    Olomouc : Institute of Soil Biology , BC ASCR, 2014. s. 108. ISBN 978-80-86525-28-0. [International Congress of Myriapodology /16./. 20.07.2014-25.07.2014, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alder bog forest * myriapod diversity * Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Field evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow in a Sphagnum dominated peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, E.B.; Baaijens, G. J.; van Belle, J.; Rappoldt, C.; Grootjans, A. P.; Smolders, A. J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal buoyancy-driven water flow in bogs is proposed as a mechanism to replenish the nutrient availability in the top of the acrotelm. In an earlier paper, we provided evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow on theoretical and experimental grounds. In this paper, field evidence is given for the

  6. Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive estimation of age at death has been carried out by using 3D CT scanning of a bog body discovered in 1948 in a peat bog in Borremose (Denmark). The bog body has been dated to the 8th century BC, in the last part of the Bronze Age. The skeletal structures useful for age estimation have...... been visualized from CT-scans using the Mimics software from Materialise. Extensive manual editing was necessary, as is common with bog bodies, since the bones were severely degraded and the ordinary range of Hounsfield Units (HU), used for clinical work, is not suitable. Only the cranium, the left...... morphology of the ilium (Buckberry & Chamberlain 2002). These three methods resulted in age spans of 27 to 51, 20 to 32 and 25 to 73 years, respectively, as age at death. A recent method specifically adapted for 2D and 3D images (Dedouit et al. 2008) was also applied resulting in an estimated age at death...

  7. Isolated peat bog habitats and their food connections: parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) and their lepidopteran hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2012), s. 391-397. ISSN 1366-638X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Paleorefugia * relict peat bogs * specific Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/78u173hn60701033/

  8. Iodine dispersion and effects on groundwater chemistry following a release to a peat bog, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration and behaviour of I was investigated in a sphagnum bog on the precambrian Shield in eastern Manitoba, Canada. A 6 M solution of K1 was released at the base of the bog to simulate a pulse discharge of contaminated groundwater from a fracture in the granitic rock. A network of piezometer tubes was used to monitor the dispersion of the I and the groundwater chemistry over 1 year. Cores of peat were also taken for analysis to supplement the groundwater data and to investigate the sorption of I. The introduced I dispersed 2 m horizontally and 1 m vertically within a month. After this, the system stabilized and further migration was insignificant. The pattern of I dispersion indicated that the bog hydrology was very complex with flow directions changing substantially with depth. The groundwater concentrations of the major cations rose in response to the mass action effect of K displacing them from reaction sites in the peat. Humic materials in the groundwater decreased in size after the KI release and returned to their pre-release conformation one month later. The geometric mean soil distribution coefficient value, Kd, for I in the bog was 1.361/kg, but it was strongly related to pore water concentration. Thus, a single Kd value was insufficient for describing the system. (author)

  9. Small is beautiful: why microtopography should be included in bog hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Willemijn; van der Ploeg, Martine; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Witte, Jan-Philip

    2014-05-01

    Microtopography can have a large effect on flow processes at the soil surface and the composition of soil water. In peat areas, microtopography is shaped by differences in species, the growth rate and transpiration of the vegetation, and the amount of water flowing from higher areas. Microtopography is often represented by a roughness parameter in hillslope hydrological models. In areas without a strong topographical gradient however, microtopography may be underestimated when accumulated in a single parameter, especially in the presence of shallow groundwater systems. In this study, we review the intricate relationships between microtopography, surface runoff, and ecohydrology in systems featuring shallow water tables. In an analogy to surface runoff, the hydrology of a raised bog can be described as a combination of open water flow on a saturated medium, instead of the traditional acrotelm-catotelm concept that only acknowledges the saturated medium. We explored water flow through the microtopography of a raised bog with a simple conceptual model that accounts explicitly for microtopographic features and the changing flow directions these may cause. With this approach we were able to investigate the activation of fast flow paths on different areas of the bog as a function of their wetness level and bog-specific morphological features, such as hummocks and hollows. Our type of approach could be used to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall-runoff responses on raised bogs. In addition, similar approaches could be used to investigate how various runoff regimes affect the mixing of water with different chemical signatures, another driver of variations of the occurrence of plant species.

  10. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat; Turvesoiden ja polttoturpeen radionuklidit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtovaara, J. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K) and radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to {sup 137}Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  11. Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-01-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  12. Fire, Flood, and Famine: Pattern and Process in a Lakeside Bog at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maquam Bog contains Vermonts largest populations of pitch pine, rhodora and chain fern, a statethreatened species. Dendrochronological methods were used to examine...

  13. Influencing factors and stability of BOG generation in LNG receiving terminal%LNG接收站BOG蒸发量的影响因素及稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚军; 夏岩

    2012-01-01

    针对某一液化天然气(LNG)接收站存在的蒸发气体(BOG)量波动大、BOG燃烧排放及单位BOG处理量能耗高等问题,分析了BOG蒸发量的主要影响因素及维持BOG量稳定性的可行性.提出了对现有操作进行基于储罐操作压力调控的优化方案,优化操作后BOG蒸发量稳定性提高,避免了BOG燃烧排放,同时降低了工艺能耗,增加了经济效益.%In allusion to the problems existing in BOG system of one LNC receiving terminal in China, such as great fluctuation of BOG generation, high energy consumption of BOG processing and the resource waste of BOG flare emission and so on, the parameters that affect BOG generation volume and the feasibility of maintaining BOG generation stability were analyzed. The existing operation was optimized by using chemical process simulation software. The optimization concentrated on the regulation of pressure of LNG tanks. The stability of BOG generation in optimized operation was improved and BOG flare emission was avoided, which reduced the energy consumption of BOG processing while increased economic benefit.

  14. Methane cycling in peat bogs: Environmental relevance of methano-Trophs revealed by microbial lipid chemistry. LPP Contribution Series (35)

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is continuing without delay and this is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, 25 times stronger compared to CO2. The increase in methane concentrations in the atmosphere is largely the result of human influences, but there are also natural sources of methane, as for instance peat bogs. Peat bogs store an enormous amount of carbon, three times as much as tropical rain forests, yet are also responsible for about 10% ...

  15. Methanotrophic activity and diversity in different Sphagnum magellanicum dominated habitats in the southernmost peat bogs of Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kip; Fritz, C.; Langelaan, E. S.; Pan, Y.; L. Bodrossy; Pancotto, V.; M. S. M. Jetten; Smolders, A.J.P.; Camp, H. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs living inside the dead hyaline cells or on the Sphagnum mosses are able to act as a methane filter and thereby reduce methane emissions. We investigated in situ methane concentrations and the corresponding activity and diversity of methanotrophs in different Sphagnum dominated bog microhabitats. In contrast to the Northern Hemisphere peat ecosystems the temperate South American peat bogs are domi...

  16. The microbial impact on the sorption behaviour of selenite in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    79Se is among the most important long lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel and selenite, SeO32−, is its typical form in intermediate redox potential. The sorption behaviour of selenite and the bacterial impact on the selenite sorption in a 7-m-deep profile of a nutrient-poor boreal bog was studied using batch sorption experiments. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of selenite decreased as a function of sampling depth and highest Kd values, 6600 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay at 1700 L/kg DW. The overall maximum sorption was observed at pH between 3 and 4 and the Kd values were significantly higher in unsterilized compared to sterilized samples. The removal of selenite from solution by Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. strains isolated from the bog was affected by incubation temperature and time. In addition, the incubation of sterilized surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja samples with added bacteria effectively removed selenite from the solution and on average 65% of selenite was removed when Pseudomonas sp. or Burkholderia sp. strains were used. Our results demonstrate the important role of bacteria for the removal of selenite from the solution phase in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH. - Highlights: • Sterilization of bog samples inhibited the SeO32− removal from simulated bog water. • Bacteria isolated from the bog samples removed selenite from the solution. • Bacteria affect the removal of SeO32− from the solution in a nutrient-poor bog. • Selenite is reduced by the bacteria present in the bog both under oxic and anoxic conditions within the different microniches therein. • That is a prerequisite to read the record of the deformational history in metamorphic rocks

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment ...

  18. Late Holocene palaeohydrological changes in a Sphagnum peat bog from NW Romania based on testate amoebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Cosmin Diaconu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of reconstructing the palaeohydrological changes in an active Sphagnum peat bog from north-western Romania using testate amoebae fauna and organic matter content determined by loss on ignition (LOI. In total 28 taxa of testate amoebae were identified of which 11 were frequent enough to present a remarkable ecological significance. Based on the relative abundance of these taxa nine zones were identified, crossing from very wet to dry climate conditions. The wet periods identified are characterized by taxa like Centropyxis cassis, Amphitrema flavum and Hyalosphenia papilio, while in the dry periods Difflugia pulex and Nebela militaris thrive. We showed that combining qualitative information regarding hydrological preferences with the quantitative percentage data from the fossil record it is possible to obtain information regarding major surface moisture changes from the peat bog surface. Furthermore we identified a link between distribution of testate amoebae assemblages, organic matter variation and minerogenic material.

  19. Variation in methanotroph-related proxies in peat deposits from Misten Bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; De Vleeschouwer, François; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from peat bogs are strongly reduced by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria (methanotrophs) living in association with Sphagnum spp. Field studies and laboratory experiments have revealed that, with increasing water level and temperature, methanotrophic activity increases. To gain a better understanding of how longer term changes in methanotrophic activity are reflected in methanotroph biomarkers, a peat record (0–100 cm) from the Hautes-Fagnes (Belgium) encompassing the past ...

  20. RENOVATION OF EXTRACTED HIGH BOGS IN LATVIA: MINERAL NUTRITION AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AMERICAN CRANBERRY CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    OSVALDE, A.; KARLSONS, A.; PORMALE, J.; NOLLENDORFS, V.

    2012-01-01

    Latvia is a country with abundant peat resources and intensive peat production. Therefore restoration of more than 17,000 ha abandoned and excavated high bogs are an important issue. Scientific researches are necessary to choose the best way for renovation of peatlands after peat cutting. Along with sufficient freshwater supply this specific nutrient-poor and acid growing environment provides the possibilities for commercial cultivation of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) which was ...

  1. Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

  2. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  3. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  4. Summertime greenhouse gas fluxes from an urban bog undergoing restoration through rewetting

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christen; R. S. Jassal; Black, T.A.; N. J. Grant; I. Hawthorne; Johnson, M. S.; S. -C. Lee(Academia Sinica Taipei); Merkens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Rewetting can promote the ecological recovery of disturbed peatland ecosystems and may help to revert these ecosystems to carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. However, rewetting of disturbed peatlands can also cause substantial emissions of methane (CH4) and possibly nitrous oxide (N2O). This study quantified summertime emissions of the three major long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4 and N2O; from undisturbed, disturbed and rewetted soils in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA), a...

  5. Sensitivity of carbon gas fluxes to weather variability on pristine, drained and rewetted temperate bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Urbanová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered to alter the functioning of boreal peatland ecosystems, but the vulnerability of pristine, rewetted and drained peatlands to climate change in temperate regions is unknown. We measured carbon (C gas exchange during wet (2009 and dry (2010 growing periods in pristine, drained and rewetted sites in mountain bogs in the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic. Wetter lawns with sedges and drier habitats dominated by ericaceous shrubs were distinguished and studied at each site. Methane (CH4 emissions, which decreased in the order pristine > rewetted > drained, were generally lower during the 2010 growing period than in 2009 as a consequence of a drought. During the drought in 2010, photosynthesis (PG in the drier habitats with shrub vegetation increased on pristine and rewetted sites, while total respiration (RECO remained the same. Communities dominated by sedges maintained similar rates of PG and RECO during both growing periods. Generally, this led to higher C accumulation during the drought on pristine and rewetted bogs. At the drained bog site, the decreased water table (WT during the drought led to increased PG and RECO, such that the net C accumulation was similar in the two years. Drained peatlands may be more threatened by future climate change than pristine or rewetted peatlands because of their limited buffering capacity for decreased WT. In the case of further decreases in WT, they could lose the peatland vegetation and functions that have partly persisted through decades of drainage.

  6. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog from the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombrotrophic peat bogs, are important natural archives for records of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals. As continental geochemical archives in exclusively recording past atmospheric deposition, they have the unique advantage of a wide global distribution relative to ice cores. Mean annual depositional fluxes of these elements across the peat bog surface are mainly controlled by the atmospheric concentration and total rainfall. To characterize historical trends in the extent and sources of environmental pollution, a peat core from the Pinder Valley (30.05°N, 79.93°E) in the Himalaya was collected. 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides, with well-define fallout records are used for dating the past 150 years of peat accumulation. Beyond this, 14C AMS dating was used for dating the core. The activities of radionuclides were measured using High Purity Germanium Gamma detector and the concentrations of refractory lithogenic (AI, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) and trace elements (Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cr, Sr and Ba) using ICP-MS. In this study, the historical records obtained from the peat bog from the Himalaya extending up to 5000 years show evidence for rising anthropogenic inputs of trace metals to the remote high altitude atmosphere since 1970s, resulting largely from fossil fuel consumption, non-ferrous metal production, coal-powered electricity generation and fertilizer use. Geochemistry of peat and the analysis of past environmental changes will be presented. (author)

  7. Late Holocene palaeoclimate variability: The significance of bog pine dendrochronology related to peat stratigraphy. The Puścizna Wielka raised bog case study (Orawa - Nowy Targ Basin, Polish Inner Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krąpiec, Marek; Margielewski, Włodzimierz; Korzeń, Katarzyna; Szychowska-Krąpiec, Elżbieta; Nalepka, Dorota; Łajczak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The results of dendrochronological and palynological analyses of subfossil pine trees occurring in the peat deposits of the Puścizna Wielka raised bog (Polish Carpathians, Southern Poland) - the only site with numerous subfossil pine trees in the mountainous regions of Central Europe presently known - indicate that the majority of the tree populations grew in the peat bog during the periods ca 5415-3940 cal BP and 3050-2560 cal BP. Several forestless episodes, dated to 5245-5155 cal BP, 4525-4395 cal BP and 3940-3050 cal BP, were preceded by tree dying-off phases caused by an extreme periodical increase in humidity and general climate cooling trends. These events are documented based on analyses of pollen and non-pollen palynomorph assemblages, dendrochronological analyses of the trees, as well as numerous radiocarbon datings of the sediment horizons occurring within the peat bog profile. The phases of germinations, and, in turn, of tree and shrub invasions of the peat bog areas have been closely connected to drying and occasional warming of the regional climate. The last of the forestless periods began about 2600 years ago and continued up to the very recent times. Currently, as a result of desiccation of the peat bog and the lowering of the groundwater level (due to improved water drainage system), pine trees have returned the peat bog again. These results demonstrate that studies of subfossil bog-pine trees are quite effective in documenting and reconstructing periods of humidity fluctuation that occurred within the Carpathian region over the last several millennia.

  8. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  9. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F van Winden

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs. Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

  10. Distribution and speciation of mercury in the peat bog of Xiaoxing'an Mountain, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat bogs in northeastern China contain high levels of mercury from atmospheric deposition. - Most reports on mercury (Hg) in boreal ecosystems are from the Nordic countries and North America. Comparatively little information is available on Hg in wetlands in China. We present here a study on Hg in the Tangwang River forested catchment of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain in the northeast of China. The average total Hg (THg) in peat profile ranged from 65.8 to 186.6 ng g-1 dry wt with the highest at the depth of 5-10 cm. THg in the peat surface was higher than the background in Heilongjiang province, the Florida Everglades, and Birkeness in Sweden. MethylHg (MeHg) concentration ranged from 0.16 to 1.86 ng g-1 dry wt, with the highest amount at 10-15 cm depth. MeHg content was 0.2-1.2% of THg. THg and MeHg all decreased with the depth. THg in upland layer of soil (0-20 cm) was comparable to the peat surface, but in deeper layers THg concentration in peat was much higher than that in the forested mineral soil. THg in the peat bog increased, but MeHg decreased after it was drained. THg content in plant was different; THg contents in moss (119 ng g-1 dry wt, n=12) were much higher than in the herbage, the arbor, and the shrubs. The peat bog has mainly been contaminated by Hg deposition from the atmosphere

  11. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using : Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gaël; Jeroen E Sonke; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg− 1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg− 1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two ...

  12. Origin and development of peat bogs of the Czech Republic during the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankovská, Vlasta

    Novosibirsk : Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Siberian Branch RAS; Institute of Geography RAS; Tomsk State University; Administration of Noyabrsk; Noyabrsk State Committee of Environment Protection; Sibirius, Ltd., 2001 - (Vasiliev, S.; Titlyanova, A.; Velichko, A.), s. 25-27 [West Siberian peatlands and carbon cycle : Past and present - International Field Symposium. Noyabrsk (RU), 18.08.2001-22.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : peat bogs * palaeoecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Eddy covariance measurements of greenhouse gases from a restored and rewetted raised bog ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Christen, A.; Black, T. A.; Johnson, M. S.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Merkens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Wetlands act as a major long-term storage of carbon by sequestrating carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, they can emit significant amounts of methane (CH4) due to anaerobic microbial decomposition. The Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA) is recognized as one of Canada's largest undeveloped natural areas retained within an urban area. Historically, it has been substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, and the restoration efforts in BBECA focus on rewetting the disturbed ecosystems to promote a transition back to a raised bog. A pilot study measured CH4, CO2 and N2O exchanges in 2014 and concluded to monitor CO2, CH4 fluxes continuously. From the perspective of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, CO2 sequestered in bog needs to be protected and additional CO2 and CH4 emissions due to land-cover change need to be reduced by wise management. In this study, we measured the growing-season (June-September) fluxes of CO2 and CH4 exchange using eddy covariance (EC). A floating platform with an EC system for both CO2 (closed-path) and CH4 (open-path) began operation in June 2015. During the growing-season, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) averaged 5.87 g C m-2 day-1 and 2.02 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. The magnitude of GEP and Re were lower than in previous studies of pristine northern peatlands. The daily average CH4 emission was 0.99 (±1.14) g C m-2 day-1 and it was higher than in most previous studies. We also characterized how environmental factors affected the seasonal dynamics of these exchanges in this disturbed peatland. Our measurements showed that soil temperature and soil water content were major drivers of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes. The daily average GHG warming potential (GWP) of the emissions in the growing seasons (from CO2 and CH4

  14. Corixidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera) in two artifical lakes on Irish cutaway raised bog

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Áine; Kavanagh, Brendan P; Reynolds, Julian D

    2000-01-01

    Oceanic raised bogs have long been exploited, both commercially and privately in Ireland. At present, 23,628 ha or 8% remains in an active state (Foss 1998), while at least 60,000 ha will be cutaway by the middle of the next century (Egan 1998). Industrial exploitation through milling involves the gradual removal of layers of peat until the less combustible fen peat is reached. On abandonment, the substrate is generally a mix of acid and alkaline peats and even occasionally lake marl and boul...

  15. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01 with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash

  16. Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

    1996-07-25

    To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

  17. Atmospheric methane sources: Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Sebacher, Daniel I.; Harriss, Robert C.; Bartlett, Karen B.; Sebacher, Shirley M.; Grice, Shirley S.

    2011-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 from an alpine...

  18. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  19. High-resolution records of late-Holocene climate change and carbon accumulation in two north-west European ombrotrophic peat bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauquoy, D; Engelkes, T; Groot, MHM; Markesteijn, F; Oudejans, MG; van der Plicht, J; van Geel, B

    2002-01-01

    The peat stratigraphy (plant macrofossils, colorimetric humification, pollen/non-pollen microfossils, carbon/nitrogen ratios) of three replicate cores from a raised peat bog in the UK (Walton Moss) and a single core from a raised peat bog in Denmark (Lille Vildmose) were examined in an attempt to in

  20. Study of geochemical aspects of the peat bog genesis in eutrophic marshes in West Siberia by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siberian peat bog are the largest in the world. Collecting of data on contaminating elements in Siberian peat deposits is important because no quantitative information has been available till recently. As a rule, the distribution of the concentrations of elements over the vertical profile of the stratigraphic column is used to study the evolution of pollutants in the environment. Using neutron activation analysis the concentrations of nearly 33 elements in 23 layers of peat deposits were determined. The thickness of the deposit is 8.4 m. The results provide a possibility for studying the geochemical aspects of the peat bog genesis down to 10 000 years ago. (author)

  1. Long-term recovery of peat bogs oiled by pipeline spills in northern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sites in northern Alberta, in which oil spills occurred more than 23 years ago, were revisited. The Nipisi spill occurred when a rupture in the underground oil pipeline leaked 60,000 barrels of crude into a 25 acre bog, with very little drainage. It was one of the largest spills in Canadian history. The Rainbow spill was into a fen that was draining by subsurface seepage. Treatments at the time included burning, tilling, and fertilizer addition. The sites were revisited in order to take samples and to evaluate both the natural and enhanced recovery and the effectiveness of the cleanup techniques. The long-term persistence of oil residues and changes in oil character resulting from weathering and biodegradation over time, were studied. Results showed that samples of oil residue and vegetation were still highly contaminated with oil which was heavily degraded. Subsurface samples were contaminated but the oil was only slightly degraded. The Nipisi site still had large areas devoid of vegetation. The unique drainage of peat bogs and the influence it has on rehabilitation was described. It was concluded that although the sites are recovering, they are doing so at a very slow pace and will require some more time to be complete. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Near-neutral carbon dioxide balance at a seminatural, temperate bog ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2016-02-01

    The majority of peatlands in the temperate zone is subjected to drainage and agricultural land use and have been found to be anthropogenic emission hot spots for greenhouse gases. At the same time, many peatlands receive increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by intensive agricultural practices. Here we provide eddy covariance measurements determining net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange at a protected but moderately drained ombrotrophic bog in Northwestern Germany over three consecutive years. The region is dominated by intensive agricultural land use with total (wet and dry) atmospheric N deposition being about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The investigated peat bog was a small net CO2 sink during all three years ranging from -9 to -73 g C m-2 yr-1. We found temperature- and light-dependent ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production, respectively, but only weak correlations to water table depths despite large interannual and seasonal variability. Significant short-term effects of atmospheric N deposition on CO2 flux components could not be observed, as the primary controlling factors for N deposition and C sequestration, i.e., fertilization of adjacent fields as well as temperature and light availability, respectively, exceeded potential interactions between the two.

  3. Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

  4. IMPACTS OF ECOTOURISM ON THE BOG OF SERRA NEGRA - BEZERROS/ PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Florio Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Brejo da Serra Negra” ( Bog of Serra Negra has become an area of interest of manysectors of society, among them tourism in its different forms. Ecotourism is one of thepropellers of tourism and defined by the Institute of Ecotourism of Brazil as : “the practice ofrecreational, sporting or educational tourism using, in a sustainable form, natural and culturalassets, encouraging conservation, promoting environmental awareness and assuring the wellbeing of the populations involved” (Instituto de Ecoturismo do Brasil, 1995. Within thisperspective some questions such as : how does ecotourism is developed in the concernedarea? What are the impacts caused on Brejo da Serra Negra ( Bog of Serra Negra? How isenvironmental awareness being addressed? should be answered.The Brejo da Serra Negra has been the constant aim of ecotourism because of its very uniquebeauty and the fact that it is a climatic sub-humid area in the hinterlands of Pernambuco andattraction to the so-called radical sports, ecologic tours, caverns exploring as well as camping.

  5. Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil Microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, Merritt; McGuire, A. David; Shah, Manesh B.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Jansson, Janet K.

    2015-03-04

    Over 20% of Earth’s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, if thawed may represent the largest future transfer of C from the biosphere to the atmosphere 1. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils 2-4 and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments 3. However, the fate of permafrost C depends on climatic, hydrologic, and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales 5, 6. Here the combination of several molecular “omics” approaches enabled us to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy revealed a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  6. Comparison of different methods to determine the degree of peat decomposition in peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, H.; Knorr, K.-H.; Schellekens, J.; Basler, A.; Hermanns, Y.-M.

    2014-05-01

    Peat humification or decomposition is a frequently used proxy to extract past time changes in hydrology and climate from peat bogs. During the past century several methods to determine changes in peat decomposition have been introduced. Most of these methods are operationally defined only and the chemical changes underlying the decomposition process are often poorly understood and lack validation. Owing to the chemically undefined nature of many humification analyses the comparison of results obtained by different methods is difficult. In this study we compared changes in peat decomposition proxies in cores of two peat bogs (Königsmoor, KK; Kleines Rotes Bruch, KRB) from the Harz Mountains (Germany) using C / N ratios, Fourier transform infrared spectra absorption (FTIR) intensities, Rock Eva® oxygen and hydrogen indices, δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures and UV-absorption (UV-ABS) of NaOH peat extracts. In order to explain parallels and discrepancies between these methods, one of the cores was additionally analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS). Pyrolysis-GC-MS data provide detailed information on a molecular level, which allows differentiation of both changes attributed to decomposition processes and changes in vegetation. Principal component analysis was used to identify and separate the effects of changes in vegetation pattern and decomposition processes because both may occur simultaneously upon changes in bog hydrology. Records of decomposition proxies show similar historical development at both sites, indicating external forcing such as climate as controlling the process. All decomposition proxies except UV-ABS and δ15N isotopes show similar patterns in their records and reflect to different extents signals of decomposition. The molecular composition of the KK core reveals that these changes are mainly attributed to decomposition processes and to a lesser extent to changes in vegetation. Changes in the molecular

  7. Mid- and late Holocene human impact recorded by the Coltrondo peat bog (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnana, Michela; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Martino, Matteo; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs are ideal archives for the study of environmental changes, whether these are natural or human induced. Indeed, receiving water and nutrients exclusively from dry and wet atmospheric depositions, they are among the most suitable matrices for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The present study is focused on the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps, where we sampled the Coltrondo peat bog, in the Comelico area (ca. 1800 m a.s.l.) The knowledge of the human history in this area is rather scarce: the only pieces of archaeological evidence found in this area dates back to the Mesolithic and the absence of later archaeological finds makes it difficult to reconstruct the human settlement in the valley. With the main aim to obtain information about the human settlement in that area we selected a multi-proxy approach, combining the study of biotic and abiotic sedimentary components archived in the 7900 years-peat bog record. Pollen analysis is performed along the core registering human impacts on the area from ca. 2500 cal BP, when land-use changes are well evidenced by the presence of human-related pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), as well as by the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Periods of increased human impact are recorded at the end of the Middle Ages and later, at the end of the 19th century. The analysis of trace elements, such as lead, is performed by means of ICP-MS technique and its enrichment factor (EF) is calculated. A first slight increase of Pb EF during Roman Times is possibly related to mining activities carried out by the Romans. Mining activities carried out in the area are registered during the Middle Ages, while the advent of the industrialization in the 20th century is marked by the highest EF values registered on the top of the core. To help and support the interpretation of geochemical data, lead isotopes ratios are also measured using ICP-MS to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of lead. The 206Pb/207Pb

  8. Development of a high resolution modeling tool for prediction of waterflows through complex mires: Example of the Mukhrino bog complex in West Siberian middle Taiga Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarov, Evgeny A.; Schmitz, Oliver; Bleuten, Wladimir

    2015-04-01

    Water flow through peat bogs differ substantially from mineral soil landscapes. Permeability of the peatlayers decrease dramatically with depth within the permanently watersaturated peat layers (Catotelm), whereas the 10-60 cm thick superficial layer (Acrotelm) has a very high conductivity. Water flows predominantly in this acrotelm layer where an open structure of stems of mosses and few plants hardly limit water flow. By omitting this superficial flow infrastructures in many places block the waterflow. Moreover, the different bog types within a complex bog have different hydrological conductivities. Without considering the typical water-flow of bogs the construction of roads and platforms for oil and gas production threatens downhill mire ecosystems by partly drainage. The objective of our study was to develop a modeling tool which can be used to predict quantitatively spatially distributed water-flow of a bog complex. A part of the extensive bog complex "Mukhrino bog complex" located at the left bank of Irtysh river near the West Siberian town Khanty-Mansiysk' was chosen as modeling area. Water discharge from this bog catchment occurs by "waterfalls" at the East margin where a scarp with ca. 8 m elevation difference has been developed by backward erosion into the bog by the Mukhrino river. From field observations it was proven that no discharge of groundwater occurred at the margin of the bog catchment area. We used PCRaster-MODFLOW as modeling environment. The model area size was 3.8 km2, cell size 5 m and the model included 3 Acrotelm layers and 3 Catotelm layers. Thickness of Acrotelm and Catotelm have been measured by coring in transects. Input data of rain, snow have been recorded in the study area. Evapotranspiration was measured with small lysimeters and crop factors for different land unit types (open water, raised bog, patterned bog, poor fens) were elaborated by water balance modeling (1-D). Land unit types have been mapped by supervised classification

  9. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  10. The sensitivity of Sphagnum to surface layer conditions in a re-wetted bog: a simulation study of water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenaars, J.M.; Gosen, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of the water table in re-wetted bogs varies widely between different locations so that recolonising Sphagnum is vulnerable to water stress, especially when the water table is drawn down in summer. It is important to understand how physical site conditions influence the occurrence of wa

  11. The uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains isolated from a boreal nutrient-poor bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Lusa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains of Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus isolated from an acidic nutrient-poor boreal bog. The tests were run in two different growth media at two temperatures; +4 °C and +20 °C. All bacterial strains removed Ni2+ and Ag+ from the solution with highest efficiencies shown by one of the Pseudomonas sp. and one of the Paenibacillus sp. strains. Highest Ni2+ uptake was found in 1% Tryptone solution, whereas the highest removal of Ag+ was obtained using 1% Yeast extract. Temperature affected the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+, but statistically significant difference was found only for Ni2+. Based on tests carried out for the bacteria in nutrient broths and for fresh samples taken from varying depth up to seven meters from the ombrotrophic bog, from which the bacteria were isolated, we estimated that in in situ conditions of the bog the uptake of Ni2+ by bacteria accounts for approximately 0.02% of the total sorption in the uppermost moss layer, 0.01% in the peat layer, 0.02% in the gyttja layer and 0.1% in the bottom clay layer of the bog. For Ag+ the corresponding values were 2.3% in the moss layer, 0.04% in the peat layer, 0.2% in the gyttja and 0.03% in the clay layer.

  12. Dating raised bogs : New aspects of AMS C-14 wiggle matching, a reservoir effect and climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilian, MR; VanDerPlicht, J; VanGeel, B; Geel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    High resolution AMS dating of Holocene raised bog deposits (Engbertsdijksvenen, The Netherlands) shows natural C-14 variations (wiggles) which can be matched with the dendrochronological calibration curve. Comparison of our results with other, conventionally dated peat cores and the Delta(14)C recor

  13. Summertime greenhouse gas fluxes from an urban bog undergoing restoration through rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting can promote the ecological recovery of disturbed peatland ecosystems and may help to revert these ecosystems to carbon dioxide (CO2 sinks. However, rewetting of disturbed peatlands can also cause substantial emissions of methane (CH4 and possibly nitrous oxide (N2O. This study quantified summertime emissions of the three major long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O; from undisturbed, disturbed and rewetted soils in the Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA, a 20 km2 urban bog located in Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Four sites were chosen that represent different stages before or after ecological recovery in the BBECA: (i a relatively undisturbed scrub pine / Sphagnum / low shrub ecosystem; (ii a Rhynchospora alba / Sphagnum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining more than 65 years ago; (iii a R. alba / Dulichium arundinaceum ecosystem that was disturbed by peat mining 50 years ago and rewetted five years ago; and (iv a disturbed and rewetted surface with little vegetation cover that was cleared of vegetation 16 years ago and rewetted two years ago. The GHG fluxes from soils and ground vegetation were measured at all sites during June–August 2014, using a portable non-steady-state chamber system for CO2 and syringe sampling and laboratory analysis for CH4 and N2O fluxes. All four sites exhibited net GHG emissions into the atmosphere, dominated by CH4, which contributed 81–98 % of net CO2 equivalent (CO2e emissions. Overall, the median CH4 flux for all measurements and sites was ~74 mg m-2 day-1 (~30–410 mg m-2 day-1, 25th–75th percentiles. Fluxes in the rewetted (water-saturated sedge ecosystem were highest, with a quarter of the values higher than 3,000 mg m-2 day-1 (median 78 mg m-2 day-1. Exchange of CO2 due to photosynthesis and respiration was of secondary importance compared to soil CH4 emissions. Continuous CO2 flux measurements using the eddy covariance approach in the disturbed and rewetted R

  14. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  15. Peat bog records of dust deposition over the last 2000 years in the Dolomites (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Segnana, Michela; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Zaccone, Claudio; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of dust composition and fluxes is crucial to help to understand climate variability and climate changes. Dust fluctuations, linked to changes in dry and wet depositions, can indicate more humid or arid conditions, changes in temperature, vegetation cover and wind regimes. Peatlands are unique terrestrial archives that can capture changes in atmospheric deposition over time. Among them, ombrotrophic environments are hydrologically isolated from the surrounding landscapes receiving all the nutrients from precipitation and wind, with no influence from streams and groundwater. In recent decades biological and chemical proxies from peat bogs were extensively used to trace past climate changes, and rare earth elements (REE) in particular have been developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust input in the atmosphere that plays an important role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycle as source for both major and trace elements. Dust deposition in the Italian Alps during the last 2000 years is estimated from the geochemical signature of two ombrotrophic peatlands. The first bog is located in Danta di Cadore (Belluno province, 1400 m a.s.l.), the second one in Coltrondo (Belluno province, 1800 m a.s.l.): they both allow us to have new insights into climate variability in the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps. The REE and the lithogenic elements concentration, as well as the lead isotopic composition were determined by CRC-ICP-QMS along the first meter of each core. For both the archives chronology is based upon independent 14C and 210Pb measurements. Changes in REE concentration through the bogs were related with those of lithogenic elements in order to test the immobility of the REE. Moreover peat humification degree was used to evaluate the hydroclimatic conditions of the bogs and Pb isotopic signature were used to trace dust deposited at Danta di Cadore and Coltrondo bogs and to discriminate natural from anthropogenic source

  16. Small scale controls of greenhouse gas release under elevated N deposition rates in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-06-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain nitrous oxide release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  17. Concentration changes of heavy metals in peat bog from Puscizna Rekowianska (southern Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peat core of 40 cm length was taken from a peat bog in southern Poland and cut in 2 cm sections. The peat core was dated using the natural radionuclide 210Pb with a half life of 22,3 years. Concentrations of eighteen elements have been determined in all peat sections by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). Since the efficiency in determining light, medium and heavy elements by EDXRF depends on some physical parameters, three respective methods for the X-ray analysis were applied. The concentration depth profiles for the determined elements and ash content profile were constructed. The results show strongly time dependent variations in the concentrations of the different elements. An interpretation is given and correlation between possible influence factors are discussed. High concentrations of Pb and Zn indicate their anthropogenic origin. (author)

  18. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. PMID:24630445

  19. Deciphering the environmental and landscape evolution of Sierra Nevada (S Iberia) from bog archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Ramos-Román, Maria J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Ruano, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Sierra Nevada is the southernmost mountain range in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the highest in Europe. Its geomorphology was the result of Pleistocene glaciations that carved out depressions, valleys and cirques at high elevations in the metamorphic basement. Depressions gave rise to lakes and wetlands during the Holocene. Geophysical and organic geochemical analyses of biomarkers (n-alkanes) and bulk sediment (C and N ratio and isotopes) from two high elevation bogs (locally called "Borreguiles"): Borreguiles de la Virgen (BdlV) and Borreguiles de la Caldera (BdlC), have allowed us to track the hydrological evolution of the area and its relationship to climatic fluctuations of the western Mediterranean during the Holocene. Most of the bogs of this area resulted from the natural evolution of former small lakes. The records are 56 cm and 169 cm long, respectively. Geophysical data suggest that we recovered the whole sedimentary record from BdlC; however, there are some post-glacial sediments remaining below the BdlV core that we could not recover due to hard-ground conditions. During the early and middle Holocene, aquatic conditions predominated in BdlV compared to the most recent part of the record (low C/N values and high proportion of aquatic plants (Paq) deduced from the n-alkanes) suggesting a lake environment whose water level gradually decreased until ˜5.5 cal ky BP. This aridity trend is also observed in nearby records such as at Laguna de Río Seco (LdRS), a result of the African Humid Period demise. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes were higher during this interval, which might suggest more algae activity, in agreement with the highest concentrations of the algae Pediastrum in the area. There is an important development of terrestrial plants, a real bog stage (C/N higher than 20, high TOC, lower Paq) in both records from ˜5.5 to 3.5-3.0 cal ky BP. Those hydrological changes in the landscape might be related to a possible change in the source of

  20. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TYPICAL PEAT-FORMING PLANTS LIPIDS OF WEST SIBERIA FOREST ZONE OLIGOTROPHIC BOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Серебренникова

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the molecular composition and distribution of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds in the main bog peat-forming plants – scheuchzeria, sedge, cotton grass and sphagnum moss. It is shown that all plants contain n-alkanes, arenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, esters, aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. The most representative group of hydrocarbons (HC in all bog plants are n-alkanes. Arenas are presented by bi-, tri- and tetracyclic structures. Ketones include acyclic compounds with normal and isoprenoid structure and alicyclic compounds with two, four and five cycles. Alcohols are presented by aliphatic and monoaromatic structures, aldehydes, fatty acids and esters – by compounds with acyclic structure. Tetra- and pentacyclic oxygen-containing substances includes steroid and triterpenoid alcohols and ketones.

  1. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in a forest bog at Stubbetorp, Kolmården : -Indication for a natural formation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Sabina; Thomsen, Frida

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organochlorine compounds emitted from natural sources can participate in environmentally relevant processes affecting life on Earth, such as stratospheric ozone destruction and warming of the troposphere. The aim of this study was to investigate if forest bogs contribute to the environmental input of naturally produced volatile organochlorine compounds. The concentrations of four different volatile organochlorine compounds were determined in ambient air, rainwater, surface water, and...

  2. Isoenzymatic differentiation in putative hybrid swarm population (Pinus mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L.) from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Siedlewska

    2014-01-01

    Isoenzyme variability of eight groups of individuals from different parts of putative hybrid swarm population (P. mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L.) from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog complex was studied at ten enzymatic loci. Differences in allelic frequencies distribution among particular samples of the Zieleniec population were statistically significant at 9 loci, as shown by G2- statistics. Chi-square test indicated that in each of studied subpopulations frequencies of alleles at some loci ...

  3. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round

  4. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

  5. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover pe...

  6. The potential of land cover classification techniques for conservation of Wedholme Flow, a lowland raised peat bog in Cumbria

    OpenAIRE

    Rockall, E.; Milton, E. J.; Anderson, K.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover classification of a lowland raised bog, (Wedholme Flow) Cumbria was undertaken using remotely sensed fine spatial-resolution Ikonos data coupled with airborne LiDAR data. The aim of this work was to provide spatial data which could be used to aid future conservation of the site. Conventional Maximum Likelihood classification was compared to fuzzy object-oriented classification techniques to assess which technique is most suited to spatial assessment of semi-natural peat environme...

  7. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

    2013-02-01

    Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 ± 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 ± 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 ± 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 ± 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 ± 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1

  8. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beetz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs, depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O sources but methane (CH4 sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP by reducing GHG emissions.

    We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007–30 June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence. Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE measurements were carried out every 3–4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled.

    Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 in the first (2007/2008 and the second (2008/2009 measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to −129 ± 231 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr

  9. Non-Pollen Palynomorphs from Mid-Holocene Peat of the Raised Bog Borsteler Moor (Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumilovskikh Lyudmila S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reconstruct regional vegetation changes and local conditions during the fen-bog transition in the Borsteler Moor (northwestern Germany, a sediment core covering the period be tween 7.1 and 4.5 cal kyrs BP was palynologically investigated. The pollen diagram demonstrates the dominance of oak forests and a gradual replacement of trees by raised bog vegetation with the wetter conditions in the Late Atlantic. At ~ 6 cal kyrs BP, the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP demonstrate the succession from mesotrophic conditions, clearly indicated by a number of fun gal spore types, to oligotrophic conditions, indicated by Sphagnum spores, Bryophytomyces sphagni, and testate amoebae Amphitrema, Assulina and Arcella, etc. Four relatively dry phases during the transition from fen to bog are clearly indicated by the dominance of Calluna and associated fungi as well as by the in crease of microcharcoal. Several new NPP types are described and known NPP types are identified. All NPP are discussed in the context of their palaeoecological indicator values.

  10. Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a Northern-Norwegian blanket bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern peatlands hold large amounts of organic carbon (C) in their soils and are as such important in a climate change context. Blanket bogs, i.e. nutrient-poor peatlands restricted to maritime climates, may be extra vulnerable to global warming since they require a positive water balance to sustain their moss dominated vegetation and C sink functioning. This study presents a 4.5 year record of land–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the Andøya blanket bog in northern Norway. Compared with other peatlands, the Andøya peatland exhibited low flux rates, related to the low productivity of the dominating moss and lichen communities and the maritime settings that attenuated seasonal temperature variations. It was observed that under periods of high vapour pressure deficit, net ecosystem exchange was reduced, which was mainly caused by a decrease in gross primary production. However, no persistent effects of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange dynamics were observed, indicating that under present conditions and within the range of observed meteorological conditions the Andøya blanket bog retained its C uptake function. Continued monitoring of these ecosystem types is essential in order to detect possible effects of a changing climate. (letter)

  11. Water and Energy Exchanges over a Subarctic Bog in Northern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, P.; Nadeau, D. F.; Rousseau, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    A significant fraction of the energy supply to eastern Canada and to the northeastern US comes from large hydropower plants located in the Canadian boreal shield. For instance, the La Grande River watershed near James Bay (Canada), hosts a hydropower complex producing nearly 40% of the overall peak load of Quebec. In this northern, remote and vast (≈100,000 km2) watershed, boreal forest is predominant, but wetlands (25% of the surface cover) are of key importance to the river's water budget. Unfortunately, little is known about how boreal wetlands affect regional hydrological processes, and hence, how they contribute to inflows to hydropower reservoirs. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of evapotranspiration processes over boreal wetlands, based on field observations. The study site is a 60-ha bog (53.7°N, 78.2°W) located next to the Necopastic River, a tributary of the La Grande River. The peatland is of ombrotrophic type, meaning that it receives most of its water and nutrients from precipitation. The analysis relies on data collected by a flux tower during a field campaign throughout summer 2012., as well as detailed measurements of the water budget in this sub-watershed. One key finding is that the atmosphere is neutrally-stratified for more than 60% of the summer. The impact of this unusual feature of the atmospheric boundary layer on water vapor fluxes is carefully analyzed. As expected, eddy covariance evapotranspiration data compared well with classical formulas (Priestley-Taylor, Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO), particularly with Priestley-Taylor. Given nearly all these formulations command direct measurements or estimations of net radiation, and that the cost of net radiometers is prohibitive, we tested the less frequently used profile method, which simply requires one or two additional measurement levels of wind speed, temperature and humidity. The latter method led to promising results, especially considering its ease of implementation

  12. No limits to peat bog growth? Transport and thermodynamic constraints on anaerobic organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, C.; Julia, B.; Siems, M.

    2009-05-01

    methanogenesis decreasing to 0 near a critical Gibbs free energy of about -27 KJ mol-1. The results thus suggest that, even in absence of inorganic electron acceptors, respiration rates in peat bogs are likely higher near the redox interface to the atmosphere due to lower respiration endproduct concentrations. Similar effects ensue when rates of transport are elevated or pools of CO2 and CH4 are eliminated. With decomposition being constrained, peat bog growth may occur longer than previously thought.

  13. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Mohammed, E-mail: mallan@doct.ulg.ac.be [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Sonke, Jeroen E. [Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Universite de Toulouse 3, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Piotrowska, Natalia [Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Streel, Maurice [PPM, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Fagel, Nathalie [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium)

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. A chronological framework was established using radiometric {sup 210}Pb and {sup 14}C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 {+-} 1 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of Hg concentration in four cores from Belgian peat bog. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction of Hg deposition over last 1500 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranging from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} are recorded between 1930 and 1980 AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average Hg

  14. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  15. Halogens in porewater of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are one of the largest active terrestrial reservoirs of halogens. Formation of organo-halogens is a key process for the retention of halogens by organic matter and halogen enrichment in peat is strongly influenced by climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release and transport of halogens in peat bogs. In this study we investigated the release of halogens from peat in three peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat porewaters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth of more than 6 m. Halogens and halogen species in porewater were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in porewater are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater suggesting that their release from peat during diagenesis is the major source of halogens in porewater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in porewater were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123μg l−1, and 10–20μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organo-bromine and organoiodine were predominant in porewaters, whereas the release of organo-chlorine compounds from peat appears to be of minor importance. Results show that the release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. Here, proportions of released iodine and bromine follow proportions of released dissolved organic matter (DOM indicating that the release of halogenated DOM is the predominant process of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  16. A stacked record of late-Holocene moisture variability from three raised bogs in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, M. J.; Booth, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    During the past century, drought has caused substantial social, economic, and ecological changes in North America. Semi-arid regions of the western United States have been particularly vulnerable to drought and drought impacts. However, drought has been less frequent and severe in humid regions of North America during the past century, leading to the perception that these regions are not particularly vulnerable to hydroclimatic change. Although the tree-ring record provides a detailed perspective on drought frequency and duration for the past millennium in the western US, much less is known about the long-term history of water balance in humid regions like the Northeast. To better understand the long-term history of moisture variability in this region, we developed records of past hydroclimate variability spanning the past 3000 years from three raised bogs in Maine. We used testate amoeba-inferred water table depths and measurements of the degree of peat decomposition to reconstruct the paleohydrology at each site. Proxy hydroclimate records from these bogs were combined (stacked), creating a single, regional record of hydroclimate variability. Our results reveal that droughts longer or more severe than any recorded during the 20th century have been common in the region, with particularly prominent multidecadal-to-centennial scale droughts centered on ~1800 yr BP, ~1650 yr BP, ~850 yr BP, and ~550 yr BP. Hydroclimate variability was greatest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a time period of relative warmth in much of the Northern Hemisphere. Droughts in Maine during the past century have been associated with northerly wind anomalies and anomalously cool sea surface temperatures in the adjacent northwestern North Atlantic, patterns that are likely associated with broader circulation features such as those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Droughts of the past 3000 years may have been characterized by similar responses to the coupled ocean

  17. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg−1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg−1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m−2 y−1 (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m−2 y−1 between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European–North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. -- Highlights: ► Study of Hg concentration in four cores from Belgian peat bog. ► Reconstruction of Hg deposition over last 1500 years. ► Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranging from 90 to 200 μg m−2 y−1 are recorded between 1930 and 1980 AD. ► The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (e.g. 1300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m−2 y−1. ► The predominant anthropogenic Hg sources were coal

  18. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  19. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40°10'S, 73°30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  20. Vegetation drives belowground biogeochemical gradients and C accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Galka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Peat decomposition and C accumulation is determined by hydrology and climate and by concomitant changes in vegetation and changes in the quality of carbon inputs. Especially changes from moss dominated to vascular plant dominated vegetation affect belowground biogeochemistry and decomposition, as Sphagnum mosses provide refractory, nutrient poor litter, while vascular plants produce more labile litter and may have aerenchymatic rooting systems. In-site variability in moisture and vegetation, e.g. hummock-hollow structures, lawns, and medium scale surface topography, could thus cause large differences in decomposition and C accumulation within a site. In order to understand within-site variability and to see how C accumulation, common decomposition indices, and major biogeochemical parameters in the pore waters are affected by site specific conditions and vegetation, we investigated a moisture-vegetation gradient along a 800 m transect in an oceanic, ombrotrophic bog in Southern Patagonia. Along the transect, conditions changed from wet, Sphagnum dominated (S. magellanicum), to intermediate drier and wetter with Sphagnum/shrubs mixtures, sedges and rushes to more wind exposed, dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). We hypothesized that under arenchymatic vascular plants, decomposition is enhanced and C accumulation is decreased. Vegetation development was elucidated by plant macrofossils and carbon accumulation was attributed to the respective vegetation. The transect demonstrated a high variability of depth records within the bog. At the two most contrasting sites, the uppermost 1 meter persistently dominated by either Sphagnum magellanicum or Astelia pumila had accumulated over 2400 or 4200 years, respectively. Accordingly, the peat under cushion plants was much more decomposed, with C/N ratios of 20-50 compared to C/N ratios of 40-80 under Sphagnum patches. Mixed sites in between had C/N ratios of 30-90, depending on plant community, and

  1. Geochemical Prospecting of a Uraniferous Bog Deposit at Masugnsbyn, Northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armands, Goesta

    1961-01-15

    In connection with prospecting for uranium ores in northern Sweden a peat bog, situated 4.5 km NW of Masugnsbyn, Norrbotten, Sweden and showing a remarkable content of uranium, was discovered. Closer investigation of several samples of the peat indicated that the comparatively high content of uranium and radon was connected with the occurrence of radioactive springs in the region. It was found that four different kinds of water were responsible for the supply of radioactive material to the peat, viz: ground water, surface water, spring water and ground water emanating from fractured rock. The spring water - probably a mixture of ground water and water from the fractured rock - contains uranium to the extent of micrograms per litre. The pH is about 7. The uranium content of the water system deriving from the fractured rock is about 200-300 micrograms per litre. The maximum radon content is about 3000 emans. The pH is >7 and the specific conductivity about 150 x 10{sup -6}/Ohm/cm The radioactive peat is characterised by extremely low gamma radioactivity which may be due to the recent emplacement of uranium by spring waters. It is suggested that the peat in question has served as a 'collector' for uranium, rare earth metals etc., since the pH condition - pH about 7 - was favourable to the settling of these elements. The uranium enrichment seems to be due to a transport of Na, Mg and Ca bicarbonates emanating from dolomite deposits or pegmatitic granite dikes in the vicinity of the peat, the bicarbonate waters serving as carriers of the uranium.

  2. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

  3. Responses of Bog Vegetation and CO2 Exchange to Experimental N and PK Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutinen, S.; Bubier, J. L.; Shrestha, P.; Smith, R.; Moore, T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of nutrient poor wetland ecosystems. It is important to quantify the effect of N input on ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration in these globally important C storages. We address this issue at the temperate Mer Bleue bog, ON, Canada. After 6 years of experimental fertilization, we saw that high N deposition can change mixed Sphagnum and dwarf shrub dominated communities to taller and denser dwarf shrub communities that are losing moss cover, and which might have even lower net C uptake. Now, after 8 years of fertilization and with new treatments we quantify the relationship between the plant community structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange. Three levels of N fertilization were applied with or without phosphorus and potassium (PK) into triplicate plots. We measured light saturated net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), and its components ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis using clear and dark chambers (May-August). Vegetation characteristics were quantified by measuring foliage cover (LAI), amount of woody and foliar biomass, and abundance of moss species (point interception technique), moss growth (cranked wires) and green area of vascular leaves and moss. Addition of PK fertilizer did not alter NEE or its components relative to the control. The 8-year low N addition alone and with PK, and the 4-year fertilization with high N levels resulted in the highest net ecosystem CO2 uptake relative to the control. The ecosystem respiration increased with increasing N input rate. All levels of N fertilization resulted in higher gross photosynthesis than the control, but there was no increasing trend with increasing N input. Vascular foliage increased, while moss cover drastically decreased with increasing levels of N fertilization. At the highest level of N (and PK) addition woody biomass increased at the expense of leaf increment. Dependencies of ecosystem CO2 exchange on the

  4. Geochemical Prospecting of a Uraniferous Bog Deposit at Masugnsbyn, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with prospecting for uranium ores in northern Sweden a peat bog, situated 4.5 km NW of Masugnsbyn, Norrbotten, Sweden and showing a remarkable content of uranium, was discovered. Closer investigation of several samples of the peat indicated that the comparatively high content of uranium and radon was connected with the occurrence of radioactive springs in the region. It was found that four different kinds of water were responsible for the supply of radioactive material to the peat, viz: ground water, surface water, spring water and ground water emanating from fractured rock. The spring water - probably a mixture of ground water and water from the fractured rock - contains uranium to the extent of micrograms per litre. The pH is about 7. The uranium content of the water system deriving from the fractured rock is about 200-300 micrograms per litre. The maximum radon content is about 3000 emans. The pH is >7 and the specific conductivity about 150 x 10-6/Ohm/cm The radioactive peat is characterised by extremely low gamma radioactivity which may be due to the recent emplacement of uranium by spring waters. It is suggested that the peat in question has served as a 'collector' for uranium, rare earth metals etc., since the pH condition - pH about 7 - was favourable to the settling of these elements. The uranium enrichment seems to be due to a transport of Na, Mg and Ca bicarbonates emanating from dolomite deposits or pegmatitic granite dikes in the vicinity of the peat, the bicarbonate waters serving as carriers of the uranium

  5. Pedochronology and development of peat bog in the environmental protection area pau-de-fruta - Diamantina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo da Rocha Campos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the region of the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, peat bog is formed in hydromorphic environments developed in sunken areas on the plain surfaces with vegetation adapted to hydromorphic conditions, favoring the accumulation and preservation of organic matter. This pedoenvironment is developed on the regionally predominant quartzite rocks. Peat bog in the Environmental Protection Area - APA Pau-de-Fruta, located in the watershed of Córrego das Pedras, Diamantina,Brazil, was mapped and three representative profiles were morphologically characterized and sampled for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The organic matter was fractionated into fulvic acid (FA, humic acids (HA and humin (H. Two profiles were sampled to determine the radiocarbon age and δ13C. The structural organization of the three profiles is homogeneous. The first two layers consist of fibric, the two subsequent of hemic and the four deepest of sapric peat, showing that organic matter decomposition advances with depth and that the influence of mineral materials in deeper layers is greater. Physical properties were homogeneous in the profiles, but varied in the sampled layers. Chemical properties were similar in the layers, but the Ca content, sum of bases and base saturation differed between profiles. Contents of H predominated in the more soluble organic matter fractions and were accumulated at a higher rate in the surface and deeper layers, while HA levels were higher in the intermediate and FA in the deeper layers. Microbial activity did not vary among profiles and was highest in the surface layers, decreasing with depth. From the results of radiocarbon dating and isotope analysis, it was inferred that bog formation began about 20 thousand years ago and that the vegetation of the area had not changed significantly since then.

  6. Nitrogen and sulphur deposition and the growth of Sphagnum fuscum in bogs of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. VILE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of ongoing development of the oil sands reserve in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada (56° 39' N, 111° 13' W is an increase in emissions of nitrogen (N and sulphur (S, with an attendant increases in regional atmospheric N and S deposition. Regional land cover across northeastern Alberta is a mixture of Boreal Mixedwood, Boreal Highlands, and Subarctic areas. Peatlands occupy between 22 and 66% of these natural regions, and the land cover of bogs varies between 6.7% in the Mixedwood Region to 46% in the Subarctic Region. Ombrotrophic bog ecosystems may be especially sensitive to atmospheric deposition of N and S. Across 10 ombrotrophic bog sites in the AOSR over four years (2005– 2008, we found no evidence of elevated deposition of NH4 +-N, NO3 –-N, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN; NH4 +-N plus NO3 –-N, or SO4 2–-S, with values measured using ion exchange resin collectors averaging 0.61 ± 04, 0.20 ± 0.01, 0.81 ± 0.04, and 1.14 ± 0.06 kg ha–1 y–1, respectively. Vertical growth and net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, an indicator of elevated deposition, did not differ consistently across sites, averaging 11.8 ± 0.2 mm y–1 and 234 ± 3.3 g m–2 y–1, respectively, over the four years. Neither vertical growth nor net primary production of S. fuscum was correlated with growing season atmospheric N or S deposition. Our data provide a valuable benchmark of background values for monitoring purposes in anticipation of increasing N and S deposition over a broader geographic region within the AOSR.

  7. Ombrotrophic peat bogs are not suited as natural archives to investigate the historical atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Thuens, Sabine; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-17

    As ombrotrophic peat bogs receive only atmospheric input of contaminants, they have been identified as suitable natural archives for investigating historical depositions of airborne pollutants. To elucidate their suitability for determining the historical atmospheric contamination with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), two peat cores were sampled at Mer Bleue, a bog located close to Ottawa, Canada. Peat cores were segmented, dried, and analyzed in duplicate for 25 PFASs (5 perfluororalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), 7 perfluororalkyl sulfonamido substances). Peat samples were extracted by ultrasonication, cleaned up using a QuEChERS method, and PFASs were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Twelve PFCAs and PFSAs were detected regularly in peat samples with perfluorooctane sulfonate (85-655 ng kg(-1)), perfluorooctanoate (150-390 ng kg(-1)), and perfluorononanoate (45-320 ng kg(-1)) at highest concentrations. Because of post depositional relocation processes within the peat cores, true or unbiased deposition fluxes (i.e., not affected by post depositional changes) could not be calculated. Apparent or biased deposition rates (i.e., affected by post depositional changes) were lower than measured/calculated deposition rates for similar urban or near-urban sites. Compared to PFAS production, PFAS concentration and deposition maxima were shifted about 30 years toward the past and some analytes were detected even in the oldest segments from the beginning of the 20th century. This was attributed to PFAS mobility in the peat profile. Considerable differences were observed between both peat cores and different PFASs. Overall, this study demonstrates that ombrotrophic bogs are not suited natural archives to provide authentic and reliable temporal trend data of historical atmospheric PFAS deposition. PMID:22680699

  8. Chlorodiscus natans Peter. & Hans. (Chlorophyceae from a mesotrophic peat bog in Lower Silesia (South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns a very rare and poorly known species of green alga Chlorodiscus natans Petersen & Hansen, discovered in the peat bog "Brzeźnik" near Bolesławiec (Poland. This is the second stand so far discovered in the world. The collected material allowed complementing the knowledge on organization of colonies, morphology and way of hair development. The remaining features, particularly the structure of the cell, are in concordance with the hitherto diagnosis of that species. The paper presents problems connected with the taxonomic affiliation of the species and describes the ecological conditions of habitats occupied by this alga.

  9. Holocene Landscape Dynamics in the Ammer Rv. Catchment (Bavarian Alps) - Influence of extreme weather events and land use on soil erosion using peat bogs as geoarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Manthe, Pierre; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation and the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by erosion events significantly influence soils and fertility as parts of the ecosystem services and play an important role with regard to global carbon dynamics. Soil erosion is strongly correlated with anthropogenic land use since the Neolithic Revolution around 8.000 BP. Likewise the effect of extreme weather events on soil erosion is of great interest with regard to the recent climate change debate, predicting a strong increase of extreme weather events. Aim of this study is the reconstruction of the Holocene landscape dynamic as influenced by land use and climate conditions. In this study peat bogs containing layers of colluvial sediments directly correlated to soil erosion were used as geoarchives for landscape dynamics. A temporal classification of extreme erosion events was established by dating organic material via 14C within both, colluvial layers as well as their direct peat surroundings. Detection and characterization of peat bogs containing colluvial sediments was based on geomorphological mapping, the application of geophysical methods (ERT - electrical resistivity tomography, GPR - ground penetrating radar) and core soundings. Laboratory analysis included the analysis of particle sizes and the content of organic material. We investigated 16 peat bogs following the altitudinal gradient of the Ammer River from alpine and subalpine towards lowland environments. A deposition of colluvial material could be detected in 4 peat bogs, all situated in the lower parts of the catchment. The minerogenic entry into peat bogs occurred throughout the Holocene as revealed by radiocarbon dating. A distinct cluster of erosional events e.g. during the little ice age could not be detected. Therefore, soil erosion dynamics and the appearance of colluvial sediments within peat bogs must rather be regarded as an effect of land use, actually farming and crop cultivation, or small-scale morphodynamic like

  10. Methane production and oxidation patterns along a hydrological gradient in Luther Bog, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Methane emissions from natural peatlands contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric CH4. In the northern hemisphere, where climate models predict rising temperatures and precipitation rates, these emissions are likely to rise. So far, little is known about the change of processes of methane production and oxidation, which influence the total amount of methane emissions, in peatland soils under warmer and wetter climate conditions. Our work focuses on anaerobic CH4 production and aerobic CH4 oxidation processes along a hydrological gradient in an ombotrophic bog in Ontario, Canada that was induced by creation of a reservoir in 1952. Along this transect, four sites were established differing in hydrologic conditions and vegetation patterns. We examined depth profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentrations and delta 13C isotope ratios in the peat using silicon samplers, dialysis chambers and multi-level piezometers. Chamber flux measurements were used to determine carbon fluxes. Isotope mass balances were calculated based on 13C isotope ratios and concentration profiles. By this approach the contribution of anaerobic CH4 and CO2 production to the total ER flux and the amount of oxidised CH4 can be determined. In addition meteorological data, soil temperatures, moisture and water table levels were recorded. By raising data at different sites and dates and with the help of the additionally recorded parameters, we will be able to make predictions about changing CH4 production and oxidation processes due to changing climate conditions. Preliminary results show that CH4 concentrations in the soil profile are higher at the sites which are exposed to stronger water table fluctuations, whereas CO2 concentration levels are lower at these sites. At all sites, CO2 concentrations in the peat are increasing but CH4 profiles are fairly stable. Moreover, isotopic signatures of 13CH4 indicate that the importance of the production pathway changes with depth from acetoclastic

  11. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation - a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, J. P.; Leifeld, J.; Glatzel, S.; Szidat, S.; Alewell, C.

    2015-05-01

    Organic soils in peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can lose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here, we investigated a land use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW) to an extensively managed (GE) to an intensively managed grassland site (GI), all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C / N ratio and bulk density as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15N differed significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top soil layers paralleling an increase in land use intensity owing to differences in peat decomposition and fertilizer application. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimetres. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10-60 cm depth. The ash profiles, not only at the managed grassland sites, but also at the near-natural site indicate that all sites were influenced by anthropogenic activities either currently or in the past, most likely due to drainage. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated the total carbon loss from the sites since the peatland was influenced by anthropogenic activities. Carbon loss at the sites increased in the following order: NW < GE < GI. Radiocarbon ages of peat in the topsoil of GE and GI were hundreds of years, indicating the loss of younger peat material. In contrast, peat in the first centimetres of the NW was only a few decades old, indicating recent peat growth. It is likely that the NW site accumulates carbon today but was perturbed by anthropogenic activities in the past. Together, all

  12. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation – a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW to an extensively managed (GE to an intensively managed grassland site (GI, all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10–60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by δ13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i conversion to grassland, (ii historical drainage as well as

  13. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, John G., E-mail: J.G.Farmer@ed.ac.uk [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Anderson, Peter [Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cloy, Joanna M.; Graham, Margaret C. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, Angus B.; Cook, Gordon T. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of {sup 210}Pb- and {sup 14}C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27 {+-} 15 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the {sup 210}Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this

  14. A 5 Year Study of Carbon Fluxes from a Restored English Blanket Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Dixon, S.; Evans, M.

    2014-12-01

    , climatically marginal blanket bog. However, had water table restoration been conducted alongside revegetation then a significant decline in DOC concentrations could have also been realised.

  15. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  16. Soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and 40K in an Atlantic blanket bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 137Cs and 40K from soil to vegetation was studied in an Atlantic blanket bog ecosystem along the Atlantic coast of Ireland where the dominant vegetation is a mixture of Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum mosses. The impact of soil chemistry and nutritional status of vegetation on the uptake of both radionuclides was also examined. Cesium-137 transfer factors values ranged from 1.9 to 9.6 and accumulation of 137Cs was higher in the leaves of C. vulgaris than in the stems. Transfer factors values for 137Cs in both C. vulgaris and E. vaginatum were similar indicating that for the vegetation studied, uptake is not dependent on plant species. The uptake of 137Cs in bog vegetation was found to be positively correlated with the nutrient status of vegetation, in particular the secondary nutrients, calcium and magnesium. Potassium-40 transfer factors ranged from 0.9 to 13.8 and uptake was higher in E. vaginatum than in C. vulgaris, however, unlike 137Cs, the concentrations of 40K within the leaves and stems of C. vulgaris were similar. The concentration of both 137Cs and 40K found in moss samples were in general lower than those found in vascular plants. (author)

  17. Holocene vegetation and climate change recorded in alpine bog sediments from the Borreguiles de la Virgen, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pollen and magnetic susceptibility (MS) analyses have been carried out on a sediment core taken from a high-elevation alpine bog area located in Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. The earliest part of the record, from 8200 to about 7000 cal yr BP, is characterized by the highest abundance of arboreal pollen and Pediastrum, indicating the warmest and wettest conditions in the area at that time. The pollen record shows a progressive aridification since 7000 cal yr BP that occurred in two steps, first shown by a decrease in Pinus, replaced by Poaceae from 7000 to 4600 cal yr BP and then by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Amaranthaceae from 4600 to 1200 cal yr BP. Pediastrum also decreased progressively and totally disappeared at ca. 3000 yr ago. The progressive aridification is punctuated by periodically enhanced drought at ca. 6500, 5200 and 4000 cal yr BP that coincide in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the Mediterranean and other areas. Since 1200 cal yr BP, several changes are observed in the vegetation that probably indicate the high-impact of humans in the Sierra Nevada, with pasturing leading to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of the bog, Pinus reforestation and Olea cultivation at lower elevations.

  18. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  19. Formation, succession and landscape history of Central-European summit raised bogs: A multiproxy study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Buchtová, H.; Opravilová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2013), s. 230-242. ISSN 0959-6836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bog succession * Larix * testate amoebae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2013

  20. The first record of the boreal bog species Drosera rotundifolia (Droseraceae) from the Philippines, and a key to the Philippine sundews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coritico, F.P.; Fleischmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drosera rotundifolia, a species of the temperate Northern Hemisphere with a disjunct occurrence in high montane West Papua, has been discovered in a highland peat bog on Mt Limbawon, Pantaron Range, Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, which mediates to the only other known tropical, Sou

  1. A Regional Comparison of the Long-Term Carbon Dynamics Within Maritime Peat Bogs Along the St. Lawrence North Shore, Northeastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, G.; Garneau, M.

    2013-12-01

    We have reconstructed the long-term carbon (C) dynamics within maritime bogs from two ecoclimatic regions between the Estuary (Baie-Comeau) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Havre-St.-Pierre) in northeastern Canada. The long-term average rates of C accumulation (LORCA) were calculated for eight peatlands. We also compared the Holocene variations in C sequestration between the peatlands to evaluate the influence of climate variability on their long-term C balance. The accumulation/decay processes were linked with changes in vegetation and water table depth. Overall, the LORCA decrease with the age of the peat deposits likely due to constant anoxic decay but they are significantly lower in Havre-St.-Pierre (16-46 g C m-2 yr-1) than in Baie-Comeau (53-68 g C m-2 yr-1). The regional differences in the LORCA reveal a pervasive climatic control on the long-term C balance. Our data suggest that the C accumulation in these bogs was driven by complex interactions between the peat accumulation/decay processes and the climate-mediated water table fluctuations. The higher C accumulation rates in the bogs of Baie-Comeau were promoted by stable ecohydrological conditions whereas the C balance in the bogs of Havre-St.-Pierre was more easily disrupted by past hydroclimatic changes especially during the Neoglacial cooling.

  2. Methanotrophic activity and diversity in different Sphagnum magellanicum dominated habitats in the southernmost peat bogs of Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. M. Jetten

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs living in and on the Sphagnum mosses are able to act as a methane filter and thereby reduce methane emissions. We investigated in situ methane concentrations and the corresponding activity and diversity of methanotrophs in different Sphagnum dominated bog microhabitats. In contrast to the Northern Hemisphere peat ecosystems the temperate South American peat bogs are dominated by one moss species; Sphagnum magellanicum. This permitted a species-independent comparison of the different bog microhabitats. Potential methane oxidizing activity was found in all Sphagnum mosses sampled and a positive correlation was found between activity and in situ methane concentrations. Substantial methane oxidation activity (23 μmol CH4 gDW−1 day−1 was found in pool mosses and could be correlated with higher in situ methane concentrations (>35 μmol CH4 l−1 pore water. Little methanotrophic activity (4 gDW−1 day−1 was observed in living Sphagnum mosses from lawns and hummocks. Methane oxidation activity was relatively high (>4 μmol CH4 gDW−1 day−1 in Sphagnum litter situated at depths around the water levels and rich in methane. The total bacterial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the methanotrophic communities were studied using a pmoA microarray and a complementary pmoA clone library. The methanotrophic diversity was similar in the different habitats of this study and surprisingly comparable to the methanotrophic diversity found in peat mosses from the Northern Hemisphere. The pmoA microarray data indicated that both alpha- and gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were present in all Sphagnum mosses, even in those mosses with a low initial methane oxidation activity. Prolonged incubation of Sphagnum mosses from lawn and hummock with methane revealed that the methanotrophic community present was viable and showed an increased activity within 15

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical composition of bog iron ore as a resource for prehistoric iron production - A case study of the Widawa catchment area in Eastern Silesia, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelemann, Michael; Bebermeier, Wiebke; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Spreading from the Near East in the declining Bronze Age from the 2nd millennium BCE onwards, the technique of iron smelting reached Eastern Silesia, Poland, in approximately the 2nd century BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age). At this time the region of the Widawa catchment area was inhabited by the Przeworsk culture. While the older moraine landscape of the study area lacks ores from geological rock formations, bog iron ores were relatively widespread and, due to their comparatively easy accessibility, were commonly exploited for early iron production. In this poster the mineralogical and elemental composition of local bog iron ore deposits and iron slag finds, as a by-product of the smelting process, are investigated. The crystalline mineralogical composition of local bog iron ores is dominated by quartz (SiO2) and goethite (α FeO(OH)), in contrast to slag samples in which fayalite (Fe2SiO4), wüstite (FeO) and quartz, with traces of goethite, represent the main minerals. Ores and slags are both characterized by notable hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) contents. Analyzed bog iron ore samples show iron contents of up to 64.9 mass% Fe2O3 (45.4 mass% Fe), whereas the iron contents of bloomery slags vary between 48.7 and 72.0 mass% FeO (37.9 and 56.0 mass% Fe). A principal component analysis of the element contents, which were quantified by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-ED-XRF), indicates local variations in the elemental composition. Our results show that bog iron ores are relatively widely distributed with spatially varying iron contents along the Widawa floodplain but present-day formation conditions (e.g. different ground-water levels) are negatively affected by modern land-use practices, such as agriculture and melioration measures.

  4. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  5. [Decline of Activity and Shifts in the Methanotrophic Community Structure of an Ombrotrophic Peat Bog after Wildfire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, O V; Belova, S E; Kulichevskaya, I S; Dedysh, S N

    2015-01-01

    This study examined potential disturbances of methanotrophic communities playing a key role in reducing methane emissions from the peat bog Tasin Borskoye, Vladimir oblast, Russia as a result of the 2007 wildfire. The potential activity of the methane-oxidizing filter in the burned peatland site and the abundance of indigenous methanotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced in comparison to the undisturbed site. Molecular analysis of methanotrophic community structure by means of PCR amplification and cloning of the pmoAgene encoding particulate methane monooxygenase revealed the replacement of typical peat-inhabiting, acidophilic type II methanotrophic bacteria with type I methanotrophs, which are less active in acidic environments. In summary, both the structure and the activity of the methane-oxidizing filter in burned peatland sites underwent significant changes, which were clearly pronounced even after 7 years of the natural ecosystem recovery. These results point to the long-term character of the disturbances caused by wildfire in peatlands. PMID:27169243

  6. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: Determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and has accumulated high concentrations of Fe (up to 40 wt-%), heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu), and As. In this study, the peat was characterised with respect to composition and metal content with depth. The peat pore water was analysed and compared to a spring water emerging at the site. Sequential extraction, using a Tessier scheme optimised for iron-rich sediments, was used to understand the relative roles of binding mechanisms involved in the retention of different metals in the peat. Significant difference in depth distribution was found between different metals bound in the peat, which was partly attributed to varying compositions of the peat with depth and different dominant binding mechanisms for different metals. - Sorption and precipitation processes are important in metal retention over a long time

  8. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  9. The sensitivity of Sphagnum to surface layer conditions in a re-wetted bog: a simulation study of water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Schouwenaars

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the water table in re-wetted bogs varies widely between different locations so that recolonising Sphagnum is vulnerable to water stress, especially when the water table is drawn down in summer. It is important to understand how physical site conditions influence the occurrence of water stress so that adequate management measures may be applied. In the work reported here, the respective roles of the hydrophysical properties of the uppermost peat layer and micro-scale site conditions are investigated using a Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP model, which simulates water table fluctuations and soil moisture conditions. The variables are: (a cover and thickness of the Sphagnum layer, (b microtopography (presence of open water, (c hydrophysical properties of the uppermost soil layer and (d rate of downward seepage. Data for the model are derived from field observations, from published literature, and from laboratory determinations of moisture characteristic curves and saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k–h–Θ relationships for peat. The simulation indicates that microtopography and the thickness of the moss layer are the dominant factors affecting groundwater behaviour and the risk of water stress. Sphagnum layers a few centimetres thick should be relatively well supplied with water from the underlying peat but as the Sphagnum carpet thickens, water movement through the unsaturated zone to the growing capitula will become increasingly difficult. Sphagnum layers appear to be most vulnerable to water stress when they are 5–15 cm thick. Beyond this thickness, water stored within the Sphagnum layer itself begins to offset the decline in the flux from below, and thus to reduce the dependence of the water supply to the stem tips on the maintenance of hydraulic continuity with the water table. The results obtained using the model underline the close interdependence between Sphagnum development and the accompanying

  10. The first record of the boreal bog species Drosera rotundifolia (Droseraceae) from the Philippines, and a key to the Philippine sundews

    OpenAIRE

    Coritico, F.P.; Fleischmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drosera rotundifolia, a species of the temperate Northern Hemisphere with a disjunct occurrence in high montane West Papua, has been discovered in a highland peat bog on Mt Limbawon, Pantaron Range, Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, which mediates to the only other known tropical, Southern Hemisphere location in New Guinea and the closest known northern populations in southern Japan and south-eastern China. A dichotomous key to the seven Drosera species of the Philippines is gi...

  11. Peat-bog accumulation rate in the Andes of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia (Argentina and Chile) during the last 43,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabassa, J.; Heusser, C.J.; Coronato, A. (CADIC-CONICET, Ushuaia (Argentina))

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of biogenic deposits formed in peat-bogs and lakes of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia have been analysed in order to ascertain their internal structure and the accumulation rate of organic matter. This rate, estimated between 0.5 y 0.7 mm/yr for the Late Quaternary, reflects, among other factors, climatic changes and the compaction processes of the sediments. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Denitrification at two nitrogen-polluted, ombrotrophic Sphagnum bogs in Central Europe: Insights from porewater N2O-isotope profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, M.; Gebauer, G.; Thoma, M.; Curik, J.; Štěpánová, M.; Jacková, I.; Buzek, F.; Bárta, J.; Santrucková, H.; Fottová, D.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2015), s. 48-57. ISSN 0038-0717 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1782 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Denitrification * Nitrogen isotopes * Nitrous oxide * Ombrotrophic bog * Porewater * Sphagnum * Wetland * Engineering controlled terms * Meteorological problems Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kubena-0439538.pdf

  13. Shift from Acetoclastic to H2-Dependent Methanogenesis in a West Siberian Peat Bog at Low pH Values and Isolation of an Acidophilic Methanobacterium Strain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsyurbenko, O R; Friedrich, M W; Simankova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A. N.; Golyshin, P N; Timmis, K N; Conrad, R.

    2007-01-01

    Methane production and archaeal community composition were studied in samples from an acidic peat bog incubated at different temperatures and pH values. H(2)-dependent methanogenesis increased strongly at the lowest pH, 3.8, and Methanobacteriaceae became important except for Methanomicrobiaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. An acidophilic and psychrotolerant Methanobacterium sp. was isolated using H(2)-plus-CO(2)-supplemented medium at pH 4.5.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG. However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2 and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2 were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB and global warming potential (GWP balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2 varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from –201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m–2 a–1 due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (–118.8 ± 48.1 and −78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m–2 a–1. The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m–2 a–1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between –183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m–2 a–1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site –114.1 ± 48

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-03-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between -183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site -114.1 ± 48.1 and -75.3 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1

  16. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  17. The occurence of rare and protected plant species on the peat bog near Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a pilot field study, conducted in July 2007, designed to make floristic evaluation of the peat bog area adjacent to the western shore of Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. The main aim of the study was to confirm the occurrence of populations of rare and legally protected plant species in this area and to identify, on a preliminary basis, habitat conditions in their stands. The occurrence of populations of the following strictly protected plant species: Betula humilis, Salix lapponum, Salix myrtilloides, Carex limosa, Drosera intermedia, Drosera rotundifolia, Dactylorhiza incarnata; and partially protected species: Menyanthes trifoliata, has been confirmed in the studied peat bog. Both an investigation of abiotic factors, conducted in situ, and an analysis of the species composition of the flora in terms of habitat preferences of particular groups of taxa have shown that the described rare plant species find suitable conditions for their growth and development in the studied peat bog.

  18. A Record of Moisture History in Hawaii since the Arrival of Humans Inferred from Testate Amoebae and Cladocera Fossils Preserved in Bog Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K.; Kim, S. H.; Hotchkiss, S.

    2015-12-01

    Around AD 800, Polynesians arrived on the Hawaiian Islands where they expanded and intensified distinct agricultural practices in the islands' wet and dry regions. Dryland farming productivity in particular would have been sensitive to atmospheric rearrangements of the ENSO and PDO systems that affect rainfall in Hawaii. The few detailed terrestrial paleoclimate records in Hawaii are mainly derived from vegetation proxies (e.g. pollen, seeds, fruits, and plant biomarkers) which are heavily influenced by widespread landscape modification following human arrival. Here we present initial results of an independent paleomoisture proxy: fossil remains of moisture-sensitive testate amoebae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) and cladocera (water fleas) preserved in continuous bog sediments on Kohala Volcano uplsope of the ancient Kohala agricultural field system, one of the largest dryland field systems in Hawaii. Hydrologic conditions inferred from testate amoebae and cladoceran fossil assemblages correlate with observed decadal moisture regimes in Hawaii and state changes of the PDO system during the last century. Testate ameoabe and cladoceran fossils in older sediments reveal an alternating history of very wet, lake-forming conditions on the bog surface to periods when bog soils were much drier than today's, demonstrating that this method can be paired with vegetation proxies to provide a better understanding of hydroclimate variability in prehistoric Hawaii.

  19. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  20. Relationships among the water table depth, water and surface elevations, and the composition of vegetation in a temperate hummocky, ombrogenic, oligotrophic raised shrub bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulet, Nigel; Wilson, Paul; Malhora, Avni

    2016-04-01

    Microtopography, such as hummocks and hollows, pools, ridges and lawns are features that are believed to be a consequence of feedbacks among the local hydrology and the production and decomposition of organic material. To deductively test some of the postulates derived from several theoretical studies of the development of patterning on peatlands, over two consecutive years we examined the spatial and temporal relationships among the hummock - hollow microtopography, water table depths (WTD) and water elevations (WTE) in a raised, ombrotrophic bog (Mer Bleue, Canada) that has extensive and well developed microtopography. In each of two 20 x 20 m plots we measured the surface elevation at more than 1,000 points, the WTDs manually every two to three weeks at 100 wells located on a 2 x 2 m grid, and WTDs continuously at more than 20 sites at adjacent hummocks and hollows. In addition to the physical measurements we also measured the spatial pattern of the vegetation communities. The average difference in elevation between the hummocks and hollows was ~ 0.5 m and as was expected the WTDs were shallower in the hollows than under the hummocks. The spatial variability in WTDs over time was very consistent. We tested the coherence between WTDs and surface elevation and found for a total of 46 spatial surveys over the two years and both plots the slopes from mixed modelled regressions were not significantly different for over 80% of the surveys. The difference in WTEs in adjacent microtopographic features (i.e. water levels referenced to a common datum), which determine the hydraulic gradients between hummocks and hollows, was quite small. The small gradients and the consistent coherence between WTDs and surface elevation suggests there is little lateral movement of water among the microtopographic features. The vegetation analysis showed the plot closer to the center, the apex, of the bog had stronger relationships among WTD-microtopography and vegetation than a plot

  1. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L. were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized distances between them being nearly 50% significantly different from 0. The sample studied in this respect is distinctly different from pure stands of both putative parental species (i.e. Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris. Every plant studied shows a different combination of traits typical (or nearly typical for both the above-mentioned species and traits that are truly intermediate between them. The results support the frequently expressed opinion that the mountain pine population from the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem" is, in fact, a hybrid swarm formed by hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris.

  2. Isoenzymatic differentiation in putative hybrid swarm population (Pinus mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L. from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzyme variability of eight groups of individuals from different parts of putative hybrid swarm population (P. mugo Turra x P. sylvestris L. from "Torfowisko Zieleniec" peat-bog complex was studied at ten enzymatic loci. Differences in allelic frequencies distribution among particular samples of the Zieleniec population were statistically significant at 9 loci, as shown by G2- statistics. Chi-square test indicated that in each of studied subpopulations frequencies of alleles at some loci (2-5 differed significantly from frequencies expected for a homogeneous population. Heterozygosity values and also a genotypic polymorphism in studied population confirmed the existence of large genetic variation. Wright's fixation indices (F showed some excess of homozygotes in majority studied groups of individuals, notably higher in some subpopulations. Gene diversity coefficient for 8 subpopulations was high (GST=9.4%. However, when MDH C locus was excluded from the calculation, its value decreased to 2.8%. Presented data demonstrated notable differentiation of subpopulations within studied pine population, comparable with the differentiation among different populations of coniferous species.

  3. Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

  4. Preliminary palynological analysis of a Holocene peat bog from Apakará-tepui (Chimantá Massif, Venezuelan Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary palynological analysis of a Holocene peat bog from Apakará-tepui (Chimantá Massif, Venezuelan Guayana.- This paper reports the preliminary palynological results, at a millennial scale, of a Holocene peat bog sequence, since around 8.0 cal kyr BP to the present, obtained in the summit of the Apakará-tepui (2170 m elevation, in the Chimantá massif, located in the neotropical Venezuelan Guayana. The early Holocene was characterized by a vegetation different to the present, in which trees and shrubs dominated and Myrica (Myricaceae was the main element of the gallery forests around a permanent water body, as indicated by the continuous presence of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae in high percentages. Around the middle Holocene (5.3 cal kyr BP, a shift towards more herbaceous and non-flooded communities occurred, and the present day vegetation established. This has been interpreted as a shift from warmer and wetter climates to cooler and drier conditions. The first phase, from 8.0 to 5.3 cal kyr BP, falls within a warming phase widely documented worldwide, known as the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The millennial trends shown here will be refined with further studies at centennial to decadal time scales. These results support the hypothesis that the best sites to detect paleoenvironmental changes in the summits of the tabular Guayana mountains are close to altitudinal ecotones.

    Análisis palinológico preliminar de una turbera holocena del Apakará-tepui (Macizo de Chimantá, Guayana venezolana.- Este artículo presenta los resultados palinológicos preliminares, a escala de milenios, de una secuencia holocena, desde 8.0 cal kyr BP hasta la actualidad, obtenida en la cima del Apakará-tepui (2170 m de altitud, en el Macizo del Chimantá, situado en la región neotropical de la Guayana venezolana. El Holoceno temprano se caracterizó por una vegetación diferente a la actual, dominada por árboles y arbustos, en la que

  5. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2016-04-01

    Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. Despite covering only 12 % of the UK land area, peatlands are estimated to store approximately 20 times more carbon than the UK's forests, which cover 13% of the land area. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of 4000 km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the 1980s, when over 670 km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning. Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers. Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland (17 years old); and a more recently restored site (12 years old). The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of 858 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of 501g C m-2 yr-1 and 575g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and

  6. Halogens in pore water of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Halogens are strongly enriched in peat and peatlands and such they are one of their largest active terrestrial reservoir. The enrichment of halogens in peat is mainly attributed to the formation of organohalogens and climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release of halogens from the peat substrate and the distribution of halogens in the peat pore water. In this study we have investigated the distribution of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water of three pristine peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat pore waters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth greater than 6m. Halogens and halogen species in pore water were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in pore water are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123 μg l−1, and 10–20 μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organobromine and organoiodine were the predominant species in pore waters, whereas chlorine in pore water was mostly chloride. Advection and diffusion of halogens were found to be generally low and halogen concentrations appear to reflect release from the peat substrate. Release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. It has been concluded that the release of halogenated dissolved organic matter (DOM is the predominant mechanism of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  7. CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog: A source of 13C-depleted CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux and δ13C of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog (pH = 3.5), located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, USA, were measured over two annual cycles. The CH4 flux ranged from 1-380 mg CH4-C/m2d, with an annual average of 73-mg CH4-C/m2d, and correlated with soil temperature. Ebullition accounted for 89% of the methane flux. The average δ13C of the CH4 flux was -74 ± 5 per-thousand, with no relationship between the δ13C and flux of CH4. The δ13C of CH4 and CO2 in bubbles disturbed from the peat soil was -73 ± 4 and -2 ± 3 per-thousand, respectively. The δD of CH4 in bubbles was -308 ± 35 per-thousand, and the δD of soil water was -65 ± 3 per-thousand. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using 14C-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important CH4 precursor and that CO2 reduction could account for all of the CH4 production. The in situ kinetic isotope effect for CO2 reduction (αr), calculated using the δ13C of soil water CO2 and the CH4 flux, was 0.932 ± 0.007. The δ13C of CH4 and CO2 coexisting in soil waters provides an isotopic tracer of CH4 production via CO2 reduction

  8. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. PMID:26971209

  9. Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. The occurence of rare and protected plant species on the peat bog near Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland)

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Pogorzelec; Barbara Banach

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot field study, conducted in July 2007, designed to make floristic evaluation of the peat bog area adjacent to the western shore of Lake Bikcze (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland). The main aim of the study was to confirm the occurrence of populations of rare and legally protected plant species in this area and to identify, on a preliminary basis, habitat conditions in their stands. The occurrence of populations of the following strictly protected plant spe...

  11. Free-living nematodes (Nematoda) of the Rokytská Slať and the Chalupská Slať peat bogs in the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 25. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : free -living nematodes * Rokytská Slať peat bog * Chalupská Slať peat bog Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-destructive methods for peat layer assessment in oligotrophic peat bogs: a case study from Poiana Ştampei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Practices currently employed in the investigation and characterisation of peat deposits are destructive and may irremediable perturb peat bog development even in cases when exploitation is not carried out. We investigated the correlation between vegetation characteristics in the active area of Poiana Ştampei peat bog, Romania, and the underlying peat layer depth, aiming at establishing a non-destructive method of peat layer depth estimation. The presence of the Sphagneto-Eriophoretum vaginati association, dominated by Sphagnum fimbriatum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris and Betula verrucosa was found to predict the existence of the peat layer but not its depth. Out of the seven identified vegetation types, one type was associated with a very thin or no peat layer, one type was characterised by the presence of a thick (over 100 cm peat layer and five types indicated the presence of variable average depths of the peat layer. pH values correlated with peat layer depth only within the vegetation type associated with thick peat layers.

  14. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  15. Fra bog til film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelern, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Efter en historisk oversigt over samspillet mellem film og litteratur i dansk film, opstilles en råkke begreber, som filmatiseringer kan analyseres ud fra. Der ses pa det litteråre vårks status — evt. som klassiker eller bestseller. Der ses pa de centrale filmatiseringsproblemer, forhold som pråger...

  16. A flooded bog

    OpenAIRE

    French, Percy (Irish painter, draftsman, and illustrator, 1854-1920)

    2000-01-01

    Percy French was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. On termination of his employment as Cavan Board of Works Engineer in the mid 1880s, he devoted himself to composing, singing and watercolour painting. He often utilized both wet and dry brush techniques and specialized in mists and moors.

  17. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded

  18. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach

  19. Nutrient load can lead to enhanced CH4 fluxes through changes in vegetation, peat surface elevation and water table depth in ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutinen, Sari; Bubier, Jill; Larmola, Tuula; Humphreys, Elyn; Arnkil, Sini; Roy, Cameron; Moore, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands, particularly in temperate areas, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. It is vital to understand the temporal scales and mechanisms of the changes, because peatlands are long-term sinks of C, but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. Rainwater fed (ombrotrophic) bogs are considered to be vulnerable to nutrient loading due to their natural nutrient poor status. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, now for 11-16 years with N (NO3 NH4) at 0.6, 3.2, and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1 (~5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition during summer months) with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured CH4 fluxes with static chambers weekly from May to September 2015 and peat samples were incubated in laboratory to measure CH4 production and consumption potentials. Methane fluxes at the site were generally low, but after 16 years, mean CH4 emissions have increased and more than doubled in high nitrogen addition treatments if P and K input was also increased (3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2yr-1 with PK), owing to drastic changes in vegetation and soil moisture. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new species, typical to minerogenic mires, which together with increased decomposition have led to decreased surface elevation and to higher water table level relative to the surface. The trajectories indicate that the N only treatments may result in similar responses, but only over longer time scales. Elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients to peatlands may increase loss of C not only due to changes in CO2 exchange but also due to enhanced CH4 emissions in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions

  20. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The 210Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the 137Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric 210Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m-2 y-1, which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m-2 y-1 with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 μg g-1. The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.

  1. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, K.; Xia, W.; Lu, X.; Wang, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology & Environment

    2010-09-15

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The {sup 210}Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the {sup 137}Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric {sup 210}Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1} with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 {mu} g g{sup -1}. The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.

  2. Uptake of radioiodide by Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia sp. and Rhodococcus sp. isolated from a boreal nutrient-poor bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusa, Merja; Lehto, Jukka; Aromaa, Hanna; Knuutinen, Jenna; Bomberg, Malin

    2016-06-01

    Radionuclides, like radioiodine ((129)I), may escape deep geological nuclear waste repositories and migrate to the surface ecosystems. In surface ecosystems, microorganisms can affect their movement. Iodide uptake of six bacterial strains belonging to the genera Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus isolated from an acidic boreal nutrient-poor bog was tested. The tests were run in four different growth media at three temperatures. All bacterial strains removed iodide from the solution with the highest efficiency shown by one of the Paenibacillus strains with >99% of iodide removed from the solution in one of the used growth media. Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and one of the two Paenibacillus strains showed highest iodide uptake in 1% yeast extract with maximum values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) ranging from 90 to 270L/kg DW. The Burkholderia strain showed highest uptake in 1% Tryptone (maximum Kd 170L/kg DW). The Paenibacillus strain V0-1-LW showed exceptionally high uptake in 0.5% peptone +0.25% yeast extract broth (maximum Kd>1,000,000L/kg DW). Addition of 0.1% glucose to the 0.5% peptone +0.25% yeast extract broth reduced iodide uptake at 4°C and 20°C and enhanced iodide uptake at 37°C compared to the uptake without glucose. This indicates that the uptake of glucose and iodide may be competing processes in these bacteria. We estimated that in in situ conditions of the bog, the bacterial uptake of iodide accounts for approximately 0.1%-0.3% of the total sorption of iodide in the surface, subsurface peat, gyttja and clay layers. PMID:27266299

  3. Deciphering human-climate interactions in ombrotrophic peat record : REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Allan, Mohamed; Le Roux, Gael; Mattielli, Nadine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek

    2013-04-01

    A core of 173 cm of ombrotrophic Misten peat bog from the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau in Eastern Belgium provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition allowing to trace dust fluxes in West Europe during the historical record (last 2500 years). REE and lithogenic element analyses, as well as the Nd isotopes, were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in peat layers dated by 210Pb and 14C. The parallel variations of REE concentration with lithogenic conservative elements confirms that REE are immobile in the studied peat bog and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at BC300, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700AD, recording either influence of human activities (regional erosion due to forest clearing and soil cultivation activities) or local and regional climate changes. Using Nd isotope allows to decipher between local and distal causes. The ENd variability (-13 to -9) is interpreted by a mixing between dust sources from local soils and desert particles. Three periods characterised by dominant-distal sources (at 320AD, 1000 AD and 1700AD) are consistent with local wetter intervals as indicated by lower humification degree. Local erosion prevails durier drier (higher humification) intervals (-100AD, 600AD). On a global scale more distal supplies are driven during colder periods, in particular Oort and Maunder minima. Combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing.

  4. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, K; Xia, W; Lu, X; Wang, G

    2010-09-01

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the (137)Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric (210)Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m(-2)y(-1), which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m(-2)y(-1) with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 microg g(-1). The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection. PMID:20621757

  5. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  6. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  7. Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (47°48' N; 11°19' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half

  8. 雨养沼泽泥炭腐植酸的性质和结构%Properties and Structure of Raised Bog Peat Humic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maris Klavins; Oskars Purmalis; 韩征; 赵红艳(译)

    2014-01-01

    腐植酸类物质是土壤、泥炭和自然水体中有机物的主要成分,其来源不同,结构和性质也不同。本研究阐述了雨养沼泽泥炭腐植酸的性质,评估了泥炭剖面内腐植酸的均质性,并研究了泥炭腐殖化程度对腐植酸性能的影响。结果表明,以不同来源的苔藓为主的雨养沼泽植物对泥炭腐植酸结构的影响较大。泥炭腐植酸的成岩作用程度介于活有机体和煤炭之间,当碳水化合物、氨基酸等被破坏后,耐分解的芳烃和多环芳烃结构出现,泥炭腐植酸的结构趋于形成。然而,与土壤、水体和其他腐植酸相比,泥炭腐植酸的芳香性较低。相对而言,雨养沼泽泥炭腐植酸处于活有机体向成岩转化过程的初始阶段。羧基和酚羟基含量的变化取决于提取腐植酸的泥炭年龄和分解程度,羧酸酸度随泥炭深度和腐殖化程度增加而增大。%Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat proifles, and to study peat humiifcation im-pact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic struc-tures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation

  9. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

    2015-02-01

    Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 °C and differential air warming of ~ 6 °C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained

  10. Effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas emissions in different microtopes in a cut-over drained bog in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybornova, Olga; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    In peatlands, all biogeochemical processes and the amount of exported carbon and nitrogen compounds are strongly influenced by changes in the water table. Peatland drainage leads to increased peat oxidization and changes peatlands from carbon sinks to net carbon sources. Especially, the emissions of the important greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are increased due to drainage. The currently ongoing restoration in the bog Himmelmoor (N 53° 44'20", E 9° 51'00", Quickborn) with an extent of about 6 km2 one of the largest raised bogs in Schleswig-Holstein, offers the possibility to characterize and to document the development of the fluxes at different sites before, during and after rewetting, using a method of small-scale closed chambers. Six subsites with differing water level and land use were identified: an area that was rewetted 30 years ago with Sphagnum vegetation, an area rewetted in 2009, an area with on-going peat extraction, deep peat cutting ditches refilled with peat with and without Eriophorum angustifolium vegetation and a comparatively dry peat dam. We determined that in the course of years 2014-2015 the measured N2O and CO2 fluxes varied between -0,1 and 1,9 mg m‑2 h‑1 and between -0,12 and 1,09 g m‑2 h‑1, respectively, and the highest nitrous oxide as well as carbon dioxide fluxes are typical for the dry peat dam study site. The measured CH4 fluxes were between -1,8 and 22,7 mg m‑2 h‑1, where the highest rates were found on the area rewetted 30 years ago and on the peat cutting ditches with Eriophorum angustifolium. Accounting for the different global warming potentials (GWP) of the measured greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions from all study sites ranged between 5,2 and 36 t CO2-eq ha‑1 year‑1 and were dominated by high emissions of CO2 (2,5 up to 25,5 t CO2-eq ha‑1 year‑1). Highest emission rates were found at the dry peat dam site and at the area rewetted 30 years

  11. Tephrostratigraphy and chronology of the Kaipo Lagoon, and 11,000 year old montane peat bog in Urewera National Park, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven well-preserved Holocene tephras occur interbedded with peat in the Kaipo Lagoon bog in Urewera National Park, North Island. They are identified chiefly by their field appearance, stratigraphy, and ferromagnesian mineralogy. Glass shards from one tephra (Hinemaiaia) were analysed by electron microprobe. The tephras originate from the Taupo, Okataina, and Tongariro Volcanic Centres and, from youngest to oldest, are: Kaharoa Ash, Taupo Pumice, Mapara Tephra, Waimihia Lapilli, Hinemaiaia Tephra, Whakatane Ash, Rotoma Ash, Opepe Tephra, Poronui Tephra, Karapiti Tephra, and Okupata Tephra. Thirteen new radiocarbon ages were obtained on six of the tephras (old T-1/2, years B.P.): Waimihia, 3,250 plus or minus 70 (Wk498), 2,910 plus or minus 60 (Wk499), 3,040 plus or minus 50 (Wk500); Hinemaiaia and Whakatane, 4,490 plus or minus 60 (Wk496), 4,530 plus or minus 60 (Wk497); Whakatane, 4,860 plus or minus 70 (Wk501); Rotoma, 5,440 plus or minus 170 (Wk493), 7,380 plus or minus 80 (Wk494), 7,560 plus or minus 100 (Wk495) (Wk493-495 are all considered anomalously young); Opepe, 8,710 plus or minus 80 (Wk492); Poronui, 10,160 plus or minus 130 (Wk351), 9,960 plus or minus 90 (Wk352), 9,560 plus or minus 80 (Wk491). Estimated ages, assuming constant sedimentation rates, for Karapiti Tephra and Okupata Tephra are 10,100 and 10,300 years, respectively. Two peat horizons below the Okupata Tephra were dated at (old T-1/2) 10,600 plus or minus 90 years B.P. (Wk263) and 11,500 plus or minus 80 years B.P. (Wk264) and date the initial growth of the Kaipo Lagoon bog. Peat accumulation rates have been slow (average 0.19 mm/year) but variable. The identification and dating of the tephras at Kaipo extends their known distribution in eastern North Island, and improves their potential usefulness as isochronous stratigraphic marker units

  12. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  13. Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Thuens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD. We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool, and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs. ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene.

  14. Atmospheric controls on methane emissions from a subarctic bog in northern Quebec, Canada, using an open-path eddy covariance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A. N.; Nadeau, D. F.; Parlange, M. B.; Coursolle, C.; Margolis, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Over such environments, methane fluxes are traditionally quantified with static or dynamic chambers and gas chromatography. Although inexpensive and portable, this method does not allow for continuous measurements besides not capturing the effect of atmospheric turbulence on methane emissions. An alternative is closed-path eddy covariance systems, but these usually require high power consumption and regular maintenance, both of which are difficult to supply in highly remote areas where most Canadian wetlands are found. In this study we deployed the new open-path methane analyzer (model Li-7700) from Li-Cor inc. along with surface energy budget sensors over a 60-ha subarctic bog from June to September 2012. The field site (53.7°N, 78.2°W) is located near James Bay within the La Grande Rivière watershed. This work discusses the presence of diurnal patterns in turbulent methane fluxes, and analyzes the effect of atmospheric stability, turbulence intensity and other atmospheric controls on fluxes magnitude and timing. Methane emissions are also quantified at the daily scale and compared to previously reported values over similar sites with other methods. A more technical discussion is also included in which advantages, drawbacks and optimal setup configuration of the instrument are presented.

  15. A 15 000-year record of climate change in northern New Mexico, USA, inferred from isotopic and elemental contents of bog sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Heikoop, J.M.; Fessenden, J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, P.A.; Allen, C.D.; Hess, M.; Larson, T.; Perkins, G.; Rearick, M.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental (C, N, Pb) and isotopic (??13C, ??15N) measurements of cored sediment from a small bog in northern New Mexico reveal changes in climate during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Abrupt increases in Pb concentration and ??13C values ca. 14 420 cal. YBP indicate significant runoff to the shallow lake that existed at that time. Weathering and transport of local volcanic rocks resulted in the delivery of Pb-bearing minerals to the basin, while a 13C-enriched terrestrial vegetation source increased the ??13C values of the sedimentary material. Wet conditions developed over a 300 a period and lasted for a few hundred years. The Younger Dryas period (ca. 12 700-11 500 cal. YBP) caused a reduction in terrestrial productivity reflected in decreasing C/N values, ??15N values consistently greater than 0??? and low organic content. By contrast, aquatic productivity increased during the second half of this period, evidenced by increasing ??13C values at the time of highest abundance of algae. Dry conditions ca. 8 000-6 000 cal. YBP were characterised by low organic carbon content and high Pb concentrations, the latter suggesting enhanced erosion and aeolian transport of volcanic rock. The range in ??13C, ??15N and C/N values in the sedimentary record fall within the range of modern plants, except during the periods of runoff and drought. The sedimentary record provides evidence of natural climate variability in northern New Mexico, including short- (multi-centennial) and long-(millennial) term episodes during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting

  17. Revealing spatial distribution of soil organic carbon contents and stocks of a disturbed bog relict by in-situ NIR and apparent EC mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Don, Axel; Altdorff, Daniel; van der Kruk, Jan; Huisman, Johan A.

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies showed that in-situ visible near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy can overcome the limitations of conventional soil sampling. Costs can be reduced and spatial resolution enhanced when mapping field-scale variability of soil organic carbon (SOC). Detailed maps can help to improve SOC management and lead to better estimates of field-scale total carbon stocks. Knowledge of SOC field patterns may also help to reveal processes and factors controlling SOC variability. In this study, we apply in situ vis-NIR and apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) mapping to a disturbed bog relict. The major question of this application study was how field-scale in-situ vis-NIR mapping performs for a very heterogeneous area and under difficult grassland conditions and under highly-variable water content conditions. Past intensive peat cutting and deep ploughing in some areas, in combination with a high background heterogeneity of the underlying mineral sediments, have led to a high variability of SOC content (5.6 to 41.3 %), peat layer thickness (25 to 60 cm) and peat degradation states (from nearly fresh to amorphous). Using a field system developed by Veris Technologies (Salina KS, USA), we continuously collected vis-NIR spectra at 10 cm depth (measurement range: 350 nm to 2200 nm) over an area of around 12 ha with a line spacing of about 12 m. The system includes a set of discs for measuring ECa of the first 30 and 90 cm of the soil. The same area was also mapped with a non-invasive electro-magnetic induction (EMI) setup that provided ECa data of the first 25, 50 and 100 cm. For calibration and validation of the spatial data, we took 30 representative soil samples and 15 soil cores of about 90 cm depth, for which peat thickness, water content, pore water EC, bulk density (BD), as well as C and N content were determined for various depths. Preliminary results of the calibration of the NIR spectra to the near-surface SOC contents indicate good data quality despite the

  18. High soil solution carbon und nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 yr of rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frank

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial drainage of peatlands causes dramatic changes in the release of greenhouse gases and in the export of dissolved carbon (C and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting anthropogenically altered peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases over a period of 1 yr and 4 month, respectively. The peeper technique was used to receive a high vertical sampling resolution. Within one Atlantic bog complex a near natural site, two drained grasslands sites with different mean water table positions, and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 yr ago were chosen. Our results clearly indicate that drainage increased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON compared to the near natural site. Drainage depth further determined the release and therefore the concentration level of DOC and N species, but the biochemical cycling and therefore dissolved organic matter (DOM quality and N species composition were unaffected. Thus, especially deep drainage can cause high DOC losses. In general, DOM at drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties as indicated by SUVA280 and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio compared to the near natural site. At the drained sites, equal C to N ratios of uppermost peat layer and DOC to DON ratio of DOM in soil solution suggest that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOC to DON ratios and SUVA280 values with depth furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely unchanged. DON and ammonia contributed most to the total dissolved nitrogen (TN. The subsoil concentrations of nitrate were negligible due to strong decline in nitrate around mean water table depth. Methane production during the winter months at

  19. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled

  20. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  1. Small one-grip harvesters and a harvester-forwarder in first thinning of pine bog; Pienet hakkuukoneet ja korjuukone raememaennikoen ensiharvennuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, M.; Tanttu, V. [Finnish Forest Research Intitute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Three one-grip harvesters, Nokka 6 WD, Sampo and Aessae, and a Pika harvester forwarder were studied in first thinning of pine bog with a ditch distance of 40 m. Two cutting methods were compared. In method 1, both harvester and forwarder drove on ditches and one strip road was opened between the ditches. The distance between strip roads was 20 m. In method 2, the strip roads were opened only on the ditches. The distance between forwarding strip roads was 40 m. Between the ditches, one-grip harvester operated on two narrow cutting strips. With harvester-forwarded the distance between strip roads was 20 m. The average productivity of one-grip harvesters varied from 8.6 m{sup 3}/EO to 12.5 m{sup 3}/EO. Using cutting method 1, the productivity was 9 % higher than with method 2. The amount of timber, m{sup 3}/100 m strip road, was near 2-fold with method 2 compared with method 1. The calculated productivity of forwarding with the method 1 was 13.5m{sup 3}/E15 and 14.6 m{sup 3}/E15 with method 2. The productivity of harvester-forwarder was 5,0 m{sup 3}/EO. The amount of remaining trees was acceptable with all methods. The amount of trees on cuffing strips did not differ from other areas outside the strip roads. Thus cutting strips were invisible. The mean damage percentage was 2.7 and 5.9 with methods 1 and 2 respectively. Near the cutting strips the damage percentage was 70. With harvester-forwarder the damage percentage was 2.2. The total costs of the methods, including cutting, forwarding and losses caused by damage and strip roads, was compared. In method 1, the cost of harvesting was 3685 FIM/ha and cost of damage 278 FlM/ha. In method 2, the cost harvesting was 3855 FIM/ha and cost of damage 196 FlM/ha. Thus total costs with method 1 were slightly lower than with method 2. (orig.)

  2. En bog om Michael Strunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Anne-Marie

    Antologi med bidrag om Michael Strunges forfatterskab. Bidrag af Anne-Marie Mai, Jørgen Aabenhus, Marianne Stidsen, Moritz Schramm, Tue Andersen Nexø, Lars Bukdahl, Jon Helt Haarder, Rune Kühl er optaget efter fagfællesbedømmelse. Antologien er redigeret af Anne-Marie Mai og Jørgen Aabenhus....

  3. Rare earth element and Nd isotope geochemistry of an ombrotrophic peat bog at Karukinka (Chile, 53.9° S): a palaeo-record of Holocene dust deposition in Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Heleen; De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanderstraeten, Aubry; Mattielli, Nadine; Triquet, Delphine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

    2013-04-01

    The value of ombrotrophic peat bogs as past atmospheric dust records, has been increasingly recognized over the past 10 years. Their high accumulation rates provide high resolution archives of natural atmospheric dust deposition since the Late Glacial, often missing in marine, lake and ice core records. Consequently, peat deposits can be used as a proxy for atmospheric circulation patterns and thus palaeoclimate. In the Southern Hemisphere, the climate is considered to be driven by the Southern Westerly Wind belt (SSW), as it significantly affects the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and hence atmospheric CO2 levels. Palaeo SSW belt migrations have been observed in palaeoclimate records but, reconstructions of SSW shifts and associated climatic changes are incoherent, in particular for the Holocene. As peatlands thrive in southwest Tierra del Fuego due to its high annual precipitation, a remote ombrotrophic peat bog at Karukinka (southwest on the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego) was sampled, to investigate the Holocene palaeoclimate in southern South America based on dust deposition records. A 4,5 m long Russian D-core was recovered and subsequently subsampled for elemental and isotope geochemistry in addition to density and radiocarbon dating measurements. Initial results show a number of layers enriched in scandium, indicating the presence of lithogenic material, i.e. dust. Rare earth element patterns indicate at least 2 different sources. The most significant dust peak occurs at the base of the core at ~7300 Cal years B.P and has a neodymium isotopic composition of 2.2, suggesting a volcanic origin.

  4. Comparative ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of energy and mass in a European Russian and a central Siberian bog I. Interseasonal and interannual variability of energy and latent heat fluxes during the snowfree period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and latent heat fluxes λE were measured over ombrotrophic bogs in European Russia (Fyodorovskoye) and in central Siberia (Zotino) using the eddy covariance technique, as part of the EuroSiberian Carbonflux Project. The study covered most of the snowfree periods in 1998, 1999 and 2000; in addition some data were also collected under snow in early spring and late autumn 1999 and 2000. The snowfree period in European Russia exceeds the snowfree period in central Siberia by nearly 10 weeks. Marked seasonal and interannual differences in temperatures and precipitation, and hence energy partitioning, were observed at both sites. At both bogs latent heat fluxes ( E) exceeded sensible heat fluxes (H) during most of the snowfree period: maximum λE were between 10 and 12 MJ/m2/d while maximum H were between 3 and 5 MJ/m2/d. There was a tendency towards higher Bowen ratios at Fyodorovskoye. Net radiation was the most influential variable that regulated daily evaporation rates, with no obvious effects due to surface dryness during years with exceptionally dry summers. Total snowfree evaporation at Fyodorovskoye (320 mm) exceeded totals at Zotino (280 mm) by 15%. At the former site, evaporation was equal to or less than precipitation, contrasting the Zotino observations, where summer evaporation was distinctly higher than precipitation. During the entire observation period evaporation rates were less than 50% of their potential rate. These data suggest a strong 'mulching' effect of a rapidly drying peat surface on total evaporation, despite the substantial area of free water surfaces during parts of the year. This effect of surface dryness was also observed as close atmospheric coupling

  5. From Leaf Synthesis to Senescence: n-Alkyl Lipid Abundance and D/H Composition Among Plant Species in a Temperate Deciduous Forest at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, E. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition (D/H, δD) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes is a promising paleohydrology proxy because meteoric water (e.g., precipitation) is the primary hydrogen source for wax synthesis. However, secondary environmental and biological factors modify the net apparent fractionation between precipitation δD and leaf wax δD, limiting quantitative reconstruction of paleohydrology. These secondary factors include soil evaporation, leaf transpiration, biosynthetic fractionation, and the seasonal timing of lipid synthesis. Here, we investigate the influence of each of these factors on n-alkyl lipid δD in five dominant deciduous angiosperm tree species as well as shrubs, ferns and grasses in the watershed surrounding Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA. We quantified n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid concentrations and δD in replicate individuals of each species at weekly to monthly intervals from March to October 2014 to assess inter- and intraspecific isotope variability throughout the growing season. We present soil, xylem and leaf water δD from each individual, and precipitation and atmospheric water vapor δD throughout the season to directly examine the relationship between source water and lipid isotope composition. These data allow us to assess the relative influence of soil evaporation and leaf transpiration among plant types, within species, and along a soil moisture gradient throughout the catchment. We use leaf water δD to approximate biosynthetic fractionation for each individual and test whether this is a species-specific and seasonal constant, and to evaluate variation among plant types with identical growth conditions. Our high frequency sampling approach provides new insights into the seasonal timing of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid synthesis and subsequent fluctuations in concentration and δD in a temperate deciduous forest. These results will advance understanding of the magnitude and timing of secondary influences on the modern leaf wax

  6. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Field

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions, 56 kg N ha−1 yr−1, depended on the N form. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation, enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

  7. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Levy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands represent a vast carbon reserve that has accumulated under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Given the strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, we need to establish the consequences of the increase in reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability of peatlands, and whether the form in which the nitrogen is deposited makes a difference. We have addressed these questions using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate, to an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland. Here we report the fate of 56 kg N ha−1 yr−1 additions over 10 yr and the consequences. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions depended on the form in which the N was applied. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses, to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition, this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

  8. Research on the energy saving technology of BOG compressor of Jiangsu LNG Receiving Terminal%江苏LNG接收站BOG压缩机的节能降耗措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段碧君

    2012-01-01

    介绍了LNG接收站工艺流程,阐述了活塞式压缩机的工作原理与技术特点,给出了各能耗参数的计算方法,包括排气量、供气量、容积系数、排气压力与级数、压缩比、排气温度、功率、效率等.分析了LNG接收站BOG压缩机的能耗问题,确定了能耗的主要影响因素,包括进气温度、进气压力、气相介质携液率、压缩比以及驱动电机的性能.基于此,提出了节能降耗措施:降低进气温度、控制进气压力、降低气相携液率、将电机改造为变频电机、在电动机拖动系统中加装功率因数控制器、经常更换冷却水系统的冷却液.%This article introduces the process flow of LNG receiving terminal, and also elaborates the working principle and technical characteristics of piston compressors. It also gives the calculating method of the energy consumption parameters, including the exhaust gas volume, the volume coefficient, discharge pressure and progression, the compression ratio, exhaust temperature, power, efficiency, and so on. It identifies the main factors of energy consumption of LNG receiving terminal BOG compressor, including the intake air temperature, inlet pressure, compression ratio and the drive motor performance. So, the energy saving measures are as follows, that is, reducing intake air temperature, controlling the inlet pressure, reducing the gas medium carrying liquid ratio, transforming the motor to frequency conversion motor, installing power factor controllers, regularly replacing of the cooling water coolant system.

  9. 雨养沼泽泥炭腐殖化过程中的腐植酸性质成因与变化研究%Formation and Changes of Humic Acid Properties during Peat Humiifcation Process within Ombrotrophic Bogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oskars Purmalis(著); Maris Klavins(著); 任忠秀(译); 包雪梅(译); 于家伊(译)

    2013-01-01

      研究生命有机物质的腐殖化过程是了解碳的生物化学循环所必不可少的。本研究的主要目的是分析泥炭性质、泥炭腐植酸与泥炭腐殖化度三者之间的关系。对两个雨养泥炭沼泽的泥炭剖面各层中提取的腐植酸样品进行了分析,并对泥炭年龄、分解度、腐殖化度、植物构成、泥炭腐植酸性质(元素和有效成分)进行了研究。结果发现,泥炭腐植酸的组成受造炭生命有机物质前体的组成影响较小,对造炭生物性质多样性的研究要比对泥炭性质多样性的研究更有意义,由此可以揭示腐殖化过程对泥炭性质的主导性作用。%Studies of the living organic matter humiifcation process are essential for understanding the carbon biogeo-chemical cycle. The aim of this study is to analyze relations between the properties of peat, peat humic acids and peat humiifcation degree. The analysis has been done on samples of humic substances extracted from peat proifles in two ombrotrophic bogs and relations between peat age, decomposition and humiifcation degree, botanical composition and properties of peat humic acids (elemental, functional composition) were studied. The found variability of peat properties is less signiifcant than differences in the properties of peat-forming living matter, thus revealing the dominant impact of humiifcation process on the properties of peat. Correspondingly, composition of peat humic acids is little affected by differ-ences in the composition of precursor living organic material.

  10. Bog rodom iz detstva / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Eldar Rjazanovi eluloofilm muinasjutuvestja Hans Christian Anderseni elust "Andersen. Elu ilma armastuseta" ("Andersen. Zhizn bez ljubvi"): stsenarist Irakli Kvirikadze : operaatorid Jevgeni Guslinski ja Vadim Alissov : helilooja Aleksei Rõbnikov : nimiosas Vanja Haratjan, Stanislav Rjadinski, Sergei Migitsko

  11. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    OpenAIRE

    T. T. Efremova; A. F. Avrova; S. P. Efremov

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss)-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm) with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha), which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, w...

  12. Insect biodiversity of boreal peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Danks, H. V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2006), s. 137-161. ISSN 0066-4170 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0077; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : peatlands * tyrphobiontic insect s * conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.714, year: 2006

  13. Zmierzch bogów w Dubrowniku

    OpenAIRE

    Pająk, Patrycjusz

    2013-01-01

    The Croatian film Occupation in 26 pictures(1978), directed by Lordan Zafranovićis considered as one of the most controversial vision of the Second World War in Yugoslav cinema. The director uses the ornamental style, modeled on Italian cinema, to portray the change of power in Dubrovnik in 1941 – at the beginning of the fascist occupation of the city. He juxtaposes the licentiousness of Italian, German and Croatian fascists and the fall of the Dub...

  14. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermentation layers. These results confirm the feasibility of using morphogenetic structure of litter for the purposes of classification, reflecting the rate of substances turnover, parcel structure and production potential of forest peat soils. The obtained materials are important for the prediction of the transformation of Kuznetsk Alatau forest wetland depressions in connection with global and local climate fluctuations.

  15. Retention ability of bog pine peat bog ecosystem and its response to downpour precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmanová, Andrea; Rektoris, Ladislav; Přibáň, Karel

    Leiden : Backhuys Publishers, 1999 - (Vymazal, J.), s. 177-182 ISBN 90-5782-022-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/1821; GA ČR GA206/98/0727; GA MŠk VS96072; GA AV ČR KSK2017602 Keywords : water discharge * ground water table Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Engaging Students in World History with a Bog Body Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Getting students involved in the process of inquiry takes much more than pointing out a problem, offering sources, and setting them on their way. Fortunately, there are a number of teaching strategies that can be instrumental in engaging students in the process of inquiry. As a teacher of world history in the seventh grade, House of Avalon, at…

  17. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bragazza, L.; Freeman, Ch.; Jones, T.; Rydin, H.; Limpens, J.; Fenner, N.; Ellis, T.; Gerdol, R.; Hájek, Michal; Hájek, Tomáš; Iacumin, P.; Kutnar, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Toberman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 51 (2006), s. 19386-19389. ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : peatlands * nitrogen * deposition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.643, year: 2006

  18. Carbon balance of a drained forested bog in southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland were measured over multiple years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was measured with an eddy covariance method from a tower above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomasses and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by consequtive levelings of the peat surface. The data were used to estimate the ecosystem C pools and annual fluxes of carbon and GHGs of the peatland and to analyse the impact of periodical drought on the carbon fluxes. The drained peatland was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that also the soil was a sink of carbon in all studied years. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased GPP. Drought also decreased the ecosystem respiration, including soil respiration. Decreasing water table thus did not increase, but rather decreased CO2 efflux from the peat soil. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were included. N2O emissions were small from all surfaces. Despite of the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly (1.4 mm a-1) during the 10-year measurement period, which is interpreted to mean mainly compaction, rather than oxidation of the peat. It is concluded that this drained peatland acts as a continuous soil C sink similarly to an undrained peatland. The reason may be the relatively small water-level drawdown compared to an undrained situation, the consequently rather small changes in plant community structure and the significantly improved tree stand growth and litter production. The consequences of continuing production forestry vs. restoration of the site on the GHG fluxes and climate impact will be discussed.

  19. Bog s ljudmi prebõvajet / Igor Gromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gromov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    Laste joonistuste ja kaasaegse ikoonimaali näitusest Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis. Ikoonide tekkest ja tähendusest kunstnik Leonid Sokolovi abiga, kelle töid eksponeeritakse ka sellel näitusel

  20. Degradation of Parathion by Microorganisms from Cranberry Bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from Wisconsin cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) growing soils. These microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as a sole carbon source. 14CO2 was produced only from phenyl-labelled parathion while 14C-(ethyl)-parathion derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. Addition of 0.05% glucose to basal salts medium inhibited 14C-(phenyl)-parathion degradation while the addition of 0.05% yeast extract to basal salts medium also inhibited microbiological degradation of the insecticide to 14CO2, but to a lesser extent. Aminoparathion and aminoparaoxon were formed only in basal salts medium with 0.05% yeast extract. Aerobic cultures produced more 14CO2 from 14C-(phenyl)-parathion and less aminoparathion than anaerobic cultures. Aminoparathion was more abundant in cultures with inocula obtained from the 18- to 23-cm layer than with culture inocula obtained from the 0- to 5-cm soil layer under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (author)

  1. Central European pine bogs change along an altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastl, M.; Burian, M.; Kučera, J.; Prach, Karel; Rektoris, L.; Štech, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2008), s. 349-363. ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation analysis * environmental factors * nature conservancy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2008

  2. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned...

  3. Succession from bog pine (Pinus uncinata var. rotundata) to Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in relation to anthropic factors in Les Saignolis bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Freléchoux, François; Buttler, Alexandre; Gillet, François; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    Succession pinède-pessière en relation avec les facteurs anthropiques dans la tourbière des Saignolis, chaîne jurassienne, Suisse. Dans les hauts marais jurassiens, sur tourbe épaisse et oligotrophe, la limite entre la pinède et la ceinture d'épicéas est très nette et il n'y a pas de succession pinède-pessière en situations peu perturbées. Le marais des Saignolis est situé au sommet d'un anticlinal, sur tourbe mince et oligotrophe. Plusieurs documents témoignent de perturbations anthropiques ...

  4. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    inhumated ancient human skeletal remains, and fossil animal bones. Knowledge of the typical HU range for the different tissues in mummies may help to avoid misinterpretation of increased or reduced radiodensity as evidence of paleopathological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the practical benefit of...

  5. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their anatomic and functional differences. Bryophytes are more sensitive to environmental and climatic parameters whilst vascular plants are mostly ubiquitous in the relevées with a greater ecological plasticity.

  6. Insect biodiversity of Central European peat bogs: the habitat island concept of conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-117. ISSN 0782-7784 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Insects * relicts * peatbogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Environmental factors determining spontaneous recovery of industrially mined peat bogs: A multi-site analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, Petra; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, Aug 2014 (2014), s. 38-45. ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : peatland * restoration * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2014

  8. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva; Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Leonardo Barros Dobbss; Natalia Oliveira Aguiar; Daniele Ângela Rossinol Frade; Carlos Eduardo Rezende; Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres

    2011-01-01

    Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS), humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic) in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves wer...

  9. Bog, sloboda i milost. Razmišljanja o bitnosti ateizma za Marxa i marksizam

    OpenAIRE

    Volf, Miroslav

    1989-01-01

    One of the key questions in th e Marxist-Christian Dialogue, which needs to be revived in the light of recent developments in socialistic countreis, is the question whether atheism is essential for Marxism. There is a growing consensus of open-minded Christians and Marxists aibout the accidentalness of atheism for Marxism. Operating with the assumption th a t recourse to Marx’ theory is 'indispensable for Marxism, th is essay attempts to show th a t such oonsensus is justified only if Marxist...

  10. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel;

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere(1). This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbia...

  11. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Polashock, James; Zelzion, Ehud; Fajardo, Diego; Zalapa, Juan; Georgi, Laura; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2014-01-01

    Background The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation se...

  12. Gene flow rise with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descimon Henri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main components of the spatial genetic structure of the populations are neighbourhood size and isolation by distance. These may be inferred from the allele frequencies across a series of populations within a region. Here, the spatial population structure of Proclossiana eunomia was investigated in two mountainous areas of southern Europe (Asturias, Spain and Pyrenees, France and in two areas of intermediate elevation (Morvan, France and Ardennes, Belgium. Results A total of eight polymorphic loci were scored by allozyme electrophoresis, revealing a higher polymorphism in the populations of southern Europe than in those of central Europe. Isolation by distance effect was much stronger in the two mountain ranges (Pyrenees and Asturias than in the two areas of lower elevation (Ardennes and Morvan. By contrast, the neighbourhood size estimates were smaller in the Ardennes and in the Morvan than in the two high mountain areas, indicating more common movements between neighbouring patches in the mountains than in plains. Conclusion Short and long dispersal events are two phenomena with distinct consequences in the population genetics of natural populations. The differences in level of population differentiation within each the four regions may be explained by change in dispersal in lowland recently fragmented landscapes: on average, butterflies disperse to a shorter distance but the few ones which disperse long distance do so more efficiently. Habitat fragmentation has evolutionary consequences exceeding by far the selection of dispersal related traits: the balance between local specialisation and gene flow would be perturbed, which would modify the extent to which populations are adapted to heterogeneous environments.

  13. Transpiration of Pinus rotundata on a wooded peat bog in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Andrea; Čermák, J.; Nadezhdina, N.; Pokorný, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2010), s. 919-930. ISSN 0931-1890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : heat field deformation method * sap flow * water table Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.444, year: 2010

  14. Dynamics of methane fluxes from two peat bogs in the Ore Mountains, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohdálková, Leona; Čuřík, J.; Kuběna, A.; Bůzek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 14-21. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : restoration * peatland * climate change * Sphagnum * Carex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2013

  15. Impact of long-term wetting on belowground respiration and methanogenesis in Luther Bog, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Marie; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands play a major role in the global carbon cycle. They store one-third of total world soil carbon, sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) and release CO2 and methane (CH4). Climate and land-use change are predicted to cause either wetter winters and wetter summers or wetter winters and drier summers in the area where northern peatlands are located. Feedback on processes in the peat is poorly understood on the time scale of decades. In this study, we investigated impacts of long-term wetting and long-term fluctuating water table on potential CO2 and CH4 production rates and organic matter quality of the fractions bulk peat, pore water and leachate. Bulk peat potential CO2 production rates of 2.38 to 25.55 μmol g‑1 d‑1 (aerobic) and 1.53 to 7.33 μmol g‑1 d‑1 (anaerobic) decreased with depth along with a decrease in organic matter quality. Potential CH4 production rates (0.002 to 2.60 μmol g‑1 d‑1) increased with anaerobic conditions and a lack of electron acceptors rather than being dependent on the availability of labile organic matter. This pattern was less evident in solute fraction samples where labile compounds in top layers were probably either too labile to be detected or water movement obscured differences between depths. Bulk peat potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production increased through long-term wetting. As wetting did not change organic matter quality or aerobic production rates, increased anaerobic production rates likely originate from microorganisms adapted to anaerobic conditions. All indicators of organic matter quality, FTIR ratios, SUVA254, E2:E3, HIX, FI and PARAFAC, provided similar results. Other than expected, wetting did not result in higher organic matter quality in bulk peat and leachate. Drier conditions in summer led to reduced organic matter quality. In pore water, long-term wetter conditions resulted in a higher organic matter quality. Slow-down of decomposition due to anaerobic conditions is unlikely, as this was not the case with respect to the other fractions. Mixing with groundwater could have transported organic matter of high quality to the wetted site. Potential CO2 production rates were not affected by long-term water table change. Organic matter quality of the wetted site may have been also overestimated in our study as vegetation change may have changed litter and peat quality as well. This study revealed that long-term wetting probably does not change organic matter quality as decisively as expected. Potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production rates rather increased as long as conditions were more constantly anoxic. Long-term lowered or fluctuating water table could potentially result in smaller future emissions due to a reduced organic matter quality, but also to less carbon sequestration.

  16. Small ones and big ones: cross-taxon congruence reflects organism body size in ombrotrophic bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Michal; Poulíčková, A.; Vašutová, Martina; Syrovátka, V.; Jiroušek, M.; Štěpánková, J.; Opravilová, V.; Hájková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 726, č. 1 (2014), s. 95-107. ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : biomonitoring * multi-proxy * species richness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  17. Trace gas exchange and climatic relevance of bog ecosystems, Southern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drösler, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Natural mires accumulate organic substances continuously and act as carbon sinks. At a worldwide scale, the amount of carbon stored in peatlands represents about 20% of the total soil carbon stock, unless peatlands cover just 3% of the worlds land-surface. Drainage and peat cutting provoke the decomposition of the carbon pools and convert peatlands to carbon sources. Research on carbon-exchange and climatic relevance were up to now mainly focused on boreal and sub-arctic peatlands. Therefore,...

  18. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in inactive cranberry bogs of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 1996 Baseline Contaminants Investigation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s (Service) Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR) revealed elevated...

  20. Decomposition patterns, nutrient availability, species identities and vegetation changes in central-European summit bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, M.; Tůma, I.; Záhora, J.; Holub, Petr; Kintrová, K.; Hájek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2015), s. 571-586. ISSN 1239-6095 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric nitrogen deposition * boreal peatlands * nutritional constraints * litter decomposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2014

  1. Spatial ecology of peatland ecosystems: Spatial self-organization and catastrophic shifts in bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Positive feedback interactions, as between plants and their abiotic environment, may have the consequence that an ecosystem has alternate stable equilibrium states. As a result, a gradual change in environmental conditions may lead to discontinuous, catastrophic shifts in such ecosystems. Until now,

  2. Seasonal changes of microbial communities in two shallow peat bog lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lew, S.; Koblížek, Michal; Lew, M.; Medová, Hana; Glinska-Lewczuk, K.; Owsianny, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 165-175. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11281S; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : AEROBIC ANOXYGENIC PHOTOTROPHS * TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES * IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  3. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS, humic (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves were established for the number of lateral roots growing from the main plant axis of tomato seedlings. The bioactivity of HA was greatest (highest response in lateral roots at lowest concentration while FA did not intensify root growth. Both HS and HA stimulated root hair formation. At low concentrations, HS and HA induced root hair formation near the root cap, a typical hormonal imbalance effect in plants. Transgenic tomato with reporter gene DR5::GUS allowed the observation that the auxin-related signalling pathway was involved in root growth promotion by HA.

  4. Skarp og præcis bog om præstationsløn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Rewarding Performance: Guiding principles, custom strategies, Robert J. Greene, Routledge......Anmeldelse af Rewarding Performance: Guiding principles, custom strategies, Robert J. Greene, Routledge...

  5. Don't get bogged down by stranded assets - McCready

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarks made at the December 1995 IPPSO Conference by TransAlta CEO Ken McCready were summarized to the effect that the benefits of competition are too important to let stranded assets delay things much longer. He was reported as saying that government and industry have choices to make in terms of how they deal with stranded assets, but there is no excuse for limiting the range of policy options that are now available. A transformation in the utility industry has been brought about by advances in technology and by the separation of energy supply from the common carrier. In Mr. McCready's view, these factors, combined with government capital requirements and the need for more efficient management of power systems, have brought about a state of affairs that makes privatization of public utilities inevitable

  6. Record growth of Sphagnum papillosum in Georgia (Transcaucasus): rain frequency, temperature and microhabitat as key drivers in natural bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, M; G. Gaudig; Joosten, H

    2016-01-01

    (1) Peatmoss (Sphagnum) growth has been studied widely, in particular at temperate and boreal latitudes > 45 °N, where productivity is mainly controlled by mean annual temperature and precipitation. We studied the growth of Sphagnum papillosum and S. palustre in four peatlands in the year-round warm and humid Kolkheti Lowlands (Georgia, Transcaucasus, eastern end of the Black Sea, latitude 41–42 °N). (2) Productivity, site conditions and climate in Kolkheti are included in a worldwide anal...

  7. Disturbances on a wooded raised bog - How windthrow, bark beetle and fire affect vegetation and soil water quality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Andrea; Rektoris, L.; Štechová, T.; Bastl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), s. 49-67. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SE/610/10/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Czech Republic * Groundwater chemistry * Post- fire succession Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2008

  8. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra) connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L.) were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized dist...

  9. The effects of ecological restoration, on soil-pore water quality and DOC concentrations, on a British upland blanket bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassim, Suzane; Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Polluted by past atmospheric deposition, eroded and burnt, the Bleaklow plateau (Peak district National Park, UK) has long been degraded. Peatlands are important carbon reservoirs and can act as sources or sinks of carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is carbon lost from peatlands via the fluvial pathway and as the major component of water colour it is costly to remove during water treatment processes. The Bleaklow Summit peatlands, were subjected to a large wildfire in 2003 devegetating 5.5km2. This fire prompted stakeholders to initiate a large-scale programme of restoration of the plateau. This study considered restoration techniques across four sites: all four sites were seeded with lawn grass, limed and fertilised; to raise the pH and allow establishment of vegetation. In addition to these interventions, one site also had a mulch of Calluna vulgaris applied to the surface to allow soil stabilisation and promote vegetation establishment and another site had biodegradable geojute textile mesh installed, to stabilize the steep gully surfaces. Another site had a gully block installed, to reduce peat desiccation and erosion. This study will compare the four restored sites to two types of comparators: bare soil sites where no restoration was undertaken and a naturally vegetated site unaffected by the 2003 wildfire. Each site had six replicate dipwells, installed in two groups of three. The depth to the water table was monitored and soil water samples collected for analysis, monthly for 5 years, from Nov 2006 - Jan 2012. No significant difference in DOC concentration was found between control and treated sites. There was, however, a significant difference in DOC composition between sites and over the 5 year period of monitoring. UV-vis absorbance of the samples is used to quantify the fulvic to humic components of DOC. The vegetated control was not significantly different to the bare sites; however the vegetated control had a significantly greater humic fraction of than the seeded, limed and fertilised only site, as well as the seeded, limed, C. vulgaris mulched site. This is possibly related to vegetation and litter layer establishment. A suite of water quality data (conductivity, pH and cation data) are now being analysed in combination with DOC to increase understanding of the relationship between bare site re-vegetation and DOC compositional change.

  10. The content and UV-Vis absorbances of bog peat organic matter fractions (Divčivare, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Petar G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents peat soil organic matter characteristics at Divčibare Mountain (950 m a.s.l, mountain climate. Excessive wetting is caused by groundwater and floods, and plant litter originates from hydrophilic vegetation. An investigation was aimed at determining the correlation between organic matter characteristics (humification degree, stability and bioavailability with factors of soil formation and the most important physico-chemical characteristics of peat. Peat is mild acid and has a low base saturation. The content of organic matter is higher than 60% at depth of 40−80 cm, and higher than 40% at depths of 0−40 and 80−105 cm, respectively. Investigated peat had sapric characteristics. A content of humic acids in total organic matter indicates its unequal humification degree within profile, moderate to high at depth of 0−40 cm, low at 40−80-cm depth, and very low beneath 80 cm. A value of Ch/Cf ratio indicates high humus stability up to 80 cm where it has humate-type humus, while below 80 cm humus is the humatefulvate type. A low content of fractions separated with 0.1N cold H2SO4, and cold and hot water, points out a low bioavailability of organic matter through whole soil profile. UV-Vis indices indicate a low humification degree of humic acids (increased to 80-cm depth, and a very low humification degree of fulvic acids (variable, the highest at 60−80-cm depth. Overall results indicate that particle size of mineral fraction, soil reaction, and cation exchange capacity had no significant impact on organic matter characteristics. Soil moisture content, that is alterations of oxido-reductive conditions throughout soil profile had the crucial impact on peat organic matter characteristics.

  11. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that although species-specific differences in Collembola feeding behavior appear to exist, species are very plastic in their diet. This implies that changes in C turnover rates with vegetation shifts, might well be due to diet shifts of the present decomposer community rather than by changes in species composition.

  12. Starting out - What do you do when a trip to the loo is anything but bog standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Holly Morgan

    2016-05-18

    During my nurse training, I was in a lecture, listening to a woman describing the problems she and her son experienced using the loo in outpatients. Her son had profound multiple learning disabilities, and what should have been a simple matter of gaining access to a toilet became a physical, and emotional, struggle. PMID:27191437

  13. Alpha- and Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Codominate the Active Methane-Oxidizing Communities in an Acidic Boreal Peat Bog

    OpenAIRE

    Esson, Kaitlin C.; Lin, Xueju; Kumaresan, Deepak; Jeffrey P Chanton; Murrell, J. Colin; Kostka, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize metabolically active, aerobic methanotrophs in an ombrotrophic peatland in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA. Methanotrophs were investigated in the field and in laboratory incubations using DNA-stable isotope probing, expression studies on particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes, and amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Potential rates of oxidation ranged from 14-17 μmol CH4 g dry wt soil-1 d-1. Within DNA-SIP incubations...

  14. Alpha- and Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Codominate the Active Methane-Oxidizing Communities in an Acidic Boreal Peat Bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Kaitlin C; Lin, Xueju; Kumaresan, Deepak; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Murrell, J Colin; Kostka, Joel E

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize metabolically active, aerobic methanotrophs in an ombrotrophic peatland in the Marcell Experimental Forest, in Minnesota. Methanotrophs were investigated in the field and in laboratory incubations using DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP), expression studies on particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes, and amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Potential rates of oxidation ranged from 14 to 17 μmol of CH4g dry weight soil(-1)day(-1) Within DNA-SIP incubations, the relative abundance of methanotrophs increased from 4%in situto 25 to 36% after 8 to 14 days. Phylogenetic analysis of the(13)C-enriched DNA fractions revealed that the active methanotrophs were dominated by the generaMethylocystis(type II;Alphaproteobacteria),Methylomonas, andMethylovulum(both, type I;Gammaproteobacteria). In field samples, a transcript-to-gene ratio of 1 to 2 was observed forpmoAin surface peat layers, which attenuated rapidly with depth, indicating that the highest methane consumption was associated with a depth of 0 to 10 cm. Metagenomes and sequencing of cDNApmoAamplicons from field samples confirmed that the dominant active methanotrophs wereMethylocystisandMethylomonas Although type II methanotrophs have long been shown to mediate methane consumption in peatlands, our results indicate that members of the generaMethylomonasandMethylovulum(type I) can significantly contribute to aerobic methane oxidation in these ecosystems. PMID:26873322

  15. Methane cycling in peat bogs: Environmental relevance of methano-Trophs revealed by microbial lipid chemistry. LPP Contribution Series (35)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is continuing without delay and this is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, 25 times stronger compared to CO2. The increase in methane concentrations in the atmosphere is largely the result of human influences, but ther

  16. Long-term vegetation changes in bogs exposed to high amospheric deposition, aerial liming and climate fluctuation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal; Rybníček, Kamil; Jiroušek, M.; Tichý, L.; Králová, Š.; Mikulášková, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2011), s. 891-904. ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Oxycocco-Sphagnetea * permanent plot * succession Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2011

  17. An MIS 5a/b to MIS 3 bog sequence from Henderson Bay, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discontinuous Late Pleistocene pollen record from an eroding coastal cliff section at Henderson Bay on the east coast of Northland, New Zealand, reveals changes in vegetation composition and associated palaeosol development under both stadial and interstadial climatic conditions ascribed to the last interglacial-glacial cycle, probably MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 5a/b to early MIS 3. An increase in charcoal towards the top of the sequence is believed to be due to natural rather than anthropogenic ignition sources which resulted in the development of scrub rather than forest vegetation. The sequence is capped by gravel previously inferred to have been emplaced by tsunami event(s) some time after early MIS 3. A lack of Agathis pollen in our sequence despite unequivocal evidence for the parent trees (gum) strengthens a call for caution when inferring climatic conditions from the abundance of Agathis pollen in New Zealand pollen records. (author). 32 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A influência dos bogs de moda no processo de decisão de compra

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Marta Correia Barros da

    2015-01-01

    As redes sociais, nas quais se incluem os blogs, vieram alterar a forma como as pessoas escolhem os bens e serviços que pretendem adquirir. Ao permitirem (entre outras coisas) a emissão para o mundo de opiniões sobre produtos e serviços, as redes sociais aumentaram a quantidade de informação pré-compra disponível, bem como diversificaram o tipo de fontes que é possível consultar durante este processo. Um exemplo flagrante deste fenómeno em Portugal, e no resto do Mundo, são os blogs de mod...

  19. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... centrifugal refrigeration compressor; A cryogenic plate-fin heat exchanger; Ancillary aerial coolers, knockout vessels, pumps, and piping for the closed loop refrigeration cycle; Four small (less than 10,000...

  20. Leaf-spinning moths (Lepidoptera) feeding on Vaccinium uliginosum L. along an ecological gradient of central European peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2003), s. 46-52. ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Vaccinium uliginosum L. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.246, year: 2003

  1. The dynamics of lake, bog, and bay - Consequences of exposure to man related to final storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural aging of the environment, much shorter than a possible continuous release from a repository, results in uncertainties as regards to consequences of exposure to man related to final storage of spent fuel. The Phase I project summarizes the identification of such factors and parameters of predominant importance for an assessment of possible radiological consequences in a normally revolving biosphere. Three major areas are described: geomorphology and residence time such as phenomena associated with the formation of lakes in Sweden formed by the latest inland ice, lake development in terms of uptake of different elements and radionuclides as a function of the chemical composition of the water in a recipient and some aspects of sedimentation in lakes and coastal waters. The chemical environment is also studied in the evolution of a lake or a Baltic bay into farming land or peat land. The most important parameters to the behaviour of trace metal ions seem to be pH, Eh, ionic strength and content of complex formers. Finally, the human impact during the evolution of a lake or a bay is discussed. The study also includes recommendation for a reference field test area and for laboratory studies of the chemical properties of radionuclides in sediments in a Phase 2 project. (Author)

  2. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Emergency Department Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution i...

  3. Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

  4. Structure and physical–chemical properties of humic aсids of oligotrophic peat bog of arkhangelsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Irina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the elemental and functional composition of humic acids, their molecular weight characteristics, physical, chemical and acid-base properties. The sorption properties of humic acids towards Cd2+ and Pb2+ are studied. The relationship between the polyelectrolyte nature of humic acids and their sorption capacity is revealed.

  5. Soil CO2 efflux in a degraded raised bog is regulated by water table depth rather than recent plant assimilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.H. Kritzler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climatic and biological factors that regulate soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux is crucial in peatlands because they contain a large proportion of terrestrial carbon (C. We predicted that rainfall reduction would increase soil CO2 efflux, and that cessation of below-ground allocation of recent plant assimilate would reduce soil CO2 efflux. These predictions were tested in the field using rainfall shelters that allowed a maximum of 40 % of rainfall onto 2 × 2 m plots by diverting rainwater from the shelter roofs with guttering, and by girdling stems of the dominant plant, Calluna vulgaris, for two years. We also used 13CO2-pulse labelling of intact monoliths at ambient CO2 concentrations to trace recent assimilate from plant shoots to roots, bulk soil, leachate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and soil CO2 efflux . Soil CO2 efflux in the sheltered plots increased in Year 1 but not in Year 2, and we found a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and water table depth. Our data indicate that lowering the water table below a critical threshold (15–20 cm affects soil CO2 efflux. Girdling of C. vulgaris shoots resulted in no measurable reduction in soil CO2 efflux, while only ~3 % of 13C fixed by shoots was recovered in soil CO2 efflux and DOC in the 20 days after labelling. Our findings show that below-ground allocation of recent assimilate from C. vulgaris plants > 6 years old has little impact on soil CO2 efflux.

  6. How a Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog changed into a calcareous fen: the unique Holocene history of a Slovak spring-fed mire

    OpenAIRE

    Hajkova, Petra; Grootjans, A. B.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Rybnickova, Eliska; Madaras, Mikulas; Opravilova, Vera; Michaelis, Dierk; Hajek, Michal; Joosten, Hans; Wolejko, Leslaw; Rybníčková, Eliška; Madaras, Mikuláš; Opravilová, Věra; Wołejko, Lesław; Hajkova, T.

    2012-01-01

    In general, mires develop by autogenic succession from more groundwater-fed to more rainwater-fed. This study from a calcareous mire in the West Carpathians (Slovakia) describes a similar development in the Early Holocene, followed by a reverse development in the Middle and Late Holocene. Pollen, macrofossil and testate amoeba analyses show that the site started as a minerotrophic open fen woodland. After 10 700 cal a BP autogenic succession led to the accumulation of at least 1 m of Sphagnum...

  7. Zajedništvo zajednica u župnoj katehezi kao put nove evangelizacije. Osvrt na biblijsko-molitvenu zajednicu "Bog je ljubav"

    OpenAIRE

    Palić, Rozo

    2011-01-01

    Živjeti zajedništvo u novom kulturološkom i religioznom kontekstu izazov je današnjem društvu. Usprkos suvremenoj mreži brze komunikacije čovjek proživljava duboku krizu identiteta, nemogućnost kreativnog i slobodnog suživota s bližnjima. Autor teksta zajedništvo u župnoj zajednici, s osobitim naglaskom na posebne zajednice i žive vjerničke krugove, vidi kao neophodan put u izgradnji i promicanju temeljnih kršćanskih i ljudskih vrijednosti. Crkva kao božanska ustanova proizlazi iz zajedništva...

  8. The short-term effects of ecological restoration on carbon dioxide fluxes from a Molinia caerulea dominated marginal upland blanket bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatis, Naomi; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Hartley, Iain; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard E.

    2014-05-01

    Peat soils in the UK represent a significant long-term carbon store. Despite this the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The shallow marginal peatlands of Exmoor, southwest England, have historically been subject to extensive drainage and are known to be vulnerable to future changes in climate as they lie at the southern edge of the ombrotrophic peatland climatic envelope. However little is known about the processes that drive CO2 fluxes from degraded Molinia caerulea dominated upland mires or the potential effect that restoration through drainage blocking will have. The Mires-on-the-Moors project (www.upstreamthinking.org), funded by South West Water aims to restore the eco-hydrological functionality to over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. We hypothesised that such mire restoration will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. Partitioned below-ground respiration fluxes as well as biotic and abiotic variables, were collected on various dates in 2012 and 2013 along six transects adjacent to three pairs of drainage ditches. One of each pair was restored by blocking with peat dams in spring 2013 whilst the other remained unrestored to act as a control. Monitoring locations were arranged along transects to investigate the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to the drainage ditches. By partitioning below-ground fluxes it was possible to monitor root-derived (autotrophic) and more importantly soil-derived (heterotrophic) respiration providing an insight to the effects of ditch blocking on the long term carbon store. Here we present CO2 fluxes for the growing seasons at two critical stages in the restoration process: (a) immediately pre-restoration and (b) immediately post- restoration, and discuss the temporally and spatially variable processes driving below-ground CO2 fluxes. Respiration rates were comparatively low in these shallow humified peats, with daily mean total, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration reached 1.34, 0.60 and 0.23 μmolCm-2s-1 respectively. As expected soil temperature had a significant control on respiration rates, once this was accounted for water level showed a weak effect on total and heterotrophic respiration. Distinguishing the effects of ecological restoration between a wetter baseline period and a drier post-restoration period had its challenges. However, by expressing the respiration rates in the restored sites as a proportion of that observed in the control sites, the confounding effect of climate variability could be accounted for. This allowed us to determine that heterotrophic respiration decreased at the restored sites comparative to the control sites following restoration, indicating the immediate effect of restoration was to reduce decomposition of the peat store, with implications for carbon sequestration rates.

  9. Performing Translation as Practice-led Research: The Case of Carr’s “By the Bog of Cats…” in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Balduino P. Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    an individual task, originating in the complex act of reading the play-text, its final trajectory is deeply influenced by the creative insights of the production team. The overarching objectives of this article are, therefore: firstly to account for the overall process of translating for the stage, from the early drafts of the translation to the rehearsal process, and ultimately to the staged reading of the play; and secondly, to offer a narrative for how the cultural encounter between the exporting and importing cultures has taken place through translation and theatrical performance.

  10. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-01-01

    We applied a 15N dilution technique called “Integrated Total Nitrogen Input” (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7 mg N pot−1) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2 mg N pot−1. Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5–10 kg N ha−1 yr−1. PMID:26257870

  11. Spatial distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera : Carabidae) and moths (Lepidoptera) in the Mrtvy luh bog, Sumava Mts (Central Europe): A test of habitat island community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2006), s. 395-409. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600070501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Carabidae * central Europe * community ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.423, year: 2006

  12. Effect of disturbance on the vegetation of peat bogs with Pinus rotundata in the Třeboň Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastl, M.; Štechová, T.; Prach, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2009), s. 105-117. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : succession * vascular plants * species composition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2009

  13. How a Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog changed into a calcareous fen: the unique Holocene history of a Slovak spring-fed mire

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Grootjans, A.B.; Lamentowicz, M.; Rybníčková, E.; Madaras, M.; Opravilová, V.; Michaelis, D.; Hájek, Michal; Joosten, H.; Wolejko, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 233-243. ISSN 0267-8179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Holocene * succession * mire Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2012

  14. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of leaf-spinning moths (Lepidoptera) feeding on Vaccinium uliginosum L. along an ecological gradient in central European peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef; Khalaim, A.; Rizzo, M. C.; Guerrieri, E.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 243-253. ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant ostatní: EU Synthesys(BE) GB-TAF-4159; European Science Foundation(BE) 1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Vaccinium uliginosum L. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2010

  15. Growth response of downy birch (Betula pubescens) to moisture treatment at an cut-over peat bog in the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Hazuková, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2005), s. 247-256. ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Betula pubescens * cut-over peatland * increment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2005

  16. The Roles of Sphagnum and Cyperaceae in the Methane Cycle of an Ombrotrophic Bog Revealed by the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isles, P. D.; Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, and the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle in the concentrations of atmospheric methane is poorly understood. What is clear, is that northern peatlands are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. A recent discovery, and a topic of much scrutiny, has been the relationship between Sphagnum in peatlands and symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria. These bacteria oxidize methane produced at depth in peatlands before it is released to the atmosphere, contributing 13C-depleted CO2 to Sphagnum photosynthate. We seek to better understand the fate of methane produced in peatlands at depth, and the relationship between methane release from peatland surfaces and parameters such as temperature, moisture, and vegetation type. We compare carbon isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes from sphagnum and vascular plants and major element chemistry at three different microhabitats, hummock, hollow, and sedge tussock, in Mer Bleue an ombrotrophic peatland near Ottowa, Ontario, Canada. We use these compound-specific carbon isotope measurements to constrain the amount of methane-derived CO2 incorporated by Sphagnum. We also compare our multiannually resolved down-core measurements to data from long-term monitoring of climate parameters and methane flux from the same microhabitats to ground-truth our sedimentary signature of methane with instrumental measurements.

  17. Analysis of the Peiting Woman Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerochse, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy was applied to the skeletal remains of 13 bog bodies and their bog burial environments. The objective was to create a better understanding of Northern European bog environmental chemistry and its diagenetic effects on interred bog bodies, determine bog body geographic disparity and/or origin, and identify if post-discovery preservation procedures were applied to the bog body remains. This paper summarizes the findings for one of those 13 bog bodies: the Peiting Woman from Bavaria, Germany. The elements analyzed include Antimony, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Lead, Strontium, Titanium, Zinc, and Zirconium.

  18. Enzyme activity in forest peat soils

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the activity of dehydrogenases and urease in forest peat soils of different fertility. There were selected 23 experimental plots localised in central and northern Poland. The research was conducted on forest fens, transition bogs and raised bogs. The biggest differences in soil physical and chemical properties were detected between fen and raised bog soils while raised bog soils and transition bog soils differed the least. Statistically significant dif...

  19. "Helstøbt bog om opgøret med det feudale Danmark er en sand nydelse - John Erichsen og Ditlev Tamm står bag veloplagt bog om lensafløsningen." John Erichsen og Ditlev Tamm: Grever, baroner og husmænd – Opgøret med de store godser 1919. Gyldendal, 348 sider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Danmarkshistorien er ikke rig på markante radikale reformer og ændringer. Normalt beskriver vi den danske samfundsudvikling som et resultat af forhandlinger og kompromiser. Men der er undtagelser, og de bliver ofte glemt, når historien om det forhandlede konsensussamfund bliver skrevet. En af dis...

  20. Kant's Theory of virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)......Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)...

  1. Iværksættelser af vanvid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Maurice Blanchot, "Dagens vanvid" / "Mit dødsøjeblik" og Laura Riding, "En anonym bog"......Anmeldelse af Maurice Blanchot, "Dagens vanvid" / "Mit dødsøjeblik" og Laura Riding, "En anonym bog"...

  2. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  3. Forskningsresume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    Resume til CMSS hjemmeside af bog om sikkerhedskultur og omtale af flere artikler fra samme forfatter.......Resume til CMSS hjemmeside af bog om sikkerhedskultur og omtale af flere artikler fra samme forfatter....

  4. Spatial distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and moths (Lepidoptera) in the Mrtvý luh bog, Šumava Mts (Central Europe): a test of habitat islands community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (Hawksworth, D.; Bull, A.), s. 381-395 ISBN 1-4020-5203-0 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600070501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Carabidae * Central Europe * community ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  6. Variability of Lepidoptera communities (moths and butterflies) along an altitudinal gradient of peat bogs from the Třeboň Basin up to the Bohemian Forest (South Bohemia, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel; Zikmundová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2014), s. 55-95. ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : moths and butterflies * peatlands * communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.npsumava.cz/gallery/27/8381-sg_20_2_jarosetal.pdf

  7. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  8. Struktura przestrzenna roślinności torfowiska Żabieniec koło Brzezin

    OpenAIRE

    Cieślak, Piotr

    2000-01-01

    In the paper are presented results of researches on flora, plant communities and spatial structure of vegetation of the Żabieniec peat bog. These researches were carried out in the years 1995-1996. In the peat bog 17 plant communities were distinguished. They belong to 5 ecological groups: forests and scrubs (3), rushes (5), meadows (4), water communities (3) and peat communities (2). The paper contains also a map of real vegetation, 2 profiles of vegetation of peat bog, and...

  9. Breeding bird populations of Irish peatlands : capsule peatlands are very important habitats for birds despite low species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Barry J. McMahon; Whelan, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to describe the variation in breeding bird populations that occur on different types of Irish peatlands and their associated habitat characteristics. Methods: Bird abundance and diversity were compared between four peatland habitat types: fens; raised bogs; Atlantic blanket bogs; and montane blanket bogs at twelve study sites using transects. Various measures of habitat quality were also taken at each location. Results: Only 21 species were recorded during the study with Meadow Pip...

  10. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E;

    1985-01-01

    presence of BOG was ruled out (diagnoses: irritable bowel syndrome, 8; chronic diarrhoea, 6; and lactose malabsorption, 1). These patients were used as controls. The other 22 of the 60 patients could not be placed in either group owing to the presence of factors known to predispose for BOG; none of them......Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients the...

  11. Natur og udeliv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Niels; Stokholm, Dorte

    I-bog til valgmodulet "Natur og udeliv" Bogen gennemgår væsentlige temaer i valgmodulet og underbygger med video, praksisfortællinger mv.......I-bog til valgmodulet "Natur og udeliv" Bogen gennemgår væsentlige temaer i valgmodulet og underbygger med video, praksisfortællinger mv....

  12. Iron Working in Denmark 500 BC - AD 1000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2008-01-01

    Iron technology was introduced into Denmark c. 500 BC and for the next 1500 years iron was produced from local bog ore. Iron working was practised in ordinary farming villages and was probably a sideline for farmers who lives where bog ore of a suitable quality and a forest large enough to supply...

  13. Deltagende observation 2. udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    Denne bog er en teoretisk og praktisk introduktion til deltagende observation, og giver konkrete anvisninger, som er nyttige for såvel erfarne som den uprøvede feltforsker.......Denne bog er en teoretisk og praktisk introduktion til deltagende observation, og giver konkrete anvisninger, som er nyttige for såvel erfarne som den uprøvede feltforsker....

  14. Hitler og Stalin arm i arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Levende fortalt bog om pagten mellem Hitler og Stalin, som udløste krigen og kastede lange skygger over Europas historie.......Levende fortalt bog om pagten mellem Hitler og Stalin, som udløste krigen og kastede lange skygger over Europas historie....

  15. Distance Education Report, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on distance education in the California Community College. This is the seventh report to the California Community Colleges Board of Governors (BOG) per BOG Standing Order 409 (b) "that evaluates the effectiveness of distance education and education technology system wide and provides analysis of data demographically (by age,…

  16. Ved vejen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Per; Dalsgaard, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    iBogs-udgave af Herman Bang: Ved Vejen, inkl. 646 ordforklaringer, 4 introduktioner, 4 anmeldelser, opgaver, 4 videoklip, 1 lydfil, 48 illustrationer, 3 stilesæt, litteraturliste......iBogs-udgave af Herman Bang: Ved Vejen, inkl. 646 ordforklaringer, 4 introduktioner, 4 anmeldelser, opgaver, 4 videoklip, 1 lydfil, 48 illustrationer, 3 stilesæt, litteraturliste...

  17. Armillaria ectypa, a rare fungus of mire in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria ectypa is a saprotroph that occurs on active raised bogs and alkaline fens, as well as Aapa mires and transitional bogs. It is a very rare and threatened Eurasian species and one of the 33 fungal species proposed for inclusion into the Bern Convention. Its distribution in Poland, ecological notes and morphology of basidiocarp based on Polish specimens are presented.

  18. Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Zahidul Islam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 200,000kl LNG tanks were analyzed using the LKP and BWRS models. The heat leakage of LNG tanks depends on the structure of tanks, and the small tanks lose heatto the environment due to their large surface area to volume ratio. As the operation pressure was dropped to 200mbar, all four of the LNG tanks’ BOG levels reached 0.05vol%/day. In order to satisfy the BOG design requirement, the operating pressure of the four large LNG tanks in the case study was maintained above 200mbar. Thus, the operating pressure impacts BOG on LNG tanks, but this effect is limited under the extreme high operation pressure. An attempt was made to determine the relationship between the compositions of LNGand BOG; one been combustible and the other non-combustible gases. The main component of combustible gas was methane, and nitrogen was of non-combustible gases. The relationship between BOG and methane compositions was that, as the methane fraction increases in the LNG, the BOG volume also increases. In general, results showed a direct correlation between BOG and operating pressure. The study also found that larger LNG tanks have less BOG; however as the operation pressure is increased the differences in the quantity of BOGamong the four tanks decreased.

  19. Needle anatomy suggests hybridization between the relict turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris L. from the Gązwa peat bóg and typical Scots pine

    OpenAIRE

    Kornelia Polok; Marta Przybyła; Włodzimierz Pisarek; Ewa Chudzińska; Roman Zieliński; Lech Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris from the Gazwa peat bog reserve in terms of 16 anatomical needle traits and to determine whether pines with a typical morphotype inhabiting the peat bog have been so successful thanks to hybridization with the unique tufosa ecotype. Investigations were conducted on three phenotypic groups of Scots pine growing in the peat bog. The first two groups consisted of 30 tufosa trees at the age of 117-217 years and 20 tree...

  20. Known distribution of Galerina tibiicystis (Fungi, Basidiomycota) in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tkalčec, Zdenko; Mešić, Armin

    2003-01-01

    Galerina tibiicystis (G.F. Atk.) Kühner is typical fungal species for Sphagnum communities in bogs. In Croatia bogs are very rare, small sized, and critically threatened habitats. Until the year 2000 just one find of this species had been recorded in Croatia. During intensive mycological field research of four bogs in the year 2000, two new localities of this species had been discovered. In this research G. tibiicystis was the most common species with 69 records. Three localities of G. tibiic...

  1. Vývoj a perspektivy návštěvnosti Chalupské a Jezerní slatě (NP Šumava)

    OpenAIRE

    DUTKA, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Peat bogs of the Šumava National Park are very valuable biotopes with an occurrence of the specific flora and fauna, including glacial relicts. These localities are also very attractive for tourists, so it is important to find the reasonable compromise between an attendance and a nature protection. The study is dealing with the development of touristic attendance of two peat bogs from 2010 to 2012 and enlarges my bachelor?s work (Comparison of attendance of two peat bogs (Chalupská a Jezerní ...

  2. Sekundäre Moorbildungen abgetorfter Parzellen des Robenhauser Rieds (Pfäffikersee/ZH, Schweiz)

    OpenAIRE

    Burga, C. A.; Schartner, M

    2008-01-01

    The bog of Robenhausen near Seegräben-Wetzikon (Zurich Oberland) belongs to a peatland complex in the nature conservation area of the Lake of Pfäffikon which is surrounded by glacial deposits such as moraines and drumlins. For more than 200 years peat has been used as source of fuel. Since 1996 the bog has become an important nature-conservation and regional recreation area. Primary and secondary peat build-up processes have been studied at 12 core drilling sites within this peat bog. Differe...

  3. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  4. Interstitial soil solutions - medium and factor of active redistribution of radionuclides in the system 'soil substratum - groundwater'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pore solutions of bog soils have been studied in high bog ecosystems situated in the zones contaminated by Chernobyl-born radionuclides (Belarus, UK, Russia). High 137Cs concentrations in soil solutions (up to 48 Bq/l), low Kd (average 418±50), as well as close correlations between 137Cs and K+ from interstitial water of highly aerated vegetation-bog soils have been established. Radiation effects of the mobile 137Cs migration in pore solutions to the groundwater surface have been revealed

  5. 78 FR 69755 - International Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... 19 Chile SCL 17 China BJS 14 Colombia BOG 17 ] Comoros Islands, via France....... CDG 19 Congo, Dem... Federal Regulations. See 39 CFR 20.1. List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations,...

  6. O sallingmo'l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Inger Schoonderbeek

    2005-01-01

    Anmeldelsen har til formål kort at beskrive Jens Ejsings nyeste bog, som beskriver sallingmålets grammatik meget detaljeret. Anmeldelsen er informativ snarere end kritisk. Udgivelsesdato: december...

  7. Is Management Interdisciplinary? The Evolution of Management as an Interdisciplinary Field of Research and Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); L. Karsten (Luchien)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractManagement research and education are often characterized as being interdisciplinary. However, most discussions on what interdisciplinarity in management studies means have bogged down in ideological fixations. In this paper we alternatively take a historical perspective and analyze the

  8. Испытанные временем / Тийна Кольк

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кольк, Тийна

    2011-01-01

    Ajaproovile vastupannud klassikalise disainiga toodetest: viini tool, Alvar Aalto taburet ja vaas "Savoy", Arne Jacobseni tugitool "Muna" jt. Kaidi Ploomipuu kavandatud Euroopa disainiauhinna Red Dot pälvinud vaip «Bog 4053»

  9. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327. ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  10. Sten fra himlen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Meteoritter. Veloplagt bog har samlet historien om de mest berømte af dem – fra Yucatan-meteoritten, som ændrede livet på Jorden, til Maribo-meteoritten, der landede i Danmark i 2009.......Meteoritter. Veloplagt bog har samlet historien om de mest berømte af dem – fra Yucatan-meteoritten, som ændrede livet på Jorden, til Maribo-meteoritten, der landede i Danmark i 2009....

  11. Needle anatomy suggests hybridization between the relict turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris L. from the Gązwa peat bóg and typical Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Polok

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris from the Gazwa peat bog reserve in terms of 16 anatomical needle traits and to determine whether pines with a typical morphotype inhabiting the peat bog have been so successful thanks to hybridization with the unique tufosa ecotype. Investigations were conducted on three phenotypic groups of Scots pine growing in the peat bog. The first two groups consisted of 30 tufosa trees at the age of 117-217 years and 20 trees at the age of 30-85 years. The third group consisted of typical pines represented by 10 trees at the age of 20-55 years. In total 30 trees of typical pine, surrounding the peat bog, at the age of 100-150 years served as outgroup. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance with the F test, Tukey's test, and a number of multivariate analyses were used to estimate differences between the studied groups of trees based on 16 anatomical needle characteristics. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve proved to be a unique and relict peat bog pine, as it was shown by the differences in 10 analyzed needle traits in comparison to pine with a typical morphotype growing in the areas surrounding the peat bog. The young typical pines have adapted to conditions found in the peat bog owing to hybridization with the turfosa forms. The young turfosa trees differed from the old turfosa trees and also they have probably been of a hybrid origin. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve is a threatened ecotype due to its hybridization with pines from the population surrounding the peat bog.

  12. Studying the removal of the pollutants from wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nevzorov Aleksandr Leonidovich; Tel’minov Il’ya Valentinovich

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands, considered as the territories unfit for agriculture and building, in the recent past served as the places for the industrial and municipal waste accommodation. That’s why the problems, connected with the studies of pollution and recovery duration of bogs, are rather current nowadays. The aim of this research is studying carrying out of pollutants from the polluted marsh massif. The object of the research is the Konnick bog, where the discharge of waste water from the hydrolysis plan...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Content and Profile, Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-inflammatory Bioactivity in Wild Alaskan and Commercial Vaccinium Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Dunlap, Kriya L.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Wild Alaskan Vaccinium berries, V. vitis-idaea (lowbush cranberry) and V. uliginosum (bog blueberry), were investigated in parallel to their commercial berry counterparts; V. macrocarpon (cranberry) and V. angustifolium (lowbush blueberry). Lowbush cranberry accumulated about twice the total phenolics (624.4 mg/100 g FW) and proanthocyanidins (278.8 mg/100 g) content as commercial cranberries, but A-type proanthocyanidins were more prevalent in the latter. Bog blueberry anthocyanin and total ...

  14. Den, som protesterer, er gået i fælden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Johnny Johansen

    2007-01-01

    En litteraturhistorisk kommentar til Knud Romer Jørgensens bog "Den som blinker er bange for døden" (2006), der sammenblander to læserpagter: fiktionspagten ("roman") og referentialitetspagten (selvbiografi).......En litteraturhistorisk kommentar til Knud Romer Jørgensens bog "Den som blinker er bange for døden" (2006), der sammenblander to læserpagter: fiktionspagten ("roman") og referentialitetspagten (selvbiografi)....

  15. Boganmeldelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet.......De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet....

  16. Greece; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper provides updates on Greece’s financial stability framework. The paper highlights that the Bank of Greece (BoG) has strengthened the financial stability framework over recent years. In addition to the liquidity provided by the euro system through its regular refinancing operations and standing facilities, the BoG can provide emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) to financial institutions. In response to the global financial crisis, the authorities have assisted bank...

  17. Æstetik er tilbage som nøgle til at forstå samtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Devika

    2013-01-01

    Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" .......Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" ....

  18. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  19. Impact of long-term drainage on summer groundwater flow patterns in the Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Kopp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term impacts of drier conditions on the hydrology of northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used long-term drainage near a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological processes and groundwater flow patterns in an area now forested and an area that maintained a bog-like character. Groundwater flow patterns alternated between mostly downward flow and occasionally upward flow in the bog area and were mostly upward-orientated in the forested area, which suggested that there the flow pattern had shifted from bog- to fen-like conditions. Flow patterns were in agreement with changes in post-drainage hydraulic conductivities, storage capacity of the peat and water table levels. Compared to the bog, hydraulic conductivities in the forested area were one to three orders of magnitude lower in the uppermost 0.75 m of peat (paired t test, p < 0.05. Bulk density had increased and the water table level was lower and more strongly fluctuating in the forested area. Our findings suggest hydraulic gradients and flow patterns have changed due to increased evapotranspiration and interception with the emergence of a tree cover. The smaller size of the now-forested area relative to the remaining bog area appeared to be important for the hydrological change. With the main Mer Bleue bog as hinterland, enhanced runoff to the drainage channel had little effect on hydrologic and vegetation patterns. In the cut-off, smaller, now forested area pervasive changes in vegetation and hydrologic processes occurred. The difference in response to local drainage raises questions about tipping points with respect to the impact of drying on peatland ecosystems that need to be addressed in future research.

  20. Past processes in peats : untangling the origin of dried peat in the Australian alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat soils form where decomposition is hindered, often by a combination of cold and wet conditions, such that production of organic matter outweighs decomposition. Such conditions are rare in the hot, dry continent of Australia. Consequently peat barely features on a map of Australian soils, though small areas are noted to occur in the alps and along the humid east coast. It is pertinent to ask several questions about the origin of peat in the alps. Is dried peat a remnant of bog peat? And if so, when did bogs drain to form dried peat? The study site, on Wellington Plains in the south-east Gippsland Alps, contains a substantial area of bog peat and extensive areas of dried peat. AMS radiocarbon dating of surface, base and, for the bog peat only, mid-profile peat samples, was carried out at ANSTO. 14C dating enabled us to look at the initiation of peat accumulation, but the change from bog peat to dried peat is thought to have occurred more recently, since the introduction of stock to the alps. The short half-life of 210Pb (22.6 years) and the constant supply from the upper atmosphere makes 210Pb an appropriate technique to investigate this time frame. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  2. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustár, Rozália; Molnár, Dávid; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sávai, Szilvia

    2016-06-01

    The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well. The bog is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which aeolian sand and thick lake sediment deposited from the Late Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human occupations, the natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake choked up. The pollen and quartermalacological analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.

  3. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  4. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  5. Analysis and efficiency enhancement of a boil-off gas reliquefaction system with cascade cycle on board LNG carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction plant on board LNG carriers is improved. • Relevant improvements deals with a study on BOG–C2H4–C3H6 cascade system. • A novel design is proposed to reduce power consumption and COP improvement. • Efficiency improvement by BOG cold energy recovery and compression heat rejection. • Efficiency increase operating in parallel with the engine fuel gas supply system. - Abstract: In this paper, an LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction plant operating in accordance with cascade vapor compression cycles, using propylene and ethylene as refrigerants, on board LNG carriers is investigated. As consequence of the analysis results, a new and original design is proposed to reduce power consumption and improve its exergy efficiency. Through energy and exergy analysis, a thermodynamic model is carried out to analyse and evaluate operating conditions as well as to obtain performance values such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP), exergy efficiency, irreversibilities and specific energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis is performed using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software environment. The results of the improved design implemented on the reliquefaction plant for LNG tank conditions of -160.82 °C, a plant BOG input temperature of −125 °C and 25 °C seawater, give COP values of 0.22 and an exergetic efficiency of 37%, such values being 22.22% and 19.35% greater than the original design. The specific energy consumption decreases 14.66% to 0.64 kW h per kg/s of natural BOG. The proposal for improving efficiency is founded on BOG cold energy recovery and BOG compression heat rejection with cooling water in the intercoolers

  6. Effects of permafrost aggradation on peat properties as determined from a pan-Arctic synthesis of plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, C. C.; Jones, M. C.; Camill, P.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Garneau, M.; Harden, J. W.; Hugelius, G.; Klein, E. S.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuhry, P.; Loisel, J.; Mathijssen, P. J. H.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Oksanen, P. O.; Ronkainen, T. M.; Sannel, A. B. K.; Talbot, J.; Tarnocai, C.; Väliranta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics play an important role in high-latitude peatland carbon balance and are key to understanding the future response of soil carbon stocks. Permafrost aggradation can control the magnitude of the carbon feedback in peatlands through effects on peat properties. We compiled peatland plant macrofossil records for the northern permafrost zone (515 cores from 280 sites) and classified samples by vegetation type and environmental class (fen, bog, tundra and boreal permafrost, and thawed permafrost). We examined differences in peat properties (bulk density, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and organic matter content, and C/N ratio) and C accumulation rates among vegetation types and environmental classes. Consequences of permafrost aggradation differed between boreal and tundra biomes, including differences in vegetation composition, C/N ratios, and N content. The vegetation composition of tundra permafrost peatlands was similar to permafrost-free fens, while boreal permafrost peatlands more closely resembled permafrost-free bogs. Nitrogen content in boreal permafrost and thawed permafrost peatlands was significantly lower than in permafrost-free bogs despite similar vegetation types (0.9% versus 1.5% N). Median long-term C accumulation rates were higher in fens (23 g C m-2 yr-1) than in permafrost-free bogs (18 g C m-2 yr-1) and were lowest in boreal permafrost peatlands (14 g C m-2 yr-1). The plant macrofossil record demonstrated transitions from fens to bogs to permafrost peatlands, bogs to fens, permafrost aggradation within fens, and permafrost thaw and reaggradation. Using data synthesis, we have identified predominant peatland successional pathways, changes in vegetation type, peat properties, and C accumulation rates associated with permafrost aggradation.

  7. Red list plants: colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, B; Haselwandter, K

    2004-08-01

    Since information concerning the mycorrhization of endangered plants is of major importance for their potential re-establishment, we determined the mycorrhizal status of Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae), Betonica officinalis (Lamiaceae), Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae) and Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae), occurring at one of two wetland sites (fen meadow and peat bog), which differed in soil pH and available P levels. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was quantified. Colonization by AMF appeared to be more frequent in the fen meadow than in the peat bog, and depended on the host plant. Roots of S. tinctoria and B. officinalis were well colonized by AMF in the fen meadow (35-55% root length) and both arbuscules and vesicles were observed to occur in spring as well as in autumn. In the peat bog, L. inundata showed a low level of root colonization in spring, when vesicles were found frequently but no arbuscules. In roots of D. intermedia from the peat bog, arbuscules and vesicles were observed, but AMF colonization was lower than in L. inundata. In contrast, the amount of AMF spores extracted from soil at the peat bog site was higher than from the fen meadow soil. Spore numbers did not differ between spring and autumn in the fen meadow, but they were higher in spring than in autumn in the peat bog. Acaulospora laevis or A. colossica and Glomus etunicatum were identified amongst the AMF spores extracted from soil at the two sites. S. tinctoria and B. officinalis roots were also regularly colonized by DSE (18-40% root length), while L. inundata was only rarely colonized and D. intermedia did not seem to be colonized by DSE at all. PMID:15221579

  8. Impact of long-term drainage on summer groundwater flow patterns in the Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Kopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term impacts of a drier climate on coupled hydrology and carbon cycling in northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological processes and groundwater flow patterns in an area now wooded and an area that maintained bog character. Groundwater flow patterns alternated between downward flow and upward flow in the bog area and were mostly upward orientated in the wooded area. Flow patterns were in agreement with changes in post-drainage hydraulic conductivities, storage capacity of the peat and hydraulic gradients. Compared to the bog, hydraulic conductivities in the wooded area were one to three orders of magnitude lower in the uppermost 0.75 m (paired t-test, p<0.05 of peat but partly higher below. Bulk density had increased and the water table level was lower and more strongly fluctuating. Our findings suggest hydraulic gradients and flow patterns have changed due to increased evapotranspiration and interception with the emergence of a tree cover. The smaller size of the now-forested area relative to the remaining bog area appeared to be important for the hydrological change. When water supply from undisturbed areas was large, enhanced runoff to the drainage channel had little effect on hydrologic patterns and vegetation pattern, whereas in the smaller, now forested area pervasive changes in vegetation and hydrologic processes occurred. This finding raises questions about tipping points with respect to the impact of drying on bog ecosystems that need to be addressed in future research.

  9. Effects of permafrost aggradation on peat properties as determined from a pan-Arctic synthesis of plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, C.C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Camill, P.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Garneau, M.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, G.; Klein, E.S.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuhry, P.; Loisel, J.; Mathijssen, J.H.; O'Donnell, J.A.; Oksanen, P.O.; Ronkainen, T.M.; Sannel, A.B.K.; Talbot, J. J.; Tarnocal, C.M.; Valiranta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics play an important role in high-latitude peatland carbon balance and are key to understanding the future response of soil carbon stocks. Permafrost aggradation can control the magnitude of the carbon feedback in peatlands through effects on peat properties. We compiled peatland plant macrofossil records for the northern permafrost zone (515 cores from 280 sites) and classified samples by vegetation type and environmental class (fen, bog, tundra and boreal permafrost, and thawed permafrost). We examined differences in peat properties (bulk density, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and organic matter content, and C/N ratio) and C accumulation rates among vegetation types and environmental classes. Consequences of permafrost aggradation differed between boreal and tundra biomes, including differences in vegetation composition, C/N ratios, and N content. The vegetation composition of tundra permafrost peatlands was similar to permafrost-free fens, while boreal permafrost peatlands more closely resembled permafrost-free bogs. Nitrogen content in boreal permafrost and thawed permafrost peatlands was significantly lower than in permafrost-free bogs despite similar vegetation types (0.9% versus 1.5% N). Median long-term C accumulation rates were higher in fens (23 g C m−2 yr−1) than in permafrost-free bogs (18 g C m−2 yr−1) and were lowest in boreal permafrost peatlands (14 g C m−2 yr−1). The plant macrofossil record demonstrated transitions from fens to bogs to permafrost peatlands, bogs to fens, permafrost aggradation within fens, and permafrost thaw and reaggradation. Using data synthesis, we have identified predominant peatland successional pathways, changes in vegetation type, peat properties, and C accumulation rates associated with permafrost aggradation.

  10. Contributions of palynology in the reconstruction of livestock impact on the surroundings of Rascafria (Madrid) during the recent Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results obtained from the palaeocological studies about human impact on the vegetal landscape of a peat bog located in Resurface (Lozoya Valley, Madrid, Central Spain). Palynomorph analysis allows to identify the kind and intensity of human activity and its relation to the trophic changes in the peat bog during the late Holocene (2455±35 BP). Pollen record reveals an anthropic Mediterranean landscape mainly composed by pastures used for grazing. Non Pollen Palynomorphs (NPP) and pH and conductivity sediment have revealed as useful tools for detection of trophic conditions and land use changes. (Author)

  11. Contributions of palynology in the reconstruction of livestock impact on the surroundings of Rascafria (Madrid) during the recent Holocene; Aportaciones de la palinologia en la reconstruccion del impacto ganadero, en los alrededores de Rascafria (Madrid), durante el Holoceno reciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, C.; Ruiz Zapata, M. B.; Lopez-Saez, J. A.; Gil Garcia, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    We present the results obtained from the palaeocological studies about human impact on the vegetal landscape of a peat bog located in Resurface (Lozoya Valley, Madrid, Central Spain). Palynomorph analysis allows to identify the kind and intensity of human activity and its relation to the trophic changes in the peat bog during the late Holocene (2455{+-}35 BP). Pollen record reveals an anthropic Mediterranean landscape mainly composed by pastures used for grazing. Non Pollen Palynomorphs (NPP) and pH and conductivity sediment have revealed as useful tools for detection of trophic conditions and land use changes. (Author)

  12. Lille spejl i hjernen dér

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Myte? Spejlneuroner er blevet brugt til at forklare både læring, empati og sprog, og tidligere i år modtog Giacomo Rizzolatti den store Brain Prize for opdagelsen af dem. Ny bog er kritisk over for fænomenet.......Myte? Spejlneuroner er blevet brugt til at forklare både læring, empati og sprog, og tidligere i år modtog Giacomo Rizzolatti den store Brain Prize for opdagelsen af dem. Ny bog er kritisk over for fænomenet....

  13. Dynamics of Viral Abundance and Diversity in a Sphagnum-Dominated Peatland: Temporal Fluctuations Prevail Over Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Ballaud, Flore; Dufresne, Alexis; Francez, André-Jean; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Quaiser, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different layers of the peat surface. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7 x 106 to 5.6 x 108 particles mL-1, and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with pr...

  14. Om at oversætte Mead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    2005-01-01

    George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv.......George Herbert Mead har skrevet en rigtig dårlig bog, der dog også er en klassiker. "sindet, selvet og samfundet" er den blevet til i en udgivelsesklar dansk udgave- og oversættelsen er en historie i seig selv....

  15. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V; Samaniego, P.; M. Vuille; S. Hidalgo; M. Herrera; Ceron, C.

    2013-01-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analyzed the pollen content of a 1150-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the Andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined. This index was use...

  16. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustár Rozália

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well.

  17. Porovnání Chalupské a Jezerní slatě (NP Šumava) z hlediska jejich návštěvnosti

    OpenAIRE

    DUTKA, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Peat bogs of the Šumava National Park are very valuable biotopes with an occurrence of the specific flora and fauna, including glacial relicts. But these localities are also very attractive for tourists, so it is important to find the reasonable compromise between an attendance and a nature protection. The study is dealing with the touristic attendance of two peat bogs ? Chalupská and Jezerní slať. The work is divided into two parts. The first, theoretical part, include a literary review abou...

  18. Flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Flora var en romersk gudinde for blomstring og frugtbarhed. I overensstemmelse med renæssancens genbrug af antikke guder anvendte P.G.B. Ferrari i 1633 Floras navn på en bog om havebrug og Simon Pauli kaldte i 1648 en bog om danske nyttige planter for Flora Danica, begge med reference til den...... romerske blomstergudinde. Herfra spores ordet "flora" til det moderne brug som globalt anvendt betegnelse for en regionalt begrænset håndbog om planter....

  19. Post depositional memory record of mercury in sediment near effluent disposal site of a chlor-alkali plant in Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.; Borole, D.V.

    .K. Cheburkin, A new aapproach for quantifying cumulative, anthropogenic, atmospheric lead deposition using peat cores from bogs: Pb in eight Swiss peat bog profiles, Sci. Total Environ. 249 (2000), pp. 281-295. [55] S. Miserocchi, L. Langone S. Guerzoni.... 1794-1800. [58] E. Steinnesand T.E. Sj∅bakk, Order of magnitude increase of Hg in Norwegian peat profiles since the outset of industrial activity in Europe, Environ. Pollut. 137 (2005), pp. 365-370. [59] A.B. Cundy and I.W. Croudace, Sedimentary...

  20. Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenesis by Moderately Acid-Tolerant Methanogens of a Methane-Emitting Acidic Peat

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marcus A.; Matthies, Carola; Küsel, Kirsten; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The emission of methane (1.3 mmol of CH4 m−2 day−1), precursors of methanogenesis, and the methanogenic microorganisms of acidic bog peat (pH 4.4) from a moderately reduced forest site were investigated by in situ measurements, microcosm incubations, and cultivation methods, respectively. Bog peat produced CH4 (0.4 to 1.7 μmol g [dry wt] of soil−1 day−1) under anoxic conditions. At in situ pH, supplemental H2-CO2, ethanol, and 1-propanol all increased CH4 production rates while formate, aceta...

  1. Diagenesis of sulphur in a peat forming environment: a case study from Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senaratne, A.; Tobschall, H.J.; Dissanayake, C.B. (Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften)

    1990-03-01

    The sulphur geochemistry of the Muthurajawela peat deposit in Sri Lanka was studied. Due to the reducing conditions prevailing within the peat bog, sulphur was mainly in the sulphide form and almost all of the iron in the peat was in the form of iron sulphide. By releasing organically bound sulphur, the organic matter contributed significantly to the content of sulphur required for pyrite formation. It was found that the pyrite distribution in the peat bog did not depend on the depth of the organic matter, but on the state of decomposition. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Modelling of Boil-Off Gas in LNG Tanks: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Zahidul Islam; Ebenezer Adom; Xianda Ji

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of pressure and heat leakages on Boil-off Gas (BOG) in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanks. The Lee-Kesler-Plocker (LKP) and the Starling modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWRS) empirical models were used to simulate the compressibility factor, enthalpy and hence heat leakage at various pressures to determine the factors that affect the BOG in typical LNG tanks of different capacities. Using a case study data the heat leakage of 140,000kl, 160,00kl, 180,000kl and 20...

  3. Fra "en rigtig pige" til "en gravid mand"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2012-01-01

    Nedslag i to eksempler på "transreproduktion": Lili Elbe, en transkvinde, der i 1931 døde efter en række kønsskifteoperationer og Thomas Beatie, en transmand, der i 2008 fødte et barn udgav en bog om det.......Nedslag i to eksempler på "transreproduktion": Lili Elbe, en transkvinde, der i 1931 døde efter en række kønsskifteoperationer og Thomas Beatie, en transmand, der i 2008 fødte et barn udgav en bog om det....

  4. Preservation status and priorities for in situ monitoring of the weapon sacrifice in Illerup Ådal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjelldén, A.K.E.; Kristiansen, S.M.; Botfeldt, Knud Bo

    2012-01-01

    Excavations of the southern part of a very rich sacrificial bog in Illerup Ådal, Denmark between 1950 and 1985 recovered approximately 15,000 Iron Age artefacts. At the time, 60 per cent of the area was left unexcavated and thousands of objects are now preserved in situ, but the present preservation...... the area. Results show that the remaining artefacts are generally well preserved in a waterlogged and anaerobic environment. However, in the north-eastern part of the bog, the groundwater table is too low even in a year when net precipitation and hydrological conditions were near normal. In the centre...

  5. Sansning som redskab og metode for faget Modedesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    åbne og neuropsykologen og pædagogen Howard Garners Multiples Intelligences. Herudover er Kvale/Brinkmanns fænomenologisk baserede bog InterView, om kvalitativ interviewpraksis i forskningsøjemed blevet anvendt i forbindelse med forberedelsen, udførelsen og bearbejdningen af det empiriske materiale...

  6. Transformation Studio 2016: Future Geopark Odsherred

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    What if the vacant radio station at Skamlebæk became the new visitor center and gateway to the Geopark Odsherred? How can landscape design communicate the finding place of the sun chariot in the Trundholm bog? And can we rework the water system of the reclaimed Lammefjord for sustainable farming...

  7. The evolution of Holocene coastal dunefields, Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Murray, Andrew S.; Heinemeier, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    from bogs in southwestern Sweden suggest that these periods of dunefield activity were initiated during wet/cool summers. Most likely these climatic situations were associated with a more frequent passage of cyclones across Denmark in the summer seasons (increased storminess) causing aeolian sand...

  8. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  9. 78 FR 63506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... northern population of the bog turtle as threatened under the ESA in 1997 (62 FR 59605). The FWS has not... under the ESA's predecessor, the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 (32 FR 4001). The FWS has not designated critical habitat for the species in Pennsylvania (41 FR 41914). Areas of the PBAPS...

  10. Entartung: Forestillinger om en syg kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    Opfattelsen af moderne kunst som noget sygt nåede et klimaks under 1930'ernes og 1940'ernes nazisme. Med udgangspunkt i den tyske arkitekt Paul Schultze-Naumburgs bog Kunst und Rasse (1928) undersøger artiklen argumentationsgangen og genealogien bag den påståede sammenhæng mellem kunst og sygdom...

  11. Humanismens grænser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen handler om opfattelser af lov og straf i Steen Steensen Blichers fortælling "Præsten i Vejlbye". Der tages udgangspunkt bla. i Peter Brooks' bog om falske tilståelser ("Troubling Confessions" fra 2000) og herudfra analyseres både præstens og herredsfogedens bekendelser....

  12. Development of dangerous geological processes in the Hankaisky Region of Primorskiy Krai (Russian Far East)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V. Selivanova

    2006-01-01

    Hankaisky Region is the most densely populated and economic developed part of the Primorskiy Krai. It is promoting development of dangerous geological processes there. In the article the reasons of formation and intensive development in Hankaisky Region of the following dangerous geological processes lateral, winder and ground erosive, sill, floods, taluses, bogging, slope wash, karts, rebound of ground are considered.

  13. Elementær Teori for Plane Bjælker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Denne bog er skrevet med henblik på introduktion og benyttelse af de mest basale teorier for strenger og bjælker, hvor hovedvægten er lagt på retliniede, plane bjælker. Bogens indhold dækker mere end et enkelt semesters pensum ved bygningsingeniøruddannelsen ved Aalborg Universitet. Ideen er, at de...

  14. Software og kvalitativ dataanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren

    Denne bog handler om brug af softwareprogrammer til håndtering og analyse af kvalitative data. Den gengiver og diskuterer nogle af de væsentligste problemstillinger, muligheder og perspektiver, som knytter sig til indførelsen af softwareredskaber til analyse af kvalitative data med udgangspunkt i...

  15. Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Deprerssion,the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery.The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank's monthly report,Global Focus,published on February 2,offered some analysis on the outlook of the global economy this year.

  16. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  17. Vico og barokkens retorik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    og dens litteratur. Vico tilegnede sig barokkens opfattelse af erfaring og sprog, og da Descartes sammen med neoklassicismen fordømte barokken, udviklede Vico et interessant forsvar for sin baggrund, hvad der vises i denne bog. Rreviews: Louise Witt-Hansen, Det ny reception, vol. 31 (1998); Gitte...

  18. Byg og hold bøtte!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af en bog, der gennemgår forskellige receptioner af Ludwig Mies van der Rohes arkitektur ud fra forskellige filosofiske og kulturkritiske vinkler. Bogen har som særlig dagsorden af genoverveje den kritiske teoris status på feltet mellem arkitektur og kulturkritik og følger de rene, min...

  19. Anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric Hg, Pb and As accumulation recorded by peat cores from southern Greenland and Denmark dated using the 14C "bomb pulse curve"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shotyk, W.; Goodsite, M. E.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Frei, R.; Heinemeier, J.; Asmund, G.; Lohse, C.; Hansen, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    the "atmospheric bomb pulse," the chronology of Hg accumulation in GL is remarkably similar to the bog in DK where Hg was supplied only by atmospheric deposition: this suggests not only that Hg has been supplied to the surface layers of the minerotrophic core (GL) primarily by atmospheric inputs, but...

  20. Oplysning på trods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    Første bog på dansk om sociologen Karl Mannheim (1893-1947). Let revideret udgave af Ph.d.-afhandling udarbejdet ved Institut for Idéhistorie ved Aarhus Universitet. I bogen undersøges aktualiteten af Mannheims videnssociologi. Der skelnes mellem på den ene side aktualitet som en relation mellem ...

  1. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  2. Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Seamus; Eiroa Guillén, Ana; Hughes, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Anahorish (from Wintering out) ; Bog oak (from Wintering out) ; Tinder (from Wintering out) ; The strand at lough Beg (from Field work) ; The Loaning (from Station Island) = Anahorish ; Un roble sacado de la turbera ; Yesca ; La playa del lago Beg ; La vereda / traducción de Ana Eiroa Guillén y Brian Hughes

  3. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic propert

  4. Det er systemet den er gal med

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Klaus Buster Jensen og Jakob Mathiassen: Kamppladser. Østarbejdere og social dumping i byggeriet. Informations forlag. En fremragende bog om social dumping evner at udfolde det store problem uden at gøre hverken østeuropæerne eller arbejdsgiverne til karikerede skurke...

  5. Evaluering og dokumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Torben; Moldt-Jørgensen, Christian

    Psykodynamisk organisationspsykologi er en naturlig tilvækst og udvidelse af den første bog om feltet. Bind II indeholder nye tilgange til at forstå og udvikle organisatoriske relationer imellem de mennesker, som udgør og skaber organisationen. Bogen er inddelt i fem temaer: •Grupper og organisat...

  6. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  7. Law & Religion in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En nordisk bog om forholdet mellem stat, kirker og trossamfund; mellem religion og ret; mellem flertal og mindretalsreligioner i det post-sekulære og post-lutherske Norden. Bogen påviser, hvor og hvordan de nordiske modeller har behov for at blive justeret. Men det fremgår også klart, at nordiske...

  8. Building Tomorrow's Workforce: Community Colleges Partner with Industry to Provide Skills for New Job Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Warren

    2012-01-01

    As the nation, bogged in recession, focuses on job creation and economic growth for relief, attention has turned to education as the key to building a workforce to fill current and future job needs. However, to the surprise of some, much of the discussion involves community colleges, rather than traditional four-year, degree-granting universities…

  9. Forskning og undervisning i skriftsprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Bettina

    Bettina Perregaard giver i denne bog en introduktion til L.S. Vygotskys kulturhistoriske teori og afdækker den videnskabshistoriske baggrund for forskning i forholdet mellem social interaktion og skriftsproglig udvikling. Bogen diskuterer begreber som internalisering, udviklingszone, social praksis...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium vaccinii, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Vöing, Kristin; Harrison, Alisha; Soby, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium vaccinii has been isolated only from cranberry bogs in Massachusetts. While it is unknown what role these bacteria play in their natural environments, they hold potential as biological control agents against the larvae of insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and chitinases.

  11. Krigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    Abstract Krigen – et ustyrligt system Denne bog forsøger at favne bredt over fænomenet krig. Krig og krige har mange dimensioner, menneskelige dimensioner, historiske dimensioner, og de er meget forskellige fra sted til sted og fra menneske til menneske. Graver vi blot en lille smule i familiehis...

  12. Normalitet og afvigelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse ad Ivar Morkens bog:" Normalitet og afvigelse", der tager udgangspunkt i kontrasten mellem visionerne om inklusion, empowerment og anerkendelse og de faktiske forhold, hvor menneskelig afvig stadig diagnosticeres. Kontrasterne defineres og forsøges imødegået med forskellige former for ...

  13. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  14. Bogsalonen: Anmeldelse: Ayse Zarakol, After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Er det irrationelt, når nationalistiske tyrkere kalder forfatteren Orhan Pamuk for forædder? Sådan spørger Zarakol i sin fremragende bog om, hvordan det vestlige statssystem blev udbredt til hele kloden. Bogen er en dybt fascinerende historie om ikke-vestlige staters kamp for at passe ind i vestl...

  15. Krigspolitik(k)en under angreb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, Poul

    2008-01-01

    I de sidste 17-18 år har dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitik undergået en markant militarisering, med Danmarks aktive deltagelse i krigene i Afghanistan og Irak som hidtidige højdepunkter. Den anmeldte bog, Jørgen Bonde Jensens "Politiken og krigspolitikken. Et læserbrev", gennemgår kritisk dagb...

  16. Clonal diversity and genetic differentiation revealed by SSR markers in wild Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vaccinium oxycoccos

    Science.gov (United States)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a perennial, woody plant species, native to North American bogs and wetlands. Cranberries represent one of the few agriculturally important native plants in which wild gene pools are still readily available within the undeveloped wetlands the northe...

  17. AMAMM - All Media Are Mixed Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    All Media Are Mixed Media Alle medier er blandingsmedier. Alle kunstarter er kompositte. Alle sanser er sammensatte. Alle medialiteter er miksede og mangfoldige. Alle er AMAMM. Denne påstand står centralt i ord-, billed- og medie-teoretikeren W.J.T. Mitchells forfatterskab. I hosstående bog tager...

  18. Lærerprofiler i dansk - nye mål og kompetencer 1.-6. klassetrin 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Benny Bang; Mølgaard, Niels

    I denne anden bog i serien introduceres til de fire studiekompetenceområder, der knytter sig til undervisningen i folkeskolens 1.-6. klassetrin. Hvert kapitel præsenterer central forskningsbaseret viden inden for det pågældende tema, og der gives løbende eksempler på analytisk tekstarbejde, som på...

  19. Mathilde Prager - brobygger mellem Østrig og Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Den første nordiske forfatter, som den østrigske oversætter Mathilde Prager kom i forbindelse med, var nordmanden Jonas Lie, som hun oversatte to romaner af. Senere fik hun forbindelse med Arne Garborg og Knut Hamsun. Hun oversatte et værk af Clara Tschudi og skrev en omdiskuteret bog om Henrik...

  20. Lærerprofiler i dansk - Nye mål og kompetencer 4.-10.klassetrin 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Benny Bang; Mølgaard, Niels

    I denne tredje bog i serien introduceres til de fire studiekompetenceområder, der knytter sig til undervisningen i folkeskolens 4.-10. klassetrin. Hvert kapitel præsenterer central forskningsbaseret viden inden for det pågældende tema, og der gives løbende eksempler på analytisk tekstarbejde, som...

  1. Review of Paul R. Hinlicky: Luther and the Beloved Community. A Path for Christian Theology after Christendom. Eerdmans 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2011-01-01

    Denne anmeldelse er en kritisk gennemgang af Paul Hinlickys bog om luthersk teologi. Hinlicky ønsker at tilpasse Luther til katolsk teologi i form at det, han benævner "det nye Rom", og for at gøre dette benytter han sig af nogle problematiske hermeneutiske og metodologiske greb. Bogen handler så...

  2. Distributions and operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    Denne bog giver en introduktion til distributionsteori. Sigtet at vise hvordan teorien kombineres med studiet af operatorer i Hilbert rum med metoder fra funktionalanalyse, med anvendelser på partielle og sædvanlige differentialligninger. Der gives en introduktion til ubegrænsede operatorer, heru...

  3. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  4. Dialogue-based teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Nana; Dysthe, Olga; Esbjørn, Line

    Hvad er dialogbaseret undervisning, og hvordan kan den udfolde sig på et kunstmuseum? I denne bog viser forfatterne, hvordan erfarne museumsundervisere møder børn og unge på syv museer og udfordrer dem til nysgerrigt og kreativt at udforske temaer, udveksle synspunkter og udvikle nye tanker og id...

  5. Alpine wetlands in the West Carpathians: vegetation survey and vegetation - environment relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekulová, L.; Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Mikulášková, E.; Rozbrojová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-24. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bogs * environmantal gradiens * fens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2011

  6. Forvist til omsorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelsen refererer til en netop udgivet bog af Grønbæk Jensen & Knigge og udbygger dennes problemstilling ved at tilføje en diskussion om forholdet mellem faglighed og nærhed/hjemstavn. Udgivelsesdato: December 2008...

  7. Monitoring revitalizačních zásahů na rašeliništi Žofinka, CHKO Třeboňsko

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rektoris, Ladislav; Kolmanová, Andrea; Jakšičová, T.

    -, - (2003), s. 117-132. ISSN 1211-3603 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/610/10/00; GA ČR GA206/98/0727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : postfire succession * pine bog forests * soil water chemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Computer Cache. Wildlife on the Web: Connections to Animals, Biomes, Environments, and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Follow the migration of monarch butterflies, explore Yellowstone National Park, find out about endangered species in the Everglades, or learn about the wildlife dependent upon a bog for existence. This article describes how students can learn these things and many more through the numerous resources available on the World Wide Web that feature…

  9. Persondataloven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Dorte Lissie

    Persondataloven regulerer behandling af oplysninger om borgerne og gælder både for offentlige myndigheder, private virksomheder, foreninger, organisationer mv. Denne bog giver en grundig og overskuelig introduktion til de centrale bestemmelser i persondataloven og sætter fokus på emner som...... behandling af personoplysninger, borgerens rettigheder og beskyttelse af personoplysninger....

  10. Tekst og komposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Tygstrup, Frederik; Oxvig, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    TEKST OG KOMPOSITION er et årligt tilbagevendende kursus, der siden 2004 er blevet tilbudt Arkitektskolens 3. års studerende. Kurset har en varighed af to uger og består af 2 parallelle forløb: En læsning af Gilles Deluezes bog Proust og Tegnene i gruppeform og i samtale med Frederik Tygstrup, mag...

  11. I bad med Picasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Stadil, Christian Nicolas

    Alle er kreative! I denne bog viser Lene Tanggaard (professor i kreativitet) og Christian N. Stadil (ejer af bl.a. Hummel), at alle kan blive endnu mere kreative. De har interviewet en række af Danmarks mest kreative mennesker, for at finde ud af, hvordan de gør. Picasso gik i bad, når han skulle...

  12. Biobeschikbaarheid in de hond van anorganisch arseen uit ijzeroerhoudende grond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen K; Vaessen HAMG; Kliest JJG; de Boer JLM; van Ooik A; Timmerman A; Vlug R

    1992-01-01

    In some parts of the Netherlands, bog-ore containing soils prevail which naturally contain arsenic concentrations that exceed, by a factor of ten, existing standards for maximum allowable concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil. These standards are based on the assumption that in humans the bio

  13. En dronning kom til byen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    2009-01-01

    Det er ganske rigtig et af dansk håndbolds mest dramatiske kapitler Dan Philipsen beskriver i sin bog om Anja Andersens eventyr i Slagelse: 'En dronning kom til byen'. Bogen er velskrevet, og er i sin form en velsignet god gang underholdning til natbordet. Problemet er bare, at man kan have svært...

  14. Algae of the Bohemian Forest. 1. Specieses richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lederer, F.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2001), s. 97-104. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA60504; GA ČR GA206/99/1411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Bohemian Forest * species richness * biodiversity * algae * cyanobacteria * lakes * brooks * rivers * bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Mineral nutrient economy in competing species of Sphagnum mosses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Tomáš; Adamec, Lubomír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2009), s. 291-302. ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : exchange capacity * species coexistence * bog Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.485, year: 2009

  16. Controls on CH4 flux from an Alaskan boreal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin C.; Crill, Patrick M.; Pullman, Erik R.; Funk, Dale W.; Peterson, Kim M.

    1996-06-01

    Factors controlling the flux of the radiatively important trace gas methane (CH4) from boreal wetlands were examined at three sites along a moisture gradient from a treed low-shrub bog to an open floating graminoid bog in Fairbanks, Alaska. In the summer of 1992 average static chamber flux measurements were -0.02, 71.5, and 289 mg CH4/m2/d in dry, wet, and floating mat communities, respectively. In contrast, the warmer, drier 1993 field season flux measurements were -0.02, 42.9 and 407 mg CH4/m2/d. The data indicate that despite net oxidation of CH4 in the dry regions of the bog, the wetland is a net source of CH4, with fluxes ranging across three orders of magnitude between different plant communities. Comparison with water levels suggests that CH4 flux is turned on and off by changes in site hydrology. In sites where sufficient moisture is present for methanogenesis to occur, CH4 flux appears to be temperature limited, responding exponentially to soil temperature changes. The combined effects of hydrology and temperature create hot spots of CH4 flux within boreal wetlands. The plant communities within Lemeta Bog respond differently to changes in temperature and moisture availability, creating both positive and negative feedbacks to potential global climate change.

  17. What was the ‘home of the gods’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    significance comparable to that of Gudme on Funen or other similar sites in the eastern part of Jutland. As a working hypothesis, the author proposes that the place names originally referred to lakes, rivers, bogs or some other form of wetland environment as the ‘home of the gods’, and that the settlement...

  18. Sociale medier i gymnasiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    Denne bog rapporterer om første år af Socio Media Education eksperimentet, der tematiserede den konkrete udfordring det er at etablere en god it-kultur i en gymnasieklasse. Baseret på resultaterne undersøger bogen, både hvordan man kan skabe en god it-kultur i en klasse, og hvordan man kan forbed...

  19. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, J.F. van; Talbot, H.M.; Kip, N.; Reichart, G.-J.; Pol, A.; McNamara, N.P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Camp, H.J.M. Op den; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community inpeat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnummosses and of an extreme

  20. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Talbot, H.M.; Kip, N.; Reichart, G.J.; Pol, A.; McNamara, N.P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extrem

  1. A Mechanical Image: Heinrich Hertz's Principles of Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    Heinrich Hertz's bog Die Prinzipien der Mechanik in neuem Zusammenhange dargestellt var nyskabende inden for både fysik, matematik og filosofi. I fysik lagde den det første fundament til en fysik, som undgår kraftbegrebet som et basalt begreb; i matematik præsenterede den en ny geometrisering af...

  2. Fat teknologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    konferencer, udgivet bøger, lanceret MOOCs, udarbejdet forskningsrapporter og meget mere. Denne bog giver en hurtig indføring i nogle af de projekter og problemstillinger, der er blevet arbejdet med. På projektets hjemmeside – www.ucsj.dk/viol – kan du læse meget mere samt finde relevante links til det øvrige...

  3. Nu har dagplejen en fælles historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina

    2006-01-01

    Igennem aktionsforskningsprojekt i samarbejde med et uddannelsesprojekt i den Bornholmske dagpleje blev skabt ny viden om læring i fællesskaber i arbejdslivet for kortuddannede og mellemuddannede kvinder med omsorgsarbejde. Bidraget er en del af en bog ,som var et af flere resultater af et EU soc...

  4. The acclimation of carnivorous round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) to solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Doboš, Marko; Babić, Marija; Jurak, Edita

    2015-01-01

    Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant which inhabits nutrient-poor, moist, and sun-exposed areas such as peat bogs and sandpits. These habitats are threatened by succession which could lead to substantial shading of sundews. Nevertheless, D. rotundifolia can also gr

  5. Otter Lutra lutra Predating Dragonflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailley M.P.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In June 2000, the author found spraints and other signs indicating that at least one otter had been eating quantities of adult Four-Spotted Chasers (Libellula quadrimaculata common at the location, on the coastal raised bog of Cors Fochno in west Wales.

  6. Otter Lutra lutra Predating Dragonflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bailley M.P.

    2000-01-01

    In June 2000, the author found spraints and other signs indicating that at least one otter had been eating quantities of adult Four-Spotted Chasers (Libellula quadrimaculata) common at the location, on the coastal raised bog of Cors Fochno in west Wales.

  7. Kvantemekanik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølmer, Klaus

    enorm succes, men fortolkningen af den splittede samtidig tidens største videnskabsmænd, særligt Niels Bohr og Albert Einstein. Denne bog gennemgår kvantemekanikkens og fysikkens udvikling i det 20. århundrede - og giver indblik i de nyeste opdagelser af, hvordan den atomare verden fungerer...

  8. Application of GIS and logistic regression to fossil pollen data in modelling present and past spatial distribution of the Colombian savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.A. Flantua; J.H. van Boxel; H. Hooghiemstra; J. van Smaalen

    2007-01-01

    Climate changes affect the abundance, geographic extent, and floral composition of vegetation, which are reflected in the pollen rain. Sediment cores taken from lakes and peat bogs can be analysed for their pollen content. The fossil pollen records provide information on the temporal changes in clim

  9. Holocene history and environmental reconstruction of a Hercynian mire and surrounding mountain landscape based on multiple proxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Opravilová, V.; Hájek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2014), s. 107-120. ISSN 0033-5894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : fen-bog transition * transfer functions * macrofossil and pollen analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.544, year: 2014

  10. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper; Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  11. Symposium i Anvendt Statistik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FORORD Denne bog indeholder foredragene fra det 24. Symposium i Anvendt Statistik. Det er symposiets formål at fremme udveksling af information om såvel anvendt statistik som statistisk databehandling. Symposiet er tværfagligt med særlig vægt på metodik og på fremstilling og fortolkning af...

  12. Pyrolysis-GC-MS of humic materials from peat: in the search of Holocene environrnental change

    OpenAIRE

    González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Zancada, M.C.; Polvillo, Oliva; Martín Martínez, Francisco; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Peat bog deposits were formed in peculiar palaeoecosystems where the biodegradation of plant residues was retarded because of a combination of pedo-climatic and topographic factors, which have led to a continuous accumulation of organic matter in different evolutionary stages. Humic-type substances constitute the major components of the peat organic deposits.

  13. Significance of the White Sea as a Stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, B. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Clausen, P.; Poot, M. J. M.; Wessel, E. G. J.

    2001-01-01

    spp. were an important food in the late spring of 1996, because they grew in places where bog streams quickly melted the ice. At this latitude (65 degreesN) food alternatives to the submerged macrophytes are rare in spring, but we cannot rule out the possibility that the Swans forage on grass rhizomes...

  14. Læringsmiljø på hhx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Arnt Louw; Brown, Rikke; Simonsen, Birgitte

    Denne bog præsenterer resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet: Læringsmiljø på hhx - kvaliteter og udfordringer (2008-2010), som Center for Ungdomsforskning, DPU / AU har foretaget i samarbejde med Danske Erhvervsskoler - Lederne, støttet af undervisningsministeriet, Foreningen af Unge Handelsmænds ...

  15. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  16. Mineral resource of the month: peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Peat is a natural organic material of botanical origin, harvested from deposits in bogs and fens. Commercial deposits form from the incomplete decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic conditions and gradually accumulate to form peat over about a 5,000-year period.

  17. Climate and peat type in relation to spatial variation of the peatland carbon mass in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Maara S.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; McLaughlin, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands store ~500 Pg of carbon (C); however, controls on the spatial distribution of the stored C may differ regionally, owing to the complex interaction among climate, ecosystem processes, and geophysical controls. As a globally significant C sink, elucidation of controls on the distribution of C in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada (HBL), is of particular importance. Although peat age is related to timing of land emergence and peat depth in the HBL, considerable variation in the total C mass (kg m-2) among sites of similar peat age suggests that other factors may explain spatial patterns in C storage (Pg) and sequestration. Here we quantify the role of two key factors in explaining the spatial distribution of the C mass in the HBL (n = 364 sites), (i) climate variability and (ii) peat lithology, for two major peatland classes in the HBL (bogs and fens). We find that temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration each explained nearly half of the C mass variability. Regions characterized by warmer and wetter conditions stored the most C as peat. Our results show that bogs and fens store similar amounts of C within a given climate domain, although via distinct storage mechanisms. Namely, fen peats tend to be shallower and more C dense (kg m-3) compared to bogs. Following geophysical controls on the timing of peat initiation, our results reveal that both the widespread bog-fen patterning and variability in regional climate contribute to explaining the spatial distribution of the peat C mass in the HBL.

  18. Ensenanza basada en el diálogo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Nana; Dysthe, Olga; Esbjørn, Line

    Hvad er dialogbaseret undervisning, og hvordan kan den udfolde sig på et kunstmuseum? I denne bog viser forfatterne, hvordan erfarne museumsundervisere møder børn og unge på syv museer og udfordrer dem til nysgerrigt og kreativt at udforske temaer, udveksle synspunkter og udvikle nye tanker og id...

  19. The future of innovation serves humanity before economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    En bog med over 200 globale bidragsydere om fremtiden for innovation. Vægten i Lotte Darsøs bidrag er på den menneskelige faktor som det væsentligste omdrejningspunkt for innovation samt på menneskelige værdier, læring og ledelse som vejen til innovation. www.thefutureofinnovation.org  ...

  20. The UK Edition of "The Little Red Schoolbook": A Paper Tiger Reflects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limond, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns "The Little Red Schoolbook," an English translation of the Danish book "Den lille rode bog fur skoleelever." After the book's publication in the UK, opponents were successful in pressing for its publisher's prosecution. The ensuing trial led to its withdrawal and its bowdlerisation. It is argued that the work played some part…

  1. Passionate Utterance and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores Stanley Cavell's notion of "passionate utterance", which acts as an extension of/departure from (we might read it as both) J. L. Austin's theory of the performative. Cavell argues that Austin having made the revolutionary discovery that truth claims in language are bound up with how words perform, then gets bogged by convention…

  2. 14 CFR 1216.203 - Definition of key terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of key terms. 1216.203 Section 1216.203 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs,...

  3. Ejeraftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhl, Martin Christian

    Denne bog er den første samlede og dybdegående afhandling om ejeraftaler på dansk. Ejeraftaler (tidligere 'aktionær- eller anpartsoverenskomster') spiller i praksis en væsentlig rolle som det aftalemæssige grundlag for de indbyrdes rettigheder og forpligtelser mellem kapitalejere i små og mellems...

  4. Nitrogen deposition effects on plant species diversity; threshold loads from field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National-scale plant species richness data for Great Britain in 1998 were related to modelled contemporary N deposition (Ndep) using a broken stick median regression, to estimate thresholds above which Ndep definitely has had an effect. The thresholds (kg N ha−1 a−1) are 7.9 for acid grassland 14.9 for bogs, 23.6 for calcareous grassland, 7.8 for deciduous woodland and 8.8 for heath. The woodland and heath thresholds are not significantly greater than the lowest Ndep, which implies that species loss may occur over the whole range of contemporary Ndep. This also applies to acid grassland if it is assumed that Ndep has substituted for previous N fixation. The thresholds for bog and calcareous grassland are both significantly above the lowest Ndep. The thresholds are lower than the mid-range empirical Critical Loads for acid grassland, deciduous woodland and heath, higher for bogs, and approximately equal for calcareous grassland. -- Highlights: •We assembled species richness and N deposition data for five UK semi-natural habitats. •We determined threshold deposition rates above which species richness declines. •Woodland, heath and acid grassland show species loss at all deposition rates. •Bog and calcareous grassland thresholds exceed the lowest deposition rates. •The thresholds differ from empirical critical loads for four of the five habitats. -- Analysis of extensive field data provides estimates of nitrogen deposition rates above which plant species richness is reduced

  5. Kampen om erhvervslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2010-01-01

    På grundlag af Carl Gustav Johannsens bog "Firmabiblioteker i Danmark 1945-2007" beskriver artiklen, hvordan danske firmabibliotekers historie peger på et lavt konfliktniveau i forhold til forskningsbibliotekerne. Til gengæld rivaliserede forskningsbibliotekerne med folkebibliotekerne i slut-80'e...

  6. Formation S

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, Kamil

    Bonn : Bundesamt für Naturschutz, 2003 - (Bohn, U.; Gollub, G.; Hettwer, C.; Neuhäuslová, Z.; Schlüter, H.; Weber, H.), s. 514-529 ISBN 3-7843-3837-2 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : mires * raised bogs * ombro-minerotrophic mires and fens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Indledning til Maple for Lineær Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Denne rapport er en undersoegelse af hvordan og hvor vidt Maplesindbyggede kommandoer passer til Jens Eisings bog "Lineaer Algebra" (1997).Maalet er at beskrive, hvordan man bedst kan brugeMaple V Release 5.1i kurset,i viden om mulige problemer, saa man kan undgaa faelder,og svare paa studerendes...

  8. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. Temperature Responses to Infrared-Loading and Water Table Manipulations in Peatland Mesocosms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiquan Chen; Scott Bridgham; Jason Keller; John Pastor; Asko Noormets1and; F. Weltzin

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a multi-factor global change experiment to explore the effects of infrared heat loading (HT) and water table level (WL) treatment on soil temperature (T) in bog and fen peatland mesocosms. We found that the temperature varied highly by year, month, peatland type, soil depth, HT and WL manipulations. The highest effect of HT on the temperature at 25 cm depth was found in June for the bog mesocosms (3.34-4.27℃) but in May for the fen mesocosms (2.32-4.33℃) over the 2-year study period. The effects of WL in the bog mesocosms were only found between August and January, with the wet mesocosms warmer than the dry mesocosms by 0.48-2.03 ℃ over the 2-year study period. In contrast, wetter fen mesocoams were generally cooler by 0.16-3.87℃. Seasonal changes of temperatures elevated by the HT also varied by depth and ecosystem type, with temperature differences at 5 cm and 10 cm depth showing smaller seasonal fluctuations than those at 25 cm and 40 cm in the bog mesocosrns. However, increased HT did not always lead to warmer soil, especially in the fen mesocosms. Both HT and WL manipulations have also changed the length of the non-frozen season.

  10. Jens Glebe-Møller: Struensees vej til skafottet. Fornuft og åbenbaring i Oplysningstiden, Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2007, 134 s., kr. 148

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Den anmeldte bog bringer ikke nyt om Struensees vej til skafottet, men er en perspektivrig undersøgelse af Struensees sjælesørger, Balthasar Münterss neologiske teologi og sjælesorg i spændingsfeltet mellem religionskritisk fransk og religionsvenlig tysk oplysning....

  11. MATLAB syntaksen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide

    MATLAB er et matematik-program som fokuserer på anvendelsen af matricer og vektorer. Deraf navnet MATrix LABoratory. Denne bog er en praktisk vejledning i at forstår og anvende MATLAB syntaksen og fungerer som en hurtig genvej til dig, der skal i gang med at anvende MATLAB i forbindelse med fx dit...

  12. СОСТОЯНИЕ РАСТИТЕЛЬНОСТИ НА ПЕРЕХОДНЫХ БОЛОТАХ ЗАПАДНОЙ СИБИРИ ПРИ НЕФТЯНОМ ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИИ

    OpenAIRE

    СЕРИКОВА Е.С.; КАЗАНЦЕВА М.Н.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that oil pollution of transitive bogs makes negative impact on a condition of all components phutocoenosis: leads to oppression and destruction of plants, to decrease in efficiency living soil-cover, to redistribution in it to a role of separate groups of plants. The size of negative changes is directly proportional intensity of oil pollution.

  13. Strategisk ledelse - tilbage til basis - og videre!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Anders

    2003-01-01

    kulturen i de nye forretninger, som skabes. Den direkte anledning til den herværende artikel er forfatterens bog - Strategic Management and Core Competencies - som i sommeren 2002 blev udgivet på det amerikanske forelag Quorum og som indeholder en række overvejelser om hvordan fagområdet strategisk ledelse...

  14. Surface mapping, organic matter and water stocks in peatlands of the Serra do Espinhaço meridional - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are soil environments that store carbon and large amounts of water, due to their composition (90 % water, low hydraulic conductivity and a sponge-like behavior. It is estimated that peat bogs cover approximately 4.2 % of the Earth's surface and stock 28.4 % of the soil carbon of the planet. Approximately 612 000 ha of peatlands have been mapped in Brazil, but the peat bogs in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (SdEM were not included. The objective of this study was to map the peat bogs of the northern part of the SdEM and estimate the organic matter pools and water volume they stock. The peat bogs were pre-identified and mapped by GIS and remote sensing techniques, using ArcGIS 9.3, ENVI 4.5 and GPS Track Maker Pro software and the maps validated in the field. Six peat bogs were mapped in detail (1:20,000 and 1:5,000 by transects spaced 100 m and each transect were determined every 20 m, the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates, depth and samples collected for characterization and determination of organic matter, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification. In the northern part of SdEM, 14,287.55 ha of peatlands were mapped, distributed over 1,180,109 ha, representing 1.2 % of the total area. These peatlands have an average volume of 170,021,845.00 m³ and stock 6,120,167 t (428.36 t ha-1 of organic matter and 142,138,262 m³ (9,948 m³ ha-1 of water. In the peat bogs of the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, advanced stages of decomposing (sapric organic matter predominate, followed by the intermediate stage (hemic. The vertical growth rate of the peatlands ranged between 0.04 and 0.43 mm year-1, while the carbon accumulation rate varied between 6.59 and 37.66 g m-2 year-1. The peat bogs of the SdEM contain the headwaters of important water bodies in the basins of the Jequitinhonha and San Francisco Rivers and store large amounts of organic carbon and water, which is the reason why the protection and preservation

  15. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland - the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2015-08-01

    Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre)conditions favor their export. This study combines a 1-year monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge and DOC, iron, As and Pb stream concentrations. From these data, annual DOC, As, and Pb exports were calculated. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L-1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L-1 for As, and 1.3 to 12 μg L-1 for Pb, with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40 % of As and 43 % of Pb were exported during 10 % of the time with the highest discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of short-time, high-discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase in the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer becomes hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag behind in comparison to Pb. Our data indicate a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s-1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold, element concentrations do not further increase and discharge becomes diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are dependent on not only the amount of precipitation and discharge but also on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more

  16. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland – the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb and arsenic (As attributed to atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC in these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre-conditions favor their export. This study combines one year continuous monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge, DOC, As and Pb stream concentrations and fluxes. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L−1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L−1 for As and 1.3 to 12 μg L−1 for Pb with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40% of As and 43% of Pb were exported by the upper 10% of discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of heavy rain and high discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase of the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer gets hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag in comparison to Pb. Our data indicates a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s−1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold element concentration do not further increase and discharge gets diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are not only dependent on the amount of precipitation and discharge, but on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more mobilized than Pb, with annual fluxes accounting for 0.85 and

  17. Recent atmospheric Pb deposition at a rural site in southern Germany assessed using a peat core and snowpack, and comparison with other archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gaël; Aubert, Dominique; Stille, Peter; Krachler, Michael; Kober, Bernd; Cheburkin, Andriy; Bonani, Georges; Shotyk, William

    In a peat bog from Black Forest, Southern Germany, the rate of atmospheric Pb accumulation was quantified using a peat core dated by 210Pb and 14C. The most recent Pb accumulation rate (2.5 mg m -2 y -1) is similar to that obtained from a snowpack on the bog surface, which was sampled during the winter 2002 (1 to 4 mg m -2 y -1). The Pb accumulation rates recorded by the peat during the last 25 yr are also in agreement with published values of direct atmospheric fluxes in Black Forest. These values are 50 to 200 times greater than the "natural" average background rate of atmospheric Pb accumulation (20 μg m -2 y -1) obtained using peat samples from the same bog dating from 3300 to 1300 cal. yr B.C. The isotopic composition of Pb was measured in both the modern and ancient peat samples as well as in the snow samples, and clearly shows that recent inputs are dominated by anthropogenic Pb. The chronology and isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb accumulation recorded by the peat from the Black Forest is similar to the chronologies reported earlier using peat cores from various peat bogs as well as herbarium samples of Sphagnum and point to a common Pb source to the region for the past 150 years. In contrast, Pb contamination occurring before 1850 in southwestern Germany, differs from the record published for Switzerland mainly due to the mining activity in Black Forest. Taken together, the results show that peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs can yield accurate records of atmospheric Pb deposition, provided that the cores are carefully collected, handled, prepared, and analysed using appropriate methods.

  18. Studying the removal of the pollutants from wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzorov Aleksandr Leonidovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands, considered as the territories unfit for agriculture and building, in the recent past served as the places for the industrial and municipal waste accommodation. That’s why the problems, connected with the studies of pollution and recovery duration of bogs, are rather current nowadays. The aim of this research is studying carrying out of pollutants from the polluted marsh massif. The object of the research is the Konnick bog, where the discharge of waste water from the hydrolysis plant and dumping of ash and sawmilling waste started in the fifties. The emission of waste water from the city’s treatment facilities also took place there. The Konnick bog is situated in the Arkhangelsk region. The network of stations for the ground and surface water monitoring was organized on the territory of the bog in 2004. The monitoring showed that the ground water composition has the excess of ammonium salt, phosphates, petroleum products, lignin substances, phenols, etc. Since 2004 there is a gradual decrease in concentration of the majority of pollutant, which is connected with the end of dumping of waste and discharge of waste water from the hydrolysis. In our opinion the decrease in the polluting substances concentration in marsh waters (self-cleaning happens due to dilution of ground waters. The process of the pollutants removal from the peat was investigated with the help of a specially constructed device. The researches offered an equation, which describes the relation between the relative concentration of pollutants and the ground water flow. The analysis of the results of the peat ablution showed that in order to reduce the concentration of most pollutants the water should be filtered through the peat (at least 1 liter per 1 gram of dry peat. Using the received equation the settlement curves of pollutant concentration reduction in a bog were obtained. The curves obtained according to laboratory researches correlate rather well with the data

  19. A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, Merritt R.; Kotowska, Agnieszka; Bubier, Jill; Dise, Nancy B.; Crill, Patrick; Hornibrook, Ed R.C.; Minkkinen, Kari; Moore, Tim R.; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Nykanen, Hannu; Olefeldt, David; Rinne, Janne; Saarnio, Sanna; Shurpali, Narasinha; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Waddington, J. Michael; White, Jeffrey R.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Here, we assess controls on methane flux using a database of approximately 19 000 instantaneous measurements from 71 wetland sites located across subtropical, temperate, and northern high latitude regions. Our analyses confirm general controls on wetland methane emissions from soil temperature, water table, and vegetation, but also show that these relationships are modified depending on wetland type (bog, fen, or swamp), region (subarctic to temperate), and disturbance. Fen methane flux was more sensitive to vegetation and less sensitive to temperature than bog or swamp fluxes. The optimal water table for methane flux was consistently below the peat surface in bogs, close to the peat surface in poor fens, and above the peat surface in rich fens. However, the largest flux in bogs occurred when dry 30-day averaged antecedent conditions were followed by wet conditions, while in fens and swamps, the largest flux occurred when both 30-day averaged antecedent and current conditions were wet. Drained wetlands exhibited distinct characteristics, e.g. the absence of large flux following wet and warm conditions, suggesting that the same functional relationships between methane flux and environmental conditions cannot be used across pristine and disturbed wetlands. Together, our results suggest that water table and temperature are dominant controls on methane flux in pristine bogs and swamps, while other processes, such as vascular transport in pristine fens, have the potential to partially override the effect of these controls in other wetland types. Because wetland types vary in methane emissions and have distinct controls, these ecosystems need to be considered separately to yield reliable estimates of global wetland methane release.

  20. A Dynamic Model for Liquefied Natural Gas Evaporation During Marine Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Frangopoulos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine transport of natural gas, predominately in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG, is of growing importance in the global energy markets. LNG is transported with vessels having cryogenic tanks without any means of external refrigeration. Hence, a significant fraction of the cargo LNG volume evaporates during voyage, which is usually called Boil-Off Gas (BOG. According to the type of the energy system, BOG can be utilized as fuel, reliquefied or burned in an oxidizer. The handling of the boil-off gas during the LNG vessel operation and the assessment of its thermodynamic properties are key issues in the technical and economic assessment of the complete marine energy systems of LNG vessels. A detailed dynamic boil-off model has been developed, which accounts for the variation of BOG mass flow, composition and thermodynamic properties during voyage. The model employs coupled non-linear vapor – liquid phase equilibrium thermodynamic equations and differential conservation equations describing the evolution of LNG quantity and composition with time. Various solution and time discretization schemes have been tested to assess the solution accuracy and stability. The model has been used to investigate the variation of the LNG and BOG quantity, composition and thermodynamic properties during typical voyage profiles of a case study LNG vessel. Variations of the thermodynamic properties and of the quantity of BOG in the range of 6 to 10% during voyage have been found, having a significant impact in operation modes and fuel consumption of the energy system. Results have been also compared with the traditional approaches used in the marine technical practice.

  1. Accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by a birch and willow on territories, subject and not subject flooding by radioactive waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some outcomes of a radioecological investigation of Olkhovka bog in the vicinity of Beloyarsk NPP (Sverdlovsk region, Middle Ural) are indicated, in which the sewer waters of Zarechny town and unbalanced weakly radioactive water of the plant were for a long time dropped. The data on the contents 60 , 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu in soil and grounds of inspected territory are represented. The features of accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by overground organs of a birch and willow, which grow on the constantly flooded part, on shores, periodically flooded by marsh water, and on watershed plots, where plants are not subjected to influence of a bog (control) are shown. Is established, that concentration of both radionuclides in trees of a birch both the willows on a bog and coastal territory in some times exceed those on control plots. Are shown a likeness and difference in accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs different by overground organs of both wood breeds. The distribution and 137Cs in wood plants, which grow on the flooded part of a bog and on land, essentially differs. The distribution 90Sr in a trunk of a birch has a acropetal character. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories are considered. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories and probable modifications in ecological conditions on bog in connection with the discontinuance of discharge in it sewer and unbalanced waters are considered. (author)

  2. The Relative Importance of Methanogenesis in the Decomposition of Organic Matter in Northern Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Tfaily, Malak M.; Burdige, David J.; Glaser, Paul H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Using an isotope-mass balance approach and assuming the equimolar production of CO2 and CH4 from methanogenesis (e.g., anaerobic decomposition of cellulose), we calculate that the proportion of total CO2 production from methanogenesis varies from 37 to 83% across a variety of northern peatlands. In a relative sense, methanogenesis was a more important pathway for decomposition in bogs (80 +/- 13% of CO2 production) than in fens (64 +/- 5.7% of CO2 production), but because fens contain more labile substrates they may support higher CH4 production overall. The concentration of CO2 produced from methanogenesis (CO2-meth) can be considered equivalent to CH4 concentration before loss due to ebullition, plant-mediated transport, or diffusion. Bogs produced slightly less CO2-meth than fens (2.9 +/- 1.3 and 3.7 +/- 1.4 mmol/L, respectively). Comparing the quantity of CH4 present to CO2-meth, fens lost slightly more CH4 than bogs (89 +/- 2.8% and 82 +/- 5.3%, respectively) likely due to the presence of vascular plant roots. In collapsed permafrost wetlands, bog moats produced half the amount of CO2-meth (0.8 +/- 0.2mmol/L) relative to midbogs (1.6 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) and methanogenesis was less important (42 +/- 6.6% of total CO2 production relative to 55 +/- 8.1%).We hypothesize that the lower methane production potential in collapsed permafrost wetlands occurs because recently thawed organic substrates are being first exposed to the initial phases of anaerobic decomposition following collapse and flooding. Bog moats lost a comparable amount of CH4 as midbogs (63 +/- 7.0% and 64 +/- 9.3%).

  3. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  4. Differential response of carbon fluxes to climate in three peatland ecosystems that vary in the presence and stability of permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Edgar, C.W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and soil properties following permafrost degradation and thermokarst development in peatlands may cause changes in net carbon storage. To better understand these dynamics, we established three sites in Alaska that vary in permafrost regime, including a black spruce peat plateau forest with stable permafrost, an internal collapse scar bog formed as a result of thermokarst, and a rich fen without permafrost. Measurements include year-round eddy covariance estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and energy fluxes, associated environmental variables, and methane (CH4) fluxes at the collapse scar bog. The ecosystems all acted as net sinks of CO2 in 2011 and 2012, when air temperature and precipitation remained near long-term means. In 2013, under a late snowmelt and late leaf out followed by a hot, dry summer, the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog were sources of CO2. In this same year, CO2 uptake in the fen increased, largely because summer inundation from groundwater inputs suppressed ecosystem respiration. CO2 exchange in the permafrost forest and collapse scar bog was sensitive to warm air temperatures, with 0.5 g C m−2 lost each day when maximum air temperature was very warm (≥29°C). The bog lost 4981 ± 300 mg CH4 m−2 between April and September 2013, indicating that this ecosystem acted as a significant source of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere in 2013. These results suggest that boreal peatland responses to warming and drying, both of which are expected to occur in a changing climate, will depend on permafrost regime.

  5. The relative importance of methanogenesis in the decomposition of organic matter in northern peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Tfaily, Malak M.; Burdige, David J.; Glaser, Paul H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2015-02-01

    Using an isotope-mass balance approach and assuming the equimolar production of CO2 and CH4 from methanogenesis (e.g., anaerobic decomposition of cellulose), we calculate that the proportion of total CO2 production from methanogenesis varies from 37 to 83% across a variety of northern peatlands. In a relative sense, methanogenesis was a more important pathway for decomposition in bogs (80 ± 13% of CO2 production) than in fens (64 ± 5.7% of CO2 production), but because fens contain more labile substrates they may support higher CH4 production overall. The concentration of CO2 produced from methanogenesis (CO2-meth) can be considered equivalent to CH4 concentration before loss due to ebullition, plant-mediated transport, or diffusion. Bogs produced slightly less CO2-meth than fens (2.9 ± 1.3 and 3.7 ± 1.4 mmol/L, respectively). Comparing the quantity of CH4 present to CO2-meth, fens lost slightly more CH4 than bogs (89 ± 2.8% and 82 ± 5.3%, respectively) likely due to the presence of vascular plant roots. In collapsed permafrost wetlands, bog moats produced half the amount of CO2-meth (0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) relative to midbogs (1.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L) and methanogenesis was less important (42 ± 6.6% of total CO2 production relative to 55 ± 8.1%). We hypothesize that the lower methane production potential in collapsed permafrost wetlands occurs because recently thawed organic substrates are being first exposed to the initial phases of anaerobic decomposition following collapse and flooding. Bog moats lost a comparable amount of CH4 as midbogs (63 ± 7.0% and 64 ± 9.3%).

  6. Otkrivenje i nadahnuće

    OpenAIRE

    Bemmelen, Peter M. van

    2000-01-01

    Da se živi Bog sam otkrio i nastavlja otkrivati ljudskome rodu, osnova je kršćanske vjere. Sveto pismo, Stari i Novi zavjet podjednako, izvještavaju o načinu na koji se Bog objavio u povijesti čovječanstva – posebice u povijesti Izraela, a konačno u osobi Isusa Krista. Bez ove božanske objave čovječanstvo bi propalo ne poznavajući pravi Božji karakter i volju, otuđeno od Njega grijehom i krivnjom. U Svetom pismu stvaranje svijeta i veličanstvo, ljepota i obilje što ga nudi priroda tumači ...

  7. Investigation of detergent effects on the solution structure of spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O' Neill, Hugh, E-mail: hellerwt@ornl.gov, E-mail: oneillhm@ornl.gov [Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-{beta}-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  8. Uranium and radioactivity in Swedish peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less than 10% of the peatlands in Sweden siutable for peat production have a increased content of uranium (more than 200 ppm) ash. The highest uranium content is normally found on the edges and at the bottom of the bogs, i.e. parts which normally are laft out during peat cutting. In some isolated cases high radioactivity can be found in the upper decimeters of the bogs. Thorium content in peat ashes is always low (less than 150 ppm ashsubstance). Increased contents occurs only when the peat is in contact with ground water. Simple and approved methods for the determination of thorium and uranium levels in fuel peat land exists already. There is no equilibrium on decay between radium 226 and uranium 238 in peatlands and accordingly no simple relationship exists between uranium and radiation on peatlands. Analysis at the prospecting stage ought not only be made on uranium and thorium, but also on other radionuclides. (BoK)

  9. Energy budgets of animals: behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W P

    1979-01-01

    This year's progress has been: (1) to extend the general microclimate model two ways: (a) to incorporate wet ground surfaces (bogs), and (b) to incorporate slope effects. Tests of the model in a Michigan bog and the Galapagos Islands show temperature accuracies to within 4/sup 0/C at worst at any soil or air location, which is about a 2% error in estimation of metabolism. (2) The addition to ectotherm modeling an analysis of: (a) reproduction in heterogeneous and uncertain environments; (b) prediction of distribution limits due to egg incubation requirements; (c) addition of appendage-torso modeling and tests on large ectotherms; (d) social systems interactions with environmental and physiological variables; and (3) to continue the endotherm (deer mouse) experimental research and extend the growth and reproduction studies to include the entire reproductive and growth cycle in the deer mouse.

  10. Investigation of detergent effects on the solution structure of spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mateus B.; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T.; O'Neill, Hugh

    2010-11-01

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-β-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  11. Structural-functional specificity of the complexes of psychrotolerant soil actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G. M.; Dubrova, M. S.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-04-01

    The active growth and development of psychrotolerant actinomycetes take place in peat and podzolic soils of the tundra and taiga at temperatures below 10°C. The population density of psychrotolerant mycelial prokaryotes in these soils reaches thousands and tens of thousands of CFU/g of soil, and the length of their mycelium is up to 380 m/g of soil. The application of fluorescent in situ hybridization (the FISH method) demonstrated that the metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the phylogenetic group of Actinobacteria comprise up to 30% of the total number of bacteria in prokaryotic microbial communities of oligotrophic peat bog and podzolic soils. The portion of metabolically active mycelial actinobacteria exceeds the portion of unicellular actinobacteria. Psychrotolerant streptomycetes isolated from peat bog soils possess pectinolytic, amylolytic, and antagonistic activities at low temperatures (5°C).

  12. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  13. Hørbylundemanden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Stefan

    Per Højholt var én af det 20. århundredes væsentligste nordiske digtere. Med sit usædvanlige talent var han en drivende kraft i moderniseringen af dansk litteratur fra 1960’erne og frem. Denne bog er en introduktion til hans forfatterskab, skrevet til entusiastiske litteraturlæsere, litteraturstu......Per Højholt var én af det 20. århundredes væsentligste nordiske digtere. Med sit usædvanlige talent var han en drivende kraft i moderniseringen af dansk litteratur fra 1960’erne og frem. Denne bog er en introduktion til hans forfatterskab, skrevet til entusiastiske litteraturlæsere...

  14. Plant macrofossils analysis from Steregoiu NW Romania: taphonomy, representation, and comparison with pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of macrofossil analysis from the Steregoiu sequence in the Gutaiului Mountains covering the last 8,000 cal BP. The studied peat deposit is characterized by abundant macrofossils. Their diversity is, however, low with most macrofossils coming from plants that grew on the mire and in the forest surrounding the basin (Carex spp., Cyperus sp., Urtica dioica, Potentilla erecta, Filipendula ulmaria, Rubus idaeus, Lycopus europaeus. The concentration of Picea abies macrofossils correlates partially well with its pollen percentages, and only when it has been present on the bog surface. The absence of macrofossils from deciduous trees, which were abundant in the surrounding vegetation according to the pollen data, suggests that these deciduous trees were not growing on the bog or around its margins. The combined macrofossil and the pollen results assists in the understanding of the differences between the local and regional flora.

  15. Taxonomical studies on Hormotila ramosissima Korš. (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matuła

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hormotila ramosissima Korš., a very rare in the world and poorly known species, have been found in peat bogs of Lower Silesia. The growth stages typical of this species but unknown so far, have been described and illustrated. It was found that this species has many features in common with the representatives of Volvocales, Tetrasporales, and chlorococcales. The regularly observed zoospores and hemizoospores, which accompanied the various developmental stages of that species, showed an internal structure of Chlamydomonas-type. Studies on Hormotila ramosissima were based on live material collected in ample quantities from peat bogs. The collected in this way repeatable and abundant data allowed to discuss problems concerning morphology, reproduction and development, as well as consider the taxonomic position this species.

  16. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Kortlægning af områder med forøget sandsynlighed for landsænkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Niels Henrik; Vognsen, Karsten; Steffensen, Frands;

    Land subsidence has been observed locally on dikes, in urban areas residing on land fill deposits, in areas dominated by bogs and meadows as well as in rural areas where drainage is predominant. Despite this fact, no systematic mapping of land subsidence zones or rates has yet been attempted in...... be relatively stable with respect to vertical land movements, thereby making an assessment difficult. However, there now is an increasing demand for knowledge in the public about land subsidence and vertical land movement in general, amongst other things in relation to climate change adaptation and...... (Littorina deposits, young marine deposits and reclaimed areas) and lowlands (bogs, meadows and marsh). Low lying areas (0–3 m a.s.l.) have been identified using the national digital elevation model (DK-DEM) and landfill areas around major harbours have been digitized using the most recent available...

  18. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  19. Investigation of detergent effects on the solution structure of spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-β-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  20. Unges motivation og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Katznelson, Noemi; Hutters, Camilla;

    Uddannelse er en helt central del af det moderne ungdomsliv, men en del unge har svært ved at tage sig sammen, og resultatet er ofte problemer med fravær, frafald og skoletræthed. I denne bog belyses unges motivation for læring og uddannelse set i lyset af de forandringer, der præger samfundet...