WorldWideScience

Sample records for boeticus lepidoptera lycaenidae

  1. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of a widespread Old World butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

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    Pierce Naomi E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary genetics provides a rich theoretical framework for empirical studies of phylogeography. Investigations of intraspecific genetic variation can uncover new putative species while allowing inference into the evolutionary origin and history of extant populations. With a distribution on four continents ranging throughout most of the Old World, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is one of the most widely distributed species of butterfly. It is placed in a monotypic genus with no commonly accepted subspecies. Here, we investigate the demographic history and taxonomic status of this widespread species, and screen for the presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Results We performed phylogenetic, population genetic, and phylogeographic analyses using 1799 bp of mitochondrial sequence data from 57 specimens collected throughout the species' range. Most of the samples (>90% were nearly genetically identical, with uncorrected pairwise sequence differences of 0 – 0.5% across geographic distances > 9,000 km. However, five samples from central Thailand, Madagascar, northern Australia and the Moluccas formed two divergent clades differing from the majority of samples by uncorrected pairwise distances ranging from 1.79 – 2.21%. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. boeticus is almost certainly monophyletic, with all sampled genes coalescing well after the divergence from three closely related taxa included for outgroup comparisons. Analyses of molecular diversity indicate that most L. boeticus individuals in extant populations are descended from one or two relatively recent population bottlenecks. Conclusion The combined analyses suggest a scenario in which the most recent common ancestor of L. boeticus and its sister taxon lived in the African region approximately 7 Mya; extant lineages of L. boeticus began spreading throughout the Old World at least 1.5 Mya. More recently, expansion after

  2. Nomenclatural Changes in the Neotropical Eumaeini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae

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    Robert K. Robbins

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural actions are taken in the Neotropical Eumaeini in advance of publication of the Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera Checklist. Lectotypes are designated for eleven species group names: Lycaena astiocha Prittwitz, 1865; Thecla azia Hewitson, 1873; Thecla beroea Hewitson, 1868; Thecla cupa Druce, 1907; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Thecla erenea Hewitson, 1867; Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1867; Thecla guacanagari Wallengren, 1860; Thecla stagira Hewitson, 1867; and Thecla thoria Hewitson, 1867. Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878 and Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916 are transferred from Eumaeini to Deudorigini (Theclinae. Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 is transferred from Polyommatinae to Theclinae (Eumaeini. Six type localities are changed: Colombia to Africa for Thecla columbinia Strand, 1916; Amazon to Guayaquil for Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867; Colombia to Southeast Asia for Thecla duma Hewitson, 1878; Bolivia to Westem North America for Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992; Argentina to the United States for Strymon nivnix K. Johnson, Eisele & MacPherson, 1990; and Dominican Republic to mainland Central and South America for Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989. Seven new synonyms are: Lycaena vanessoides Prittwitz, 1865 = Thecla hygela Hewitson, 1868 syn. nov.; Thecla saepium Boisduval, 1852 = Ignata illepida K. Johnson, 1992 syn. nov.; Thecla tyriam H.H. Druce, 1907 = Zigirina minutia K. Johnson & Adams, 1997 syn. nov.; Thecla halciones Butler & H. Druce, 1872 = Decussata colombiana K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Sal azar, 1997 syn. nov.; Papilio celmus Cramer, 1775 = Tmolus victoria K. Johnson & Matusik, 1989 syn. nov.; Thecla daraba Hewitson, 1867 = Thecla tyleri Dyar, 1913 syn. nov.; and Thecla galliena Hewitson, 1877 = Thecla iopas Godman & Salvin, 1887 syn. nov. The generic name Decussata K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom & Salazar, 1997 is a new junior synonym of Ostrinotes K. Johnson, Austin, Le Crom

  3. A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF LYCAENIDAE IN REPRESENTATIVE REGIONS OF HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE%黑龙江省重点地区灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴海英; 王丽君; 张丽坤

    1999-01-01

    1984~1998年间,对黑龙江省重点地区的灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)昆虫进行调查,已鉴定出36种,隶属于3亚科24属.其中有黑龙江省新分布种类7种:栅黄灰蝶Japonica saepestriata(Hewitson)、华灰蝶Wagimoe sulgeri(Oberthür)、毛眼灰蝶Zizina otis(Fabricius)、钮灰碟Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield)、大紫琉璃灰蝶Celastrina oreas(Leech)、茄纹红珠灰蝶Lycaeides cleobis(Bremer)和维纳斯眼灰蝶Polymmatus venus(Staudinger).文中记述各种学名、别名、采集地及日期.

  4. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

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    Yoko Inui

    Full Text Available Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants. However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  5. Bionomics of the apefly, Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, predatory on the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, in Thailand

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    Intawat Burikam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the life history, growth ratio and feeding potential of the hemipterophagous butterfly or the apefly,Spalgis epius (Westwood (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Miletinae, a promising augmentative biological control agent of thepapaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, which is an invasivealien species detected in 2008 in Thailand. The investigation was carried out under laboratory conditions at 25-30ºC and 40-60% RH using papaya mealybug reared on Thai pumpkin as its prey. The mean duration of the egg, larval and pupal stageswere 3.54±0.50, 12.01±2.40, and 10.32±0.88 days, respectively, and the mean duration from egg to adult emergence was 25.87±3.78 days. The geometric growth ratio of successive larval instars using the head capsule width as a parameter was 1.65 andconformed to Dyar’s Law. As for the predatory potential of S. epius, the total number of papaya mealybug consumed duringthe larval stage were 4,115.75±553.28 eggs, 281.25±45.08 nymphs and 77.50±16.52 female adults. The instar-specific preyconsumption from the first to fifth larval instars in the order of eggs, nymphs and female adults were 170.00±26.32, 4.25±1.71and 2.00±0.82; 654.00±67.97, 35.35±12.48 and 10.25±4.29; 1,376.75±130.95, 93.25±11.70 and 23.50±3.94; 1,426.50±252.93,110.75±15.60 and 31.00±5.25; and 31.00±5.25, 37.75±3.59 and 10.75±2.22, respectively. These findings warrant furtherinvestigation into the amenability and suitability of the entomophagous apefly, S. epius, for as an integrated pest managementstrategy for the augmentative biological control of the papaya mealybug in Thailand.

  6. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus

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    Wolf Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. Results In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. Conclusions With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the

  7. 福建灰蝶科一新记录属及一新记录种%A new record genus and species of Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) from Fujian in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凡; 罗群荣; 林春穆; 张春根

    2015-01-01

    本文记述福建灰蝶科Lycaenidae(鳞翅目Lepidoptera)一新记录属,铁灰蝶属Teratozephyrus Sibatani,1946,及一新记录种,皮铁灰蝶Teratozephyrus picquenardi(Oberthur,1914).该属标本由作者参加福建农林大学植物保护学院昆虫采集队,在福建省邵武市将石自然保护区内采获.

  8. The re-discovered Maculinea rebeli (Hirschke, 1904: Host ant usage, parasitoid and initial food plant around the type locality with taxonomical aspects (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

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    András Tartally

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the myrmecophilous Maculinea alcon group (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is highly debated. The host-plant and host-ant usage of these butterflies have conventionally been important in their identification. Maculinea ‘rebeli’ has generally been considered to be the xerophilous form of Ma. alcon (Ma. alcon X hereafter with Gentiana cruciata as initial food plant. However, the type locality and all other known sites of Ma. rebeli are found above the coniferous zone, and are well separated from the lower regions where Ma. alcon X sites are found. Furthermore, no food plant and host ant data for the nominotypic Ma. rebeli have yet been published. Our aim was therefore to identify the host ant(s of Ma. rebeli around the type locality and compare this with the host ant usage of nearby Ma. alcon X. Nests of Myrmica spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae close to the host plants were opened on one Ma. alcon X (host plant: Gentiana cruciata and two Ma. rebeli (host plant: Gentianella rhaetica, first record, confirmed by oviposition and emerging larvae sites just before the flying period, to find prepupal larvae and pupae. Three Myrmica species (My. lobulicornis, My. ruginodis, My. sulcinodis were found on the two Ma. rebeli sites, which parasitized exclusively My. sulcinodis (22 individuals in 7 nests. On the Ma. alcon X site Myrmica sabuleti and My. lonae were found, with My. sabuleti the exclusive host (51 individuals in 10 nests. Ichneumon cf. eumerus parasitized both butterflies. The results highlight the differentiation of Maculinea rebeli from Ma. alcon X, from both conservation biological and ecological points of view. Thus, it should be concluded that Ma. rebeli does not simply represent an individual form of Ma. alcon but it can be considered as at least an ecological form adapted to high mountain conditions both in its initial food plant and host ant species. In addition, it should be emphasized that Ma. alcon X (= Ma. rebeli auct. nec

  9. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...... occurs as two distinct subspecies on Madeira Island and Deserta Grande, respectively. We also comment on taxonomic and nomenclatorial problems in a number of species and provide information on host plants in Madeira and other biological details. Index to Latin names of Lepidoptera and host plants are...

  10. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie;

    2012-01-01

    established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries......, Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks...

  11. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B Christian; Layberry, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment.

  12. Natural history of the mistletoe-feeding Thereus lomalarga (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, María Dolores; Robbins, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    The natural history and morphology of the immature stages of the butterfly Thereus lomalarga Robbins, Heredia & Busby are described and illustrated. The food plant is Oryctanthus alveolatus (H.B.K.) Kuijt (Loranthaceae). Chaetotaxy of the first instar is described and compared with that of three locally studied Thereus species. Larvae have four instars, and the dorsal nectary organ becomes functional in the third instar. They are facultatively tended by ants belonging to seven genera that are attracted to O. alveolatus by floral disc nectaries, honeydew producing Hemiptera, and secretory wounds produced by Hemiptera on the fleshy inflorescence rachis. The average period from egg to eclosion under lab conditions was 35.68 days. Females emerged before males. Adults of both sexes feed on nectar from the flowers of the food plant and on hemipteran secretions; adults were not observed feeding on other flowers. Campopleginae and Chalcidinae were the most important parasitoids.

  13. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Layberry, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment. PMID:27199600

  14. Adoption of parasitic Maculinea alcon caterpillars (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) by three Myrmica ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Maculinea butterflies are parasites of Myrmica ant nests. The Alcon blue, Maculinea alcon, is unusual in that it parasitizes the nests of several Myrmica species, using M. rubra, M. ruginodis and M. scabrinodis as hosts in different parts of Europe. In Denmark it uses M. rubra and M. ruginodis...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  16. Effects of climate change on three species of Cupido (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae with different biogeographic distribution in Andalusia, southern Spain

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    Obregón, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution of rare or endangered species is of key importance to assess conservation status at different geographic scales and to develop conservation and recovery programs. In this paper we review and update the distribution of three species of Lycaenid butterflies in Andalusia (southern Spain: Cupido carswelli, C. lorquinii, and C. osiris. Cupido carswelli is endemic in south east Spain and is considered a vulnerable species in the Red Book of Invertebrates of Andalusia. Cupido lorquinii is an Iberian–Maghrebian endemism, found in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula. Cupido osiris, widely distributed in Europe and Central Asia, has its southern limit of distribution in Andalusia. We modeled the potential current distribution of these species in Andalusia, using Maxent. Their potential distribution was mainly conditioned by the presence of their host plants and, to a lesser extent, by climatic variables: rainfall during the warmest and coldest quarters of the year and annual mean temperature. AUC test values, sensitivity, and specificity for the three models were high, confirming the accuracy of the models and their high predictive values. We also modeled the potential future distributions of the three species under the climate change scenario A2a. Our results predict a significant reduction in the potential distribution for C. lorquinii —which has a wider distribution in Andalusia than the other two species— and for the more localized species, C. osiris and C. carswelli. This expected decline in the south of the Iberian peninsula highlights the pressing need to design and implement specific conservation plans for these species.

  17. Importance of vegetation analysis in the conservation management of the endangered butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis (Swierstra (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

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    M.S. Deutschlander

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vegetation of the Ruimsig Entomological Reserve, Gauteng, South Africa revealed four plant communities one of which could be subdivided into two subcommunities and variants. The extensive climax stage of the vegetation represented by the Themeda triandra - Trachypogon spicatus grassland was found to be too dense and tall to support the butterfly Aloeides dentatis dentatis and the host ant Lepisiota capensis (Mayr. A degraded phase caused by succession in an area where pipes have been laid was found to be ideal habitat for both ant and butterfly. This vegetation also contained adequate numbers of the food plant Hermannia depressa. A serai community with tall- growing Hyparrhenia hirta was also found to be an unsuitable habitat for the butterfly. The identification of the preferred ideal habitat for the host ant and butterfly resulted in the compilation of a conservation management strategy that ensured the survival of the rare and endangered butterfly.

  18. Extent of Variation of the Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Reservoir: the Case of the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli Butler (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Salvador; Borja, Marisé; Ferré, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that around 200 cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have already been cloned, only a few Cry proteins are toxic towards a given pest. A crucial step in the mode of action of Cry proteins is binding to specific sites in the midgut of susceptible insects. Binding studies in insects that have developed cross-resistance discourage the combined use of Cry proteins sharing the same binding site. If resistance management strategies are to be implemented, the arsenal of Cry proteins suitable to control a given pest may be not so vast as it might seem at first. The present study evaluates the potential of B. thuringiensis for the control of a new pest, the geranium bronze (Cacyreus marshalli Butler), a butterfly that is threatening the popularity of geraniums in Spain. Eleven of the most common Cry proteins from the three lepidopteran-active Cry families (Cry1, Cry2, and Cry9) were tested against the geranium bronze for their toxicity and binding site relationships. Using 125I-labeled Cry1A proteins we found that, of the seven most active Cry proteins, six competed for binding to the same site. For the long-term control of the geranium bronze with B. thuringiensis-based insecticides it would be advisable to combine any of the Cry proteins sharing the binding site (preferably Cry1Ab, since it is the most toxic) with those not competing for the same site. Cry1Ba would be the best choice of these proteins, since it is significantly more toxic than the others not binding to the common site. PMID:12147511

  19. Postglacial colonisation of western Central Europe by Polyommatus coridon (Poda 1761) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence from population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, T; Giessl, A; Seitz, A

    2002-01-01

    The genetic population structure of Polyommatus coridon (Poda 1761) over large regions of France, Italy and Germany was studied by allozyme electrophoresis. The genetic diversity within populations was high for all parameters analysed (number of alleles 2.72; observed and expected heterozygosity 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively; percentage of polymorphic loci: total: 76.4% and, with polymorphism if the frequency of the commonest allele is below 95%: 53.1%), whereas genetic differentiation between populations was comparatively low (FST = 0.021 +/- 0.002). The mean number of alleles declined significantly from southern to northern populations (r = -0.53, P = 0.0005). Similar effects were found also for other parameters of genetic diversity. This is interpreted as a loss of genetic diversity during postglacial expansion. However, samples from France and Italy had similar patterns of genetic diversity indicating no significant loss in this region. Populations from southern Germany were genetically uniform, well differentiated from French populations and showed a significant loss of genetic diversity. Probably, this is due to a bottleneck during passing through the Burgundian Gap, which is a migration corridor from north-eastern France to southern Germany. In contrast to southern German populations, western German populations were not well differentiated from French populations. Nevertheless, they were genetically impoverished, probably as a result from local bottlenecks and post-expansion phenomena.

  20. Morphology of caterpillars and pupae of European Maculinea species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an identification table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliwinska, Ewa B.; Nowicki, Piotr; Nash, David Richard;

    2006-01-01

    the caterpillars of these species for effective conservation. We present the morphology of the larvae and pupae of these three species, and a simple key to their identification. Inter-specific differences among larvae and pupae, and within-species differences among larval instars, are underlined in order to enable...

  1. A phylogenetic revision of the Glaucopsyche section (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), with special focus on the Phengaris-Maculinea clade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, L. V.; Vila, R.; Pierce, N. E.;

    2011-01-01

    . The evolutionary history of this butterfly section is particularly important to understand the evolution of life history diversity connected to food-plant and host-ant associations in the larval stage. In the present study, we use a combination of four nuclear and two mitochondrial genes to reconstruct...

  2. The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

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    R.F. Terblanche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterflies in the wild, especially their natural host plants and the behaviour of adults and larvae. A system of voucher specimens of host plants should be introduced in South Africa. Although various host plant species in nature are used by the members of Chrysoritis, including the Chrysoritis chrysaor group, the choice of these in nature by each species is significant for conservation management and in the case of Chrysoritis aureus perhaps even as a specific characteristic.A revision of the ant genus Crematogaster will benefit the conservation management of Chrysoritis species since some of these ant species may consist of a number of specieswith much more restricted distributions than previously thought. Rigorous quantified tudies of population dynamics of Chrysoritis butterflies are absent and the introductionof such studies will benefit conservation management of these localised butterflies extensively.

  3. Survival and growth of parasitic Maculinea alcon caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in nests of three Myrmica ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, D. R.; Als, Thomas Damm; Boomsma, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcon blue butterfly (Maculinea alcon) parasitizes the nests of several Myrmica ant species. In Denmark, it uses M. rubra and M. ruginodis, but never M. scabrinodis. To further examine the basis of this specificity and local co-adaptation between host and parasite, the pattern of growth...

  4. Immature biology and morphology of an obligate myrmecophilous butterfly Catapaecilma major moltrechti (Wileman) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from Taiwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Chia-Lung; Huang, Hang-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The immature biology and morphology of Catapaecilma major moltrechti (Wileman) from Taiwan are reported. The larva of this taxon is proven to be largely predacious on a few scale insect species attended by ant Crematogester rogenhoferi in satellite nests constructed by the ants, but it also consumes plant material within or near ants' satellite nests in elder instars. The discovery of the food habit of this taxon is interesting as the larva of C. major is known to be phytophagous in India and Sri Lanka. PMID:27470804

  5. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter;

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies of the...... Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna on...

  6. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.;

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Lepidoptera. Chapter 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna, in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Ctenoptilum vasava (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae and Its Phylogenetic Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasheng Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report the first complete mitochondrial (mt genome of a skipper, Ctenoptilum vasava Moore, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae. The mt genome of the skipper is a circular molecule of 15,468 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 24 putative transfer RNA (tRNA, genes including an extra copy of trnS (AGN and a tRNA-like insertion trnL (UUR, 13 protein-coding genes and an AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs are initiated by ATN codons and terminated by the typical stop codon TAA or TAG, except for COII which ends with a single T. The intergenic spacer sequence between trnS (AGN and ND1 genes also contains the ATACTAA motif. The AT-rich region of 429 bp is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT3 (TA9 element next to the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A adjacent to tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses (ML and BI methods showed that Papilionoidea is not a natural group, and Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea as a sister to ((Pieridae + Lycaenidae + Nymphalidae while Papilionoidae is paraphyletic to Hesperioidea. This result is remarkably different from the traditional view where Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea are considered as two distinct superfamilies.

  9. 云山国家森林公园蝶类昆虫多样性分析%Diversity analysis on butterflies (Lepidoptera) biodiversity in national forest park of Mt.Yunshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卷云; 唐碧晴; 孙虹; 陈艺

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary investigation on butterflies (Lepidoptera)was tested in Mt.Yunshan of Hunan Province by reconnaissance survey and standard network trap.As well as,the butterflies biodiversity in this area were analyzed with Margalef’ s index (d),Menhinick’ s index (ds ),Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H′)and Pielou evenness index (J′).The results show that there are 6 1 species,including 7 families and 36 genera in Mt.Yunshan.Species are arranged from more to less that Papilionidae >Nymphalidae >Hesperiidae >Pieridae >Satyridae >Lycaenidae >Amathusiidae.As well as,genera are arranged from more or less that Nymphalidae >Hesperiidae >Papilionidae >Pie-ridae >Lycaenidae =Satyridae >Amathusiidae.Species richness index of butterflies in Mt.Yunshan are arranged from more or less that Papilionidae >Satyridae >Nymphalidae >Hesperiidae >Amathusiidae >Pieridae >Lycaenidae . The highest species richness index is 2.500 in Papilionidae,and the lowest species richness index is 0.452 in Lycae-nidae .%采用路线调查法和标准地网捕法,对湖南云山蝶类(鳞翅目)物种调查与统计,运用Margalef指数、Menhinick指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数分析云山蝶类昆虫的物种多样性。结果表明:云山蝶类昆虫共计7科36属61种;种数由大到小的科依次为凤蝶科>蛱蝶科>弄蝶科>粉蝶科>眼蝶科>灰蝶科>环蝶科,属数由多到少的科依次为蛱蝶科>弄蝶科>凤蝶科>粉蝶科>灰蝶科=眼蝶科>环蝶科。云山蝶类昆虫物种丰富度指数排序依次为凤蝶科>眼蝶科>蛱蝶科>弄蝶科>环蝶科>粉蝶科>灰蝶科,其中凤蝶科的物种丰富度指数最高,为2.500;灰蝶科的丰富度指数最低,为0.452。

  10. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  11. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  12. Geographical distribution of the cryptic species Agrodiaetus alcestis alcestis, A. alcestis karacetinae and A. demavendi (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae revealed by cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vershinina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Agrodiaetus alcestis (Zerny, 1932 and A. demavendi (Pfeiffer, 1938 belong to the “brown” complex of the genus Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822. This complex includes several cryptic species which are extremely uniform in wing colouration and genitalia structure, but have distinct chromosome numbers. In this paper we analyse karyotypes of A. alcestis karacetinae Lukhtanov et Dantchenko, 2002 and A. demavendi in populations from Iran. We demonstrate that A. alcestis karacetinae and A. demavendi are sympatric in the provinces Esfahan, Lorestan, Hamadan, Kurdestan, Kermanshah, and Markazi. The haploid chromosome number of A. alcestis karacetinae is found to be n=19 in all the populations studied. The karyotype of A. demavendi is not stable. The lowest chromosome numbers n=63-67 is observed in the south of the revealed distribution range (provinces Esfahan and Lorestan. The highest chromosome numbers (n=73-74 is found in Northwestern Iran in provinces Kurdestan and Zanjan. We also confirm that A. alcestis sensu lato appears as a polyphyletic taxon on the Bayesian phylogenetic tree inferred from the mitochondrial COI barcodes and should be most likely divided in two different species: A. alcestis sensu stricto and A. karacetinae. The new data on occurrence of A. admetus and A. ripartii in Iran are discussed.

  13. The well-tuned blues: the role of structural colours as optical signals in the species recognition of a local butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Zsolt; Kertész, Krisztián; Piszter, Gábor; Vértesy, Zofia; Biró, László P

    2012-08-01

    The photonic nanoarchitectures responsible for the blue colour of the males of nine polyommatine butterfly species living in the same site were investigated structurally by electron microscopy and spectrally by reflectance spectroscopy. Optical characterization was carried out on 110 exemplars. The structural data extracted by dedicated software and the spectral data extracted by standard software were inputted into an artificial neural network software to test the specificity of the structural and optical characteristics. It was found that both the structural and the spectral data allow species identification with an accuracy better than 90 per cent. The reflectance data were further analysed using a colour representation diagram built in a manner analogous to that of the human Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage diagram, but the additional blue visual pigment of lycaenid butterflies was taken into account. It was found that this butterfly-specific colour representation diagram yielded a much clearer distinction of the position of the investigated species compared with previous calculations using the human colour space. The specific colours of the investigated species were correlated with the 285 flight-period data points extracted from museum collections. The species with somewhat similar colours fly in distinct periods of the year such that the blue colours are well tuned for safe mate/competitor recognition. This allows for the creation of an effective pre-zygotic isolation mechanism for closely related synchronic and syntopic species.

  14. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, Inga; Damm Als, Thomas; Settele, Josef;

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...

  15. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, I; Als, Thomas Damm; Settele, J;

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...

  16. Development of the trophic part of consortia’s relations of the gossamer-winged butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae with Salvia nutans (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of dummy individual consortia of Salvia nutans L. an important component of fertilization mechanism – the dynamics of trophic relations of antophylus agents with an entomophilous angiosperm autotroph was investigated. The dominant position in species structure of fertilizers in conditionally native steppe ecosystems is occupied by relict TomaresnogelidobrogensisCar.

  17. Morfologia externa do adulto de Hemiargus hanno (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Polyommatini: I. cabeça Adult exoskeletal morphology of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidac, Polyommatinae, Polyommatini: I. head morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Duarte

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of contributions concerning exoskeletal morphology of neotropical lycaenid butterflies (blues and hairstreaks. The cephalic capsule morphology of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll, 1790 is herein presented with drawings and SEM photographs.

  18. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and prota

  19. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  20. Living on the edge: interactions between Lepidoptera and parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, H.; Roy, H. E.; McCracken, M.; Pywell, R.F.; Hails, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation are key drivers associated with the recent decline of some Lepidoptera species. Insect pathogens also play a, currently undetermined, role. We report on a study assessing the prevalence of Lepidoptera pathogens (and parasitoids) across the UK and their interactions with habitat and climate change.

  1. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  2. Chromosomal evolution in the South American Riodinidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keith S; von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Saura, Anssi

    2012-08-01

    We give the haploid chromosome numbers of 173 species or subspecies of Riodinidae as well as of 17 species or subspecies of neotropical Lycaenidae for comparison. The chromosome numbers of riodinids have thus far been very poorly known. We find that their range of variation extends from n = 9 to n = 110 but numbers above n = 31 are rare. While lepidopterans in general have stable chromosome numbers, or variation is limited at most a subfamily or genus, the entire family Riodinidae shows variation within genera, tribes and subfamilies with no single modal number. In particular, a stepwise pattern with chromosome numbers that are about even multiples is seen in several unrelated genera. We propose that this variation is attributable to the small population sizes, fragmented populations with little migration, and the behavior of these butterflies. Small and isolated riodinid populations would allow for inbreeding to take place. Newly arisen chromosomal variants could become fixed and contribute to reproductive isolation and speciation. In contrast to the riodinids, the neotropical Lycaenidae (Theclinae and Polyommatinae) conform to the modal n = 24 that characterizes the family. PMID:22967142

  3. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  5. Molecular Analysis of the Muscle Protein Projectin in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Ayme-Southgate, A. J.; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as w...

  6. 蚜灰蝶及其他3种捕食性天敌对竹蚜的控制作用%Control of Bomboo Aphids by Taraka hamada (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)and Other Three Predators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉洲; 许明修; 刘小林; 苏远达; 邹运鼎; 张龙娃

    2012-01-01

    Taraka hamada is an important natural enemy of the bamboo aphids. In order to promote the potential of T. hamada in being used as a bio-control agent for aphids, a field investigation and laboratory bioassaiy were conducted. Several parameters, including frequency, abundance and daily consumption, and control effect, were measured. The results showed that T. hamada had a similar dynamics as aphids did in bamboo. The frequency and abundance of T. hamada were significantly higher than that of other three aphid natural enemies, Harmonia axyridis, Episyrphus balteatus and Chrysopa formosa. Both of daily consumption and control effect of T. hamada were obviously higher than that of other natural enemies.

  7. Alguns dados sobre a Fauna entomológica da ilha das Flores - Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Tavares, João; Anunciada, Lorete; McNeil, Jeremy

    1990-01-01

    IV Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Flores 1989 Com este trabalho, realizado em Julho de 1989 nas Flores - a ilha mais ocidental do Arquipélago dos Açores -, acrescentaram-se onze espécies de Lepidópteros à lista referenciada para aquela ilha, pertencendo uma à família Lycaenidae (Lampides boeticus L.), oito a familia Noctuidae (Agrotis ipsilon HFN., Brotolomia meticulosa L., Chrysodeixis chalcites ESPER., Heliothis armigera HBN., Noctua atlantica WARREN, Noctua pronub...

  8. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  9. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  10. Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Mirna M.; Olaf H.H. Mielke; Keith S Brown Jr

    1998-01-01

    The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

  11. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  12. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  13. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Prins; J.-Y. Baugnée

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the c

  14. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  15. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  16. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  17. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  18. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  19. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  20. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  1. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  2. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  4. Reproductive biology of the palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Delle-Vedove, Roxanne; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Hossaert-Mckey, Martine; FREROT, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1980) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) is an accidentally introduced pest that damages palm trees in the northern Mediterranean area. To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies on its mating behaviour, and little is known about its biology and ecology. In the present study, we used outdoor experiments to investigate several characteristics of the reproductive behaviour of P. archon: sexual maturity, diel periodicity of mating, occurrence of polyandry and dela...

  5. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  6. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  7. The macroecology of Southeast-Asian hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the abundance and geographic distribution of the hawkmoth species (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Southeast-Asia and analyses the resulting patterns of biodiversity, biogeography and macroecology. Data on the distribution of species were retrieved from published and unpublished faunal lists and museum collections (in close cooperation with the Natural History Museum, London). Over 34,500 records of the global distribution of the 380 species that occur in Southeast-Asia (i...

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  9. Uji Daya Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Pada Larva Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dan Chilo auricilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Budianto, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Sisko Budianto, “The Ability of Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Chilo aurilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Prof. Dr. Dra. Maryani Cyccu Tobing, MS. and Dr. Ir. Hasanuddin, MS. The objectives of the research were to study the ability of parasitoid C. flavipes on larvae of C. sacchariphagus and C. auricilius. The research was held at Laboratory of Sug...

  10. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola,Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular sy...

  11. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  12. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the Netherl

  13. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-01-01

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010. PMID:26623765

  14. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  15. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  16. Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten.), an important host plant for folivorous lepidoptera larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kulfan, M.; Holecová, M.; Beracko, P.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a structured analysis of lepidoptera larvae taxocenoses living in leaf bearing crowns of Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten.) in nine study plots in the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Central Europe). The differences between lepidoptera taxocenoses in individual oak stands were analyzed. A total of 96 species and 2,140 individuals were found. Species abundance peaked in May, while number of species and species diversity reached the highest values from April to May and from April t...

  17. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  18. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P....... strigana (Fabricius, 1775) are designated. Two new synonymies are proposed: Pyralis marmorana (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n., of Ancylis achatana (Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775), and P. rusticana (Fabricius, 1794), syn. n., of Epinotia solandriana (Linnaeus, 1758). In an appendix, the identity...... and nomenclature of the 49 species of non-Tortricidae described by Fabricius in the genus Pyralis Linnaeus, 1758 are reviewed. According to provisions of Article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, suppression of priority of Pyralis obscurana Fabricius, 1798 over Eucosma aspidiscana (Hübner...

  19. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics. PMID:25690054

  20. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  1. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  2. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  3. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  4. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  5. [Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mejía, Claudia; Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-09-01

    The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15% of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17% of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae). A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature.

  6. A New Family of Moths from the Middle Jurassic(Insecta:Lepidoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Diying; André NEL; Jo(e)l MINET

    2010-01-01

    Three lepidopteran species,from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou beds(inner Mongolia,China),are described in a new family,Mesokristeuseniidae,and new genus,Mesokristensenia,which could represent the sister group of the Micropterigidae.Mesokristensenia differs from all extant Lepidoptera,but one genus(Agathiphaga,Agathiphagidae),in retaining four median veins in the forewing,a plesiomorphy also present in many Trichoptera.Evidence for placing Mesokristensenia in the Lepidoptera includes four traits,notably a previously unrecorded autapomorphy of this insect order:beyond stem M1+2,vein M1 is bent and connected to cross-vein r-m(in both wing pairs).Among 24 characters taken into account to assess the systematic position of Mesokristensenia,12 are considered informative for a cladistic analysis involving this fossil taxon and the four suborders recognized in present-day Lepidoptera(Zeugloptera,Aglossata,Heterobathmiina,and Glossata).

  7. Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten., an important host plant for folivorous lepidoptera larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulfan, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a structured analysis of lepidoptera larvae taxocenoses living in leaf bearing crowns of Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten. in nine study plots in the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Central Europe. The differences between lepidoptera taxocenoses in individual oak stands were analyzed. A total of 96 species and 2,140 individuals were found. Species abundance peaked in May, while number of species and species diversity reached the highest values from April to May and from April to June, respectively. Abundance showed two notable peaks in flush feeders and in late summer feeders. Lepidoptera taxocenosis in the study plot Horný háj (isolated forest, high density of ants differed significantly from all other taxocenoses according to Sörensen’s index of species similarity, species diversity, analysis of similarity on the basis of permutation and pairwise tests (ANOSIM, seasonal variability of species composition, and NMDS ordination.

  8. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  9. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi;

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  10. An annotated catalogue of the Lepidoptera collection of Guido Lanfranco at the National Museum of Natural History in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut, Paul; Borg, John J.

    2008-01-01

    An annotated list of the lepidoptera in the Lanfranco collection donated to the National Museum of Natural History of Mdina in Malta is included. Where relevant, comments on particular species or specimens are provided.

  11. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  12. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were paras

  13. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  14. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  15. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  16. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  17. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  18. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  19. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  20. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  1. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  2. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time. - Highlights: • A radiation dose of 250 Gy is suggested as a generic phytosanitary treatment for Lepidoptera larvae. • The dose of 250 Gy is especially supported for the family Tortricidae. • The endpoint is prevention of normal-looking adults, assumed not able to fly or reproduce

  3. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  4. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  6. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  7. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  8. Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), a leafminer infesting sugarcane in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leafminer, Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) was found in Louisiana on 12 July 2006 and documented as a new distribution record for Louisiana and the south-central United States and represents a significant range extension for the species. Elachista saccharella was first ...

  9. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  10. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  11. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  12. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  13. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  14. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qinghui; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined and analyzed in this paper. The circular genome is 15,208 bp long, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) started with ATN, except for COI gene with CGA(R), which is often found in other butterflies; nine PCGs harbor the typical stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 end with a single T. All tRNA genes display typical secondary clover-leaf structures, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,347 bp and 753 bp in length, with their AT contents of 84.4% and 85.4%, respectively. The 417 bp AT-rich region contains non repetitive sequences, but harbor several features common to the lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  16. Geographic differences and sexual dimorphism in Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Marrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae presents populations in central and Eastern mountainous regions of Cuba, which are stables habitats that have been isolated for a long period of time. This study evaluates the geographic variation and the sexual dimorphism of this species using geometric morphometric tools,with 91 individuals of four populations: Topes de Collantes (n=5, Pico Turquino (n=26, Loma del Gato (n=27 and Gran Piedra (n=33. For each specimen was calculated its centroid size, wing´s total area and white spots´s relative areas. These variables were compared between sex and populations using Mann-Whitney´s U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Discriminant and relative warps analyses were applied to weight matrices to separate between sex and populations. There were not significant differences between males and females wing size, but we found differences in spots size. The analyses applied to weight matrices separated males and females successfully. When analysing geographic variation of forewing area, only significant differences among females from Topes de Collantes and Pico Turquino populations were found. Centroid size and white spots didn’t have significant difference between populations. Both males and females show differences in shape wings between populations. We found clear evidences of sexual dimorphism, nevertheless not geographic differences exist. We are still supporting G. cubana as a monotypic species.

  17. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  18. Enzymatic properties of phenoloxidase from Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO-BIN XUE; WAN-CHUN LUO; QING-XI CHEN; QIN WANG; LI-NA KE

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of partially purified phenoloxidase (PO, EC. 1.14.18.1) from the 5th instar larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) were determined, using L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrate. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be at pH 7.0 and at 42℃,respectively. The enzyme was stable between pH 6.5 and 7.4 and at temperatures lower than 37℃. At pH 6.8 and 37℃, the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vm) of the enzyme for the oxidation of L-DOPA were determined to be 0.80 mmol/L and 1.84 μmol/ L/min, respectively. Tetra-hexylresorcinol and 4-dodecylresorcinol effectively inhibited activity of phenoloxidase and this inhibition was reversible and competitive, with the IC50 of 1.50 and 1.12μmol/L, respectively. The inhibition constants were estimated to be 0.50 and 0.47μmol/L, respectively.

  19. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Costa; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los...

  20. Estudo comparado da morfologia externa de Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood e Agrias claudina annetta (Gray. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae: II. Tórax e apêndices Comparative study of the external morphology of Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood and Agrias claudina annetta (Gray: II. Thorax and appendages (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guilherme C. Mielke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo detalhado e comparado da morfologia externa do tórax e apêndices de duas espécies de Charaxinae, Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850 e Agrias claudina annetta (Gray, 1832. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outros já publicados e relacionados com morfologia externa de outros Nymphalidae (Brassolinae, Morphinae, Danainae e Ithomiinae, Lycaenidae, Saturniidae e Sphingidae.Two species of Charaxinae, Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850 and Agrias claudina annetta (Gray, 1832 were subject of a detailed and comparative study of external morphology of the thorax and appendages. The results obtained were compared with other studies published and related to the external morphology of other Nymphalidae (Brassolinae, Morphinae, Danainae and Ithomiinae, Lycaenidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae.

  1. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERNIWATI; ROSICHON UBAIDILLAH

    2011-01-01

    Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011) Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles) erionotae, Brachymeria l...

  2. Kastamonu Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü Lepidoptera Faunası

    OpenAIRE

    AKKUZU, Erol; EROL, Serkan; DINGILOĞLU, Eda; ÖZDİKMENLİ, Gizem; AYBERK, Hamit

    2015-01-01

    This study named as “Lepidoptera Fauna of the Forest Enterprise Directorate of Kastamonu” was made for determining distribution and presence of Lepidoptera fauna in Kastamonu Forest Enterprise region between 20102013 years. Light traps and sweep nets were used to collect the samples from the study area. A total of 70 species belonging to 15 families were identified. The family Nymphalidae was the richest with a number of 13 species. This was followed by Noctuidae (12), Pieridae (10), Geometri...

  3. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variab...

  4. Processes involved in assessing priorities for local level Lepidoptera conservation programmes that aim to achieve global conservation impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Kendrick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying viable conservation projects for Lepidoptera that target threatened species depends upon effective identification and execution within a framework of events. This process requires information gathering and analysis, stakeholder discussion and local community involvement, planning, action, monitoring and review. Published working examples from four continents are drawn upon to illustrate all the key stages, focusing on methods for identifying priority areas (complementarity, biodiversity hotspots, habitat distribution, irreplaceability for conserving threatened Lepidoptera, whilst considering other conservation issues.

  5. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  6. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species...

  7. An unexpected record of Myrmica schencki EMERY, 1895 as a secondary host ant of the hygrophilous form of a small and isolated population of the Alcon Blue butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea alcon (DENIS et SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae in NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sielezniew Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phengaris alcon is a socially parasitic butterfly species showing ecological variation across its distribution range. Host ant specificity was studied on a site (a mineral island surrounded by wetlands in the Narew National Park in NE Poland, inhabited by a highly isolated and small population (estimated at several dozen individuals. We examined nests of their potential hosts, i.e. Myrmica ants, in patches of habitat where the initial larval food plant i.e. Gentiana pneumonanthe was recorded. The Myrmica species composition was shown to be unusual for such habitats because of the presence of M. schencki together with the dominant M. scabrinodis. In 2013 we found just one prepupa of P. alcon in a nest of M. schencki, which had never yet been recorded as a host of the hygrophilous form of this butterfly, and none of the M. scabrinodis nests were infested. However, in 2014 a very typical pattern for eastern Europe was observed, i.e. larvae were recorded exclusively in M. scabrinodis colonies and the parasitisation rate was 33%. In both seasons we recorded similar numbers of egg shells on gentians, which indicated a similar population size of adult butterflies. The results are discussed in the context of the ecology and conservation of P. alcon as well as the sampling design.

  8. Estudo comparado da morfologia externa de Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood) e Agrias claudina annetta (Gray). (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae): II. Tórax e apêndices Comparative study of the external morphology of Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood) and Agrias claudina annetta (Gray): II. Thorax and appendages (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Guilherme C. Mielke; Olaf H. H. Mielke; Casagrande, Mirna M.

    2004-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo detalhado e comparado da morfologia externa do tórax e apêndices de duas espécies de Charaxinae, Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850) e Agrias claudina annetta (Gray, 1832). Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outros já publicados e relacionados com morfologia externa de outros Nymphalidae (Brassolinae, Morphinae, Danainae e Ithomiinae), Lycaenidae, Saturniidae e Sphingidae.Two species of Charaxinae, Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850) and Agrias claudina annetta...

  9. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  10. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  11. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  12. Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  13. Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae): Novo registro em plantios comerciais de Heliconia spp. na região Amazônica do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ribeiro; Isabela Carvalho; Gabriely Souza; Hany Fouad; Walkymário Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera desfolhadores podem danificar cultivos de flores tropicais, mas existem poucos relatos desses insetos em plantas de Heliconia spp. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi registrar uma nova ocorrência de Thracides phidon (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae) como desfolhadora de Heliconia spp. em plantios comerciais na região Amazônica do Brasil.

  14. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  15. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Apatura metis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Nie, Xinping; Cao, Tianwen; Wang, Juping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xiaonan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo; Zhong, Yang

    2012-06-01

    As an important pest in the Slender Leaved Willow (Salix alba), Apatura metis is called Freyer's purple emperor, and its mitochondrial genome is 15,236 bp long. The encoded genes for 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA (rrnL and rrnS) genes, and 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and a control region in the A. metis mitochondria are highly homologous to other lepidopteran species. The mitochondrial genome of A. metis is biased toward a high A + T content (A + T = 80.5%). All protein-coding genes, except for COI begins with the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans, start with a typical ATN initiation codon. All tRNAs show the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. The A. metis A + T-rich region contains some conserved structures including a structure combining the motif 'ATAGA' and 19 bp poly (T) stretch, which is similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analyses of lepidopterans based on mitogenomes sequences demonstrate that each of the six superfamilies is monophyletic, and the relationship among them is (((Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea)) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea. In Papilionoidea group, our conclusion argues that ((Lycaenidae + Pieridae) + Nymphalidae) + Papilionidae.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Teinopalpus imperialis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and phylogenetic relationships analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Bin; Zeng, Ju-Ping; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus imperialis, which is a national butterfly of India, and a grade-II protected species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. imperialis was 15 299 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and 401 bp non-coding region. The T. imperialis genes were highly similar to those of sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species in the order and orientation. Twelve PCGs (ND2, ATP8, ND3, COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, CytB, ND1, ND5, and ND6) start with a typical ATN codon, only the COI gene starts with CGA codon. Eight PCGs (ND2, COI, ATP8, ATP6, COIII, ND5, ND6, and Cyt B) terminate in the common stop codon TAA, three PCGs (ND4L, ND3, and ND1) terminate in the stop codon TAG, and two PCGs (COII and ND4) terminate in a single T residue. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results showed that Danaidae, Satyridae, Libytheidae, Nymphalidae, Acraeidae, Pieridae, Hesperiidae, Riodinidae, and Lycaenidae are monophyletic clades. PMID:26162054

  18. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  19. Radiation induced F1 sterility in Lepidoptera for area-wide control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high doses of ionizing radiation are required to induce sterility in Lepidoptera, but fully sterilizing doses are detrimental to the reproductive competitiveness of the insects and so irradiated males are much less able to compete for mates. It appears, however, that inherited sterility can be induced in all Lepidoptera species by means of radiation doses that induce only low levels of sterility in irradiated individuals. In this way the detrimental effects of irradiation on reproductive performance can be largely avoided, and the irradiated males are able to compete for females with their wild counterparts. This is the basis of radiation induced F1 sterility for genetic pest control. These proceedings include thirteen papers on different aspects of F1 sterility, with emphasis on laboratory experiments to determine the dose of gamma radiation required for inherited sterility. The individual papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    D S Alves; Oliveira, D.F.; G.A. Carvalho; D.A. Carvalho; de Souza, L. P.; O. Lasmar

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, aft...

  1. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Goulart Montezano; Alexandre Specht; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Vânia Ferreira Roque-Specht; Neiva Monteiro de Barros

    2013-01-01

    Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days) was not significantly higher than those of ...

  2. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  3. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2011 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole;

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and comments on interesting Danish Microlepidoptera collected in 2011 and include remarkable findings from previous years. The classification and nomenclature follow the new Danish checklist (Karsholt & Stadel Nielsen, in press). Ten species are reported as new to the Danish ...... the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2551 species. There are moreover 10 species on the so-called observation list, containing species of uncertain status, which was erected in 2009....

  4. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio; José Cola Zanuncio; Dirceu Pratissoli; Marcelo Teixeira Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pu...

  5. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J. O.; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing ...

  6. Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Sardes

    2009-01-01

    Uji Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Mengkudu Terhadap Hama Kubis Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) di Laboratorium dibimbing oleh Ir. Marheni MP., dan Ir. Erwin Maa’aruf, MS. Selaku ketua dan anggota. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas instektisida botanis Mengkudu terhadap hama kubis P.xylostella di Laboratorium. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium PHP BPTPH Medan Johor, Sumatera Utara yang dimulai pada bulan April 2007 sampai Juli 2007. Penelitian meng...

  7. Economic thresholds level for the fruit generation of olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Hyponomeutidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Albino; Pereira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), is one of the most destructive pests of olive groves in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, the interest in evaluating the economic importance of P. oleae has been increasing, being loss assessment essential to the development of integrated pest management programs (IPM). Reliable economic thresholds for the pest are associated to any IPM practice, since enables the growers to reduce the input of pesticid...

  8. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C; Ian J Kitching; Mitter, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analys...

  9. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor; Landero Ivonne; Vázquez Adolfo I; Moreno José MP; Ramos-Elorduy Julieta; Camacho Víctor HM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the mo...

  10. Parasitismo sobre eurysacca melanocampta meyrick (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) en dos localidades de cusco, perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Costa; Yábar,Erick; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de ...

  11. Ultrastructural and quantitative studies of hemocytes in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros; Maria Terezinha Siqueira Bombonato; Elisa Aparecida Gregório

    2003-01-01

    Six circulating hemocytes cell types from Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae were identified by transmission and scanning electron microscope: prohemocytes (PR), plasmatocytes (PL) granulocytes (GR), spherulocytes (SP), oenocytoids (OE) and vermicytes (VE). The PR was the smallest cell type with a large nucleus, a cytoplasm with few organelles and a homogenous smooth surface. The PL was polymorphic and abundant, with a cytoplasm rich in organelles and a cellular ...

  12. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Do...

  13. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  14. Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

    2014-06-01

    Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there

  15. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2012 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    This ar ti cle re ports and com ments on in ter est ing Dan ish Micro lepi - doptera col lected in 2012 and in cludes re mark able find ings from pre - vi ous years. The clas si fi ca tion and no men cla ture fol low the new Dan ish check list (Karsholt & Stadel Nielsen, 2013). Three spe cies...... cies of Microlepidoptera found in Den mark. The to tal amount of Macro - lepidoptera re corded from Den mark is now 969, bring ing the num ber of Dan ish Lepidoptera to a to tal of 2556 species. With the new Dan ish check list the so-called ob ser va tion list has been ex tended to in clude both spe...... traps in Born holm. We more over trans fer Caloptilia azaleella (Brants, 1913) (Gra cil lariidae) from the ob ser va tion list to the main list of Dan ish Lepidoptera. The to tal num ber of Dan ish Gracillariidae is now 88, Gelechiidae 178 and of Tortricidae 389. This re sults in a to tal of 1587 spe...

  16. Identificação e Catalogação de Borboletas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea e Papilionoidea da Coleção Entomológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana dos Santos de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. Although Rio Grande do Sul State is considered one of the best inventoried States in relation to the butterflies, there are still gaps in the knowledge of their species distribution. One of these gaps is in the southern extreme of the State, where the majority of the inventories does not specify the exact location where the specimens were collected. Thus, the species of the butterflies deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG were identified and cataloged. The 146 butterfly specimens deposited in the Entomological Collection are distributed in 36 species belonging to the families Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae. Nymphalidae was the richest family and had the highest number of individuals, while Lycaenidae had the lowest richness and number of specimens. The most representative species in the Collection were Heraclides thoas brasiliensis (Rothschild & Jordan, Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel and Danaus erippus (Cramer.

  17. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  18. 中国蝴蝶一属四种新纪录(鳞翅目:锤角亚目)%New Records of Butterflies from China ( Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) : One Genus and Four Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劭骥; 朱建青; 张鑫

    2012-01-01

    One genus and four species of butterflies were reported for the first time from China, i. e. , the genus is Suasa de Niceville, 1890 ( Lycaenidae), Suasa lisides (Hewitson, 1863) , the four species are Darpa striata ( H. Druce, 1873) ( Hesperiidae), Lethe minerva (Fabricius, 1775) (Nymphalidae), Arhopala dispar Riley et Godfrey, 1921 (Lycaenidae), and Rapala hades (de Niceville, 1895) (Lycaenidae). Brief descriptions, comparisons with similar species, and some observational notes are given in this paper.%报道中国蝴蝶新纪录1属4种:新纪录属为索灰蝶属Suasa de Nicéville,1890;新纪录种为弄蝶科的纹毛弄蝶Darpa striata(H.Druce,1873)、蛱蝶科的米纹黛眼蝶Lethe minerva(Fabricius,1775)、灰蝶科的帝娆灰蝶Arhopa-la dispar Riley et Godfrey,1921和哈燕灰蝶Rapala hades(de Nicéville,1895),并附简要描述对比及野外观察记录.

  19. Short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of indonesian populations of the butterfly Drupadia theda in East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Y. Fauvelot; D.F.R. Cleary; S.B.J. Menken

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of the tropical butterfly Drupadia theda Felder (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Populations were sampled from five landscapes in East Kalimantan (Borneo, Indonesia) which were differentially disturbed by sele

  20. Maculinea alcon exploits Myrmica aloba in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaldo, P.S.; Wynhoff, I.; Soares, P.;

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the obligate myrmecophilous social parasite Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found exclusively using Myrmica aloba (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ant hosts in NE-Portugal. This is the first record of the host ant usage of any Maculinea species in Portugal, and of any Maculinea...

  1. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  2. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  3. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  4. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  5. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study

  6. Female genitalia of the species of Depressaria Hw. s.l. (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae) occuring in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van W.

    1961-01-01

    It is generally understood that characters of the genitalia are indispensable for the natural classification of most groups of the Lepidoptera. The genital structures are of great value, especially in cases where difficulties may arise in distinguishing groups on external characters, like venation,

  7. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  8. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) dose of 350 Gy is proposed for all Lepidoptera on all commodities. The measure of efficacy for this dose is prevention of egg hatch when late pupae are irradiated. Although the literature was thoroughly examined for relevant studies only those that could reas...

  9. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  10. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  11. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  12. Kemampuan Actinote anteas Doub. (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae) Sebagai Serangga Pemakan Gulma

    OpenAIRE

    Reza, M. Isnar

    2011-01-01

    M. Isnar Reza, “The ability Actinote anteas Doub. (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae) as a weed eating insect”, it was under supervised by Prof. Dr. Ir. Darma Bakti, MS and Ir. Marheni, MP. The objective of this study was to know the ability of Actinote anteas Doub. feed the Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata and the status of Actinote anteas when experimented to the plant which it’s not kounds of weed. This research was conducted in Insectarium, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty...

  13. Biologia de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) em diferentes cultivares de soja e culturas de entressafra

    OpenAIRE

    Favetti, Bruna Magda

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade) é um inseto desfolhador polífago, que eventualmente era encontrado na cultura da soja. No entanto, surtos populacionais fizeram com que esta espécie se tornasse um problema, sendo necessário seu controle, feito através de inseticidas químicos. As possíveis causas para estas infestações seriam o excesso no uso de inseticidas, bem como a rotação e sucessão de culturas, que provêm uma oferta contínua de alimento, o que mantém esta es...

  14. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  15. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  16. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  17. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  18. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  19. Leaf consumption and duration of instars of the cassava defoliator Erinnyis ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Pratissoli; José Cola Zanúncio; Reginaldo Barros; Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate leaf consumption and the developmental time of the larvae of Erynnyis ello (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) reared on cassava, in order to obtain information for the integrated management of this pest. The larvae were reared on excised cassava leaves in Petri dishes and later in gerbox, and kept in chambers at 24 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 10% RH. The total leaf area consumed by the larva to complete its development was 589.67 cm²; each of the five in...

  20. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  1. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  2. The Effects of Different Irrigation Systems on the Inundative Release of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Second Crop Maize

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan; Kornoşor, Serpil

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation systems on the inundative release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the second crop maize in the Çukurova region of Turkey in 1999 and 2000. O. nubilalis, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and T. evanescens were reared in a climatic room under constant temperature of 25 ± 1 ºC, relative h...

  3. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  4. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  5. Fauna Characterization of the Order Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera in Five Different of Localities of the Colombian Llanos Orientales Caracterización de la fauna del orden Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera en cinco diferentes localidades de los Llanos orientales Colombianos

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    Fajardo Medina Gonzalo E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study authors made an analysis in the variance of richness, composition and abundance in the butterfly community of five locations in colombian llanos orientales distributed like this: Locations San Antonio (500 mosl, Cafam (200 mosl and Con Esto Tengo (480 mosl, as bosque de Galería, and in the other hand Loma Linda (640 mosl and Buena Vista (1250 mosl as Pie de Monte. For the sample
    collection there were used butterfly nets and Vansorem-Rydon traps. Samples were collected in two seasons of years 2003, 2004 and 2005 with four days of visit in each sample. Exists a report of 469 specimens distributed in six families as follows Hesperidae, Papilionidae,  Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. In total thisfamilies were distributed in 37 genus and 45 species. Because of the composition of ropaloceros' fauna San Antonio, Con Esto Tengo and Loma Linda locations presented the greatest similarities followed by Buena Vista and Cafam, according to UPGMA analysis through Jaccard coefficient. The obtained data reveals the richness in the fauna found in fragments of ecosystems proper of the colombian llanos orientales, and the importance of following and monitoring, them and the necessity of management and conservation plans for this areas.En este estudio se realizó un análisis en la variación de la riqueza, composición y abundancia en la comunidad de mariposas para cinco localidades en los llanos orientales colombianos distribuidas así: Haciendas San Antonio (500 msnm, Cafam (200 msnm y Con Esto Tengo (480 msnm, como bosque de galería, y haciendas Loma Linda
    (640 msnm y Buena Vista (1.250 msnm como pie de monte. Para el muestreo se usaron redes caza mariposas y trampas Vansomeren-Rydon, en dos épocas de los años 2003, 2004 y 2005 con visitas de cuatro días por muestreo. Se reporta 469 especímenes distribuidos en seis familias: Hesperidae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae y Riodinidae. En total estas

  6. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA FAUNA DEL ORDEN Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera EN CINCO DIFERENTES LOCALIDADES DE LOS LLANOS ORIENTALES COLOMBIANO Fauna Characterization of the Order Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera in Five Different Localities of the Colombian Llanos Orientales

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    NATALIA FRAIJA FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se realizó un análisis en la variación de la riqueza, composición y abundancia en la comunidad de mariposas para cinco localidades en los llanos orientales colombianos distribuidas así: Haciendas San Antonio (500 msnm, Cafam (200 msnm y Con Esto Tengo (480 msnm, como bosque de galería, y haciendas Loma Linda (640 msnm y Buena Vista (1250 msnm como pie de monte. Para el muestreo se usaron redes caza mariposas y trampas Vansomeren-Rydon, en dos épocas de los años 2003, 2004 y 2005 con visitas de cuatro días por muestreo. Se reporta 469 especímenes distribuidos en seis familias: Hesperidae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae y Riodinidae. En total estas familias se distribuyeron en 37 géneros y 45 especies. Por la composición de ropaloceros los sitios San Antonio, Con esto tengo y Loma Linda presentaron la mayor similitud seguidos de Buena Vista y Cafam, de acuerdo con el análisis de similitud UPGMA, utlizando el coeficiente de Jaccard. Los datos obtenidos revelan la riqueza de la fauna presente en fragmentos de ecosistemas propios de los llanos colombianos, y la necesidad de continuar su seguimiento y monitoreo para plantear planes de manejo y conservación de estas áreas.In the study authors made an analysis in the variance of richness, composition and abundance in the butterfly community of five locations in colombian llanos orientales distributed like this: Locations San Antonio (500 msnm, Cafam (200 msnm and Con Esto Tengo (480 msnm, as bosque de Galería, and in the other hand Loma Linda (640 msnm and Buena Vista (1250 msnm as Pie de Monte. For the sample collection there were used butterfly nets and Vansorem-Rydon traps. Samples were collected in two seasons of years 2003, 2004 and 2005 with four days of visit in each sample. Exists a report of 469 specimens distributed in six families as follows Hesperidae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. In total these families were

  7. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00.

  8. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite. PMID:27470792

  9. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  10. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  11. The application and performance of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for population genetic analyses of Lepidoptera

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    Brad S. Coates

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of null alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae using next-generation expressed sequence tag (EST data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2% were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may be the result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant mutation data molecular genetic marker development in non-model species with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need be considered in the interpretation of empirical data.

  12. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences. PMID:23452242

  14. Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae: identificación basada en DNA-barcoding y notas morfológicas e historia de vida de los estados inmaduros Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae: identification based on DNA-barcoding and notes on the morphology and life history of the immature stages

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    Rosa A. Ramos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae: identification based on DNA-barcoding and notes on the morphology and life history of the immature stages. The larva morphology of the species Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae, a Nothofagus obliqua leafminer in Chile, is described. The tissue-feeding first and last instars are described. Also, the number of larval stages, some aspects of the biology and life cycle of the species are provided.

  15. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

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    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  16. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

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    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  17. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

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    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  18. Ovicidal effect of some insecticides on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Efecto ovicida de algunos insecticidas sobre la polilla del repollo, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand; Aziz Sheikhi Garjan; Habib Abbasipour

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), is a serious threat to Brassica vegetables in Iran, including Tehran province. The ovicidal effects of different classes of insecticides on P. xylostella were investigated, using three fixed doses (based on commercial formulations). At the lowest concentration (500 mg L-1), the mortality effect of hexaflumuron and pyridalyl was higher than the other insecticides examined. Fipronil, hexaflumuron and spinosad and pyridalyl,...

  19. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae) Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-01-01

    The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labi...

  20. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  1. Caracterización de la fauna del orden Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera en cinco diferentes localidades de los Llanos Orientales colombianos

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    Fajardo Medina Gonzalo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se hizo un análisis en la variación de la riqueza, composición y abundancia en la comunidad de mariposas para cinco localidades en los llanos orientales colombianos distribuidas así: San Antonio (500 msnm, Cafam (200 msnm y “Con esto tengo” (480 msnm en bosque de galería; Loma Linda (640 msnm y Buena Vista (1.250 msnm en pie de monte. El muestreo se realizó en dos épocas entre los años 2003 y 2005 con visitas de cuatro días por muestreo, usando redes caza mariposas y trampas Vansorem-Rydon. Se reportan 618 especímenes distribuidos en 45 especies y 37 géneros pertenecientes a seis familias: Hesperidae, Papilionidae,
    Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae y Riodinidae. Por la composición de la fauna de ropaloceros los sitios San Antonio, Con esto tengo y Loma Linda presentaron la mayor similaridad seguidos de Buena Vista y Cafam, de acuerdo con el análisis de UPGMA con el coeficiente de Jaccard. Los datos obtenidos revelan la importancia del estudio de la fauna presente en fragmentos de ecosistemas propios de los llanos, de su seguimiento, monitoreo y la necesidad de planes de manejo
    y conservación de estas áreas.

  2. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  3. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  4. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; Hugo Bolsoni Zago; Lauana Pellanda de Souza; Carlos Magno Ramos Oliveira; Vinícius Pereira dos Santos; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing) and a population of other species were used in the e...

  5. Human consumption of Lepidoptera in Africa : an updated chronological list of references (370 quoted!) with their ethnozoological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse, François; Latham, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Human consumption of insects or « lepidopterophagy » is becoming increasingly important. In the present paper 370 references dealing with this subject in Africa are quoted. Access to this information is provided both, by chronological and alphabetic order of authors. A systematic list of scientific names of edible Lepidoptera in Africa is also provided. The importance of the information available for various ethnolinguidstic groups is presented. The evolution of issues covered is analyzed and...

  6. Silk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno; Raminosoa,Noromalala; Poncelet, Marc; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through b...

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation (60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activity was of approximately 2.91 x 1014 Bq. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with temperature at 25 ± 20 C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. (M.A.C.)

  8. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoshi, R. N.; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly p...

  9. Origin and taxonomic status of the Palearctic population of the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moyal, Pascal; Tokro, P.; BAYRAM, A.; Savopoulou-Soultani, M.; Conti, E; Eizaguirre, M.; Le Rü, Bruno; Avand-Faghih, A.; Frerot, B.; Andreadis, S

    2011-01-01

    The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palear...

  10. The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Idin Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani; Ghodratollah Sabahi

    2016-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik) from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in I...

  11. Mortality of Indian flour moth Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) by gamma radiation from cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the gamma radiation effects on the Indian flour moth Anagasta Kuehniella (Zeller, 1879), (lepidoptera, Pyralidae), at its larval phase. The doses utilized were: O (control), 50, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy. The experiment was carried out into a climatic chamber, a temperature of 25 ± 2 Centigrade, and a relative humidity between 65 and 75%. It was observed that the lethal doses LD-100 was 350 Gy. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  12. Action of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on reproductive function in successive generations Sesame nonagrioides; Lepidoptera noctuidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different sub sterilizing gamma ray doses on Sesame nonagrioides Lef., Lepidoptera Noctuidae is herein studies. It appears from the observed resultats that : - doses of 70 Gy are those required to obtain sub sterile insects. - F1 males from subterile parents present sterility superior to that of parents without any reduction in sexual competitivity on acouplement frequency. - On the 3 successive generations that we studies, the sex ratio is modified and a great residual sterility is observed.

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Margam, Venu M.; Brad S Coates; Bayles, Darrell O.; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Weilin Sun; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Ibrahim Baoua; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analy...

  14. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  15. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  16. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  17. Methodological comparison of DNA extraction from Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) for AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; ZHU Yang-yu; TAO Jing; Luo You-qing

    2008-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a powerful DNA fingerprinting technique for studying genetic rela-tionships and genetic diversity in insects. However, the crucial prerequisite for AFLP analysis is to extract DNA of high quality. In this study, we evaluate four different protocols (SDS method, improved SDS method, CTAB method and a complex method with SDS and CTAB) for isolating DNA from the seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)). The results indicate that the CTAB method does not produce DNA suitable for AFLP analysis. The SDS method and the complex method with SDS and CTAB are comparatively time-consuming and resulted in low yields of DNA and were therefore not used for AFLP assay. The improved SDS method is recommended for preparing DNA templates from H. hippophaecolus for AFLP analysis.

  18. Behaviorally plastic host-plant use by larval Lepidoptera in tri-trophic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Plant-insect interactions research emphasizes adaptive plasticity of plants and carnivores, such as parasitoids, implying a relatively passive role of herbivores. Current work is addressing this deficit, with exciting studies of behavioral plasticity of larval Lepidoptera (caterpillars). Here I use select examples to illustrate the diversity of behaviorally plastic host-plant use by caterpillars, including anti-predator tactics, self-medication, and evasion of dynamic plant defenses, as proof of the agency of caterpillar behavior in plant-insect interactions. I emphasize the significance of adaptive behavioral plasticity of caterpillars in the context of tri-trophic interactions. Recent research on trait-mediated indirect interactions places adaptive behavioral plasticity of herbivores at the center of community and food web dynamics, with far-reaching consequences of issues such as community stability. PMID:27436647

  19. Intraseasonal variation in a population of Fountainea ryphea (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Caldas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A different approach was used for the key-factor method in a population study of the tropical butterfly Fountainea ryphea (Cramer, [1776] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, marking 20 artificial cohorts to identify the mortality levels and associated instars responsible for the variation in numbers within the season of occurrence, when generations overlap broadly. Highest mortality was detected during first instar in 13 cohorts; during second instar in three cohorts; third and fourth instars suffered highest mortality twice. Results showed that first instar mortality due to rainfall and predation, and parasitism on fourth instar could be the main factors promoting differences in number between cohorts throughout the season, although no density-dependent processes could be identified.

  20. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Yu39 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Zhao, Jin-Hui; Zhou, Qi-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Yu39 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a circular molecule of 15,652 bp in length, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, except for the cox1 gene, which begins with uncertained codon. All PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except for the cox1 and cox2, which use single T as their stop codons. The non-coding AT-rich region is 494-bp long, located between rrnS and trnM genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the other lepidopterons. PMID:25676361

  2. Identification of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Leafroller Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J; Reyes-Garcia, L; Ballesteros, C; Cuevas, Y; Flores, M F; Curkovic, T

    2016-08-01

    Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an occasional pest in fruit orchards in central-southern Chile. In order to develop species-specific lures for detection and monitoring of this species, we identified the female-produced sex pheromone. (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12:OAc), and (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc) were identified as biologically active compounds present in female pheromone glands by solvent extraction of the gland and analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In field tests, lures baited with synthetic Z11-14:OAc and E9-12:OAc in a 10:1 ratio were highly attractive to males of the species. PMID:26868654

  3. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  4. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  5. Evaluation of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) neonate preferences for corn and weeds in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Colothdian D; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2006-12-01

    Choice tests were conducted to determine feeding preferences of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates for 15 species of plants. Percentage of neonates accepting (found on) each leaf disc after 24 h was measured using choice tests. Initially, nine species of plants were evaluated. The following year, 10 plant species were evaluated during O. nubilalis first generation and 11 species during the second generation. Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pennsylvanicum (L.), had the highest percentage of neonates accepting leaf discs in both years. Other plants with high acceptance rates included swamp smartweed, Polygonum amphibium L.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus; cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; and yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.). Corn, Zea mays L., consistently had low percentages of neonates accepting leaf discs along with common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Implications these results may have on O. nubilalis host plant selection in central Iowa's corn dominated landscape are considered. PMID:17195664

  6. Lepidoptera (Insecta: Lepidoptera in the collection of Daniel Czekelius from Natural History Museum of Sibiu, collected from "Dumbrava Sibiului" forest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MOISE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, fauna and ecological analysis of the landscape in which the reserves and Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu" shows a great scientific interest and practical for biological research in Sibiu. The results can contribute substantially to assessing the state of the world of insects and their evolution in the ecosystem studied, but also to establish their quantitative and qualitative changes over time. In the present work was studied the Lepidoptera collection of Transylvania Dr. Daniel Czekelius, and the paper presents a systematic list of species collected Macrolepidoptere since 1888-1929 in Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu".This paper can be considered a tribute and memory of Dr.Daniel Czekelius entomologists, who through his collection has contributed substantially to the knowledge of this group of insects. The data obtained and to join the collections of personal data between 2000-2011 we intend to achieve a more comprehensive study, which will be subject to further research on the evolution Macrolepidoptera over more than 120 years of research in the area of Forest "Dumbrava Sibiu". For some species have been listed by the IUCN recommended levels of endangerment in 2000 and 2001 Rákosy L.: extinct, taxon vulnerable, near threatened.

  7. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  8. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  9. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  10. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia for

  11. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  12. A new institution devoted to insect science: The Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akito Y.Kawahara; Thomas C.Emmel; Jacqueline Miller; Andrew D.Warren

    2012-01-01

    The Florida Museum of Natural History's McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity,on the University of Florida campus in Gainesville,Florida,has become one of the world's largest institutions for research on butterflies and moths,and an important research facility for insect science.The facility was constructed by combining the staff and merging the Lepidoptera holdings from the Allyn Museum of Entomology,the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and other University of Florida collections,and now includes over ten million specimens from all over the world,rivaling some of the largest Lepidoptera research collections globally.The facility includes a team of domestic and international researchers studying many areas of lepidopterology,including behavior,biodiversity,biogeography,ecology,genomics,physiology,systematics and taxonomy.In this paper,we introduce the McGuire Center,its staff,and the many research activities for researchers across entomological disciplines.

  13. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  14. Biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae na cultura da soja Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Magrini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campos de soja. Os experimentos foram conduzidos durante os períodos agrícolas de 1992 a 1997. Em cada ano foram realizadas duas avaliações, com 20 repetições para cada fase do ciclo de A. gemmatalis. Os insetos levados ao campo foram criados por duas gerações, em laboratório, sobre folhas de soja da variedade hospedeira à temperatura de 27 ± 1 oC, fotofase de 14 horas e 60 ± 10 % UR até a fase de pupa. Foram determinados o número, viabilidade e período de incubação de ovos e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade dos adultos, ritmo de postura e razão sexual. A viabilidade média para a fase de ovo variou de 43,0 % (1996 a 76,3 % (1997, sendo a duração média de 3,60 dias. O período larval dos indivíduos que originaram fêmeas variou de 8,95 (1993 a 16,75 dias (1997 e a viabilidade média foi de 17,2 %. O períCodo de pupas fêmeas e de machos foi praticamente o mesmo nos anos estudados (9,80 e 10,61 dias, respectivamente. A longevidade dos adultos fêmeas variou entre 9,10 (1997 a 12,90 dias (1996. A média de ovos colocados foi de 73,5, dos quais 42,3 % viáveis. A razão sexual média foi de 0,50. O período de postura, ocorreu até o 7o (1997 ou 13o dias (1996 com o acme no 2o dia. O ciclo médio de vida da fêmea (ovo - adulto foi de 26,51 dias.The biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae was studied in soybean fields. The experiments were conducted during the seasons of 1992 through 1997. Two evaluations were performed each year with 20 replications for each phase of A. gemmatalis. The insects taken to the field were reared in laboratory for two generations on leaves of the host soybean variety, at 27 ± 1 oC, 14 - hour photophase, and 60 ± 10 % RH, up to the pupal phase. The number, viability and period of incubation of the eggs as well as the viability of the larval and pupal stages, longevity of adults, egg

  15. Characterisation of the Manduca sexta sperm proteome: Genetic novelty underlying sperm composition in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Emma; Zhao, Qian; Borziak, Kirill; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2015-07-01

    The application of mass spectrometry based proteomics to sperm biology has greatly accelerated progress in understanding the molecular composition and function of spermatozoa. To date, these approaches have been largely restricted to model organisms, all of which produce a single sperm morph capable of oocyte fertilisation. Here we apply high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis to characterise sperm composition in Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm moth, which produce heteromorphic sperm, including one fertilisation competent (eupyrene) and one incompetent (apyrene) sperm type. This resulted in the high confidence identification of 896 proteins from a co-mixed sample of both sperm types, of which 167 are encoded by genes with strict one-to-one orthology in Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, over half (55.1%) of these orthologous proteins have previously been identified in the D. melanogaster sperm proteome and exhibit significant conservation in quantitative protein abundance in sperm between the two species. Despite the complex nature of gene expression across spermatogenic stages, a significant correlation was also observed between sperm protein abundance and testis gene expression. Lepidopteran-specific sperm proteins (e.g., proteins with no homology to proteins in non-Lepidopteran taxa) were present in significantly greater abundance on average than those with homology outside the Lepidoptera. Given the disproportionate production of apyrene sperm (96% of all mature sperm in Manduca) relative to eupyrene sperm, these evolutionarily novel and highly abundant proteins are candidates for possessing apyrene-specific functions. Lastly, comparative genomic analyses of testis-expressed, ovary-expressed and sperm genes identified a concentration of novel sperm proteins shared amongst Lepidoptera of potential relevance to the evolutionary origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis. As the first published Lepidopteran sperm proteome, this whole

  16. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  17. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María R. Rossetti; María T. Defagó; María C. Carpinella; Sara M. Palacios; Graciela Valladares

    2008-01-01

    En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%), sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, e...

  18. Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raimunda Nonata Santos de Lemos; Wilson Badiali Crocomo; Luiz Carlos Forti; Carlos Frederico Wilcken

    1999-01-01

    Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arn...

  19. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  20. 植物学知识在鳞翅目昆虫系统学研究中的应用%Application of Botany in Lepidoptera Insect Systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世林; 郝淑莲; 张志伟

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between Lepidoptera insect and plant are various,especially in selection of food and habitat of Lepidoptera to plant,and pollination of Lepidoptera to plant.The application of botany in Lepidoptera systematics was discussed:specimen collection,classification,identification,biology,systematics and coevolution etc.%鳞翅目昆虫与植物间的相互作用是多方面的,其中最重要的是鳞翅目昆虫选择植物做为其食物和栖息场所、鳞翅目成虫为植物传授花粉.分析了植物在鳞翅目系统学研究中的作用.在鳞翅目标本的采集、分类、鉴定和系统发育研究以及协同进化研究工作中,植物学知识都起着不可替代的重要作用.

  1. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and an examination of mitochondrial gene variability within butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2008-01-31

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Spinghidae) was sequenced -- a circular molecular 15516 bp in size. The arrangement of the protein coding genes (PCGs) was the same as that found in the ancestral insect, however Manduca possessed the derived tRNA arrangement of CR-M-I-Q which has been found in all Lepidoptera sequenced to date. Additionally, Manduca, like all lepidopteran mt genomes, has numerous large intergenic spacer regions and microsatellite-like repeat regions. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased, and the lepidopterans have the second most biased nucleotide composition of the insect orders after Hymenoptera. Secondary structural features of the PCGs identified in other Lepidoptera were present but highly modified by the presence of microsatellite-like repeat regions which may significantly alter their function in the post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNAs. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of Manduca are presented and are similar to those proposed for other insect orders. Conserved regions were identified within non-translated spacer regions which correspond to sites for the origin and termination of replication and transcription. Comparisons of gene variability across the order suggest that the mitochondrial genes most frequently used in phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2, are amongst the least variable genes in the genome and phylogenetic resolution could be improved by using alternative, higher variability genes such as nad2, nad3, nad4 and nad5. PMID:18065166

  3. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  4. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva; André Cirilo de Sousa Almeida; Tony de Lima Moura; Anderson Rodrigo da Silva; Silvia de Sousa Freitas; Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group) and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological v...

  6. Southern Andean Stigmella sinuosa complex (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae): unraveling problematic taxonomy with a pictorial key of adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of a collection sample from the southern Andes of Argentina and Chile, we describe and name two new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. sinuosa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. mevia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. Other two new species are documented but left unnamed. All treated taxa belong to a newly designated S. sinuosa complex that belongs to the S. salicis group. The S. sinuosa complex contains cryptic species. We also discuss the differentiation of the species of the complex by using morphological characters. PMID:27395717

  7. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  8. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Li; Dominic Reisig; Jin Miao; Fred Gould; Fangneng Huang; Hongqiang Feng

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2A...

  9. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and medicinal plants on Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Zibaee, AR Bandani, JJ Sendi, R Talaei-Hassanloei, B Kouchaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae is an insect native to NorthAmerica that was recently introduced into Iran resulting in severe damage to trees and agriculturalproduction. An experiment was conducted to examine potential effects of medicinal plants, Artemisiaannua and Lavandula stoechas and the insect pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki on activities of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, α- and β-glucosidase, lipase and proteasesand lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in H. cunea by using two hosts, mulberry and sycamore. Resultsshowed that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and plant extracts when administered orally, affected thedigestive enzyme profiles of H. cunea. Combined effect of B. thuringiensis, A. annua and L. stoechasextracts on mulberry decreased the activities of digestive enzymes in a dose-related manner, exceptfor β-glucosidase and lipase. When larvae were treated by different concentrations of the mentionedinsecticides, LDH activity increased i.e. the higher activity was obtained by B. thurengiensis alone andB. thurengiensis and L. stoechas extracts together. The least activity was observed in the case of L.stoechas extracts alone on both hosts. Physiological analysis would be particularly informative whenusing combination of biopesticides to enhance the efficiency of a safe management process.

  10. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage butterfly, Artogeia melete (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiyun Hong; Shaotong Jiang; Miao Yu; Ying Yang; Feng Li; Fangsen Xue; Zhaojun Wei

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Artogeia melete was determined as being composed of 15,140 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one control region.The gene order of A. melete mitogenome is typical of Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type in the location of trnM. The A. melete mitogenome has a total of 119 bp of intergenic spacer sequences spread over 10 regions, ranging in sizes between 1 and 48 bp.The nucleotide composition of the A. melete mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (79.77%),which is higher than that of Ochrogaster lunifer (77.84%), but lower than nine other lepidopterans sequenced. The PCGs have typical mitochondrial start codons, except for cox1, which contains the unusual CGA. The cox1, cox2, nad2, and had5 genes of the A.melete mitogenome have incomplete stop codons (T).The A. melete A + T-rich region contains some conserved structures that are similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, including a structure combining the motif 'ATAGA', a 19-bp poly(T) stretch,a microsatellite (AT)n element, and a 9-bp poly(A)upstream trnM. The A. melete mitogenome contains a duplicated 36-bp repeat element, which consists of a 26-bp core sequence flanked by 10-bp perfectly inverted repeats.

  11. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  12. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  13. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  14. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  15. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  16. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  17. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F2 generation, the progeny of the Tf1FxTf1M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P1 and F1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F1 and F2 generations and was maximally expressed when F1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  18. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics.

  19. The application of nuclear technique for practical controlling of Ectomyelois Ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iran ranks the first producer and exporter of pomegranate in the world. Carob moth Ectomyelois ceratiniae(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has also been recognized as an important pest of pomegranate in the country. Due to biology of the pest, the application of pesticide has not been considered practical and the losses to this product are more than 30 percent of the yield. The application of Sterile Insect Technique is a method that is used on a few insects with the specific characters. This research was accomplished for evaluation of the practical control of this pest upon application of nuclear methods on pomegranate. Larval and pupal stages were collected from Saveh, transferred to Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School and reared on artificial diet at 28±2degreeC, 60±5% Rh, 14:10 light: dark photo period. The produced pupae (young and old) were irradiated by gamma radiation and were reared with 0:0:1:1-9:9:1:1 (Irradiated male: Irradiated female: Natural male: Natural female) ratios on pomegranate fruits in the cages. The results show that the application of sterile doses (120 and 160 Gy) on pupae (Young 1,2 days and old 3-4 days old) and releasing ratios 7:7:1:1 to 9:9:1:1 in comparison with the controlled treatment by the releasing ratio of 0:0:1:1 that prevents damage of E. ceratiniae on the pomegranate.

  20. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  1. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  2. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  3. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  4. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  5. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  6. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  7. Phylogenetic relationship and morphological evolution in the subfamily Limenitidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang; Enbo Ma; Yang Zhong; Tianwen Cao; Yupeng Geng; Yuan Zhang; Ke Jin; Zhumei Ren; Rui Zhang; Yaping Guo

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene and the nuclear elongation factor lα (EF-Iα) gene were sequenced from 29 species of Nymphalidae (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera). Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the sequences determined from the 29 species and sequences of other 36 species deposited in GenBank using the neighbor-joining (N J), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods with Libythea celtis (Libytheinae) as the outgroup. Our phylogenetic trees indicated four major clades. Clade A includes three subfamilies: Apaturinae, Nymphalinae, and Limenitidinae, excluding the tribe Limenitidini; Ciade B includes the subfamilies Heliconiinae and the tribe Limenitidini; Clade C includes Satyrinae, Calinaginae, Charaxinae and Morphinae; and Clade D includes subfamily Danainae. Our study suggested that the tribes Pseudergolini, Biblidini, Limenitidini and Cyrestidini should be considered as subfamilies and confirmed the interspecific relationships within the subfamily Pseudergolinae, namely Amnosia + (Pseudergolis + (Stibochiona + Dichorragia)). We then mapped three morphological characters (spot of anal angle, eyespots, and process from outer margin of hind wing) onto the phylogenetic tree constructed by ML analysis using the combined sequence data. Based on this the evolutionary patterns of these morphological characters were identified, they indicated that the three characters evolved repeatedly in the family Nymphalidae.

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Tong Jiang, Gui-Yun Hong, Miao Yu, Na Li, Ying Yang, Yan-Qun Liu, Zhao-Jun Wei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031, indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2. Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN and trnS2(UCN. Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii formed a group.

  9. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  10. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  11. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  12. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  13. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  14. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. PMID:27375294

  15. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Antheraea pernyi strain 731 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, An-Quan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Antheraea pernyi strain 731 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is determined for the first time. It is a circular molecule of 15,570 bp in length, with 37 typical coding genes and one non-coding A T-rich region. Its gene order and content are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1 gene, which begins with TTAG codon. Nine genes used standard complete termination codon TAA, whereas the cox1, cox2, nad3, and nad5 genes end with single T. All tRNAs display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. Additionally, the non-coding AT-rich region is 553 bp long, located between rrnS and trnM genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the other lepidopterons. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Antheraea pernyi 731 was close to Saturniidae. PMID:25939049

  17. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  18. Foraging strategies in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) on Lepidoptera in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Longru; FENG Jiang; SUN Keping; LIU Ying; WU Lei; LI Zhenxin; ZHANG Xichen

    2005-01-01

    The diet of the bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was studied at the Zhi'an Village of Ji'an City in China, from June to August 2004. The bats were trained in a laboratory (volume: 9×4×4 m3). Foraging strategies of the bat were ob- served at night and prey remains were collected and identi- fied. The results showed that the diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera in summer, including 11 families, more than 30 species of moths, such as Noctuidae (36.6% by number), Sphingidae (24.1%), Geometridae (13.4%) and Limacodidae (9.5%). The length of culled wings ranged from 10―40 mm (97.7%). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the bat R. ferrumequinum foraged their prey selectively, but not op- portunistically. From field studies, two ways were observed in which the bats retrieved their prey including aerial hawk- ing during peak active period of the insects and flycatching during the insects' non-peak activity period. The bats never gleaned prey from the ground, though they appeared to be well able to detect fluttering moths on the ground.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families. PMID:26329289

  20. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cotton Leaf Roller Haritalodes derogata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Bai, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    Haritalodes derogata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been recorded as an important pest of cotton in many countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cotton Leaf Roller Haritalodes derogata is determined, which is 15,253 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KC515397) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of H. derogata mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. In addition, five of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codons, a single T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN). Like other lepidopteran mtgenomes, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 329 bp and an A + T content of 96%, which is the most AT-rich region and habors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 14-bp poly-T stretch. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support a sister-group relationship: Pyraustinae + (Spilomelinae + (Acentropina (Crambine + Schoenobiine))). PMID:26152351

  2. Consequences of exotic host use: impacts on Lepidoptera and a test of the ecological trap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Su'ad; Read, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the effects of invasive species on native biodiversity is one of the most pressing challenges in ecology. Our goal in this study was to quantify the effects of invasive plants on butterfly and moth communities. In addition, we sought to elucidate the fitness consequences of non-native hosts on lepidopterans. We conducted a meta-analysis on a total of 76 studies which provided data on larval performance, survival, oviposition preference, abundance, and species richness of Lepidoptera on native and exotic plants. Overwhelmingly, we found that performance and survival were reduced for larvae developing on exotic hosts, relative to native hosts. At the community level, alien plant invasion was associated with a reduction in the overall abundance and richness of lepidopteran communities. We found that lepidopterans did not show strong oviposition preference for native hosts. This result suggests that many invasive plant species may decrease lepidopteran abundance by providing a target for oviposition where larvae have a relatively poor chance of survival. Among studies that tested both survival and preference on exotic hosts, 37.5 % found evidence for novel hosts that could function as ecological traps (the figure was 18 % when considering studies that only assayed larval performance). Thus, although the majority of novel hosts included in our analyses are not likely to act as ecological traps, the potential clearly exists for this effect, and the role of ecological traps should be considered along with other aspects of global change impacting natural communities. PMID:26820566

  3. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD90 and LD99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  4. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae. PMID:26061339

  6. Adaptation of an artificial diet for Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) laboratory rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)

  7. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  10. Temperature-dependent development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on two brassicaceous host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI GOLIZADEH; KARIM KAMALI; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; HABIB ABBASIPOUR

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of the Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was evaluated at eight constant temperatures (10, 15,20, 25, 28, 30, 32.5 and 35℃), with relative humidity of 65% and a photoperiod of 14:10(L: D) hours on two host plants, cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and cabbage,Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The low temperature threshold was estimated to be 7.06℃and 7.84℃ and the thermal constant was 263.74 and 261.58 degree-days for P. xylostella on cauliflower and cabbage, respectively, using the linear model. Data were fitted to various nonlinear temperature-dependent models, and the low and high temperature thresholds, as well as the optimum temperature for development, has been estimated. Criteria of choice from the literature were used to evaluate models and to select the most suitable equation for P. xylostella development on each host plant. Conclusively, linear and Briere-2 models are recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of P. xylostella on two host plants.

  11. Damage to Miconia calvescens and seasonal abundance of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Castillo, Alexander; Johnson, M Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The success of M. calvescens as an invasive species is greatly owing to its shade tolerance and the shaded habitat it creates, where many native plant species that are light-demanding cannot survive. Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a neotropical leaf roller attacking M. calvescens, was evaluated for two mechanisms by which it reduces leaf area of its host plant: feeding (defoliation), which removes leaf tissue, and tying leaf rolls, which reduces exposed area of leaves. These impacts were quantified over a 1-yr period at a field site in Costa Rica, where densities of S. lotanalis larvae attacking M. calvescens peaked at the end of the rainy season and declined in the dry season. Up to 47.5% of leaves were attacked by S. lotanalis, with cumulative defoliation by an undetermined number of larvae removing an average of ≍30% (253 cm(2)) of each leaf attacked. Defoliation and leaf rolling were compared in a greenhouse experiment in which individual S. lotanalis larvae defoliated an average of 3.7% (17.8 cm(2)) of each attacked leaf, and reduced exposed leaf area as a result of leaf rolling by an average of 12.8% (66.2 cm(2)). Our results complement the findings of previous studies of S. lotanalis and confirm its potential as a biological control agent of M. calvescens. PMID:25182612

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Liu; Yuping Li; Minhui Pan; Fangyin Dai; Xuwei Zhu; Cheng Lu; Zhonghuai Xiang

    2008-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome from Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The 15,566 bp circular genome contains a typical gene organization and order for lepidopteran mitogenomes.The mitogenome contains the lowest A+T content (80.16%)among the lnown lepidopteran mitogenome sequences.An unusual feature is the occurrence of more Ts than As,with a slightly negative AT skewness(-0.021),in the composition of the major genome strand.All protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons,except for cytochrome oxidase subunit I,which is proposed by the TTAG sequence as observed in other lepidopterans.All transfer RNAs(tRNAs)have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA,except for tRNASer(AGN),the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure.Two aligned sequence blocks with a length of more than 50 bp and 90% of the sequence identity were identified in the A+T-rich region of the Saturniidae and Bombycoidae species.

  13. Adaptation of an artificial diet for Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) laboratory rearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaresco, Alvimar [EPAGRI, Estacao Experimetal de Canoinhas, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: bavaresco@epagri.rct-sc.br; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Ringenberg, Rudiney; Foresti, Josemar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2004-03-15

    The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)

  14. Geographic variation in photoperiodic diapause induction and diapause intensity in Sericinus montelus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiu-Sheng Yang; Peter Dalin; Xing-Miao Zhou; Zhi-Wen Luo; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risk of extinction and ornamental value of the swallowtail butterfly,Sericinus montelus Gray (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae) in China,knowledge about local adaptations is important for the conservation and economical utilization of the species.In the present study,photoperiodic diapause induction and diapause intensity of S.montelus populations from Jiamusi (46°37′N),Beijing (40°15′N),Zibo (36°48′N),Fangxian (32°36′N),Wuhan (30°33′N) and Huaihua (27°33′N) were characterized at 25℃.Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant population × hours of light interaction,confirming that photoperiodic responses varied among populations.The critical photoperiod was positively correlated with latitude and increased toward the north at a rate of about 1 h for each 6.67 degrees of latitude.Survival analyses indicated that survival time of diapausing pupae before adult eclosion differed significantly among populations at 25℃ and 16:8L:D h.The mean duration of pupal diapause was also positively correlated with latitude.Our study reveals geographic variation in the critical photoperiod for diapause induction and in diapause intensity of S.montelus.These results provide useful information for our general understanding about seasonal adaptation in insects and may also be used to predict how geographic populations respond to climate warming.

  15. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings.

  16. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  17. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

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    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  18. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  19. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  20. Contribution of the maxillary muscles to proboscis movement in hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)--an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenmacher, G; Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2003-08-01

    The role of the maxillary muscles in the uncoiling and coiling movements of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) has been examined by electromyogram recordings, combined with video analysis. The maxillary muscles of adult Lepidoptera can be divided into two groups, galeal and stipital muscles. The galea contains two basal muscles and two series of oblique longitudinal muscles, which run through the entire length of the galea. Three muscles insert on the stipes, taking their origin on the tentorium and on parts of the cranium and gena, respectively. Proboscis extension is initiated by an elevation of the galea base caused by the basal galeal muscles. The actual uncoiling of the proboscis spiral is accompanied by rapid compressions of the stipites which are caused by two of the stipital muscles. The study provides strong support for the hypothesis that uncoiling is brought about by an increase of hemolymph pressure by the stipites forcing hemolymph into the galeae. Recoiling is caused by the contraction of both sets of oblique longitudinal galeal muscles supported by elasticity of the galea cuticle. Finally, the remaining stipital muscle pulls down the galea base which brings the coiled proboscis back to its resting position where it is held in the U-shaped groove of the labium without further muscle activity. PMID:12880657

  1. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  2. Leaf consumption and duration of instars of the cassava defoliator Erinnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate leaf consumption and the developmental time of the larvae of Erynnyis ello (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae reared on cassava, in order to obtain information for the integrated management of this pest. The larvae were reared on excised cassava leaves in Petri dishes and later in gerbox, and kept in chambers at 24 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 10% RH. The total leaf area consumed by the larva to complete its development was 589.67 cm²; each of the five instars consumed, respectively: 1.89 cm²; 5.74 cm²; 17.48 cm²; 76.66 cm²; and 487.90 cm². The consumption by the first three instars was insignificant, and did not reach 5% altogether; the 4th represented 13%; the 5th presented a consumption significantly higher, about 82.7%. The total time for the larval development was 22.61 days, and the duration for each of the five larval instar was, respectively: 4.35; 3.19; 3.32; 4.52; and 4.94 days. The pre-pupal period lasted 2.29 days. Since the highest consumption is by the 5th instar larva, the control should be applied before this age to avoid heavier damages to the cassava crop.

  3. Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Rodrigues, Jose C V; Childers, Carl C

    2005-01-01

    The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), two important pest mites on Florida citrus. OBW was also observed to feed on the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and on a fungus (Penicillium sp.). OBW fed on orange and grapefruit leaves by starting from the border and eating part of the leaf, by chewing holes, or consuming the outer epithelium of either the axial or abaxial surface of the leaf without penetrating through the leaf. OBW was observed in orange orchards in association with fruit extensively russeted by P. oleivora feeding. Laboratory assays revealed that OBW larvae preferred to feed on oranges infested with P. oleivora rather than on clean fruits that were free of mite feeding damage. Feeding damage to citrus fruit by OBW larvae results in one to several holes being eaten into the rind or albedo, without damage to the fruit sacs. PMID:16082926

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

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    Ming-Long Yuan

    Full Text Available Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time.

  5. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  6. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  7. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  8. Developing a systems approach for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on 'Hass' avocado in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

    2010-08-01

    Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is pest of the avocado, Persea americana (Mill.) (Lauraceae), in South Africa and is regarded as a phytosanitary threat. The objective of this study was to develop a systems approach for T. leucotreta on 'Hass' avocado that will mitigate the pest risk. T. leucotreta males were monitored with pheromone traps, and numbers declined during the winter. Field studies indicated that most of eggs were laid during January in the Deerpark area, and during harvest, only 0.029 lesions produced live larvae. Survival of larvae in fruit infested on the tree and left to develop after harvest varied and depended on the time of infestation before harvest. Fruit firmness was measured and fifth instars were only present in soft fruit. Fenpropathrin and a granulovirus were effective in reducing the infestation levels. Bags used to cover fruit also reduced infestation levels. Lesions caused by T. leucotreta were visible from two weeks after infestation and fruit with lesions can be sorted. The mean infestation rate per orchard was 0.003 lesions per fruit which makes T. leucotreta on Hass amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach and maximum pest limit. In the case of T. leucotreta on Hass, poor host status, production, preharvest and postharvest measures were studied and low infestation levels were observed; all these elements would make a systems approach an option. Furthermore, inspection and certification as well as shipping and distribution measures could be added.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  10. Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae: identificación basada en DNA-barcoding y notas morfológicas e historia de vida de los estados inmaduros

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    Rosa A. Ramos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae: identification based on DNA-barcoding and notes on the morphology and life history of the immature stages. The larva morphology of the species Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae, a Nothofagus obliqua leafminer in Chile, is described. The tissue-feeding first and last instars are described. Also, the number of larval stages, some aspects of the biology and life cycle of the species are provided.

  11. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  12. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão-Silva, C W; Andrade, M S; Ardisson-Araújo, D M P; Fernandes, J E A; Morgado, F S; Báo, S N; Moraes, R H P; Wolff, J L C; Melo, F L; Ribeiro, B M

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  13. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  14. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

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    Laura Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths. Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria, with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  15. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

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    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs

  17. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F1) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  18. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management. PMID:26803817

  19. Testing DNA Barcode Performance in 1000 Species of European Lepidoptera: Large Geographic Distances Have Small Genetic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections. PMID:25541991

  20. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Huemer

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%, while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  1. Diversity, Ecology and Herbivory of Hairstreak Butterflies (Theclinae) Associated with the Velvet Tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes-Péérez, F. R.; Alfaro-Alpíízar, M. A.; Johnson, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. Erora opisena (Druce), Parrhasius polibetes (Cramer), and Temecla paron (Godman and Salvin) were studied in association with M. calvescens, an uncommon tree in its natural range in the neotropics and a target for biocontrol as...

  2. Effects of croton urucurana extracts and crude resin on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barboza Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of plant species have been studied in order to find out the active ingredient responsible for their insecticidal activity against the pests of economic importance. To verify the insecticidal activity in the husk of stem of Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, the methanolic (EMeOH extract, dichloromethane fraction (FDM, ethyl acetate fraction (FAE and crude resin, incorporated into an artificial diet were evaluated. EMeOH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% and crude resin (2.0% interfered with neither the weight nor the survival of fourth instar larvae and other analyzed parameters. FDM (2.0% fraction caused mortality of 65%, and the artificial diet containing 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5% FAE caused 100, 55 and 68% mortality respectively when compared with the control, confirming the least efficiency rates of food conversion for FDM(2.0% and FAE(1.0%. The tryptic analysis performed with the midgut fluid of fourth-instar larvae demonstrated that tryptic and chymiotryptic activities for the larvae fed artificial diet containing EMeOH and crude resin were not different.Atualmente centenas de plantas são investigadas para se conhecer os princípios ativos responsáveis pela atividade inseticida contra as diversas pragas de importância econômica. Com o objetivo de verificar a atividade inseticida das cascas do caule de Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae em relação a Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, avaliou-se o extrato metanólico (EMeOH, fração diclorometano (FDM, a fração acetato de etila (FAE e a resina in natura, os quais foram adicionados à dieta artificial. O EMeOH (0,5, 1,0 e 20,% e a resina in natura (2,0%, não interferiram no peso, sobrevivência das larvas de 4ª ínstar, bem como nos demais parâmetros analisados. A fração FDM (2,0% causou mortalidade de 65%, e a dieta artificial contendo 2,0, 1,0, e 0,5% de FAE causou 100, 55 e 68% de

  3. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  4. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. PMID:10843835

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  6. Effects of Temperature on Development and Survival of Orthopygia glaucinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Reared on Platycarya strobilacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Mao-Fa; Hu, Ji-Feng; Han, Chang

    2015-04-01

    The larvae of Orthopygia glaucinalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are used to produce insect tea in Guizhou, China. We investigated the development and survival of O. glaucinalis reared on dried leaves of Platycarya strobilacea under laboratory conditions at 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, and 37°C. The duration of development from egg deposition to adult emergence decreased significantly with increasing temperature from 19 to 31°C, whereas the duration of egg and overall development significantly increased at 34°C. Based on the extreme-value distribution function, the optimal temperature for survival of overall development was 24.89°C, and the larval stage was most susceptible to temperature extremes. The common linear model and the Ikemoto and Takai linear model were used to determine the relationship between temperature and the developmental rate, and estimated the low-temperature threshold (11.44 and 11.62°C, respectively) and the threshold constant (1220.70 and 1203.58 degree-days, respectively) of O. glaucinalis. Nonlinear models were used to assess in fitting the experiment data and to estimate the high temperature thresholds (34.00 to 39.08°C) and optimal temperatures (31.61 to 33.45°C). An intrinsic optimal temperature of 24.18°C was estimated for overall development using the Sharpe-Schoolfield-Ikemoto (SSI) model. Model-averaged parameter estimates and the unconditional standard error were also estimated for the temperature thresholds. Based on the biological parameters and model selection, we concluded that common linear, Lactin-1, and SSI models performed better for predicting the temperature-dependent development of O. glaucinalis. Our findings enable breeders to optimize the developmental rate of O. glaucinalis and improve the yield of insect tea. PMID:26470161

  7. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  8. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  9. INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Beyza; Altuntaş, Hülya; Nurullahoğlu, Z Ulya

    2015-07-01

    The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis. PMID:25777183

  10. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:25183343

  11. Estimating temperature-dependent developmental rates of potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Golizadeh; Myron P.Zalucki

    2012-01-01

    The potato tuberworm,Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae),is the most destructive pest of potato,Solanum tuberosum L.(Solanaceae),in tropical and subtropical regions in both field and storeroom situations.The modeling of temperature-dependent development can be useful in forecasting occurrence and population dynamics of the pests.Published developmental parameters for this pest vary greatly for many reasons.We determined temperature-dependent development of P.operculella at seven constant temperatures (16,20,24,28,32,34 and 36℃).Developmental period of whole immature stage (egg to the end of the pupal stage) varied from 75.5 days at 16℃ to 17 days at 32℃.The population failed to survive at 36℃.The observed data was modeled to determine mathematical functions for simulating P.operculella development in each stage of development and overall.Two linear models,ordinary linear regression and the Ikemoto linear model were used to describe the relationship between temperature and development rate of the different stages of P.operculella and estimating the thermal constant and lower temperature threshold.The lower temperature threshold (t) and thermal constant (k) of whole immature stage were estimated to be 11.6℃ and 338.5 DD by Ikemoto linear model,and the estimated parameters were not substantially different with those estimated by ordinary linear models.Different models provided a better fit to the various developmental stages.Of the eleven nonlinear models fitted,the Beriere-1,Logan-6 and Lactin-1 model was found to be the best for modeling development rate of egg,larva and pupa of P operculella,respectively.Phenological models based on these findings can be part of a decision-support tool to improve the efficiency of pest management programs.

  12. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  13. That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    2006-10-01

    The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae: evidence from five nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Y Kawahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World

  15. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  16. Biology of Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Wang, Xingeng; Duerr, Sean S; Kuhn, Emily J; Son, Youngsoo; Yokota, Glenn Y

    2013-02-01

    Habrobracon gelechiae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was studied as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards. Ovipositional behavior, adult longevity and fecundity, and the effects of temperature on developmental time and survival were determined. Habrobracon gelechiae develops as a gregarious, ectoparasitic idiobiont on late-instar C. rosaceana larvae. At 25°C, adult female wasps survived longer when provided honey and water (35.4 ± 4.9 d) or honey, water, and host larvae (34.4 ± 2.4 d) than when provided water (8.9 ± 1.1 d) or no food (5.9 ± 0.8 d). Over the adult lifespan, females parasitized 20.6 ± 2.1 hosts and deposited 228.8 ± 24.6 eggs. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.24, the mean generation time was 18.15 d, and the double time 2.88 d. At constant temperatures, H. gelechiae successfully developed (egg to adult) from 15 to 35 °C. The developmental rate was fit to a nonlinear model, providing estimates of the parasitoid's lower (10.5 °C), upper (36.0 °C), and optimal (33.3 °C) development temperatures. Based on a linear model, 155 degree days were estimated for egg to adult eclosion. Temperature-dependent nonlinear model of survival showed similar shape with the model of development rate. The wasp developed under two diurnal temperature regimes, with 31.0 ± 13.3% survival at low (4-15 °C) and 63.0 ± 11.4% survival at high (15-35 °C) temperature regimes. The results are discussed with respect to H. gelechiae potential as a parasitoid of C. rosaceana in California's San Joaquin Valley. PMID:23339791

  17. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  18. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24–48 h old), the larval (4–5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 197.8 Gy for egg. • ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 189.6 Gy for larva

  20. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  1. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of noxious lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain lepidopterous insects, partially sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. This phenomenon is known as inherited sterility and offers considerable advantages for suppression and eradication over conventional sterile insect methods. This phenomenon has been observed in numerous pests, including Heliothis zea, Galleria mellonella, Ephestia cautella, Plodia interpunctella, Spodoptera frugiperda, Trichoplusia ni and Lymantria dispar. Key findings that have advanced development of this technique are reviewed. Comparisons of several sterile insect methods are presented by means of simulation models. Recent research on gypsy moth has revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when male pupae are administered 10 krad of radiation. The F1 sex ratio is two males to one female and those adults are completely sterile. Growth, development and behaviour of F1 individuals indicates that they are highly competitive with normal insects. A major operational impediment to using the sterile insect method for Lepidoptera involves the release of, typically, rather large and fragile moths or pupae. This situation has been circumvented in the gypsy moth programme by releasing the normal females in the laboratory, and the resultant F1 egg masses are collected and stockpiled for subsequent release into target infestations. These egg masses can be stored, are easily released from aircraft and, upon hatching, are 'implanted' into the target fertile population. This approach vastly simplifies the release of sterile insects. Field tests of the technique in isolated infestations of gypsy moths have indicated that the technique has promise and several eradication attempts have been successful. However, these studies have also identified a number of research imperatives, which are discussed. (author). 40 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Fitness costs limit the development of resistance to indoxacarb and deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Ali H; Ahmad, Munir; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County, MS, was resistant to spinosad, indoxacarb, and deltamethrin and whether any such resistance was associated with fitness costs. Bioassays results showed that the insecticides were equally toxic to the field population. Upon laboratory selection (generations [G]3 to G8), the resistance ratio increased only 2-, 3-, and 1-fold for spinosad, deltamethrin, and indoxacarb, respectively, compared with the field population. In contrast, the resistance ratios increased 213-, 65-, and 55-fold compared with an unselected population at G9. The estimated realized heritability (h2) after six generations of selection was 0.17, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively, and the number of generations required for 10-fold increase in LC50 of Spino-SEL, Indoxa-SEL, and Delta-SEL was estimated to be 14.3, 50, and 14.3. Comparison of life traits between the selected and unselected populations revealed that the selected populations laid a significantly lower number of eggs and that a lower percentage of eggs hatched. This also was reflected in both the net replacement rate and the intrinsic rate of population increase, which were both lower for the selected populations. It also was observed that the mean relative growth rate of the larvae was lower for the selected populations; not only did the larvae take longer to pupate but the mean weight of the prepupae from the selected populations was lower. Our data suggest that due to fitness costs the development of resistance to the insecticides was limited such that after six generations of selection the larvae were no less susceptible to the insecticides than the field population although were

  3. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margam, Venu M; Coates, Brad S; Hellmich, Richard L; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Covas, Fernando G; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  4. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  5. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  6. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  7. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  8. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  9. Contrasting responses to desiccation and starvation by eggs and neonates of two lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, H A; Singer, M S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of desiccation on eggs and first-instar larvae of two species of Lepidoptera, Grammia geneura (Arctiidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Grammia geneura occurs primarily in grasslands and savannas of the southwestern United States; M. sexta co-occurs with G. geneura but also is cosmopolitan across much of the Western Hemisphere. Eggs of G. geneura exposed to 0% relative humidity (RH) lost water much less rapidly (7.6 microg d(-1); 2.4% d(-1)) than did eggs of M. sexta (79.5 microg d(-1); 5.7% d(-1)). Eggs of both species survived at rates exceeding 75% at both 0% and 85% RH. Neonates of the two species responded differently to desiccation and starvation. In 85% RH, larval G. geneura survived at high rates (>80%) without access to food or water up to day 17, and in 0% RH, they survived at rates exceeding 50% through the first 10 d. Larvae at 0% RH lost mass very slowly (7.2 microg d(-1); 2.9% d(-1)), which was attributable both to low rates of water loss and to an ability to reduce metabolic rate to low levels. Larval M. sexta, in contrast, had rates of mortality that were much higher: after 1 d, fewer than 30% were alive in either group, and by about 1.5 d, all were dead. Neonate M. sexta also lost mass much more rapidly at 0% RH, about 329 microg d(-1). Water from metabolism appeared to contribute significantly to the water budget of G. geneura but not of M. sexta. These data show that G. geneura and M. sexta can inhabit similar macroclimates via remarkably different physiologies. PMID:11436144

  10. A molecular phylogeny of the hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Macroglossinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Kitching, Ian J; Wink, Michael

    2005-05-01

    The hawkmoth genus Hyles is one of 15 genera in the subtribe Choerocampina of the subfamily Macroglossinae. Due to a remarkable uniformity, morphological characters usually used to identify and classify Lepidoptera at the species level cannot be used in this genus. Instead, we used DNA sequences comprising about 2300 bp derived from the mitochondrial genes COX I, COX II, and tRNA-leucine to elucidate the phylogeny of Hyles. The results corroborate the monophyly of Hyles but conflict with previous internal classifications of the genus based on morphology. Hyles seems to have evolved in the Neotropics during the Oligocene/Eocene epochs and the molecular data (which evolved clock-like) confirm the hypothesis that it is a very young genus that radiated on a global scale rather quickly. We hypothesize its sister group to be one of the genera Deilephila, Theretra or Xylophanes. The Nearctic may have been colonized rapidly by Hyles once the land bridge formed during the Pliocene, since within this same Epoch, the invasion of the Palaearctic appears to have proceeded from the East, via the Bering route. The colonization of Australia appears to have occurred rather early in Hyles radiation, although the route is not clear. We propose that the radiation of the Hyles euphorbiae-complex s. str. (HEC) occurred as recently as the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary and that its roots can still be reconstructed in Asia. Hyles dahlii is closely related to the HEC, but a sister group relationship to the HEC s. str. cannot be corroborated unequivocally. HEC population ranges appear to have tracked climate oscillations during the Pleistocene Ice Ages, resulting in hybridization around the Mediterranean Sea as they repeatedly intermingled. Comparison of the phylogeny with food plant affiliations leads us to hypothesize that Euphorbia monophagy evolved at least two times independently within Hyles. PMID:15804414

  11. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill. PMID:20857741

  12. História natural da mariposa Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae Natural history of the moth Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Morais

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Chlamydastis Meyrick, 1916 (Elachistidae, Stenomatinae possui 82 espécies descritas da região Neotropical. Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick, 1915 tem local tipo o Estado de Amazonas, Brasil. No cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, as lagartas de C. smodicopa são folívoras externas restritas à planta hospedeira Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart. (Styracaceae. De junho de 2000 a junho de 2001, foram vistoriados 243 indivíduos de S. ferrugineus, e encontradas 38 espécies de lagartas de Lepidoptera em 26% das plantas examinadas. C. smodicopa foi a espécie mais comum em S. ferrugineus mas, apesar disso, ocorreu somente em 7% das plantas. As lagartas apresentam no último ínstar cabeça castanho escuro, placa protorácica marron com faixa amarela na sua margem anterior, tegumento cinza com faixas dorsais e subdorsais marron e amarela, e atingem 30 mm de comprimento. Lagartas são solitárias e constróem abrigos ovóides com duas folhas unidas com fios de seda e com as duas extremidades abertas: uma utilizada para alimentação e a outra para deposição de fezes. Um novo abrigo é construído, à medida que as lagartas crescem ou quando as folhas tornam-se senescentes. No último instar a lagarta constrói um casulo no interior do abrigo foliar, onde ocorre o desenvolvimento da pupa que, em condições de laboratório, teve uma média de 18 dias. As lagartas tiveram a maior freqüência de agosto a setembro, no final da estação seca no cerrado.The genus Chlamydastis Meyrick, 1916 (Elachistidae, Stenomatinae contains 82 described species from Neotropical region, including Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick, 1915, with the local type in Amazonas State, Brazil. In the cerrado (savanna woodland area of Brasilia, Federal District, their larvae are external folivorous and restricted to the host plant Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart. (Styracaceae. Over the study period from June 2000 to June 2001, we inspected 243 S. ferrugineus individuals

  13. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Diana D. Pérez; José Iannacone O

    2008-01-01

    Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae), Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae), Oreja de Tigre (Tra...

  14. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  15. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  16. Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

  17. Ovicidal effect of some insecticides on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae Efecto ovicida de algunos insecticidas sobre la polilla del repollo, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

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    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae, is a serious threat to Brassica vegetables in Iran, including Tehran province. The ovicidal effects of different classes of insecticides on P. xylostella were investigated, using three fixed doses (based on commercial formulations. At the lowest concentration (500 mg L-1, the mortality effect of hexaflumuron and pyridalyl was higher than the other insecticides examined. Fipronil, hexaflumuron and spinosad and pyridalyl, however, showed high toxic effects at the median dose (1000 mg L-1. On the other hand, at high concentration (2000 mg L-1, all insecticides except lufenuron and indoxacarb (EC formulation caused more than 85% mortality. Overall, these findings indicate that hexaflumuron, spinosad and fipronil, with low active ingredients and high mortality, could be the best choices for controlling the P. xylostella in the egg stage.La polilla del repollo, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae, es un serio riesgo para especies Brassica en Irán, incluyendo la provincia de Teherán. Se investigó el efecto ovicida de algunos insecticidas pertenecientes a diferentes clases de P. xylostella usando tres dosis (basadas en formulaciones comerciales. A la menor concentración (500 mg L-1 el efecto de mortalidad de hexaflumuron y piridalil fue mayor que las otras dosis examinadas. Fipronil, hexaflumuron spinosad y piridalil, sin embargo, mostraron fuertes efectos tóxicos a la dosis media (1000 mg L-1. Por otra parte, a alta concentración (2000 mg L-1 todos los insecticidas excepto lufenuron e indoxacarb (formulación EC causaron más de 85% mortalidad. Finalmente, estos hallazgos indican que hexaflumuron, spinosad y fipronil con baja concentración de ingredientes activos y alta mortalidad pueden ser la mejor elección para controlar P. xylostella en el estado de huevo.

  18. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay

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    Sergio D. Ríos Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  19. Effects of sex, host-plant deprivation and presence of conspecific immatures on the cannibalistic behavior of wild Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera, Pieridae

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    Alessandra F. K. Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sex, host-plant deprivation and presence of conspecific immatures on the cannibalistic behavior of wild Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera, Pieridae. The specialist cabbage caterpillar Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae feeds on plants of the Brassicaceae family, but may eventually ingest conspecific eggs and larvae during the larval stage. The present study examines feeding behavior of 4th and 5th instar cabbage caterpillars in relation to sex, host-plant deprivation and presence of conspecifics. We recorded number of egg ingested per larvae, developmental indices and duration of feeding, exploratory and resting behavior. Kale deprived caterpillars presented high rates of cannibalism, development delay and decreased fecundity. Cannibalism rates were not influenced by the sex of the larvae. In general, the presence of conspecific eggs did not interfere with the frequency and duration of the categorical behavioral events. We conclude that food availability is a strong factor influencing the extent to which A. monuste orseis caterpillars cannibalize.

  20. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca(Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Hernández-Lambrao; Karina; Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus; Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils(EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon iiardus,Cymbopogon Jlexuosus and Cvrnbopogon marlinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae,common pests in the oil palm.Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa(Lepidoptera:I.imacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm~3 and 0.002-8 μL/g,respectively.Results:All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae.Cymbopogon marlinii oil was llie most active againsl both pest insect species,although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic;repellent IR535 on both insects.Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  1. 雾灵山自然保护区鳞翅目昆虫调查研究%Investigation of Order Lepidoptera Insects in Wulingshan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛浩; 梁文琴

    2012-01-01

    The species and composition of lepidoptera insects in Wulingshan National Nature Reserve were investigated and their catalogue was coded. The results showed that there were 25 families, 237 genus and 346 species of lepidoptera insects in Wulingshan,the noctuidae, notodontidae, geometridae and sphingidae in moths was the most, and the nympalidae in butterflies was the most.%调查了雾灵山自然保护区鳞翅目昆虫的种类组成并编制了昆虫名录.结果显示,该区共有鳞翅目昆虫25科237属346种,其中蛾类中夜蛾科、舟蛾科、尺蛾科和天蛾科较多,蝶类中蛱蝶科最多.

  2. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Hernández-Lambraño; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm. Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively. Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects. Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  3. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883 (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini

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    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883, previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  4. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Metzler; Gregory Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  6. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evaldo Pires; Clovis Manica; Roberta Nogueira; Jeandson Carneiro; William Rodrigues; Marcus Soares

    2014-01-01

    Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. are plants species commonly used for medicinal and gastronomic purposes, respectively. Caterpillars of the Spodoptera genus are generalists due to the wide variety of plants species used as food souce. The aim of this research was record the occurrence of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and also record C. barbatus and O. basilicum as potencial host plants for this insect species. It is r...

  7. Updating risk management recommendations to limit exposure of non-target Lepidoptera of conservation concern in protected habitats to Bt-maize pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; Patrick du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe; Tebbe, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Using mathematical modelling, the EFSA GMO Panel has previously quantified the risk to non-target (NT) Lepidoptera of conservation concern, potentially occurring within protected habitats, associated with the ingestion of Bt-maize pollen deposited on their host plants. To reduce the estimated larval mortality to a negligible level, an isolation distance of 20 and 30 m was recommended between protected habitats and the nearest fields of maize MON 810/Bt11 and 1507, respectively. Here, the EFSA...

  8. Invastigation About Fauna and Distribution of Species Which Belong to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) Family in the Plateau Baskonus and Tekir (Kahramanmaras Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Boylu, Ökkeş Akın; Bahadıroğlu, Cengiz; BOZDOĞAN, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was materialized in the years 2009-2010, the species belonging to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) family, their fauna and distribution have been examined, in total 8 genera and 11 species Gonepteryx cleopatra,( Linnaeus, 1767), Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus 1758 ), Colias crocea (Fourcroy 1785), Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus 1758), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus 1758), Pontia edusa (Fabricius 1777), Euchloe ausonia, (Hübner 1804), Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758), Anthocharis cardamines (Linn...

  9. The Parasitoid Complex of the Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey and Their Role in Biological Control

    OpenAIRE

    ELEKÇİOĞLU, Naime Zülal; UYGUN, Nedim

    2006-01-01

    A survey of parasitoids of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was carried out in the citrus orchards in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey during 1995-2001. Their relative abundance and rate of parasitism were also determined. Ten species of parasitoids were identified: Cirrospilus sp. nr. lyncus (Walker), C. pictus (Nees), C. variegatus (Masi), C. vittatus Walker, C. ingenuus Gahan, Ratzeburgiola incompleta (Boucek), Diglyphus isaea (Wal...

  10. Tree-derived stimuli affecting host-selection response of larva and adult peach twig borers, Anarsia Lineatella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney, Mark Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Volatiles from ripening peach fruit reportedly mediate host-finding by adult peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, moths were repelled by in-situ ripe peach fruits, and by a blend of 22 synthetic volatiles associated with ripe peach fruits. In laboratory experiments, females preferred hairy and creviced surfaces over glabrous surfaces as oviposition sites. Volatiles from almond and peach shoots induced oviposition, as did volatiles from immature, green mat...

  11. The adult population dynamics of the Carob moth[Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in citrus orchards in Adana and Mersin provinces

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Naim; ÖLÇÜLÜ, Murat; ULUSOY, M. Rıfat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period including 2009-2010 years on citrus varieties on cv. Washington in orchards settled in the plains of Adana (Yüreğir, Kozan) and Mersin (Tarsus) provinces. It is aimed to determine the first adult emergence time, adult population fluctuations and the highest population periods and the adults activation time of the Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] . The result indicated that even the adult ofE. ceratoniae ...

  12. The adult population dynamics of the Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell., 1839 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in pomegranate orchards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Naim; Ulusoy, M. Rifat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in pomegranate orchards in the plains of Adana, Mersin and Osmaniye, the provinces of The East Mediterranean Region in 2008-2009. In this study, some criteria for the management strategy against Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell., 1839 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)], such as the first adult emergence, adult population dynamics, the periods the highest population densities and the determination of the duration when the adults are active were aimed. The adult populat...

  13. The adult population dynamics of the Honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in citrus orchards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Naim; ULUSOY, M. Rifat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out at citrus orchards in Adana, Mersin and Osmaniye provinces of the Eastern Mediterranean Region in 2008–2009. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the status of Honeydew moth [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in the region by determining some criteria that are essential for the control of the pest such as trap hanging time, the emergence time of adults, adult population dynamics, peak times of population, the period for adults to be...

  14. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of five noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on São Miguel - Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis ipsilon (HÜFNAGEL), Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba LINNAEUS, Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER) and Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) were studied between July of 1988 and December of 1989, at Ribeira Grande, Arribanas and Lagoa do Congro on the island of São Miguel, using Pennsylvania blacklight traps. While there was evidence of considerable fluctuations in density, A. ipsilon, A. segetum, P. saucia and X c-nigrum ...

  15. An annotated list of Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Ribeiro Leite, Luis Anderson; Silva Dias, Fernando Maia; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    We provide an illustrated list of species belonging to the genus Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) collected during an expedition conducted between September 10-21, 2011 in the northern part of the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, a remote region of Amazon rainforest. A total of 46 individuals were collected belonging to 15 species. For all recorded species, drawings of male genitalia and behavioral information are provided to support future stu...

  16. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  17. Observations on the biology and distribution of Uresiphita reversalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, a defoliator of the native tree Calia secundiflora in México

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    Ignacio P. Chávez-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the biology and distribution of Uresiphita reversalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, a defoliator of the native tree Calia secundiflora in México. Uresiphita reversalis (Guenée, 1854 feeding on Calia secundiflora (Ortega Yakovlev is recorded for the first time in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. New aspects regarding the life cycle, feeding behaviour, geographical distribution and host plant damage by U. reversalis on C. secundiflora are here presented and discussed.

  18. Distribución de las mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea) del Estado de México, México

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Hernández-Mejía; Isabel Vargas-Fernández; Armando Luis-Martínez; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico. The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15 % of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17 % of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Mus...

  19. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  20. Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00, a new strain isolated from gut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produces chymotrypsin-like proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Ashok A.; Shaikh, Faiyaz K.; Padul, Manohar V.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring bacterial communities with proteolytic activity from the gut of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insect pests was the purpose of this study. As initial efforts to achieve this goal here we report the isolation of new Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00 strain from the gut of H. armigera and demonstrated as proteases producer. Zymographic analysis revealed 12 proteolytic bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 20 to 185 kDa. Although some activity was ...

  1. Vegetation and Lepidoptera in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Community structure along climate zones, forest succession and seasonality in the Southern Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Essens, T.; Leyequien, E.; Pozo, C. (Cándido)

    2010-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are worldwide recognized as important ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. Increasing agricultural activities (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture) leads to a heterogeneous landscape matrix; and as ecological succession takes over in abandoned fields, plant and animal communities endure shifts in species richness and composition. This book presents the analysis on plant and Lepidoptera (caterpillar) communities and their species turnover along forest successi...

  2. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  3. First report and spore ultrastructure of Vairimorpha plodiae (Opisthokonta: Microspora) from Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Pınar Güngör, F; Gonca Güner, Beyza; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of Vairimorpha plodiae, a microsporidian pathogen of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Turkey. We present characteristic light and electron microscopical features of the spores. Fresh binucleate spores are oval and measure 4.48 ± 0.23 (4.01-4.84) µm in length and 2.21 ± 0.15 (1.91-2.48) µm in width. Ultrastructural studies showed that the spore wall measures 150 to 200 nm and consists of a clear endospore (125-150 nm) and an electron-dense, uniform, thin exospore (30-50 nm). The polar filament is isofilar and with 10-12 coils. The well-developed polaroplast consists of two parts with thin lamellae anteriorly and thick, irregularly arranged lamellae posteriorly. The identity of our isolate is discussed. PMID:27078645

  4. Red & black or black & white? Phylogeny of the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and evolution of seasonal polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fric, Z; Konvicka, M; Zrzavy, J

    2004-03-01

    Phylogeny of the butterfly genera Araschnia, Mynes, Symbrenthia and Brensymthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalini) is reconstructed, based on 140 morphological and ecological characters. The resulting tree shows that Araschnia is a sister group of the clade including Symbrenthia, Mynes and Brensymthia (Symbrenthia is paraphyletic in the respect of remaining genera; Symbrenthia hippalus is a derived species of Mynes). The species-level relationships within Araschnia are robustly supported as follows: (A. davidis (prorsoides ((zhangi doris) (dohertyi (levana burejana))))). Analysis of the wing colour-pattern characters linked with the seasonal polyphenism in the Araschnia species suggests that the black and white coloration of the long-day (summer) generation is apomorphic. Biogeographically, the origin of polyphenism in Araschnia predates the dispersal of some Araschnia species towards the Palaearctic temperate zone, and the ecological cause of the polyphenism itself is then probably not linked with thermoregulation. The possible mimetic/cryptic scenarios for the origin of Araschnia polyphenism are discussed.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the gut metagenome of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-12-01

    We present a 15,314 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence from monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. The complete mitogenome was generated by next generation sequencing techniques and was reconstructed by iterative assembly of reads from a metagenomic study of pooled butterfly gut DNA. The mitogenome codes for 13 putative protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, the large and small rRNA genes, and contains the A + T-rich sequence corresponding to the control region. The consensus sequence presented here has a depth of coverage of 142-fold and only three putative single nucleotide polymorphisms could be detected. The recovered D. plexippus mitogenome represents the second analyzed for the subfamily Danainae and accordingly, the closest available sequenced mitogenome was found to be the one corresponding to Euploea mulciber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae).

  6. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. The brain extract showed increasing dose-dependent effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and trypsin secretion in the larval midgut. The extract was further characterised and partially purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Several peptides were determined in the brain extract regulating hydrolase activities in the larval midgut of the pest.

  7. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  8. Data on phenology, parasitism and control of citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, in Greece

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    Veroniki Anagnou M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted to determine whether Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae has any preference in attacking either the upper or the lower surface of the leaves of citrus trees. This investigation took place during the year 1999 at Marathon (Attica, Central Greece while studying the dispersal of P. citrella on the leaves of three different types of citrus trees. Data on the overwintering and parasitism of P. citrella from different areas in Greece are also presented during the years 1999-2002. In addition, the effect of P. citrella infestation on imidacloprid-treated and untreated tangerine trees was comparatively studied. The parasitoids collected were Pnigalio sp. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cirrospilus sp. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae and Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan (Hym., Eulophidae.

  9. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed. PMID:22928314

  10. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly polymorphic in the corn-strain population and that produced four different haplotype subgroups. Comparisons of the frequency distribution of these haplotypes found no seasonal or plant host specificities, but they did demonstrate that the Brazil corn-strain population is different from corn-strain fall armyworm found in Florida. The development of a rapid means of distinguishing fall armyworm populations originating from Brazil versus Florida provides an opportunity for investigating and comparing the genetic complexity and long-range movements of this important agricultural pest.

  11. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  12. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  13. First report and spore ultrastructure of Vairimorpha plodiae (Opisthokonta: Microspora) from Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Pınar Güngör, F; Gonca Güner, Beyza; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of Vairimorpha plodiae, a microsporidian pathogen of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Turkey. We present characteristic light and electron microscopical features of the spores. Fresh binucleate spores are oval and measure 4.48 ± 0.23 (4.01-4.84) µm in length and 2.21 ± 0.15 (1.91-2.48) µm in width. Ultrastructural studies showed that the spore wall measures 150 to 200 nm and consists of a clear endospore (125-150 nm) and an electron-dense, uniform, thin exospore (30-50 nm). The polar filament is isofilar and with 10-12 coils. The well-developed polaroplast consists of two parts with thin lamellae anteriorly and thick, irregularly arranged lamellae posteriorly. The identity of our isolate is discussed.

  14. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  15. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

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    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  16. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella. PMID:27019124

  17. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Huan-Na Chai, Yu-Zhou Du, Bao-Ping Zhai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU arm of the trnS1(AGN gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA13' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on

  18. Cytological Attributes of Sperm Bundles Unique to F1 Progeny of Irradiated Male Lepidoptera: Relevance to Sterile Insect Technique Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited F1 sterility in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods provided advantages for the use of inherited sterility in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. Lepidopteran females generally can be completely sterilized at a dose of radiation that only partially sterilizes males of the same species. When these partially sterile males mate with fertile females, many of the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F1 generation. At the appropriate dose of radiation, egg hatch of females mated with irradiated males is reduced and the resulting (F1) offspring are both highly sterile and predominantly male. Lower doses of radiation used to induce F1 sterility increase the quality and competitiveness of there released insects. However, during a SIT program it is possible that traps used to monitor wild moth populations and overflooding ratios (marked released males vs unmarked wild males) may capture unmarked F1 sterile males that cannot be distinguished from wild fertile males. In this study we developed a cytological technique with orcein and Giemsa stains to distinguish adult F1 progeny of irradiated males and fertile males. Our observations on 6 pest species in 5 families of Lepidoptera indicate that F1 males (sterile) from irradiated fathers can be distinguished from fertile males by the nuclei cluster in the eupyrene sperm bundles. The nuclei cluster in the fertile males exhibited a regular and organized arrangement of the sperm and was homogeneously stained, whereas in F1 males the nuclei cluster of sperm was disorganized, irregular and unevenly stained. (author)

  19. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  20. Caracterización morfológica, biológica y genética de un aislamiento Colombiano de granulovirus de Erinnyis ello (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Patricia Barrera Cubillos; Juliana Gómez; Paola Cuartas; Guillermo León; Laura Fernanda Villamizar Rivero

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Caracterización morfológica, biológica y genética de un aislamiento Colombiano de granulovirus de Erinnyis ello (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)Título en ingles: Characterization of a Colombian isolate of Erinnyis ello granulovirus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)Titulo corto: Granulovirus de E. elloResumen: El gusano cachón Erinnyis ello (L.) es una plaga polífaga que puede causar graves pérdidas en cultivos de caucho. El uso de granulovirus representa una alternativa interesa...

  1. Biological aspects of Dirphia moderata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae on Eucalyptus cloeziana and Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An egg mass of Dirphia moderata Bouvier was collected around a branch of Eucalyptus cloeziana to register the occurrence and to study the biological aspects of this species fed with leaves of E. cloeziana or P. guajava at 25 ± 2º C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 h. The duration and viability of the larva stage of D. moderata was 56.01 days and 80.00% and 55.79 days and 72.5% for its caterpillars fed with the first and second host plants, respectively. The duration (days and viability (% of the pupae stage of this insect were 37.64 and 87.00 fed with E. cloeziana and 49.93 and 87.75 with P. guajava, respectively. The average longevity (days was 6.79 and 8.85 for males and 10.48 and 10.09 for females with E. cloeziana and P. guajava, respectively. Each female of D. moderata laid 121.71 and 112.00 eggs with an incubation period (days of 18.14 and 17.79 and viability (% of 75.0 and 70.0 with the first and the second hosts, respectively.Postura de Dirphia moderata Bouvier, 1919 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae foi coletada ao redor de um ramo de Eucalyptus cloeziana na área experimental do Laboratório de Entomologia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi registrar a ocorrência e estudar aspectos biológicos de D. moderata alimentada com folhas de E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava na temperatura de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A duração e a viabilidade larval foram de 56,01 dias e 80,00% e de 55,79 dias e 72,50% para lagartas de D. moderata alimentadas com E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava, respectivamente. A duração (dias e a viabilidade (% do estágio de pupa foram de 37,64 e 87,00 para este inseto com E. cloeziana e de 49,93 e 87,75 com P. guajava, respectivamente. A longevidade média (dias foi de 6,79 e 8,85 para machos e de 10,48 e 10,09 para fêmeas desse inseto com E. cloeziana e P. guajava, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de D. moderata

  2. Transgenic approaches to a non-transgenic release of sterile male Lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Tortricidae), in British Columbia, Canada, resulted in demands for the expansion of codling moth SIT and a related suppression strategy, radiation-induced inherited sterility (IS), in other countries. In the current SIT programme, both sterile males and females are released to control the pest population. There are compelling reasons to believe that both codling moth SIT and IS would benefit if efficient ways could be found to produce and release only males. Recently, a new scheme for genetic sexing in Lepidoptera has been proposed. The scheme is based on the construction of transgenic females carrying a dominant conditional lethal gene in the female-determining chromosome W. Following this scheme we intend to develop transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth. This requires basic knowledge of codling moth genome and appropriate molecular tools for codling moth transgenesis. We performed a detailed analysis of codling moth karyotype with a particular focus on the identification and characterization of sex chromosomes. Here we summarize our data on codling moth cytogenetics and discuss the potential of codling moth sex chromosomes for their use in developing transgenic sexing strains. The karyotype of codling moth consists of 2n=56 chromosomes, which can be classified into five groups according to their sizes: extra large (3 pairs), large (3 pairs), medium (15 pairs), small (5 pairs), and dot-like (2 pairs). Females are heterogametic with a W-Z sex chromosome pair, males are homogametic with two Z chromosomes. The W and Z chromosomes represent the two largest elements in female chromosome complements. While the Z is composed of euchromatin and resembles to autosomes, the W consists largely of heterochromatin. For successful development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, it is required to insert a conditional dominant lethal mutation (a

  3. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  4. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

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    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  5. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE O ATAQUE DA Azochis gripusalis WALKER, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE – LEPIDOPTERA EM Ficus carica L. (MORACEAE OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE ATTACK OF Azochis gripusalis (WALKER, 1859 (PYRAUSTIDAE - LEPIDOPTERA IN Ficus carica (L. (MORACEAE

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    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre fevereiro de 1972 e março de 1973 foi feito o levantamento do ataque da Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (Pyraustidae-Lepidoptera em uma plantação da figueira cultivada, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae em Curitiba, Paraná, onde a praga apresenta duas gerações por ano. Foi observado que a geração de inverno apresentou um ataque de 46,6% e ocorre durante o mês de março e início de abril e a geração de verão de 43,4%, ocorrendo durante o mês de dezembro e início de janeiro. Constatou-se também a presença da praga em 14 outros municípios do Estado do Paraná.

    This paper about Azochis gripusalis Walker, 1859 (PyraustidaeLepidoptera was the first to describe the occurrence of this pest in Paraná State, Brazil. It was observed initially that larvae were attacking F. carica trees in one of the districts of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and subsequently a survey of their occurrence was carried out in 14 municipal districts near Curitiba. The observations began in February 1972, and continued until March 1973, when complete biological cycle of two generations, in winter and summer, was obtained. In the same area a survey was carried out of the damage caused by A. gripusalis, in the winter and summer generations; by comparing the number of attacks and bealty growing points it was observed that in the winter the attacks were 46.6% and in the summer, 43.4%. It was also found that the same larva can attack more than one growing point during life, causing considerable damage.

  6. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  7. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Valverde; D. Carolina Berta; Marcelo Geronimo Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  8. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S; Michel Guillon; Julio Kalazich; Fernando Graña; Claudia Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experimen...

  9. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE), EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE) EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Marcelino Duarte; Carla Cristian Marques Arce; Vanessa Silva Rohden; Sérgio Arce Gomez; Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) é uma ...

  10. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    OpenAIRE

    Juan  F Costa; Walter Cosio; Maritza Cardenas; Erick Yábar; Ernesto Gianoli

    2009-01-01

    Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae), in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the capacity of E. me...

  11. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  12. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  13. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet; Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo da Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera - Pyralidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborlin, Maria Julia

    1988-10-01

    The effects of increased gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 10{sup 14} Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and a relative humidity of 70 {+-} 10%. The LD{sub 50} and LD{sub 100} of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD{sub 100} for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

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    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  15. Degree-day Modeling of Carob moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in pomegranate orchards in Şanlıurfa province

    OpenAIRE

    mamay, mehmet; ÜNLÜ, Levent; Yanık, Ertan; İkinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine degree-day modeling of carob moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] under field conditions in pomegranate orchards in Şanlıurfa province during the years 2011 and 2012. Delta pheromone traps were used to determine population development of carob moth in Şanlıurfa Central and Siverek counties. HOBO data logger was used to record temperature hourly in order to calculate degree-day values of the pest in Şanliurfa Central a...

  16. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  17. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use. PMID:23950051

  18. Finding in the Fruška Gora National Park of Cryphia amasina (Draudt, 1931 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae, a species new for the fauna of Serbia

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    Stojanović D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the finding of Cryphia amasina (Draudt 1931 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae, a species for the fauna of Serbia. Specimens of Cryphia amasina were found in the Fruška Gora National Park, which is located in the North Serbian province Vojvodina. This finding is a result of the more comprehensive entomological research conducted by the author in this area since 2001. different collecting methods (including bulb traps, malaise traps, butterfly nets, and caterpillar breeding were used in the research. The specimens of Cryphia amasina were caught using a light trap with a 150W bulb in the morning hours.

  19. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  20. Control biológico de la polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) mediante la gestión de míridos depredadores

    OpenAIRE

    Mollá Hernández, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    La polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es una plaga clave en el cultivo del tomate en Sudamérica de donde es originaria. Esta plaga es capaz de provocar pérdidas del 100% en el cultivo si no se adoptan medidas para su control, ya que sus larvas se alimentan vorazmente de hojas, tallos y frutos. A finales de 2006 se detectó su presencia en Castellón (España) y desde entonces se ha expandido rápidamente a otros países de la Cuenca Mediterránea, norte y centro d...

  1. Actividad biológica de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre la polilla guatemalteca de la papa, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Carolina Rojas Arias; Silvio Alejandro López Pazos; Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-01-01

    La papa (Solanum tuberosum) es uno de los cultivos más importantes de Colombia. Las larvas de la polilla guatemalteca de la papa, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), causan daños directos a los tubérculos, produciendo pérdidas económicas e incremento en el uso de agroquímicos. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) es una alternativa en el manejo de insectos plaga gracias a su especificidad. Su actividad depende de proteínas denominadas Cry, que cuando son ingeridas por un insecto susce...

  2. Estandarización de un bioensayo y evaluación preliminar de tres formulaciones comerciales de Bacillus thuringiensis sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Ramírez; Natalia Ramírez; Luz Stella Fuentes; Jaime Jiménez; Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es una de las plagas más devastadoras del tomate en Colombia y países suramericanos, produciendo pérdidas de hasta el 100% en cultivos sin protección. En 2009, T. absoluta se detectó en España, Portugal y países del mediterráneo, además de Inglaterra, Bulgaria y Alemania. Para su control se utilizan insecticidas químicos que generan resistencia e impacto ambiental y de salud. La alternativa de utilizar biopesticidas contr...

  3. Determination of Gibberellic Acid (GA3)-Induced Oxidative Stress in a Model Organism Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, H

    2015-02-01

    The plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3) is known to negatively impact growth and development of insects. In this study, larvae of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were fed a diet with varying dosages of GA3 to investigate how antioxidant enzymes are influenced. Activity levels in last instars reared in laboratory at 25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h were measured for superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT). Treatment with GA3 in diet resulted in a remarkable increase in the activities of both SOD and GST at lower GA3 doses (50-1,000 ppm) with respect to control and higher doses. The activity of CAT in the hemolymph of last instars significantly increased at all doses when compared with that in the hemolymph of untreated larvae. This trend in the increase of CAT was not dose-wise, except for the significant increases at 2,000 and 5,000 ppm when compared with that of untreated and all treated groups. Consequently, our results showed that GA3 is effective at activating the antioxidant defense system of insects as a source of free radical and can be toxic for larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we suggest that the increase in the activity of GST, SOD, and CAT in larvae may indicate a physiological adaptability to compensate for GA3-induced stress. PMID:26308811

  4. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton. PMID:20878002

  5. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest. PMID:26834144

  6. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andres; Altesor, Paula; Liberati, Paola; Rossini, Carmen, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.uy [Laboratorio de Ecologia Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Alves, Leticia; Ramos, Juan; Carrera, Ignacio; Gonzalez, David; Seoane, Gustavo; Gamenara, Daniela [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Silva, Horacio; Castiglioni, Enrique [Departamento de Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, EEMAC, Universidad de la Republica, Paysandu (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  7. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  8. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Nosema sp. HR (Microsporidia, Nosematidae): a new microsporidian pathogen of Histia rhodope Cramer (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Handeng; Ding, Songtao; Qin, Qizhong; Tang, Jun; Liu, Li; Peng, Huimin

    2015-03-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from Histia rhodope Cramer (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae), a pest of Bischofia javanica BL. in China. The morphology and molecular systematic of this novel microsporidian isolate had been described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.1 × 1.9 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: 14-15 polar filament coils, posterior vacuole, and a diplokaryon. The sequenced rRNA gene of this isolate is 4309 bp long. The organization of the rRNA gene is 5'-LSU rRNA-ITS-SSU rRNA-IGS-5S-3', which is similar to that of other Nosema species (such as Nosema bombycis). Phylogenetic analysis based on LSU rRNA gene and SSU rRNA gene both revealed that this novel micorsporidian which isolated from H. rhodope had close relationship to the genus Nosema. Additionally, this isolate can also cause systemic infection of Bombyx mori. So, we should pay attention not only to N. bombycis, but also to other microsporidian (such as Nosema sp. HR) in sericulture in the future. PMID:25538023

  9. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  10. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  11. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  12. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  13. DNA barcoding the Lepidoptera inventory of a large complex tropical conserved wildland, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    The 37-year ongoing inventory of the estimated 15 000 species of Lepidoptera living in the 125 000 terrestrial hectares of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, has DNA barcode documented 11 000+ species, and the simultaneous inventory of at least 6000+ species of wild-caught caterpillars, plus 2700+ species of parasitoids. The inventory began with Victorian methodologies and species-level perceptions, but it was transformed in 2004 by the full application of DNA barcoding for specimen identification and species discovery. This tropical inventory of an extraordinarily species-rich and complex multidimensional trophic web has relied upon the sequencing services provided by the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, and the informatics support from BOLD, the Barcode of Life Data Systems, major tools developed by the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, and available to all through couriers and the internet. As biodiversity information flows from these many thousands of undescribed and often look-alike species through their transformations to usable product, we see that DNA barcoding, firmly married to our centuries-old morphology-, ecology-, microgeography-, and behavior-based ways of taxonomizing the wild world, has made possible what was impossible before 2004. We can now work with all the species that we find, as recognizable species-level units of biology. In this essay, we touch on some of the details of the mechanics of actually using DNA barcoding in an inventory.

  14. Effect of bait formulation and number of traps on detection of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) oviposition using egg traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    Egg traps are the primary tool for monitoring egg deposition of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for timing treatments for this pest in almonds, Prunus amygdalus Batsch, and pistachios, Pistacia vera L. We compared, in almond and pistachio orchards, the number of eggs per trap in traps baited with almond meal, pistachio meal, or the current standard commercial bait. When considering cumulative eggs captured over an extended period, traps baited with pistachio meal prepared from previous-crop nuts generally captured a similar number of eggs compared with the commercial bait, and more eggs than those baited with almond meal prepared from previous-crop nuts. However, differences in eggs per trap between bait formulations were not as evident when examining individual weeks, particularly in weeks with few eggs per trap, as is typical when treatment decisions are made. The variance in eggs per trap was generally greater than the mean and increased with the mean and, when mean eggs per trap was low, most traps did not have eggs. We discuss implications of these findings for the relative importance of bait type and trap numbers for monitoring, and for experiments comparing egg trap performance. PMID:21404860

  15. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, C; Guimarães, K F; Parra, J R P

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, "FM993"), corn (Zea mays, "2B587"), soybean (Glycine max, "99R01"), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, "ADR300"), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, "AGROMEN70G35"), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, "SEMPRE VERDE"). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  16. DNA barcoding the Lepidoptera inventory of a large complex tropical conserved wildland, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    The 37-year ongoing inventory of the estimated 15 000 species of Lepidoptera living in the 125 000 terrestrial hectares of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, has DNA barcode documented 11 000+ species, and the simultaneous inventory of at least 6000+ species of wild-caught caterpillars, plus 2700+ species of parasitoids. The inventory began with Victorian methodologies and species-level perceptions, but it was transformed in 2004 by the full application of DNA barcoding for specimen identification and species discovery. This tropical inventory of an extraordinarily species-rich and complex multidimensional trophic web has relied upon the sequencing services provided by the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, and the informatics support from BOLD, the Barcode of Life Data Systems, major tools developed by the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, and available to all through couriers and the internet. As biodiversity information flows from these many thousands of undescribed and often look-alike species through their transformations to usable product, we see that DNA barcoding, firmly married to our centuries-old morphology-, ecology-, microgeography-, and behavior-based ways of taxonomizing the wild world, has made possible what was impossible before 2004. We can now work with all the species that we find, as recognizable species-level units of biology. In this essay, we touch on some of the details of the mechanics of actually using DNA barcoding in an inventory. PMID:27584861

  17. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  18. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  19. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Tian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart.

  1. Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous.

  2. Copitarsia decolora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae escaping from discarded asparagus: data in support of a pathway risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J R; Maldonado, M Huamán

    2006-10-01

    This research was undertaken to gather data in support of an assessment of the likelihood that Copitarsia decolora (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a pest of asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L., and other crops, could escape from the pathway followed by asparagus from the field to the consumer. Asparagus that is destroyed by cooking and consumption, being run through a trash compactor or garbage disposal, or being buried in a landfill probably cannot support development of C. decolora larvae. Much asparagus is discarded in dumpsters, however, and the time between disposal and removal to the landfill provides an opportunity for C. decolora to escape into the environment. Results of this study indicate that C. decolora cannot survive to the pupal stage on rotten asparagus, and survival on dried asparagus is low. However, larvae can survive at least 1 wk on both types of deteriorating asparagus held at 23.5 degrees C. In field trials, a small percentage of C. decolora larvae crawled out of a dumpster filled with asparagus after 1 wk. PMID:17066789

  3. The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae to chlorpyrifos

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    Idin Zibaee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in Iran displayed LC30; 4332, LC50; 5010 and LC90; 7027 μg larva-1 to chlorpyrifos. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos could be synergized more bydiethyl maleate (DEM and triphenylphosphate (TPP whereas the synergistic effect of piperonylbutoxide (PBO was not efficient as well as two other synergists. The synergistic effect ranged from 1.3 to 1.9-fold in 24 h and 1.2 to 1.5-fold in 48 h. The exposure with chlorpyrifos for 24 and 48 h significantly increased the activities of esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, while there were no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase. Field populations of T. absoluta from Iran displayed less susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and had a relatively high LC50 in compare to other previous studies. Esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism, and hence resistance to, chlorpyrifos in this pest.

  4. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  5. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (NeemsetoR) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (NeemsetoR), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  6. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of increased gamma radiation (60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 1014 Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 ± 20 C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. The LD50 and LD100 of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD100 for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs

  7. Species richness and abundance of hesperioidea and papilionoidea (lepidoptera) in Las Delicias natural reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity to intervention and specificity in the use of resources; in the present study the changes in richness and abundance of butterflies hesperioidea papilionoidea in nature reserve Las Delicias were evaluated. Two sampling sites with different degrees of intervention were selected. The first site is located between 400- 550 over sea level, while the second at 200 m. We performed four samples, from April to July 2008; using two networks lepidopterist and 10 van someren rydon traps baited with macerated fruit and fish. We captured 432 individuals belonging to 66 species, distributed in 52 genera. Nymphalidae were the most rich family (42) and abundance (250); highlighting the species mechanitis lysimnia fabricius (41 specimens), typical in forest with very good coverage. Site 2, was the most diverse (48) and abundance (236), because in this place there was a greater stratification and tree coverage, and the presence of water resources during the sampling. With the arrival of rain in June and July, there was greater flowering and fruiting of vegetation in the area, increasing the availability of resources and therefore a greater richness and abundance of papilionoidea and hesperioidea in the study area.

  8. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R.; Donelson, Sarah L.; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. PMID:26805893

  9. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margam, Venu M; Coates, Brad S; Bayles, Darrell O; Hellmich, Richard L; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Covas, Fernando G; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.

  10. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.

  11. Monitoring Susceptibility of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Field Populations to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrem, Jared S; Pan, Zaiqi; Flexner, John Lindsey; Owens, Elizabeth; Binning, Rachel; Higgins, Laura S

    2016-04-01

    Zea mays L. (maize) hybrids producing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis were first commercialized in the United States in 2003. These products demonstrated varying levels of moderate control, but not immunity to Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (western bean cutworm). Susceptibility of western bean cutworm to Cry1F protein was assessed in field populations collected in the mid- and western United States in 2003, 2004, 2013, and 2014 using diet bioassay. A meta-analysis of 32 western bean cutworm field collections assessed for susceptibility to Cry1F was conducted to investigate changes in susceptibility over time. Based on meta-analysis results, these data suggest a 5.2-fold increase in median lethal concentration (LC50) response to Cry1F in the 2013–2014 populations compared with collections that were assessed 10 yr earlier. Widespread use of Cry1F-producing maize hybrids over the past 10 yr may have contributed to favoring western bean cutworm populations with tolerance to the Cry1F protein.

  12. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and the phylogenetic relationship of Saturniidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Miao; Li, Yan; Chen, Mo; Wang, Huan; Li, Qun; Xia, Run-Xi; Zeng, Cai-Yun; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yan-Qun; Qin, Li

    2014-07-15

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. In this study, we present the complete mitogenome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), a well-known silk-producing and ornamental insect with the largest wing surface area of all moths. The mitogenome of A. atlas is a circular molecule of 15,282 bp long, and its nucleotide composition shows heavily biased towards As and Ts, accounting for 79.30%. This genome comprises 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and an A+T-rich region. It is of note that this genome exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is different from the other known Saturniidae species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI with CGA instead. Only six PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining seven use an incomplete termination codon T or TA. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A. atlas A+T-rich region contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycoidea insects. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method provide a well-supported outline of Saturniidae, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works.

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of seven Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) species based on the ultrastructure of male moths' antennae and antennal sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiong; Yan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Jun-Bao; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and antennal sensilla of seven male Dendrolimus species and a male Trabala vishnou gigantina (Yang) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) were examined by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Six morphological types of antennal sensilla were identified: Sensilla trichodea, Sensilla chaetica, Sensilla styloconica, Sensilla coeloconica, Böhm bristles, and foot-like sensilla. Six of the Dendrolimus moths and Trabala vishnou gigantina Yang share the same antennal sensilla type, as do various geographic populations of the same species. The exception, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler, has foot-like sensilla. However, the antennal sensilla subtypes were significantly different among species and/or populations. There were no remarkable differences in the width of the scape, pedicel, subflagellum, and the side-branches between the eight male species studied. However, we observed significant differences in the number of flagellomere and the length of scape, pedicel, subflagellums, and side-branches. The length and basal diameter of various types of antennal sensilla did not vary significantly among Dendrolimus moths. Beyond that, there were no differences among populations of the same kind of species. Hierarchical cluster analysis found two clusters: the first contained D. punctata punctata (Walker), D. punctata wenshanensis (Tsai et Liu), D. tabulaeformis (Tsai et Liu), and D. spectabilis and D. superans (Butler), and the second contained D. grisea (Moore) and D. kikuchii kikuchii (Matsumura). Trabala vishnou gigantina was placed separately from the two clusters. We conclude that D. punctata wenshanensis,D. tabulaeformis, and D. spectabilis are geographic subspecies of D. punctata punctata.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of the sugar cane borer Diatrea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) were studied under controlled conditions of temperature (28 +- 20C) and relative humidity (75 +- 10%). The insects were reared in an artificial diet and the adults were irradiated at 24 hour age, in each treatment, to observe the effects of the gamma radiation on the sugar cane borer, in order to provide data for future researches in the Sterile Insect Technique. Cobalt-60 was used as a source of radiation with a dose-rate of 353 krad/hour. Also an activi-meter and climatized room were used. The effects of radiation under cooling (5 +- 10C) and normal conditions were determined concerning the insect activity, oviposition, competitiveness, mating and longevity. These data were obtained for both sexes and the conclusions were as follows: a) The sterilizing dosis of gamma radiation do not affect the sexual behaviour of the insect, even under cooling conditions; b) the percentages of egg unviability are directly proportional to the dosis either for the females or the males; c) D. saccharalis is active only in the scotophase and therefore it can be characterized as a nocturnal insect. (Author)

  16. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

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    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  17. Lipase and invertase activities in midgut and salivary glands of Chilo suppressalis (Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, rice striped stem borer

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    A Zibaee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The rice striped stem borer, Chilo supprressalis, was introduced to Iran in 1973 where it is now widely distributed and causes severe damages. Lipases, which catalyses the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds, are widely distributed among animals, plants and microorganisms. Invertases (β-fructofuranosidase are glycosidehydrolases that catalyze the cleavage of sucrose (β-D-glucopyranosyl-S-D-fructofuranoside into the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Laboratory-reared 4th instar larvae were randomly selected, their midgut and salivary glands were removed by dissection under a light microscope and lipase and invertase activities were assayed. The activity of lipase/invertase in the midgut and salivary gland were 0.49/0.27 and 0.35/0.23 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for both the two enzymes were determined to be 10-11 and 37-40 °C, which is consistent with pH and temperature values already observed in Lepidoptera. The enzyme activity was reduced by addition of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, SDS, urea and plant extracts from Artemisia annua, but not by CaCl2 which enhanced enzyme activity. Pest control with usage of resistant varieties of plants is one of the most important practices that are dependant on inhibitors already present in nature. Hence, characterization of insect digestive enzymes, especially examination of inhibition effects on enzyme activity, could be useful in developing new strategies for pest control.

  18. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente

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    M.A. Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C

  19. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

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    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  20. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

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    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  1. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  2. 鳞翅目昆虫线粒体DNA的研究进展%Research Progress on Mitochondrial DNA of Lepidoptera Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青青; 段焰青; 李地艳; 刘晓飞; 徐怀亮; 周汝敏; 曹能; 李佛琳

    2009-01-01

    线粒体DNA(mtDNA)具有母性遗传,缺乏重组和进化速度快等特点,是研究鳞翅目昆虫系统学常用的分子标记.分析了鳞翅目昆虫线粒体DNA的结构特点,并就近年来对鳞翅目昆虫中进行过mtDNA研究的基因片段进行了简要综述,旨在为今后鳞翅目昆虫学研究提供参考.%Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which exhibits maternal inheritance, lack of recombination and fast rate of evolution, has been a rich source of genetic markers in the Order Lepidoptera. Based on the description of mitochondrial DNA genome structure characters, mtDNA genes studied in Lepidoptera insects have been reviewed briefly in this paper in order to provide basic information for the future study.

  3. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  4. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  5. Diversidade de borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea em fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Decidual em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea in fragments of decidual seasonal forest in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica B. Dessuy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas seis saídas a campo bimestrais, entre julho de 2004 e julho de 2005, em três fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Decidual de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul: Morro do Elefante (E, Morro do Lar Metodista (M e Morro Cerrito (C. Em 135 horas de amostragem, foram registradas 1594 borboletas, distribuídas em 145 espécies. Destas, 59% pertencem a família Nymphalidae, 19% Hesperiidae, 10% Papilionidae, 7% Pieridae e 5% Lycaenidae. Foram registradas nove espécies de borboletas ainda não publicadas para o Estado. M apresentou maior riqueza e abundância de espécies. A menor riqueza foi observada em E e a menor abundância em C. Os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener e de Margalef tiveram a mesma ordenação entre os locais, sendo maiores em M, local mais heterogêneo e perturbado, e menores em E. Os índices de dominância de Simpson e de Berger-Parker, por sua vez, foram mais representativos em E, com o maior número de espécies abundantes, e menos em C. Apenas 30% das espécies foram comuns aos três locais. Cerca da metade do total de espécies registradas foram exclusivas de um dos locais. A maior similaridade (Índices de Morisita e de Jaccard foi observada entre M e E, e a menor entre E e C.Six field trips were carried bimonthly, between July 2004 and July 2005, in three fragments of Decidual Seasonal Forest of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State: Morro do Elefante (E, Morro do Lar Metodista (M and Morro Cerrito (C. After 135 sampling hours, 1594 butterflies of 145 species were registered. Among these, 59% are Nymphalidae, 19% Hesperiidae, 10% Papilionidae, 7% Pieridae and 5% Lycaenidae. Nine species were new registers for Rio Grande do Sul State. M had the highest richness and abundance of species. The lowest richness was observed in E and the lowest abundance in C. Shannon-Wiener and Margalef diversity indexes had the same ordination among localities, being higher in M, more heterogeneous and disturbed, and lower in

  6. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    José Romário Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae. We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing and a population of other species were used in the experiment. Cards azure, containing 20 eggs (age <12 h of S. eridania were exposed for 24 hours of parasitism. We evaluated the following biological parameters: number of eggs parasitized, percentage of emergence, number of individuals per egg, sex ratio, duration of egg-adult and longevity of the offspring. The parasitism differed among Trichogrammaspecies, ranging from 3.85 (19.25% and 9.90 (49.50% parasitized eggs per female. The emergence percentage was higher than 75%. The sex ratio was higher for T. pretiosum population Tbug (0.99, while the lower observed valuefor T. atopovirilia and T. exiguum, 0.77 and 0.79, respectively. The time from egg to adult was lower for the species T. pretiosum population Tbug, T. pratissolii and T. atopovirilia (9.00 days, respectively. The descendants of the population Tbug were those with greater longevity (2.85 days. Considering the results of parasitism, the species T. pretiosum and T. pratissolii demonstrated better rates, and thus promising for use in biological control program for S. eridania.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho dos parasitoides Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino e Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto e Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman e Platner e Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodopteraeridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Foram utilizadas duas populações de T. pretiosum (comercial e de criação de laborat

  7. Malpighia emarginata DC. bagasse acetone extract: Phenolic compounds and their effect on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Marques

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annually, several tons of residues that are rich in phenolic compounds are produced during the processing of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. juice. Adding value to these residues is of great interest, since they can be a viable solution in the search for natural substances with insecticidal action and low impact on the environment and humans. Taking into account the economic losses from the attacks by the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in different crops, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extract of acerola bagasse flour (ABF against this insect and determine the phenolic compounds in this extract. Bagasse of acerola (BRS238 or Frutacor clon generated after juice production, was frozen and lyophilized. To obtain the extract, 6 g ABF was mixed with 60 mL acetone:water solution (7:3 v/v, and the extract was lyophilized. Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars, 48 h-old, obtained by the maintenance breeding, were transferred to glass tubes supplied with an artificial diet containing the ABF extract at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1 diet. The following variables were evaluated: duration and survival of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, adult longevity, oviposition period, number of egg masses, and total number of eggs. The ABF extract contained several phenolic compounds including gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and quercetin. The extract was toxic to S. frugiperda, prolonging the pre-pupal stage and increasing the mortality of caterpillars.

  8. Effect of Piperonyl Butoxide on the Toxicity of Four Classes of Insecticides to Navel Orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkovich, Mark; Dana, Catherine E; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2015-12-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California. Increasing demand for these crops and their rising economic value has resulted in substantial increases of insecticide applications to reduce damage to acceptable levels. The effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a methylenedioxyphenyl compound that can act as a synergist by inhibiting cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification on insecticide metabolism by A. transitella, were examined in a series of feeding bioassays with first-instar A. transitella larvae from a laboratory strain. PBO, however, can have a variety of effects on metabolism, including inhibition of glutathione-S-transferases and esterases and induction of P450s. In our study, PBO synergized the toxicity of acetamiprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and spinosad, suggesting possible involvement of P450s in their detoxification. In contrast, PBO interacted antagonistically with the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, reducing its toxicity, an effect consistent with inhibition of P450-mediated bioactivation of this pesticide. The toxicity of the anthranilic diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole was not altered by PBO, suggestive of little or no involvement of P450-mediated metabolism in its detoxification. Because a population of navel orangeworm in Kern County, CA, has already acquired resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin through enhanced P450 activity, determining the effect of adding a synergist such as PBO on detoxification of all insecticide classes registered for use in navel orangeworm management can help to develop rotation practices that may delay resistance acquisition or to implement alternative management practices where resistance is likely to evolve.

  9. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella. PMID:27638953

  10. Complete mitogenome of the Lesser Purple Emperor Apatura ilia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Apaturinae) and comparison with other nymphalid butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Tian, Li-Li; Shi, Qing-Hui; Cao, Tian-Wen; Hao, Jia-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Apatura ilia (GenBank accession no. JF437925) was determined as a circular DNA molecule of 15 242 bp, with common genes of 13 putative proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs and of the same gene arrangement as in other sequenced lepidopterans. All protein-coding genes had the typical start codon ATN, except for the COI's using CGA as its start codon as previously demonstrated in other lepidopteran species. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the A. ilia mitogenome with ten other Nymphalidae species showed nearly identical gene orientation and arrangement, with only a few alterations in non-coding fragments. The nucleotide composition and codon frequency all fell into the range estimated for the order Lepidoptera. The A. ilia mitochondrial genome had the canonical set of 22 tRNA genes folded in the typical cloverleaf structure, with an unique exception of tRNA(Ser) (AGN). The mitochondrial genes from A. ilia were overlapped in a total of 33 bp at 9 locations, as well as interleaved with a total of 155 bp intergenic spacers, spread over 12 regions with the size ranging from 1 to 49 bp. Furthermore, the spacer between ND6 and Cyt b harbored a microsatellite-like repeat (TA)(23) not found in other completely sequenced nymphalid genomes. The 403 bp AT-rich region harbored two conserved motifs (ATAGA, ATTTA), a 21 bp polyT stretch, a 10 bp poly-A region, along with two microsatellite-like repeats ( (TA)(10) and (TA)(7)), as detected in other nymphalid butterflies.

  11. Sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Juliana Pereira Bravo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the sequence and analysis of the mtDNA control region (CR of the Diatraea saccharalis. The genome PCR amplification was performed using the complementary primers to the flanking regions of Bombyx mori CR mitochondrial segment. The sequencing revealed that the amplified product was 568 bp long, which was smaller than that observed for B. mori (725 bp. Within the amplified segment, a sequence with 338 nucleotides was identified as the control region, which displayed a high AT content (93.5%. The D. saccharalis mtDNA CR multiple sequence alignment analysis showed that this region had high similarity with the Lepidoptera Cydia pomonella.A broca da cana, Diatraea saccharalis pertence à família dos lepidópteros. A presença da larva pode ser extremamente destrutiva, chegando a inviabilizar a atividade canavieira, causando prejuízos consideráveis à agroindústria sucro-alcooleira. Atualmente a broca da cana vem sendo extinta da plantação por métodos de controle biológico, entretanto a evolução desses programas depende de maiores conhecimentos básicos da biologia molecular deste inseto. O estudo do segmento do genoma mitocondrial denominado região controle é amplamente utilizado em análises genéticas e filogenéticas em insetos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi sequenciar e analisar a região controle do genoma mitocondrial de Diatraea saccharalis. Esse segmento apresentou 338 nucleotídeos, menor que o observado em Bombyx mori, com conteúdo de 93,5% de A/T. As analises realizadas mostraram que Diatraea saccharalis apresenta 76% de similaridade com Cydia pomonella.

  12. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effect of host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Stathas, G J

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive performance of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against the moths Anagasta kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the laboratory. The analysis was based on the comparison of parasitoid's life table parameters related to those of its hosts at various conditions of host density (daily supply of 1, 5, 15, and 30 full-grown host larvae). The estimated parameters were the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0), the mean generation time (G), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the doubling time (DT), the reproductive value (Vx), and the life expectancy (ex). The rm of H. hebetor proved to be significantly higher than those of its hosts at all host densities. When only one host per day was supplied, the wasp had the lowest reproductive potential, whereas it was maximized when 15 hosts per day were exposed. Maximum values of R0 and GRR were obtained at densities > or =15 host larvae per day. Any increase in host supply above this threshold did not cause significant changes in life table parameters. Variation of rm as a function of host density can be described by the linear regression. Sex ratio of wasp progeny (females/total) ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, irrespective of host density or species. Newly emerged adults recorded maximum ex and Vx. The results of this study can be used to improve mass rearing programs and inoculative release applications of H. hebetor against moth pests of stored products.

  13. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. PMID:27329620

  14. Morphological Characteristics of P. xylostella Granulovirus and Effects on Its Larval Host Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dezianian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae is the most destructive insect pest of cruciferous plants throughout the world which become resistant to wide range of chemical pesticides. PxGV is known as an effective factor on diamondback moth larval mortality. Approach: Some morphological characteristics, viral DNA isolation and Restriction Endonuclease (REN analysis of P. xylostella granulovirus and its effects of different concentrations on its larval host Diamondback Moth P. xylostella, were studied. Results: Taiwanian isolate confirmed due to restriction pattern and genome size of PxGV Taiwanian isolate which was compared with PxGV isolates reported earlier. PxGV originally isolated in Taiwan has capsules that are ovocylindrical with a mean size of 272.84±12 by 148.27±19 nm. The virions are 168.44±16±29.57±12 nm. Results from pathogenicity test of the granulovirus to DBM using the leaf disc method shows that first, second and third instars of P. xylostella were significantly susceptible to infection by PxGV. Older larvae were less susceptible to PxGV than younger larvae with the same virus concentration. The LC50 for second instar larvae was 1.39±106 granules mL-1. The LT50 values ranged between 3.813-6.946, 4.965-9.743 and 5145-9.407 days for first to third instars in three different concentrations, respectively. Conclusion: Its high specificity and pathogenicity to its larval host indicate that PxGV is a good candidate as an alternative biopesticide to chemical insecticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM of P. xylostella.

  15. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  16. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elie A.Dannon; Manuele Tamò; Cyriaque Agboton; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) on development time,longevity,fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions.The larvae were parasitized when in the second instar.Maruca vitrata larvae were fed with flowers of four legumes,that is,Vigna unguiculata (cowpea),Sesbania rostrata,Lonchocarpus sericeus and Pterocarpus santalinoides,or an artificial diet both before and after parasitization.The parasitoid did not develop in hosts feeding on L.sericeus or V.unguiculata at 25℃,or on P.santalinoides at 25℃ or 29℃.Apanteles taragaraae had the shortest development time on artificial diet at both 25℃ and 29℃ while the longest development time was recorded on L.sericeus at 29℃.Female wasps took longer to develop compared to males at the two temperatures,regardless of the feeding substrate of their host.The longevity of the wasps at 25℃ varied among feeding substrates,but not at 29℃.Survival rate of parasitized larvae depends on the feeding substrate.Moreover,infection of host larvae with Maruca vitrata multi-nucleopolyhedrovirus (MaviMNPV) killed larger proportions of parasitized larvae at 25℃ than at 29℃,which was likely caused by the difference in parasitoid developmental rate.The proportion of female parasitoids was lowest on L.sericeus.The daily fecundity showed a nonlinear trend regardless of the feeding substrate,indicating that A.taragaraae is a pro-ovigenic species.The data support the slow growth-high mortality hypothesis.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

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    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  19. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

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    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  20. A transcontinental challenge--a test of DNA barcode performance for 1,541 species of Canadian Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera.

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    Reza Zahiri

    Full Text Available This study provides a first, comprehensive, diagnostic use of DNA barcodes for the Canadian fauna of noctuoids or "owlet" moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea based on vouchered records for 1,541 species (99.1% species coverage, and more than 30,000 sequences. When viewed from a Canada-wide perspective, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 90% of the noctuoid species recognized through prior taxonomic study, and resolution reaches 95.6% when considered at a provincial scale. Barcode sharing is concentrated in certain lineages with 54% of the cases involving 1.8% of the genera. Deep intraspecific divergence exists in 7.7% of the species, but further studies are required to clarify whether these cases reflect an overlooked species complex or phylogeographic variation in a single species. Non-native species possess higher Nearest-Neighbour (NN distances than native taxa, whereas generalist feeders have lower NN distances than those with more specialized feeding habits. We found high concordance between taxonomic names and sequence clusters delineated by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system with 1,082 species (70% assigned to a unique BIN. The cases of discordance involve both BIN mergers and BIN splits with 38 species falling into both categories, most likely reflecting bidirectional introgression. One fifth of the species are involved in a BIN merger reflecting the presence of 158 species sharing their barcode sequence with at least one other taxon, and 189 species with low, but diagnostic COI divergence. A very few cases (13 involved species whose members fell into both categories. Most of the remaining 140 species show a split into two or three BINs per species, while Virbia ferruginosa was divided into 16. The overall results confirm that DNA barcodes are effective for the identification of Canadian noctuoids. This study also affirms that BINs are a strong proxy for species, providing a pathway for a rapid, accurate estimation of animal diversity.

  1. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella.

  2. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  3. Survival of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Maize and Cross-Pollinated Refuge Ears From Seed Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, André Luiz Barreto; Alves, Analiza Piovesan; Wang, Yiwei; Hong, Bonnie; Flexner, John Lindsey; Catchot, Angus; Buntin, David; Cook, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Refuge is mandated in the United States where genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are cultivated. Currently, refuge is deployed in different ways including blocks, field strips, or seed blends containing Bt and non-Bt maize. Seed blends provide practical advantages for refuge implementation. However, concerns related to the movement of insect larvae, potential differential survival of heterozygous resistant larvae, reduction in insect production, and cross-pollination of ears resulting in sublethal selection, have delayed seed blend use for Lepidoptera in the southern United States, where maize plantings are used as refuge for Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). In this study, we evaluated the relative survival of H. zea in Bt events and in seed blends compared with pure stand refuge and the relative survival of H. zea on the individual components of the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. The results showed variation on the production of H. zea in refuge plants from seed blends compared with pure stand refuge plants. The relative survival of H. zea on the events 1507, MON810, MIR162, and 1507xMON810xMIR162 ranked similarly across the three locations tested. These results can be used in computer simulation modeling efforts to evaluate the feasibility of seed blends as a refuge deployment strategy with the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. Because the reduction on survival of H. zea due to blending was variable, a sensitivity analysis that includes all possible scenarios of reduction in survival should be considered. PMID:26357846

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of three odorant binding protein gene transcripts in Dendrolimus species (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus spp. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are serious economic pest of pines. Previously, phylogenetic analyses of Dendrolimus using different methods yielded inconsistent results. The chemosensory systems of insects may play fundamental roles in promoting speciation. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) participate in the first step of odor detection. Studying the evolution of OBPs in closely related species may help us to identify their role in speciation. We identified three OBPs - one pheromone-binding protein and two general odorant-binding proteins - from male antennae of four Dendrolimus species, D. superans (Butler), D. punctatus (Walker), D. kikuchii Matsumura, and D. houi Lajonquiere, the olfactory recognition systems of which had not been previously investigated. We analyzed their molecular characteristics and compared their sequences to those of OBPs in D. tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu. Ka/Ks ratio analyses among the five Dendrolimus species indicate that PBP1 genes experienced more evolutionary pressure than the GOBPs. Phylogenetic relationships of PBP1 and GOBP1 both indicated that D. houi was the basal species, then branched D. kikuchii, while D. tabulaeformis, D. punctatus, and D. superans evolved more recently. These relationships are consistent with the changes in sex pheromone components of these five species. Dendrolimus tabulaeformis and D. punctatus are closely related sister species. However, the distances among GOBP2 sequences in the five Dendrolimus were very short, and the relationships of D. houi and D. kikuchii could not be resolved. Integrating our results with those of previous studies, we hypothesized that D. kikuchii, D. punctatus and D. superans evolved from the basal ancestor because of sex pheromone mutations and environmental pressure.

  5. PLANTAS HOSPEDEIRAS DE Thyrinteina arnobia (LEPIDOPTERA: GEOMETRIDAE AFETAM O DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PARASITOIDE Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE1

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    Silma da Silva Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do parasitismo e a biologia da prole do parasitoide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae quando criadas em plantas de Psidium guajava ou Eucalyptus cloeziana. Ovos de T. arnobia foram coletados e colocados em sacos de tecido tipo organza envolvendo galhos de plantas de P. guajava (T1 e E. cloeziana (T2 até as lagartas alcançarem a fase de pupa. Trinta pupas de cada tratamento foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro e expostas ao parasitismo por quatro fêmeas de P. elaeisis por 24 h. Avaliaram-se a emergência da progênie do parasitoide por pupa; a porcentagem de parasitismo, pupas mortas e de adultos de T. arnobia emergidos; a duração do ciclo de vida (ovo-adulto;a longevidade; a razão sexual; e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo do parasitoide. A porcentagem de parasitismo, a emergência de P. elaeisis por pupa, a longevidade das fêmeas e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo dos machos do parasitoide foram menores quando seu hospedeiro foi criado em plantas de eucalipto. Isso pode ter ocorrido devido à grande quantidade de compostos do metabolismo secundário presentes nesta planta, que podem ser acumulados no corpo do herbívoro ao se alimentar, afetando negativamente o inimigo natural. Palmistichus elaeisis mostrou-se mais adaptado à mirtácea nativa da América P. guajava.

  6. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  7. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenee, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

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    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  8. Evaluación de Cepas Nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Como una Alternativa de Manejo Integrado de la Polilla del Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) en Chile Evaluation of Native Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as an Alternative of Integrated Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Niedmann Lolas; Luis Meza-Basso

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la plaga más devastadora del cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) en Chile, produciendo pérdidas del 60 al 100% en campos no tratados con insecticidas. Puesto que las plagas de insectos están desarrollando niveles de resistencia a los insecticidas convencionales, existe interés por estrategias de control que incluyen el empleo de biopesticidas. En el presente trabajo se estudió el potencial de aislados na...

  9. Plantas hospedeiras de lepidópteros minadores em pomar de citros em Montenegro-RS Host plants of lepidoptera leafminers in citrus orchard in Montenegro- RS, Brazil

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    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar e identificar lepidópteros minadores em plantas de crescimento espontâneo, presentes em pomar de citros, e verificar se o "minador-das-folhas-dos-citros", Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidóptera: Gracillariidae, ocorre nessas plantas espontâneas. O trabalho foi conduzido em um pomar de tangoreiro 'Murcott', em Montenegro- RS. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004, coletando-se, em cada ocasião, todas as plantas e/ou ramos com minas, contidas na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m2, que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. As plantas hospedeiras dos minadores foram coletadas para identificação. Registraram-se 11 espécies de lepidópteros minadores, distribuídas em seis famílias, coletadas em 15 espécies de plantas hospedeiras de nove famílias botânicas. A comunidade de plantas de crescimento espontâneo, na área amostrada, hospedou uma vasta diversidade de lepidópteros minadores, incluindo até possíveis novas famílias, porém não hospedaram P. citrella.This study aimed to verify and to identify Lepidopterous leafminers in plants of spontaneous growth present in citrus orchard and to verify the occurrence of "citrus leafminer", Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, on those plants of spontaneous growth. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in a tangor 'Murcott' hybrid orchard. Samplings were taken every fortnightly, from May, 2003 to May, 2004, collecting in each occasion all plants and or branches with mines found in a area delimited by an 0.28 m² arch thrown in the lines and between lines of 30 randomly chosen trees. The host plants of the leafminers were collected for identification. Eleven species of Lepidoptera leafminers were found distributed in six families, collected in 15 species of host plants of nine botanical families. The community of plants of spontaneous growth in the studied area hosted a

  10. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  11. Avaliação de acessos de milho para resistência a Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em laboratório Evaluation of a maize collection to Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae resistance in laboratory

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    Francisca Wilma Neide de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se uma coleção de milho para resistência à lagarta de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae em testes de laboratório da UFRA. Utilizou-se 25 acessos de milho proveniente do banco de germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em um experimento inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. Observou-se diariamente o desenvolvimento dos insetos durante as fases de larva e pupa, para registrar as alterações biológicas promovidas pelos acessos de milho. Os dados observados foram submetidos à ANOVA, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK e através da análise de regressão linear, determinou-se o grau de dependência entre o consumo foliar de S. frugiperda na fase larval e a respectiva biomassa do inseto na fase pupal. Os resultados mostraram que houve influência dos acessos de milho sobre o desenvolvimento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho. Os acessos que promoveram a menor percentagem de viabilidade de lagartas foram AM 013, RO 009 e MA 002, enquanto RR 168 e PA 110 foram os menos consumidos pelas lagartas de S. frugiperda.A collection of maize was evaluated to corn population resistance to the corn caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in laboratory at UFRA. There were used 25 corn population from the germoplasm bank of Embrapa Maize and Sorghum Research Center with three repetitions. The development of this insect was daily observed, from the caterpillar phase to the pupal, to register the biological differences promoted by maize population. The observed data were submitted to ANOVA, the averages were compared by the SNK test and the linear regression analysis was determined between leaf consumption and the respective pupal biomass. The results showed that the maize population affected the larval development. The least larval viability was observed on populations AM 013, RO 009 and MA 002, and the leaf consumption by S.frugiperda larvae was on RR 168 and PA 110.

  12. A Preliminary Report of the Investigation on Lepidoptera Insects in the Suburbs of Yibin City of Sichuan Province%四川省宜宾市近郊鳞翅目昆虫调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一敏; 鞠文彬; 舒服; 吴亚勇; 吴秀华; 董长明; 李操; 石爱民

    2012-01-01

    From March 2009 to March 2011,an investigation was carried out on Lepidoptera insects in the suburbs of Yibin City of Sichuan province.The number of the specimen was 2458 in total.171 species were identified,belonging to 22 families and 126 genera.The initial name list of the Lepidoptera insects of Yibin city was compiled.%2009年3月至2011年3月,对宜宾市的鳞翅目Lepidoptera昆虫进行了采集调查,共采集标本2458号,共鉴定出171种,隶属于22科126属。编目出宜宾市鳞翅目昆虫调查初步名录。

  13. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...

  14. Occurrence of Elymnias obnubila Marshall and de Nicéville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in southern Mizoram: Range extension of the species and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna

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    K. Kunte

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a recent sighting of the Chestnut Palmfly Butterfly, Elymnias obnubila Marshall & de Nicéville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae from Ngenpui Wildlife Sanctuary in southern Mizoram. It represents a range extension of the species by 1,500km north of its previously known range in southern Myanmar and Thailand, and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna.

  15. Harnup güvesi [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)]'nin farklı nar çeşitlerindeki bulaşıklık oranı ve konukçu tercihi

    OpenAIRE

    mamay, mehmet; İKİNCİ, Ali; ÜNLÜ, Levent; DOĞAN, Ergün

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to determine the infestation rate and host preference of Carob Moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. ( Lepidoptera.: Pyralidae)] on 24 years old 13 different pomegranate cultivars under field conditions in 2010 and 2011. In the research, 13 pomegranate cultivars including 3 sour, 5 tartish and 5 sweet planted in 4 x 4 m distance were used. The research was carried out on 2 trees of each cultivar from each of 3 replications according to randomize...

  16. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  17. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  18. Considerações gerais e específicas sobre as glândulas cutâneas sexuais dos Lepidopteras

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Barth

    1980-01-01

    No presente estudo podemos ressaltar alguns dados e observações mostrando que estes órgãos glandulares e suas secreções atraentes e excitantes têm um papel biológico essencial, sendo sua função regular e segura de importância decisiva para a sobrevivência de muitas espécies de Lepidoptera. São ressaltados os seguintes dados: a) a variabilidade de formação dos órgãos e seus componentes; b) a localização no corpo para obter o máximo de proteção e efeito; c) a alta sensibilidade do sistema senso...

  19. Natural Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rossoni

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Relata-se a ocorrência natural de um fungo entomopatogênico sobre a lagarta Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em uma área de soja convencional situada no município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. A lagarta foi coletada a campo e levada ao laboratório de microbiologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, onde permaneceu em câmera úmida por aproximadamente 7 dias. Posteriormente, o fungo foi isolado em meio de cultura (BDA para identificação da espécie do entomopatógeno. O fungo foi identificado como Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales e, isso representa o primeiro registro de parasitismo, dessa espécie, sobre a lagarta-da-soja no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

  20. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417