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Sample records for body-weight regulation identified

  1. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...

  2. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  3. [Leptin and the feedback regulation of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ye, G; Sun, J

    1999-09-30

    Body weight may be controlled by a negative feedback loop. Recent studies have identified that the ob gene product, leptin, apparently and exclusively expressed in adipose tissue, is a part of the negative feedback loop. Leptin is proposed to act as an afferent signal in the negative feedback loop to hypothalamus that limiting food-intake, controlling energy homeostasis and regulating the mass of adipose tissue. The dificiency of or resistance to leptin causes severe obesity.

  4. Cadm2 regulates body weight and energy homeostasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2, which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain. Methods: We first analyzed Cadm2 expression in the brain of both human subjects and mouse models and subsequently characterized a loss-of-function mouse model of Cadm2 for alterations in glucose and energy homeostasis. Results: We show that the risk variant rs13078960 associates with increased CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Increased Cadm2 expression in several brain regions of Lepob/ob mice was ameliorated after leptin treatment. Deletion of Cadm2 in obese mice (Cadm2/ob resulted in reduced adiposity, systemic glucose levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Cadm2-deficient mice exhibited increased locomotor activity, energy expenditure rate, and core body temperature identifying Cadm2 as a potent regulator of systemic energy homeostasis. Conclusions: Together these data illustrate that reducing Cadm2 expression can reverse several traits associated with the metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Cadm2/SynCAM2, Energy homeostasis, Insulin sensitivity, Genome-wide association studies, Leptin signaling

  5. Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhen; Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 +/- 0.3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 20 +/- 0.8 g vs. 5 +/- 0.2, 10 +/- 0.2, and 16 +/- 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.2 g, n = 6, P dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 +/- 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 +/- 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism.

  6. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  7. Non-homeostatic body weight regulation through a brainstem-restricted receptor for GDF15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Crawley, Suzanne; Chen, Michael; Ayupova, Dina A.; Lindhout, Darrin A.; Higbee, Jared; Kutach, Alan; Joo, William; Gao, Zhengyu; Fu, Diana; To, Carmen; Mondal, Kalyani; Li, Betty; Kekatpure, Avantika; Wang, Marilyn; Laird, Teresa; Horner, Geoffrey; Chan, Jackie; McEntee, Michele; Lopez, Manuel; Lakshminarasimhan, Damodharan; White, Andre; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Yao, Jun; Yie, Junming; Matern, Hugo; Solloway, Mark; Haldankar, Raj; Parsons, Thomas; Tang, Jie; Shen, Wenyan D.; Alice Chen, Yu; Tian, Hui; Allan, Bernard B.

    2017-09-27

    Under homeostatic conditions, animals use well-defined hypothalamic neural circuits to help maintain stable body weight, by integrating metabolic and hormonal signals from the periphery to balance food consumption and energy expenditure1,2. In stressed or disease conditions, however, animals use alternative neuronal pathways to adapt to the metabolic challenges of altered energy demand3. Recent studies have identified brain areas outside the hypothalamus that are activated under these ‘non-homeostatic’ conditions4,5,6, but the molecular nature of the peripheral signals and brain-localized receptors that activate these circuits remains elusive. Here we identify glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) as a brainstem-restricted receptor for growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). GDF15 regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses; we show that Gfral knockout mice are hyperphagic under stressed conditions and are resistant to chemotherapy-induced anorexia and body weight loss. GDF15 activates GFRAL-expressing neurons localized exclusively in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius of the mouse brainstem. It then triggers the activation of neurons localized within the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, which constitute part of the ‘emergency circuit’ that shapes feeding responses to stressful conditions7. GDF15 levels increase in response to tissue stress and injury, and elevated levels are associated with body weight loss in numerous chronic human diseases8,9. By isolating GFRAL as the receptor for GDF15-induced anorexia and weight loss, we identify a mechanistic basis for the non-homeostatic regulation of neural circuitry by a peripheral signal associated with tissue damage and stress. These findings provide opportunities to develop therapeutic agents for the treatment of disorders with altered energy demand.

  8. Neonatal immune challenge does not affect body weight regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Galic, Michael A; Ellis, Shaun L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2007-08-01

    The perinatal environment plays a crucial role in programming many aspects of adult physiology. Myriad stressors during pregnancy, from maternal immune challenge to nutritional deficiency, can alter long-term body weight set points of the offspring. In light of the increasing concern over body weight issues, such as obesity and anorexia, in modern societies and accumulating evidence that developmental stressors have long-lasting effects on other aspects of physiology (e.g., fever, pain), we explored the role of immune system activation during neonatal development and its impact on body weight regulation in adulthood. Here we present a thorough evaluation of the effects of immune system activation (LPS, 100 microg/kg ip) at postnatal days 3, 7, or 14 on long-term body weight, adiposity, and body weight regulation after a further LPS injection (50 microg/kg ip) or fasting and basal and LPS-induced circulating levels of the appetite-regulating proinflammatory cytokine leptin. We show that neonatal exposure to LPS at various times during the neonatal period has no long-term effects on growth, body weight, or adiposity. We also observed no effects on body weight regulation in response to a short fasting period or a further exposure to LPS. Despite reductions in circulating leptin levels in response to LPS during the neonatal period, no long-term effects on leptin were seen. These results convincingly demonstrate that adult body weight and weight regulation are, unlike many other aspects of adult physiology, resistant to programming by a febrile-dose neonatal immune challenge.

  9. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  11. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model of Rat Body Weight Regulation in Application to Caloric Restriction and Drug Treatment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, Jangir; Thompson, W Clayton; Patterson, Terrell A; Hadcock, John R; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of energy balance and body weight regulation that can predict species-specific response to common pre-clinical interventions. To this end, we evaluate the ability of a previously published mathematical model of mouse metabolism to describe changes in body weight and body composition in rats in response to two short-term interventions. First, we adapt the model to describe body weight and composition changes in Sprague-Dawley rats by fitting to data previously collected from a 26-day caloric restriction study. The calibrated model is subsequently used to describe changes in rat body weight and composition in a 23-day cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist (CB1Ra) study. While the model describes body weight data well, it fails to replicate body composition changes with CB1Ra treatment. Evaluation of a key model assumption about deposition of fat and fat-free masses shows a limitation of the model in short-term studies due to the constraint placed on the relative change in body composition components. We demonstrate that the model can be modified to overcome this limitation, and propose additional measurements to further test the proposed model predictions. These findings illustrate how mathematical models can be used to support drug discovery and development by identifying key knowledge gaps and aiding in the design of additional experiments to further our understanding of disease-relevant and species-specific physiology.

  12. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model of Rat Body Weight Regulation in Application to Caloric Restriction and Drug Treatment Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangir Selimkhanov

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of energy balance and body weight regulation that can predict species-specific response to common pre-clinical interventions. To this end, we evaluate the ability of a previously published mathematical model of mouse metabolism to describe changes in body weight and body composition in rats in response to two short-term interventions. First, we adapt the model to describe body weight and composition changes in Sprague-Dawley rats by fitting to data previously collected from a 26-day caloric restriction study. The calibrated model is subsequently used to describe changes in rat body weight and composition in a 23-day cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist (CB1Ra study. While the model describes body weight data well, it fails to replicate body composition changes with CB1Ra treatment. Evaluation of a key model assumption about deposition of fat and fat-free masses shows a limitation of the model in short-term studies due to the constraint placed on the relative change in body composition components. We demonstrate that the model can be modified to overcome this limitation, and propose additional measurements to further test the proposed model predictions. These findings illustrate how mathematical models can be used to support drug discovery and development by identifying key knowledge gaps and aiding in the design of additional experiments to further our understanding of disease-relevant and species-specific physiology.

  13. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β 3 AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β 3 ARs in adipose tissue. However, β 3 ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brain stem and the hypothalamus, which provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the central nervous system (CNS) may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β 3 ARs. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate whether CNS β 3 ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation, such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β 3 AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β 3 AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β 3 AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high-fat, high-sugar-fed rats, subchronic central β 3 AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β 3 AR activation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is Essential for the Physiological Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight

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    Saira Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is a significant global health issue. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite and body weight will provide the rationale for the design of anti-obesity therapies. Thyroid hormones play a key role in metabolic homeostasis through their interaction with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs, which function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The TR-beta isoform (TRβ is expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, a brain area important for control of energy homeostasis. Here, we report that selective knockdown of TRβ in the VMH of adult mice results in severe obesity due to hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. The observed increase in body weight is of a similar magnitude to murine models of the most extreme forms of monogenic obesity. These data identify TRβ in the VMH as a major physiological regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis.

  16. Contributions of the Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior. PMID:18831000

  17. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  18. Role of GABA Release From Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons in Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones. PMID:22334723

  19. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

    2007-08-01

    The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state.

  20. The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology and metabolism.

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    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews findings that have accumulated since the original description of the syndrome that follows destruction of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These data comprise the areas of neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology, neurochemistry, and intermediary metabolism. Neurons in the LHA are the largest in the hypothalamus, and are topographically well organized. The LHA belongs to the parasympathetic area of the hypothalamus, and connects with all major parts of the brain and the major hypothalamic nuclei. Rats with LHA lesions regulate their body weight set point in a primary manner and not because of destruction of a "feeding center". The lower body weight is not due to finickiness. In the early stages of the syndrome, catabolism and running activity are enhanced, and so is the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as shown by increased norepinephrine excretion that normalizes one mo later. The LHA plays a role in the feedback control of body weight regulation different from ventromedial (VMN) and dorsomedial (DMN). Tissue preparations from the LHA promote glucose utilization and insulin release. Although it does not belong to the classical hypothysiotropic area of the hypothalamus, the LHA does affect neuroendocrine secretions. No plasma data on growth hormone are available following electrolytic lesions LHA but electrical stimulation fails to elicit GH secretion. Nevertheless, antiserum raised against the 1-37 fragment of human GHRF stains numerous perikarya in the dorsolateral LHA. The plasma circadian corticosterone rhythm is disrupted in LHA lesioned rats, but this is unlikely due to destruction of intrinsic oscillators. Stimulation studies show a profound role of the LHA in glucose metabolism (glycolysis, glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis), this mechanism being cholinergic. Its role in lipolysis appears not to be critical. In general, stimulation of the VMN elicits opposite effects. Lesion studies in rats show altered

  1. Two New Loci for Body-Weight Regulation Identified in a Joint Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Early-Onset Extreme Obesity in French and German Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Dina, Christian; Hinney, Anke; Vatin, Vincent; Scherag, Susann; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Müller, Timo D.; Grallert, Harald; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Balkau, Beverley; Heude, Barbara; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Weill, Jacques; Delplanque, Jérôme; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Kovacs, Peter; Rayner, Nigel W.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.; Schäfer, Helmut; Jarick, Ivonne; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Reinehr, Thomas; Heinrich, Joachim; Rzehak, Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Biebermann, Heike; Krude, Heiko; Rosskopf, Dieter; Rimmbach, Christian; Rief, Winfried; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin; Schürmann, Annette; Schulz, Nadja; Nöthen, Markus M.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Boes, Tanja; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; Hebebrand, Johannes; Meyre, David

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions) generalized to (i) the population level and (ii) to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step). Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85×10−8 in the DISCOVERY step) and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene) and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84×10−7), the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at ∼1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between

  2. Two new Loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and german study groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Scherag

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions generalized to (i the population level and (ii to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step. Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85x10(-8 in the DISCOVERY step and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84x10(-7, the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at approximately 1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial

  3. Body weight and ADHD: examining the role of self-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Choudhry

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD.284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES.Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile.Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight.

  4. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  5. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  6. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...

  7. The effective dose and pattern of soybean extract administration to regulate body weight of laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2016-07-01

    the intake of protein and suppress appetite for short-term. Detam 1 variety is a high-quality soybean according to the Minister of Agriculture of Indonesia. Soybean protein extract Detam 1 by Deak method contains high levels of β conglycinin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effective dose of protein extract Detam 1 soybean Deak Method (PEDSDM in reducing food intake, regulate body weight, and plasma CCK level for 14 and 28 days at various dosage and pattern of treatment on male Wistar rats. Methods: There were eleven groups of treatment (n = 3, administrated with extracts at 5 mg/1x/day, 10 mg/1x/day, 20 mg/1x/day, 2.5 mg/2x/day, 5 mg/2x/day, 10 mg/2x/day and 1.7mg/3x/day, 3.4mg/3x/day, 6.7 mg/3x/day, negative control group (distilled water and positive control group (Sibutramine. Food intake (g, weight loss (g and measurement of plasma Cholecystokinin levels by ELISA (ng /ml Results: The results showed that the highest percentage decrease in food intake is: group 3.4mg /3x/ day (p <0.05, inhibition weight gain for 14 days: group 10 mg /1x/ day, for 28 days: group 1.7 mg/3x/day (p <0.05, increased plasma Cholecystokinin levels: group 20 mg /1x/day (p <0.05. Conclusions: The effective dose and pattern administrating the rats for 14 days is extract of 10 mg once a day in the morning, for 28 days is 1.7 mg three times a day. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:17-26 Keywords: Soybean var Detam 1 -effective dose - body weight - Cholecystokinin 

  8. Lipoprotein lipase in hypothalamus is a key regulator of body weight gain and glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrousaz, Elise; Moullé, Valentine S; Denis, Raphaël G; Kassis, Nadim; Berland, Chloé; Colsch, Benoit; Fioramonti, Xavier; Philippe, Erwann; Lacombe, Amélie; Vanacker, Charlotte; Butin, Noémie; Bruce, Kimberley D; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yongping; Gao, Yuanqing; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Prévot, Vincent; Tschöp, Matthias H; Eckel, Robert H; Le Stunff, Hervé; Luquet, Serge; Magnan, Christophe; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline

    2017-07-01

    Regulation of energy balance involves the participation of many factors, including nutrients, among which are circulating lipids, acting as peripheral signals informing the central nervous system of the energy status of the organism. It has been shown that neuronal lipoprotein lipase (LPL) participates in the control of energy balance by hydrolysing lipid particles enriched in triacylglycerols. Here, we tested the hypothesis that LPL in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), a well-known nucleus implicated in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, could also contribute to the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We injected an adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing Cre-green fluorescent protein into the MBH of Lpl-floxed mice (and wild-type mice) to specifically decrease LPL activity in the MBH. In parallel, we injected an AAV overexpressing Lpl into the MBH of wild-type mice. We then studied energy homeostasis and hypothalamic ceramide content. The partial deletion of Lpl in the MBH in mice led to an increase in body weight compared with controls (37.72 ± 0.7 g vs 28.46 ± 0.12, p < 0.001) associated with a decrease in locomotor activity. These mice developed hyperinsulinaemia and glucose intolerance. This phenotype also displayed reduced expression of Cers1 in the hypothalamus as well as decreased concentration of several C18 species of ceramides and a 3-fold decrease in total ceramide intensity. Conversely, overexpression of Lpl specifically in the MBH induced a decrease in body weight. Our study shows that LPL in the MBH is an important regulator of body weight and glucose homeostasis.

  9. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  10. Dietary change, energy balance and body weight regulation among migrating students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, S L; Henry, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine how subjects modulate their food intake and energy balance when they migrate from a low energy density food intake pattern to one of high energy density. It was hypothesised that an increase in the energy density of food consumed would result in increased body weight of the migrating subjects unless food intake and energy balance could be modulated. Food selection, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and anthropometric measurements were made on 53 female and 56 male newly arrived overseas students. All subjects were from Malaysia, but the data was collected at Oxford Brookes University where the subjects were studying. Food intake using 3-day food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). BMR and anthropometric measurements including body weight were measured on arrival in the UK and after 3 and 6 months' stay. Student's t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the data. A significant difference (P foods consumed in Malaysia and after 3 and 6 months in the UK. There was also a significant decrease (P food selection due mainly to the lack of availability of certain foods in UK supermarkets. No significant differences were found in the BMR and anthropometric measurements made at the start of the study and later assessments. It appears that Malaysian students are able to remain in energy balance and are weight stable at least during the first 6 months of residence in the UK, despite the wider choice of energy dense food available. This suggests that at least in the short term, subjects are able to modulate their food intake in response to changes in the energy densities and free choice of food.

  11. Adipose tissue (PRR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaykho Shamansurova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(PRR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (PRR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. Methods: An adipose tissue-specific (PRR knockout (KO mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (PRR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. Results: KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT. Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (PRR. Conclusions: (PRR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes. Keywords: (Prorenin receptor, Renin-angiotensin system, Adipose

  12. Visfatin Triggers Anorexia and Body Weight Loss through Regulating the Inflammatory Response in the Hypothalamic Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Hien Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is an adipokine that is secreted from adipose tissue, and it is involved in a variety of physiological processes. In particular, visfatin has been implicated in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are directly linked to systemic inflammation. However, the potential impacts of visfatin on the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis, which is involved in microglial inflammation, have not fully been investigated. In this study, we found that treatment with exogenous recombinant visfatin protein led to the activation of the inflammatory response in a microglial cell line. In addition, we observed that central administration of visfatin led to the activation of microglia in the hypothalamus. Finally, we found that visfatin reduced food intake and body weight through activating POMC neurons in association with microglia activation in mice. These findings indicate that elevation of central visfatin levels may be associated with homeostatic feeding behavior in response to metabolic shifts, such as increased adiposity following inflammatory processes in the hypothalamus.

  13. Manipulating central nervous mechanisms of food intake and body weight regulation by intranasal administration of neuropeptides in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Benedict, Christian; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst-Lorenz; Kern, Werner

    2004-10-30

    Maintaining a stable body weight set-point is assumed to rely on a homeostatic central nervous system (CNS) regulation of body fat with the particular involvement of hypothalamic pathways. The peripheral adiposity signals insulin and leptin convey information on the amount of energy stored as body fat to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where anabolic/orexigenic and catabolic/anorexigenic pathways interact to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. One of the most prominent orexigenic messengers is neuropeptide Y (NPY), whereas melanocortins, including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), are essential for inducing anorexigenic effects. The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4-R) plays the most important role in mediating catabolic effects of alpha-MSH. In this review, we present a series of own studies on NPY, insulin and MSH/ACTH4-10, an MC4-R agonist. The studies were all based on the intranasal route of administration which enables a direct access of the peptides to hypothalamic functions. NPY acutely attenuated electrocortical signs of meal-related satiety. Prolonged intranasal administration of insulin as well as of MSH induced weight loss in healthy human subjects. However, overweight subjects did not lose body fat after MSH administration. The results corroborate in humans the significance of all three messengers for the central nervous regulation of adiposity and might contribute to the future development of medical strategies against body-weight-related disorders.

  14. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  15. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  16. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, J.D.; van Boxtel, R.; Bergen, D.J.; Brans, M.A.; Brakkee, J.H.; Toonen, P.W.; Garner, K.M.; Adan, R.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is

  17. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Viola; Willershäuser, Monja; Herzer, Silke; Rozman, Jan; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Meldner, Sascha; Rothermel, Ulrike; Kaden, Sylvia; Roth, Fabian C; Waldeck, Clemens; Gretz, Norbert; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Draguhn, Andreas; Klingenspor, Martin; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Jennemann, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase). As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS) metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR) in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos) in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg) display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc) significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  18. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.E. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  19. The Effect of GWAS Identified BMI Loci on Changes in Body Weight among Middle-Aged Danes during a Five-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, C. H.; Allin, K. H.; Toft, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associating with BMI, however, it is un-clarified whether the same variants also influence body weight fluctuations. Methods: Among 3,982 adult individuals that attended both a baseline and a five-year follow-up examinati...

  20. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  1. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  2. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...

  3. Effects of lifestyle intervention and meal replacement on glycaemic and body-weight control in Chinese subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a 1-year randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan-Feng; Sun, Jian-Qin; Chen, Min; Chen, Yan-Qiu; Xie, Hua; Sun, Wei-Jia; Lin, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ai-Fang; Tang, Qian-Ru

    2013-02-14

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (-1·8 (SEM 0·35) v. -0·6 (SEM 0·40) 2·5 kg, Pmeal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.

  4. Ghrelin in small intestine, its contribution to regulation of food intake and body weight in cross-intestinal parabiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hitoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to be associated with feeding behavior in humans and rodents. It has been suggested that ghrelin may play a role behind the effect of bariatric surgery. Inbred rats were made into parabiotic pairs so that they shared a single abdominal cavity. A further operation is performed later in which the small intestines are transected and re-connected so that one rat continually lost nutrition to its partner. Changes in food intake and body weight were recorded. Seven weeks later, content of ghrelin in the plasma, stomach and upper intestines were measured in the paired rats. Rats which lost nutrients to its counterpart (Loss rats) ingested significantly more food than sham control rats (pgained nutrient (Gain rats) ingested less than controls (pweight, blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides between the paired rats. There was significantly higher levels of ghrelin in the plasma (pGain rats, which ate less than controls. Because no remarkable changes in the ghrelin content were observed in the stomach, difference in the quality of the chime may affect the local synthesis and release of ghrelin.

  5. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  6. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  7. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Dulac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Method A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA], grip strength (dynamometer and functional capacity (senior fitness tests were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW in Kg/KgBW obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW. Results The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001, chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005 and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001. The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0 (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8 (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively. Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032, but not with type I dynapenic. Conclusion The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  8. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, M.D.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Drent, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a

  9. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α -glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  10. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  11. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  13. Opposite effects of alcohol in regulating stress-induced changes in body weight between the two mouse lines with enhanced or low opioid system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Sadowski, Bogdan; Jaszczak, Kazimierz; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2010-04-19

    Considering the involvement of the opioid system in alcoholism, depression and metabolism - known risk factors in human obesity, we studied the effects of chronic mild stress (CMS) and alcohol intake on body weight in two mouse lines selected for high (HA-high analgesia) or low (LA-low analgesia) swim stress-induced analgesia. In comparison to LA mice, HA mice exhibit an upregulation of opioid receptor system function, different depression-like behavior and reduced energy expenditure in stress. LA animals showed enhanced basal and CMS-induced alcohol drinking versus HA. Now we report different effects of alcohol under no stress (control) and CMS conditions on food intake and body weight between the lines. CMS in animals with no access to alcohol increased body weight in both HA and LA mice, with no effect of CMS on food intake in either line and without differences between the lines. In LA mice alcohol reduced body weight under both conditions although significantly more under the control than CMS conditions. In contrast, in HA mice alcohol increased body weight more under the CMS than under control conditions. The results suggest that opioid system may modulate effects of alcohol on stress -induced changes in body weight. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  15. Critical role of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of neuronal SH2B1 in the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David L; Cho, Kae Won; Rui, Liangyou

    2010-08-01

    SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism in both rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 in mice results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SH2B1 loci and chromosomal deletions of the SH2B1 loci associate with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. In cultured cells, SH2B1 promotes leptin and insulin signaling by binding via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines in Janus kinase 2 and the insulin receptor, respectively. Here we generated three lines of mice to analyze the role of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 in the central nervous system. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type, SH2 domain-defective (R555E), or SH2 domain-alone (DeltaN503) forms of SH2B1 specifically in neurons were crossed with SH2B1 knockout mice to generate KO/SH2B1, KO/R555E, or KO/DeltaN503 compound mutant mice. R555E had a replacement of Arg(555) with Glu within the SH2 domain. DeltaN503 contained an intact SH2 domain but lacked amino acids 1-503. Neuron-specific expression of recombinant SH2B1, but not R555E or DeltaN503, corrected hyperphagia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in SH2B1 null mice. Neuron-specific expression of R555E in wild-type mice promoted obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that in addition to the SH2 domain, N-terminal regions of neuronal SH2B1 are also required for the maintenance of normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Additionally, mutations in the SH2 domain of SH2B1 may increase the susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes in a dominant-negative manner.

  16. Relationship of adipokine to insulin sensitivity and glycemic regulation in obese women: The effect of body weight reduction by caloric restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velojić-Golubović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  18. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,

  19. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  1. Critical Role of the Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain of Neuronal SH2B1 in the Regulation of Body Weight and Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, David L.; Cho, Kae Won; Rui, Liangyou

    2010-01-01

    SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism in both rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 in mice results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SH2B1 loci and chromosomal deletions of the SH2B1 loci associate with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. In cultured cells, SH2B1 promotes leptin and insulin signaling by binding via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines ...

  2. Effects of targeted delivery of propionate to the human colon on appetite regulation, body weight maintenance and adiposity in overweight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Edward S; Viardot, Alexander; Psichas, Arianna; Morrison, Douglas J; Murphy, Kevin G; Zac-Varghese, Sagen E K; MacDougall, Kenneth; Preston, Tom; Tedford, Catriona; Finlayson, Graham S; Blundell, John E; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ashby, Deborah; Gibson, Glen R; Kolida, Sofia; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bloom, Stephen R; Morley, Wayne; Clegg, Stuart; Frost, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objective The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and reduce energy intake and weight gain in overweight adults. Design To investigate whether propionate promotes PYY and GLP-1 secretion, a primary cultured human colonic cell model was developed. To deliver propionate specifically to the colon, we developed a novel inulin-propionate ester. An acute randomised, controlled cross-over study was used to assess the effects of this inulin-propionate ester on energy intake and plasma PYY and GLP-1 concentrations. The long-term effects of inulin-propionate ester on weight gain were subsequently assessed in a randomised, controlled 24-week study involving 60 overweight adults. Results Propionate significantly stimulated the release of PYY and GLP-1 from human colonic cells. Acute ingestion of 10 g inulin-propionate ester significantly increased postprandial plasma PYY and GLP-1 and reduced energy intake. Over 24 weeks, 10 g/day inulin-propionate ester supplementation significantly reduced weight gain, intra-abdominal adipose tissue distribution, intrahepatocellular lipid content and prevented the deterioration in insulin sensitivity observed in the inulin-control group. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time that increasing colonic propionate prevents weight gain in overweight adult humans. Trial registration number NCT00750438. PMID:25500202

  3. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    in former or never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption causes lower body weight among current smokers. However, smoking does not seem to affect body shape or fat distribution causally. The lack of association between CHRNA3 genotype and body weight among former smokers and never smokers favours......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...

  4. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight (ID 1701) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    as reservoir fats if not immediately utilised by the organism; it results in a lower calories intake, contributing to weight loss”. The target population is assumed to be overweight individuals in the general population who wish to reduce their body weight. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel...... assumes that the claimed effect refers to a reduction in body weight. The Panel considers that reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one short-term (30 day) intervention study in humans showed an effect...

  6. Effects of body weight and alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcomb Valerie B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. Method Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible gene expression alterations in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT. We obtained WAT from mice fed a calorie restricted (CR, low fat (LF Control or high fat (HF diets and either water or 20% ethanol in the drinking water. We screened the expression of genes related to the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin regulation using a gene array composed of 384 genes. Results Obesity induced insulin resistance and calorie restriction and alcohol improved insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance in obese mice was associated with the increased expression of inflammatory markers Cd68, Il-6 and Il-1α; in contrast, most of these genes were down-regulated in CR mice. Anti-inflammatory factors such as Il-10 and adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (Adrbk1 were decreased in obese mice and increased by CR and alcohol. Also, we report a direct correlation between body weight and the expression of the following genes: Kcnj11 (potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11, Lpin2 (lipin2, and Dusp9 (dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase 9. Conclusion We show that alcohol consumption increased insulin sensitivity. Additionally, alterations

  7. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  8. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  9. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  10. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  12. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  13. Transgenic rescue of adipocyte glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor expression restores high fat diet-induced body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...

  14. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cahyadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait locus (QTL is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC. F1 samples (n = 595 were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3 for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001 and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003. Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007 and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027 were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.

  15. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  16. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  17. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  18. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  19. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  20. Monitoring dose-length product in computed tomography of the chest considering sex and body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Naomichi; Hanawa, Hironori; Hata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Dose-length product (DLP) is widely used as an indicator of the radiation dose in computed tomography. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of sex and body weight in DLP-based monitoring of the radiation dose. Eight hundred computed tomographies of the chest performed using four different scanners were analysed. The DLP was compared with body weight by linear regression in men and women separately. The DLP was positively correlated with body weight, and dependence on sex and weight differed among scanners. Standard DLP values adjusted for sex and weight facilitated inter-scanner comparison of the radiation dose and its dependence on sex and weight. Adjusting the DLP for sex and weight allowed one to identify examinations with possibly excessive doses independently of weight. Monitoring the DLP in relation to sex and body weight appears to aid detailed comparison of the radiation dose among imaging protocols and scanners and daily observations to find unexpected variance. (authors)

  1. Lateral hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors are critical for the control of food reinforcement, ingestive behavior and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferreras, L; Richard, J E; Noble, E E; Eerola, K; Anderberg, R H; Olandersson, K; Taing, L; Kanoski, S E; Hayes, M R; Skibicka, K P

    2017-09-12

    Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH. Ingestive behavior and metabolic parameters, as well as molecular and efferent targets, of the LH GLP-1R activation were also evaluated. Food motivation was reduced by activation of LH GLP-1R. Conversely, acute pharmacological blockade of LH GLP-1R increased food motivation but only in male rats. GLP-1R activation also induced a robust reduction in food intake and body weight. Chronic knockdown of LH GLP-1R induced by intraparenchymal delivery of an adeno-associated virus-short hairpin RNA construct was sufficient to markedly and persistently elevate ingestive behavior and body weight and ultimately resulted in a doubling of fat mass in males and females. Interestingly, increased food reinforcement was again found only in males. Our data identify the LH GLP-1R as an indispensable element of normal food reinforcement, food intake and body weight regulation. These findings also show, for we believe the first time, that brain GLP-1R manipulation can result in a robust and chronic body weight gain. The broader implications of these findings are that the LH differs between females and males in its ability to control motivated and ingestive behaviors.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.187.

  2. Self- Perception of Body Weight Status in Older Dutch Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Dijkstra, S C; Visser, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current versus ideal body image in a large, nationally representative sample of older people. Furthermore, determinants of misperception were explored. A cross-sectional study. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), conducted in a population-based sample in the Netherlands. 1295 men and women aged 60-96 years. Body weight status was assessed using measured weight and height. Self-perceived body weight status, satisfaction with body weight and current and ideal body image were also assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of age, educational level and objectively measured BMI with underestimation of body weight status. The prevalence of obesity was 19.9% in men and 29.3% in women. The agreement between objective and self-perceived body weight status was low (Kappa 99% of obese participants desired to be thinner (ideal body image < current image). Only 4.4% of obese men and 12.3% of obese women perceived their body weight status correctly. Higher age (women), lower educational level (men) and higher BMI (all) were associated with greater underestimation of body weight status. Many older persons misperceive their body weight status. Future actions to improve body weight perception in older persons are necessary to increase the impact of public health campaigns focussing on a healthy body weight in old age.

  3. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  4. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  5. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  6. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  7. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  8. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  9. Aspectos atuais da regulação do peso corporal: ação da leptina no desequilíbrio energético Recent aspects of body weight regulation: leptin's action on the energetic misbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Donato Júnior

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade já é considerada epidemia global, com taxas de insucesso em seu tratamento a longo prazo de mais de 90%. A descoberta da leptina, um peptídeo sintetizado principalmente pelos adipócitos, abriu novas fronteiras no estudo do tratamento da obesidade. Constatou-se que a leptina, por meio do controle de sua concentração na circulação, poderia ser um sinalizador do estado energético e do tamanho das reservas de gordura, ao atuar em um circuito de retroalimentação, cuja função é de manter o peso corporal estável, independentemente de variações diárias no consumo de energia. Porém, esse circuito apresenta falhas na maioria dos indivíduos que se tornam obesos (baixa responsividade pela alta concentração de leptina que esses indivíduos apresentam, o que levou à hipótese da "resistência à leptina". Entretanto, essa revisão sugere que a função fisiológica da leptina é a de um hormônio que "impede" a perda de peso, pois, as repercussões fisiológicas da redução da concentração de leptina são muito mais intensas comparadas ao seu aumento, pelo menos em seres humanos. Dessa forma, o que se convencionou chamar de resistência à leptina expressa apenas o fato, inerente aos seres humanos, de que a elevada concentração de leptina produz somente pequena ação fisiológica.Nowadays obesity can be considered a global epidemic illness, though it shows a long-term treatment failure index higher than 90%. Research work on leptin, which is a peptide mainly produced by fat cells, lead to a breakthrough for medical obesity treatment. It has been found out that leptin - through control of its concentration, could be a marker of the energetic status and depot of fat amounts in cells as well. This occurs by acting in a feedback circuit which function is to maintain body weight stable - this independently of food intake variations. Hence, if this circuit presents failures, as i.e. low response to high leptin concentration

  10. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  11. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and reduction of body weight in the context of an energy-restricted diet: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following an application from Loc Troi group, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...

  13. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.

  14. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Pearson's correlation coefficient between body weight and other measured traits. .... management system where routine and ..... 13th Annual Conference of Animal ... and Genetic variation among local chickens in Edo State of Nigeria. Ed.

  15. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  16. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  17. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is a major problem of the developing nations. ... Except for the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume that were ...

  18. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different mixtures of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The experimental diets (starter and finisher diets) were offered to the respective bids with water ad libitum.

  19. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Mumphrey, M B; Morrison, C D; Münzberg, H; Ye, J; Berthoud, H R

    2016-12-01

    The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Unlike dieting, bariatric surgery does a much better job in producing sustained suppression of food intake and body weight, and an intensive search for the underlying mechanisms has started. Although one explanation for this lasting effect of particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is simple physical restriction due to the invasive surgery, a more exciting explanation is that the surgery physiologically reprograms the body weight defense mechanism. In this non-systematic review, we present behavioral evidence from our own and other studies that defended body weight is lowered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. After these surgeries, rodents return to their preferred lower body weight if over- or underfed for a period of time, and the ability to drastically increase food intake during the anabolic phase strongly argues against the physical restriction hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Although the mechanism involves central leptin and melanocortin signaling pathways, other peripheral signals such as gut hormones and their neural effector pathways likely contribute. Future research using both targeted and non-targeted 'omics' techniques in both humans and rodents as well as modern, genetically targeted, neuronal manipulation techniques in rodents will be necessary.

  20. Guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression is increased following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but guanylins do not play a significant role in body weight regulation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cachon, María L; Pedersen, Søren L; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides...... for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared. GN, UGN and their prohormones (proGN, proUGN) were administered subcutaneously in normal-weight mice to evaluate effects...... on food intake. GN and UGN, as well as their prohormones, were evaluated for effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat pancreatic islets and perfused rat pancreas. RESULTS: GUCA2A and GUCA2B mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in enteroendocrine cells after RYGB. Peripheral...

  1. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  3. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  4. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals...... with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results....

  5. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  6. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  7. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  9. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...

  10. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...

  11. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  13. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  14. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  15. Estimates Of Genetic Parameters Of Body Weights Of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four (44) farrowings were used to estimate the genetic parameters (heritability and repeatability) of body weight of pigs. Results obtained from the study showed that the heritability (h2) of birth and weaning weights were moderate (0.33±0.16 ...

  16. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    records of Marshall Broiler chickens to be more alike is low. Repeatability and variance ... the feed efficiency as well as performance ... Body weight is regarded as a function of frame work or size of the ... an animal‟s life time. ... Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke. Akintola ... measured with a weighing balance calibrated ...

  17. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Body Weight Gain of White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...

  18. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  19. Body weight and wages: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I

    2012-01-01

    This note uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the relationship between body weight and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and individual fixed effects estimates provide evidence that overweight and obese white women are paid substantially less per hour than their slimmer counterparts. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation confirms this relationship, suggesting that it is not driven by time-variant unobservables. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Changes in body weight of the university students at university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, María Nelia; Aguinaga Ontonso, Inés; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Hermoso de Mendoza, Juana; Serrano Monzo, Inmaculada; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2015-06-01

    One of the strategies for the prevention of the obesity is the identification of critical periods of gain weight. Some studies confirm gain weight during the university period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the body weight of the university students in Navarre. Prospective cohort study. Public University of Navarre and the University of Navarre, in Pamplona. Study examined weight change among 452 students attending at university in Pamplona, during first and third course. Four hundred and fifty two students completed the questionnaire. Weight and height were measures and body mass index was calculated. The mean body weight increased 0,600 kg, 1,8 kg for males and no change in body weight was observed in female. 44,7 % of students gained weight (60,8 % of men and 36,8 % of women), and the gain weight was of 3,4 kg. University years are a critical factor for the gain weight, particularly males. Consideration of this, is necessary the development of effective weight gain prevention strategies during the university. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [de

  3. [Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Odatzidu, L; Kiencke, P; Schicha, H

    2002-02-01

    Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to diacylglycerol oil and reduction of body weight. The food constituent, diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and the food constituents, vegetable oils of similar fatty acid composition containing mostly (>90%) triacylglycerol (TAG), which DAG oil should replace in order to obtain the claimed effect...... conclusions to be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The results from six RCTs with respect to the effect of DAG oil (as a replacement of TAG oils) on body weight are inconsistent and apparently unrelated to the DAG dose, study size or study duration, and the evidence provided in support...... of mechanisms by which DAG oil could exert the claimed effect in humans under the proposed conditions of use is not convincing. One unpublished meta-analysis on the effects of DAG oil (as compared to TAG oils) on body weight in humans which included data from all these RCTs was also provided. The meta...

  5. Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in the arcuate nucleus of juvenile Phodopus sungorus alters seasonal body weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham K; Benzler, Jonas; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Boucsein, Alisa; Stöhr, Sigrid; Steger, Juliane; Culmsee, Carsten; Barrett, Perry; Tups, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    The profound seasonal cycle in body weight exhibited by the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is associated with the development of hypothalamic leptin resistance during long day photoperiod (LD, 16:8 h light dark cycle), when body weight is elevated relative to short day photoperiod (SD, 8:16 h light dark cycle). We previously have shown that this seasonal change in physiology is associated with higher levels of mRNA for the potent inhibitor of leptin signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of LD hamsters relative to hamsters in SD. The alteration in SOCS3 gene expression preceded the body weight change suggesting that SOCS3 might be the molecular switch of seasonal body weight changes. To functionally characterize the role of SOCS3 in seasonal body weight regulation, we injected SOCS3 expressing recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 (rAAV2-SOCS3) constructs into the ARC of leptin sensitive SD hamsters immediately after weaning. Hamsters that received rAAV2 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rAAV2-EGFP) served as controls. ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression led to a significant increase in body weight over a period of 12 weeks without fully restoring the LD phenotype. This increase was partially due to elevated brown and white adipose tissue mass. Gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin was increased while thyroid hormone converting enzyme DIO3 mRNA levels were reduced in SD hamsters with SOCS3 overexpression. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression partially overcomes the profound seasonal body weight cycle exhibited by the hamster which is associated with altered pro-opiomelanocortin and DIO3 gene expression.

  6. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    with the RW group (+0.15±1.28 and -0.04±0.82 kg, respectively; Pmass in the WGR group tended to exceed that in the WGW group (P=0.07). Overall, no effect of diet on appetite sensation was observed; however, energy intake from study products...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...... was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (Penergy intake did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a role for WGR foods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected...

  7. Age-dependent QTL affecting body weight in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined 24 maternal half-sib families of gilthead seabream to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with body weight at four time points during a production cycle. 57 brooders and 637 offspring were genotyped for 14 informative microsatellite markers, spanning linkage groups 1 and 21. The QTL detection method was based on half-sib interval mapping analysis through a linear regression approach. One QTL was found significant at all time points in linkage group 1, with its effect having different profile across time, and one QTL in linkage group 21 that seems to impact body weight at a later growth stage of the species. Current results verified previously published QTL for growth in the above linkage groups, using a different genetic background of seabream. These QTL can be considered as valuable candidates for use in marker-assisted selective breeding programs, aiming at high rates of genetic improvement for growth in S. aurata.

  8. "Those comments last forever": parents and grandparents of preschoolers recount how they became aware of their own body weights as children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eli

    Full Text Available Parents' and grandparents' willingness to talk about children's body weights may be influenced by their own childhood experiences of body weight awareness and 'weight talk' in the family; however, little is known about how adults describe their recollected weight-related childhood experiences.This paper examines how parents and grandparents of preschoolers describe the emergence of their own body weight awareness in childhood or adolescence. The analysis highlights the sources that participants identify as having instigated their body weight awareness, the feelings and experiences participants associate with the experience of becoming aware of their body weights, and their framings of potential links between childhood experiences and attitudes and practices in adulthood.49 participants (22 parents, 27 grandparents, 70% women, 60% with overweight/obesity from sixteen low-income families of children aged 3-5 years (50% girls, 56% with overweight/obesity in the Pacific Northwest were interviewed. The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively.Twenty-five participants (51% said they became aware of their body weights in childhood or adolescence. Fourteen participants said their body weight awareness emerged through comments made by others, with the majority citing parents or peers. No participant described the emergence of body weight awareness in positive terms. Four participants directly linked their own negative experiences to the decision not to discuss body weight with their preschoolers. All four cited critical comments from their parents as instigating their own body weight awareness in childhood.In most cases, participants associated their emergent awareness of body weight with overtly negative feelings or consequences; some participants said these negative experiences continued to affect them as adults. Since family-based childhood obesity interventions involve open discussion of children's body sizes, the results

  9. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  10. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ≥4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; Pbody weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent–Child Discrepancy on Children’s Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security

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    Arcangelo Uccula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents’ difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent’s attributional accuracy on their children’s body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children’s perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children’s body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children’s parents show a greater correlation with children’s actual weight rather than with their children’s perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children’s body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children’s internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent–child attachment relationship.

  13. Parent-Child Discrepancy on Children's Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents' difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent's attributional accuracy on their children's body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children's perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children's body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children's parents show a greater correlation with children's actual weight rather than with their children's perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children's body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children's internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent-child attachment relationship.

  14. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

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    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  15. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders

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    da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Results Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables “thoughts about dropping out of college,” “medication use because of studies,” “medication and supplements use for body change,” “body mass index,” “socioeconomic status,” “age,” and “performance in course” were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9–26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. Conclusion The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross

  16. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

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    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-07-01

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.

  17. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

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    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

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    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  19. Sugammadex and Ideal Body Weight in Bariatric Surgery

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    Maria Sanfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.

  20. Ideal Body Weight Calculation in the Bariatric Surgical Population.

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    Kammerer, Michael R; Porter, Michelle M; Beekley, Alec C; Tichansky, David S

    2015-10-01

    In bariatric surgery, ideal body weight (IBW) is used to calculate excess body weight (EBW) and percent excess weight lost (%EWL). Bariatric literature typically uses the midpoint of the medium frame from older Metropolitan Life Insurance (MetLife) tables to estimate IBW. This is neither universal nor always clinically accurate. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of standard IBW formulas compared to MetLife data. Weight loss data from 200 bariatric surgical patients between 2009 and 2011 was used to assess the accuracy of IBW formulas. IBWs assigned from the midpoint of the medium frame and reassigned using different gender targets were compared to standard formulas and a new formula to assess the accuracy of all formulas to both targets. Using standard MetLife data, the mean IBW was 136 lb, the mean EBW was 153.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 43.8 %. Using the new target baseline, the mean IBW was 137.1 lb, the mean EBW was 152.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 44 %. Deitel and Greenstein's formula was accurate to 0.3 % of EBW using the standard method, while our new formula was accurate to 0.03 % of EBW. Deitel and Greenstein's formula is most accurate using standard target IBW. The most accurate is our formula using the new MetLife target IBW.

  1. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

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    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  2. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

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    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  4. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

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    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  5. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

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    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  6. Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice.

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    Hagoon Jang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.

  7. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  8. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

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    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  9. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  10. Implicit theories of body weight: entity beliefs can weigh you down.

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    Burnette, Jeni L

    2010-03-01

    The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation.

  11. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

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    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived.

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    Yujung Oh

    Full Text Available Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" (Experiment 1 and "neutral vs. sad" (Experiment 2. As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant's own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are.

  13. Health behaviours, body weight and self-esteem among grade five students in Canada.

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    Wu, Xiuyun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify the principal components of self-esteem and the health behavioural determinants of these components among grade five students. We analysed data from a population-based survey among 4918 grade five students, who are primarily 10 and 11 years of age, and their parents in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The survey comprised the Harvard Youth and Adolescent Questionnaire, parental reporting of students' physical activity (PA) and time spent watching television or using computer/video games. Students heights and weights were objectively measured. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to derive the components of self-esteem, and multilevel, multivariable logistic regression to quantify associations of diet quality, PA, sedentary behaviour and body weight with these components of self-esteem. PCA identified four components for self-esteem: self-perception, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, social-perception. Influences of health behaviours and body weight on self-esteem varied across the components. Better diet quality was associated with higher self-perception and fewer externalizing problems. Less PA and more use of computer/video games were related to lower self-perception and social-perception. Excessive TV watching was associated with more internalizing problems. Students classified as obese were more likely to report low self- and social-perception, and to experience fewer externalizing problems relative to students classified as normal weight. This study demonstrates independent influences of diet quality, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body weight on four aspects of self-esteem among children. These findings suggest that school programs and health promotion strategies that target health behaviours may benefit self-esteem in childhood, and mental health and quality of life later in life.

  14. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  15. Canagliflozin provides greater attainment of both HbA1c and body weight reduction versus sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Davidson, Jaime A; Jodon, Holly; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Qiu, Rong; Canovatchel, William

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieving reductions in both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. Data were pooled from two, randomized, Phase 3 studies of canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin, and canagliflozin 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 1856). The composite end points of change from baseline in both HbA1c HbA1c HbA1c and body weight over 52 weeks versus sitagliptin. A greater proportion of patients had both HbA1c and body weight reductions with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg (67.7%, 72.6%, and 44.1%, respectively). Among patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions, more patients achieved the composite end point of HbA1c HbA1c and body weight, and more patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions achieved HbA1c <7.0% and body weight reduction ≥5% with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers are NCT01106677; NCT01137812.

  16. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  17. Knock down of the myostatin gene by RNA interference increased body weight in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T K; Shukla, R; Chatterjee, R N; Dushyanth, K

    2017-01-10

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscular growth in poultry and other animals. Of several approaches, knocking down the negative regulator is an important aspect to augment muscular growth in chicken. Knock down of myostatin gene has been performed by shRNA acting against the expression of gene in animals. Two methods of knock down of gene in chicken such as embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method have been performed. The hatching percentage in embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method of knock down was 58.0 and 41.5%, respectively. The shRNA in knock down chicken enhanced body weight at 6 weeks by 26.9%. The dressing percentage and serum biochemical parameters such as SGPT and alkaline phosphatase differed significantly (Pknock down and control birds. It is concluded that knocking down the myostatin gene successfully augmented growth in chicken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  19. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon-producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Ottolini, Matteo; Raje, Vidisha; Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G; Harris, Thurl E; Patel, Manoj K; Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake-lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide-expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.

  20. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  1. Body-weight-supported treadmill rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Pamela W; Sullivan, Katherine J; Behrman, Andrea L; Azen, Stanley P; Wu, Samuel S; Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce H; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K; Cen, Steven; Hayden, Sarah K

    2011-05-26

    Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in treadmill stepping, is a physical therapy intervention used to improve recovery of the ability to walk after stroke. The effectiveness and appropriate timing of this intervention have not been established. We stratified 408 participants who had had a stroke 2 months earlier according to the extent of walking impairment--moderate (able to walk 0.4 to stroke had occurred (early locomotor training), the second group received this training 6 months after the stroke had occurred (late locomotor training), and the third group participated in an exercise program at home managed by a physical therapist 2 months after the stroke (home-exercise program). Each intervention included 36 sessions of 90 minutes each for 12 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each group who had an improvement in functional walking ability 1 year after the stroke. At 1 year, 52.0% of all participants had increased functional walking ability. No significant differences in improvement were found between early locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcome, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 1.39) or between late locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99). All groups had similar improvements in walking speed, motor recovery, balance, functional status, and quality of life. Neither the delay in initiating the late locomotor training nor the severity of the initial impairment affected the outcome at 1 year. Ten related serious adverse events were reported (occurring in 2.2% of participants undergoing early locomotor training, 3.5% of those undergoing late locomotor training, and 1.6% of those engaging in home exercise). As compared with the home-exercise group, each of the groups receiving locomotor training had a higher frequency of dizziness or faintness during treatment (P=0.008). Among patients with severe walking

  2. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  3. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  4. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  5. Influence of Body Weight on Bone Mass, Architecture, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. While the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  6. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  7. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  8. Gut Microbiota and Body Weight – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Duca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The link between gut microbiota and insulin resistance has an important clinical impact, people affected by dysbiosis having a predisposition for developing: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cancers, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Dysbiosis may lead through chronic inflammation to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We carried out a systematic review of the studies dedicated to the role of gut microbiota in weight gain and obesity. A systematic literature search of recent data published in electronic databases, was performed, using as search phrase: "gut microbiome and body weight and obesity". Studies that contained no data about the influence of gut microbiota changes on obesity were excluded. Western diet, antibiotic use in childhood, excessive maternal pre-pregnancy weight, Cesarean delivery, and testosterone deficiency are triggers of the alteration of microbiota and subsequently the appearance of obesity. Predominance of Firmicutes and anaerobic genera, changes in the mycobiome and viral intestinal population are implied in the etiology of obesity. Prebiotics, polyphenols, different herbs, medication (antidiabetics, calcium, physical exercise, rich fibre intake and bariatric surgery are the most important therapeutic options. Personalized dietary treatments, antiviral agents and mycobiome manipulation would represent the new target in treating obesity. Any change of the quantitative and qualitative composition of microbiota has influence on the components of metabolic syndrome, so any management strategy for the treatment or prevention of obesity in children and adulthood should have the microbiome as target.

  9. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Laura Alice Santos; Martins, Camilla Polonini; Horsczaruk, Carlos Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Débora Cristina Lima; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Meira Mainenti, Míriam Raquel; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The motor impairments related to gait and balance have a huge impact on the life of individuals with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Here, the aim was to assess the possibility of retraining gait, improving cardiopulmonary capacity, and challenging balance during gait in SCA using a partial body weight support (BWS) and a treadmill. Also, the effects of this training over functionality and quality of life were investigated. Eight SCA patients were engaged in the first stage of the study that focused on gait training and cardiovascular conditioning. From those, five took part in a second stage of the study centered on dynamic balance training during gait. The first and second stages lasted 8 and 10 weeks, respectively, both comprising sessions of 50 min (2 times per week). The results showed that gait training using partial BWS significantly increased gait performance, treadmill inclination, duration of exercise, and cardiopulmonary capacity in individuals with SCA. After the second stage, balance improvements were also found. Combining gait training and challenging tasks to the postural control system in SCA individuals is viable, well tolerated by patients with SCA, and resulted in changes in capacity for walking and balance.

  10. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  11. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  12. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  13. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  14. Clinical Efficacy of Jump Training Augmented With Body Weight Support After ACL Reconstruction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Audrey R C; Harris, Kari J; LaStayo, Paul C; Mizner, Ryan L

    2018-06-01

    intervention for athletes with poor outcomes after ACL reconstruction, and training with body weight support lessens the risk for excessive joint stress during practice. Registration: NCT02148172 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  15. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  16. Yokukansankachimpihange increased body weight but not food-incentive motivation in wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Takuya; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; F Tanaka, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used for the amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia with digestive dysfunction. Regardless of its successful use for digestive dysfunction, the effect of YKSCH on body weight was unknown. Furthermore, if YKSCH increased body weight, it might increase motivation according to Kampo medicine theory. Therefore, we investigated whether YKSCH had the potential to increase body weight and enhance motivation in mice. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the long-term effect of YKSCH on body weight and food-incentive motivation. As part of the evaluation, we optimized an operant test for use over the long-term. We found that feeding mice YKSCH-containing chow increased body weight, but did not increase their motivation to food reward. We propose that YKSCH may be a good treatment option for preventing decrease in body weight in patients with dementia.

  17. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Cunningham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW gain after feed restriction and realimentation. We compared adipose samples from cows with greater gain based on average daily gain (ADG during realimentation with samples from cows with lesser gain. Specifically, there were four comparisons including two comparing the high and low gain animals across each feeding period (feed restriction and realimentation and two that compared differences in feed restriction and realimentation across high or low gain classifications. Using microarray analysis, we provide a set of differentially expressed genes identified between the high and low gain at both periods of nutrient restriction and realimentation. These data identify multiple differentially expressed genes between these two phenotypes across both nutritional environments. Keywords: Beef cows, Subcutaneous fat, Transcriptome

  18. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 ...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain triglycerides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain fatty acids, which should replace long-chain fatty acids...... in triglycerides in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, medium-chain fatty acids, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “weight management”. The target population is assumed...

  20. Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to "junk" foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Popp, K A; Winders, S E

    1988-01-01

    The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body weight. These effects were paralleled by changes in consumption of sweet foods. There were no effects of nicotine on salty or bland food consumption. Excessive gains in body weight after cessation of nicotine administration were greater for females than for males.

  1. Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

    2015-01-01

    Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  3. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  4. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  5. Self-perception of body weight status in older Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteagudo, C.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Visser, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current

  6. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  8. (Mis)interpretation of body weight in adult women and men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Bos, A.E.R.; Mayer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined what methods people use to determine and interpret their body weight, and what factors are associated with either an underestimation of overweight or an overestimation of a healthy body weight. Method: The study used self-reported data on weight and height. Data

  9. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  10. Impaired nutrient signaling and body weight control in a Na+ neutral amino acid cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G; Rasko, John E J; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-07-29

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na(+)-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B(0)AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B(0)AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation.

  11. Relationship between chest compression depth and novice rescuer body weight during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong

    2016-12-01

    This study determined if rescuer body weight is a major determinant of chest compression depth (CCD) among novice rescuers by analyzing the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill tests among medical students and determined the body weight threshold for those unable to achieve adequate CCD. Retrospective analysis of CPR test results was performed. A total of 107 medical students completed the tests, which included 5 cycles of CPR. Data were collected using a ResusciAnne SkillReporter. Anthropometric data including participant body weight, body mass index, and height were also collected. The relationships between CCD and anthropometric data were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, univariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between body weight and CCD. The highest positive correlation was found between CCD and body weight (r = 0.636, P compression should preferentially be performed by rescuers of healthy weight or overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  13. Comparison of body weight-supported treadmill training versus body weight-supported overground training in people with incomplete tetraplegia: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelkumar, Thangavelu; Magimairaj, Henry; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Tharion, George; George, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of body weight-supported treadmill training and body weight-supported overground training for improving gait and strength in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. Assessor blinded randomized trial. Rehabilitation institute of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Sixteen participants with traumatic motor incomplete tetraplegia and within two years of injury. Participants were randomised to one of two groups: body weight-supported overground training on level ground and body weight-supported treadmill training. Both groups received 30 minutes of gait training per day, five days a week for eight weeks. In addition, both groups received regular rehabilitation which included flexibility, strength, balance, self care and functional training. The primary outcome measure was the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (/20 points) and the secondary outcome was the Lower Extremity Muscle Score (/50 points). There was no statistically significant between group differences in the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury [mean difference=0.3points; 95% CI (-4.8 to 5.4); p=0.748] or the Lower Extremity Muscle Score [mean difference=0.2 points; 95% CI (-3.8 to 5.1); p=0.749]. Gait training with body weight-supported overground training is comparable to treadmill training for improving locomotion in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight during growth of Thoroughbred racehorses during their athletic career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-18

    Domesticated horses adapt to environmental conditions through seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate. The seasonal change of metabolic rates of domesticated horses in pastures is documented. However, there are few investigations on seasonal body weight change of domesticated horses housed in stables, which are provided constant energy intake throughout the year. Both seasonal changes and gain in body weight of racehorses during their athletic career is known to a lesser extent because their body weight are not measured in most countries. Here, we used a seasonal-trend decomposition method to conduct a time series analysis of body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat races held by the Japan Racing Association from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2014. We acquired 640,431 body weight measurements for race starts and included 632,540 of these in the time series analysis. Based on seasonal component analysis, the body weight of male and gelding horses peaked in autumn and winter and reached its nadir in summer. In contrast, the body weight of female horses peaked in autumn and reached the nadir in spring. Based on trend component analysis, most of the increase in body weight was observed when all sexes approached 5 years of age. The slope of the body weight gain was smaller after that, and an approximately 30 kg gain was observed during their careers. These results indicate that the body weight of a Thoroughbred racehorse fluctuates seasonally, and that there may be sex differences in energy balance mechanisms. Moreover, the present results suggest that the physiological development of Thoroughbred racehorses is completed just before they reach 5 years of age.

  15. Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted selection (MAS) and gene-based selection in sheep breeding strategies. ... control criteria (genotyping frequency >95%, minor allele frequency >0.05 and .... of roles in the body: food digestion, regulation of other proteins and ...

  16. Influence of alternative lifestyles on self-reported body weight and health characteristics in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Kummeling, Ischa; Mommers, Monique; Huber, Machteld A S; Rist, Lukas; van de Vijver, Lucy P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2014-04-01

    Alternative lifestyles are often associated with distinct practices with respect to nutrition, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use and usage of complementary medicine. Evidence concerning effects of these lifestyle-related practices on health status is still fragmentary. To describe maternal health characteristics related to alternative lifestyles, with emphasis on body-weight status, during pregnancy and maternity periods. We compared self-reported health-related features of mothers with alternative lifestyles and conventional lifestyles during pregnancy and maternity period in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. This cohort comprises two recruitment groups of mother-infant pairs, one with a conventional (no selection based on lifestyle, n = 2333), the other with an alternative lifestyle (selected via organic food shops, anthroposophic clinicians and midwives, anthroposophic under-five clinics, Rudolf Steiner schools and relevant magazines, n = 485). Mothers in the alternative group more frequently chose organic foods, adhered to specific living rules, practised vegetarianism and identified themselves with anthroposophy. Mothers in the alternative group showed lower BMI and lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than the conventional group, before pregnancy as well as 4-5 years after delivery. This difference was partly retained after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, women in the alternative group had a lower prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertension, more often started breastfeeding and gave exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding for a longer period. Finally, they smoked less often, but more often drunk alcohol during pregnancy. The results suggest that an alternative lifestyle is associated with favourable body weight and with several differences in other health features.

  17. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  18. Human genetics as a tool to identify progranulin regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alexandra M; Finch, NiCole A; Rademakers, Rosa

    2011-11-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects individuals under the age of 65. It is known that the most common pathological subtype is FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). FTLD has a strong genetic component with about 50% of cases having a positive family history. Mutations identified in the progranulin gene (GRN) have been shown to cause FTLD-TDP as a result of progranulin haploinsufficiency. These findings suggest a progranulin-dependent mechanism in this pathological FTLD subtype. Thus, identifying regulators of progranulin levels is essential for new therapies and treatments for FTLD and related disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of genetic studies in identifying progranulin regulators, beginning with the discovery of pathogenic GRN mutations and additional GRN risk variants. We also cover more recent genetic advances, including the detection of variants in the transmembrane protein 106 B gene that increase FTLD-TDP risk presumably by modulating progranulin levels and the identification of a potential progranulin receptor, sortilin. This review highlights the importance of genetic studies in the context of FTLD and further emphasizes the need for future genetic and cell biology research to continue the effort in finding a cure for progranulin-related diseases.

  19. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  20. The effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) with no body weight support (no-BWS) in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Asad; Shafi, Hina; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the clinical outcomes for patients with stroke after gait training with body weight support (BWS) and with no body weight support (no-BWS).Experimental group was trained to walk by a BWS system with overhead harness (BWS group), and Control group was trained with full weight bearing walk on their lower extremities. Treatment session comprised of six weeks training. Treatment outcomes were assessed on the basis of Timed 10 Meter Walk Test, Timed Get Up and Go Test and Dynamic Gait Index. There was a significant (PTraining of gait in stroke patients while a percentage of their body weight supported by a harness, resulted in better walking abilities than the Training of gait while full weight was placed on patient's lower extremities.

  1. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  2. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  3. Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban Population in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia

  4. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  5. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  6. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  7. A genome-wide association study for body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses clarifies candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 9, 15, and 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOZAKI, Teruaki; KIKUCHI, Mio; KAKOI, Hironaga; HIROTA, Kei-ichi; NAGATA, Shun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body weight is an important trait to confirm growth and development in humans and animals. In Thoroughbred racehorses, it is measured in the postnatal, training, and racing periods to evaluate growth and training degrees. The body weight of mature Thoroughbred racehorses generally ranges from 400 to 600 kg, and this broad range is likely influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Equine SNP70 BeadChip was performed to identify the genomic regions associated with body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses using 851 individuals. The average body weight of these horses was 473.9 kg (standard deviation: 28.0) at the age of 3, and GWAS identified statistically significant SNPs on chromosomes 3 (BIEC2_808466, P=2.32E-14), 9 (BIEC2_1105503, P=1.03E-7), 15 (BIEC2_322669, P=9.50E-6), and 18 (BIEC2_417274, P=1.44E-14), which were associated with body weight as a quantitative trait. The genomic regions on chromosomes 3, 9, 15, and 18 included ligand-dependent nuclear receptor compressor-like protein (LCORL), zinc finger and AT hook domain containing (ZFAT), tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2), and myostatin (MSTN), respectively, as candidate genes. LCORL and ZFAT are associated with withers height in horses, whereas MSTN affects muscle mass. Thus, the genomic regions identified in this study seem to affect the body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses. Although this information is useful for breeding and growth management of the horses, the production of genetically modified animals and gene doping (abuse/misuse of gene therapy) should be prohibited to maintain horse racing integrity. PMID:29270069

  8. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  9. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouz, A.; Asri, A.

    1988-01-01

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  10. The benefits of body weight loss on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Pan

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Obesity can cause impaired HRQOL, which can be improved through BMI intervention. In addition to the benefits of biomedical aspect, this could be an incentive goal for keeping body weight control.

  11. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  12. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    Abstract. Data on 566 Tellicherry goats, recorded between 1988 and 2007 were used to study the effect of non- genetic factors on body weight and daily gain from birth to 12 months of age. The least-squares means for body weight at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.17 ± 0.03 and 18.78 ± 0.44 kg, respectively. The pre-.

  13. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    OpenAIRE

    Aryati Ahmad; Nurzaime Zulaily; Nor Saidah Abdul Manan; Mohd Razif Shahril; Sharifah Wajihah Wafa Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa; Rahmah Mohd Amin; Engku Fadzli Hasan Syed Abdullah; Amran Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body ...

  14. Pengaruh Weight Training Dan Body Weight Training Terhadap Power Tungkai Atlet Bola Tangan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nasrullah,, Rizki Muhammad Afif

    2016-01-01

    Belum diketahuinya latihan berpengaruh untuk meningkatkan power tungkai atlet bola tangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mengetahui pengaruh weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan, (2) mengetahui pengaruh body weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan, dan (3) mengetahui metode latihan yang lebih berpengaruh antara weight training dan body weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan.Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen dengan desa...

  15. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  16. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  17. Walking with robot assistance: the influence of body weight support on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Hens, Gerrit; Clijsen, Ron; Goossens, Maggie; Buyl, Ronald; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to assess in healthy participants the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and the trunk during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW) at 0%, 30% and 50% body weight support (BWS), compared with treadmill walking (TW). 18 healthy participants walked (2 kmph) on a treadmill with and without robot assistance (Lokomat; 60% guidance force; 0%, 30% and 50% BWS). After an acclimatisation period (four minutes), trunk and pelvis kinematics were registered in each condition (Polhemus Liberty [240 Hz]). The results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, with the level of suspension as within-subject factor. During RATW with BWS, there were significantly (1) smaller antero-posterior and lateral translations of the trunk and the pelvis; (2) smaller antero-posterior flexion and axial rotation of the trunk; (3) larger lateral flexion of the trunk; and (4) larger antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis compared with TW. There are significant differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics in healthy persons during TW with and without robot assistance. These data are relevant in gait rehabilitation, relating to normal balance regulation. Additional research is recommended to further assess the influence of robot assistance on human gait. The trunk and pelvis moves in a different way during walking with robot assistance. The data suggest that the change in movement is due to the robot device and the harness of the suspension system more than due to the level of suspension itself.

  18. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of short-term prefeeding and body weight on wheel running and responding reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Jensen, K

    2004-07-30

    A biobehavioural analysis of activity anorexia suggests that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by food supply and body weight. In the present experiment, food allocation was varied within subjects by prefeeding food-deprived rats 0, 5, 10 and 15 g of food before sessions of lever pressing for wheel-running reinforcement. The experiment assessed the effects of prefeeding on rates of wheel running, lever pressing, and postreinforcement pausing. Results showed that prefeeding animals 5 g of food had no effect. Prefeeding 10 g of food reduced lever pressing for wheel running and rates of wheel running without a significant change in body weight; the effect was, however, transitory. Prefeeding 15 g of food increased the animals' body weights, resulting in a sustained decrease of wheel running and lever pressing, and an increase in postreinforcement pausing. Overall the results indicate that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by changes in local food supply, but is sustained only when there is a concomitant change in body weight.

  20. An investigation of the joint longitudinal trajectories of low body weight, binge eating, and purging in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Franko, Debra L; Eddy, Kamryn T; Kass, Andrea E; Sears, Meredith S; Herzog, David B

    2011-12-01

    To describe the longitudinal course of three core eating disorder symptoms-low body weight, binge eating, and purging-in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) using a novel statistical approach. Treatment-seeking women with AN (n = 136) or BN (n = 110) completed the Eating Disorders Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation interview every 6 months, yielding weekly eating disorder symptom data for a 5-year period. Semiparametric mixture modeling was used to identify longitudinal trajectories for the three core symptoms. Four individual trajectories were identified for each eating disorder symptom. The number and general shape of the individual trajectories was similar across symptoms, with each model including trajectories depicting stable absence and stable presence of symptoms as well as one or more trajectories depicting the declining presence of symptoms. Unique trajectories were found for low body weight (fluctuating presence) and purging (increasing presence). Conjunction analyses yielded the following joint trajectories: low body weight and binge eating, low body weight and purging, and binge eating and purging. The course of individual eating disorder symptoms among patients with AN and BN is highly variable. Future research identifying clinical predictors of trajectory membership may inform treatment and nosological research. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An investigation of the joint longitudinal trajectories of low body weight, binge eating, and purging in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M.; De Young, Kyle P.; Franko, Debra L.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Kass, Andrea E.; Sears, Meredith S.; Herzog, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the longitudinal course of three core eating disorder symptoms – low body weight, binge eating, and purging – in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) using a novel statistical approach. Method Treatment-seeking women with AN (n=136) or BN (n=110) completed the Eating Disorders Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation interview every six months, yielding weekly eating disorder symptom data for a five-year period. Semi-parametric mixture modeling was used to identify longitudinal trajectories for the three core symptoms. Results Four individual trajectories were identified for each eating disorder symptom. The number and general shape of the individual trajectories was similar across symptoms, with each model including trajectories depicting stable absence and stable presence of symptoms as well as one or more trajectories depicting the declining presence of symptoms. Unique trajectories were found for low body weight (fluctuating presence) and purging (increasing presence). Conjunction analyses yielded the following joint trajectories: low body weight and binge eating, low body weight and purging, and binge eating and purging. Conclusions The course of individual eating disorder symptoms among patients with AN and BN is highly variable. Future research identifying clinical predictors of trajectory membership may inform treatment and nosological research. PMID:22072404

  2. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yaeko; Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Cao Thu, Ha; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight. We studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m²) who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients. There were significant improvements in body weight (-10.3%±4.5%), exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%), and HOMA-IR (-20.2%±38.3%). Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (-19.3%±9.6%), total fat-free mass (-2.7%±4.3%), and % body fat (-10.1%±7.5%), whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%). In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=-0.280, R²=0.068, Pmaintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

  3. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaeko Fukushima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight.MethodsWe studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m2 who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients.ResultsThere were significant improvements in body weight (–10.3%±4.5%, exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%, and HOMA-IR (–20.2%±38.3%. Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (–19.3%±9.6%, total fat-free mass (–2.7%±4.3%, and % body fat (–10.1%±7.5%, whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%. In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=–0.280, R2=0.068, P<0.01.ConclusionImprovement of insulin resistance in female obese patients requires maintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

  4. Regression tree analysis for predicting body weight of Nigerian Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntunji Abel Olusegun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric parameters and their indices are central to the understanding of the type and function of livestock. The present study was conducted to predict body weight (BWT of adult Nigerian Muscovy ducks from nine (9 morphometric parameters and seven (7 body indices and also to identify the most important predictor of BWT among them using regression tree analysis (RTA. The experimental birds comprised of 1,020 adult male and female Nigerian Muscovy ducks randomly sampled in Rain Forest (203, Guinea Savanna (298 and Derived Savanna (519 agro-ecological zones. Result of RTA revealed that compactness; body girth and massiveness were the most important independent variables in predicting BWT and were used in constructing RT. The combined effect of the three predictors was very high and explained 91.00% of the observed variation of the target variable (BWT. The optimal regression tree suggested that Muscovy ducks with compactness >5.765 would be fleshy and have highest BWT. The result of the present study could be exploited by animal breeders and breeding companies in selection and improvement of BWT of Muscovy ducks.

  5. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meal patterns and frequencies: do they affect body weight in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Toschke, Andre Michael

    2010-02-01

    Some previous studies reported a higher meal frequency associated with a lower body weight both in obese and in normal weight adults. We review recent studies addressing the relation between meal frequency and obesity risk in children and adolescents. In a Medline search, we identified 5 observational studies published between 2004 and 2009 that reviewed data on a total of 13,998 children and adolescents from the United States, Germany, and Portugal. Three of the five studies found a significant reduction of obesity risk with increasing number of meals, which persisted after adjustment for confounders, while the two other studies found a non-significant trend in the same direction. Given the consistent association of skipping meals with an increased obesity risk in children, it appears prudent to promote a regular meal pattern with 5 meals per day with adequate composition to children and their families. Prospective controlled trials to assess the protective potential of promoting regular and frequent meals in children and their families are highly desirable to strengthen the evidence base for such preventive approaches, which should explore the feasibility and effects of interventions.

  7. Using Bronson Equation to Accurately Predict the Dog Brain Weight Based on Body Weight Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miguel Carreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study used 69 brains (n = 69 from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B, dolicho (D and mesaticephalic (M (n = 23 each, and aimed: (1 to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW in brachy (B, dolicho (D, and mesaticephalic (M dog breeds; and (2 to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw. An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean.

  8. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time. 30 male mature SD rats were used, kept in individual cages, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum, divided into 3 groups (G; c, a and b received placebo and oral doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of TT, SID for 8weeks .Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. Testicular weigh with and without epididymis was recorded then histopathologic slides prepared with H&E and Masson trichrome, and focused on seminiferous tube diameter, epithelial layer thickness, interstitial space length, testicular capsule thickness. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Data statistically analyzed by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  9. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMIweight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trendincidence of T2DM for adults with weight change 12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  10. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  11. Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan

    2005-06-15

    Many patients with schizophrenia are exposed to serious health risks associated with their excess body weight. Evidence exists that even a moderate amount of weight loss may have significant health benefits. Thus, weight control in schizophrenia patients has become an important treatment goal. Although studies in the general population show that satisfaction with body weight is an important predictor for engagement in various weight loss measures, the perspective of schizophrenia patients has not been assessed. Information on self-reported weight perception, desire to lose weight as well as weight loss attempts was obtained according to methods employed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycle III (NHANES III). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perception of body weight and desire to lose weight were correlated to BMI. Both obese female and male subjects (BMI30) were aware of their weight status. However, whereas overweight females (BMI>25weight loss, caloric restriction (diet) was most frequently employed (by more than 80% of study subjects); yet only a third of study subjects (34.4%) engaged in the recommended combination of diet and exercise to lose weight. Questionable weight loss practices were also frequently employed, especially among women. Obese patients (BMI> or =30) were generally aware of their excess body weight and wanted to lose weight. Only non-obese, yet overweight males (BMI>25Weight loss practices did not always follow established recommendations. Especially women were likely to approach weight loss with questionably appropriate and unsafe methods.

  12. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  13. A fixed carbohydrate:protein ratio ≤ 1.8 on an energy basis consumed in the context of an energy-restricted diet and reduction of body weight: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following an application from Marks and Spencer PLC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 19 24/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...

  15. A systematic review of the effects of neuromodulation on eating and body weight: evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Bozhilova, Natali; Campbell, Iain; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic and sometimes deadly illnesses. Existing treatments have limited proven efficacy, especially in the case of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emerging neural models of ED provide a rationale for more targeted, brain-directed interventions. This systematic review has examined the effects of neuromodulation techniques on eating behaviours and body weight and assessed their potential for therapeutic use in ED. All articles in PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge were considered and screened against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) were examined across studies in ED samples, other psychiatric and neurological disorders, and animal models. Sixty studies were identified. There is evidence for ED symptom reduction following rTMS and DBS in both AN and bulimia nervosa. Findings from studies of other psychiatric and neurological disorders and from animal studies demonstrate that increases in food intake and body weight can be achieved following DBS and that VNS has potential value as a means of controlling eating and inducing weight loss. Neuromodulation tools have potential for reducing ED symptomatology and related behaviours, and for altering food intake and body weight. In response to such findings, and emerging neural models of ED, treatment approaches are highly unlikely to remain 'brainless'. More research is required to evaluate the potential of neuromodulation procedures for improving long-term outcomes in ED. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Albertsson, Per-Åke

    2015-09-01

    On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity.

  17. Calorie Labeling in Chain Restaurants and Body Weight: Evidence from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes the impact of local mandatory calorie labeling laws implemented by New York jurisdictions on body weight. The analysis indicates that on average the point-of-purchase provision of calorie information on chain restaurant menus reduced body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% and lowered the risk of obesity by 12%. Quantile regression results indicate that calorie labeling has similar impacts across the BMI distribution. An analysis of heterogeneity suggests that calorie labeling has a larger impact on the body weight of lower income individuals, especially lower income minorities. The estimated impacts of calorie labeling on physical activity, smoking, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fruits, and vegetables are small in magnitude, which suggests that other margins of adjustment drive the body-weight impacts estimated here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  19. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  20. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  1. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of body weight manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2004-02-27

    As body weight increases, the excitatory strength of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to run should weaken to a greater degree than that of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to eat. To test this hypothesis, six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. The effect of varying body weight on responding maintained by these two reinforcers was investigated by systematically increasing and decreasing post-session food amounts. The initial body weight was 335 g. Body weights were increased to approximately 445 g and subsequently returned to 335 g. As body weight increased, overall and local lever-pressing rates decreased while post-reinforcement pauses lengthened. Analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local lever-pressing rates in terms of transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that local response rates in the presence of stimuli signaling upcoming wheel and sucrose reinforcers were similarly affected. However, pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling a wheel-running reinforcer lengthened to a greater extent than did pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. This result suggests that as body weight approaches ad-lib levels, the likelihood of initiation of responding to obtain an opportunity to run approaches zero and the animal "rejects" the opportunity to run in a manner similar to the rejection of less preferred food items in studies of food selectivity.

  2. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  3. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  4. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  5. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M; Kok, F J; de Graaf, C

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density. In total, 16 men and 66 women (mean age 21.9 years (s.d. 0.3 year), mean body mass index 20.7 kg m(-2) (s.d. 0.2 kg m(-2))) were randomly assigned to one of four parallel groups in a 2 x 2 design: snacks consumed with or between meals and snacks having a low (12 kJ g(-1)) energy density. For 8 weeks, subjects consumed mandatory snacks that provided 25% of energy requirements on each day. Body weight, body composition, physical activity level (PAL) and energy intake were measured in week 1 and week 8. There were no differences in changes in body weight between the four groups. Moment of consumption (P=0.7), energy density (P=0.8) and interaction (P=0.09) did not influence body weight. Similarly, there were no differences in changes in body composition, PAL and energy intake between the four groups. Body weight after 8 weeks of snack consumption was not affected by moment of consumption and energy density of snacks. This finding suggests that consuming snacks that are high or low in energy density does not necessarily contribute to weight gain. Healthy, nonobese young adults may be able to maintain a normal body weight through an accurate compensation for the consumption of snacks.

  6. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. [Natural evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (P<.05) in males (29%) than in females (12.8%). BMI (kg/m2) was significantly higher (P<.05) for both sexes in every age period, except for birth and age 1 year, in those patients with excess body weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Kim, Seon-Woo; Haley, Bradd J.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial) in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline), or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia) of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only), the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production. PMID:29123512

  9. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serajus Salaheen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only, the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.

  10. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blais

    Full Text Available Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and prepro-orexin (HCRT, and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin, OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control.

  12. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  13. A short note on economic development and socioeconomic inequality in female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity. Average body weight and health inequality should be associated with economic development. Both hypotheses are confirmed: we find higher average female body weight in economically more advanced countries. In relatively nondeveloped countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts toward individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Perceived Racial Discrimination in the Workplace and Body Weight among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race. For unemployed women, being black and obese significantly increases the likelihood of perceiving racial discrimination.

  15. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  16. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia T; Moser, Debra K

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is greater among adults living in rural compared to urban areas of the USA. Greater obesity risk among rural adults persists after adjusting for obesity-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors. With the rural-urban obesity disparity greatest among younger adults, it is important to examine the complexity of factors that may increase the risk for excess body weight in this population so that effective preventive interventions can be implemented. College students residing in economically deprived rural areas such as rural Appalachia may be particularly at risk for excess body weight from exposure to both rural and college obesogenic environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight among college students. College students aged 18-25 years who were lifetime residents of either rural Eastern Appalachian Kentucky (n=55) or urban Central Kentucky (n=54) participated in this cross-sectional study. Students completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors including smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. Height and weight were obtained during a brief health examination to calculate body-mass index (BMI). Excess body weight was defined as being overweight or obese with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. Binary logistic regression was used to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia was independently associated with excess body weight. The prevalence of excess body weight was higher in the rural Appalachian group than the urban group (50% vs 24%, p0.001). Depressive symptom scores and smoking prevalence were also greater in the rural Appalachian group. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable intake and vigorous physical activity between the groups. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia was associated with more than a six

  17. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  18. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  19. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  20. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline were searched and identified studies were assessed for eligibility and methodological quality and described regarding population, training protocol, and effects on walking ability, activities of daily living and quality of life. A descriptive and quantitative synthesis was conducted. Eighteen articles (17 studies) were included. Two randomized controlled trials showed that subjects with injuries of less than one year duration reached higher scores on the locomotor item of the Functional Independence Measure (range 1-7) in the over-ground training group compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group. Only for persons with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D was the mean difference significant, with 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.04-1.56). No differences were found regarding walking velocity, activities of daily living or quality of life. Subjects with subacute motor incomplete spinal cord injury reached a higher level of independent walking after over-ground training, compared with body weight-supported treadmill training. More randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the effectiveness of body weight-supported gait training on walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life for subgroups of persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  1. EFSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim relate d to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight pur suant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... relative to the placebo, and that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel notes that no studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause...

  2. Impact of Small Body Weight on Tenofovir-Associated Renal Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Japanese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Kinai, Ei; Honda, Haruhito; Tanuma, Junko; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Honda, Miwako; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment with tenofovir is sometimes associated with renal dysfunction. Limited information is available on this side effect in patients with small body weight, although the use of tenofovir will spread rapidly in Asia and Africa, where patients are likely to be of smaller body weight. Methods In a single-center cohort, Japanese patients with HIV infection who started tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, defined as more than 25% decrement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the baseline, was determined. The effects of small body weight and body mass index (BMI) on tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, respectively, were estimated in univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models as the primary exposure. Other possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate analysis and those found significant were entered into the multivariate analysis. Results The median weight of 495 patients was 63 kg. Tenofovir-related renal dysfunction occurred in 97 (19.6%) patients (incidence: 10.5 per 100 person-years). Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of tenofovir-related renal dysfunction was significantly associated with smaller body weight and BMI, respectively (per 5 kg decrement, HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10–1.37; pdecrement, HR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05–1.23; p = 0.001). Old age, high baseline eGFR, low serum creatinine, low CD4 count, high HIV viral load, concurrent nephrotoxic drugs, hepatitis C infection, and current smoking were also associated with tenofovir-related renal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis identified small body weight as a significant risk (adjusted HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.27; p = 0.039), while small BMI had marginal significance (adjusted HR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.00–1.16; p = 0.058). Conclusion The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in Japanese patients was high. Small body weight

  3. Prolyl carboxypeptidase in Agouti-related Peptide neurons modulates food intake and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined. Methods: We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic explants were then used to assess the intracellular localization of PRCP and its release at the synaptic levels. Finally, we generated a mouse model to assess the role of PRCP in NPY/AgRP neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the regulation of metabolism. Results: Here we show that PRCP is expressed in NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. In hypothalamic explants, stimulation by ghrelin increased PRCP concentration in the medium and decreased PRCP content in synaptic extract, suggesting that PRCP is released at the synaptic level. In support of this, hypothalamic explants from mice with selective deletion of PRCP in AgRP neurons (PrcpAgRPKO showed reduced ghrelin-induced PRCP concentration in the medium compared to controls mice. Furthermore, male PrcpAgRPKO mice had decreased body weight and fat mass compared to controls. However, this phenotype was sex-specific as female PrcpAgRPKO mice show metabolic differences only when challenged by high fat diet feeding. The improved metabolism of PrcpAgRPKO mice was associated with reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and hypothalamic α-MSH levels. Administration of SHU9119, a potent melanocortin receptor antagonist, selectively in the PVN of PrcpAgRPKO male mice increased food intake to a level similar to that of control mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our data indicate that PRCP is released at the synaptic levels and that PRCP in AgRP neurons contributes to

  4. Methods used to conduct the pan-European Union survey on consumer attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, J M; Kearney, M J; McElhone, S; Gibney, M J

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of conducting this survey was to identify data on consumer attitudes towards and beliefs about physical activity, body weight and health among the 15 countries of the EU. A cross-sectional study to get a picture of the attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health in the EU. For this, it was considered important that samples be nationally representative so that inferences drawn from the data could be applied to the population in each country as well as to the EU population as a whole. Using a non-probability sampling method employing quota controls (and the national weight) we obtained large sample sizes from each country which were nationally representative in terms of the variables age, sex and regional distribution. To ensure samples were truly nationally representative a national weight was used when analysing the data using the same characteristics as those used to define quotas. When examining pooled estimates for the total EU sample a population weight was applied. In total, 15,239 subjects aged 15 years and upwards in the EU completed the survey. This article gives details on the methods used in carrying out the survey from design of the questionnaire to sample selection, questionnaire administration and analysis of the data. The methods and their limitations are discussed.

  5. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  6. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  7. Usual Dietary Energy Density Distribution Is Positively Associated with Excess Body Weight in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Tania C; Cantoral, Alejandra; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Studies suggest a positive association between dietary energy density (DED) and body weight in adults, but evidence in children is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to compare usual DED distributions of nonoverweight vs. overweight or obese (OW/O) Mexican children. The study used 24-h recall (24HR) data from 2367 children aged 5-11 y from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Repeated 24HR measures were obtained in a random sample (∼10%) to estimate usual intake distributions by using the Iowa State University (PC-Side) method. Implausible dietary reports were identified. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relation between DED and body mass index status and to compare results with and without PC-Side adjustment and restriction to plausible reporters. A total of 35.1% of the children in the sample were OW/O. The usual DED mean was ∼175 kcal/100 g in both the complete sample and the plausible reporters subsample. Regression models adjusted by PC-Side and for potential confounders showed higher DED in OW/O relative to nonoverweight children for both plausible reporters (9.7 kcal/100 g; n = 1452, P 0.10). A positive association between usual DED and OW/O was found in Mexican children. The association was stronger when only plausible reporters were considered. This suggests that there is a need for strategies to reduce energy density in the diet of Mexican children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for

  9. Effectiveness of icatibant for treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks is not affected by body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Zanichelli, Andrea; Aberer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    Background: Icatibant is a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency. Treatment is not adjusted by body weight however the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the effectiveness of icatibant is not documented in ...

  10. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  11. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  12. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  13. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  14. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall body weight gain of the hyperlipidaemic rats compared to normal control. However, the administration of the aqueous and methanolic extracts provoked 14 and.

  15. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  16. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  17. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan J; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Richards, Derek; Hector, Mark P; Freeman, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016047304.

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep. Breeding Station in Hamedan ... Key words: Mehraban sheep, heritability, genetic correlation, body weight traits. ..... parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristic of ...

  19. MIT-Skywalker: considerations on the Design of a Body Weight Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rogério Sales; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2017-09-06

    To provide body weight support during walking and balance training, one can employ two distinct embodiments: support through a harness hanging from an overhead system or support through a saddle/seat type. This paper presents a comparison of these two approaches. Ultimately, this comparison determined our selection of the body weight support system employed in the MIT-Skywalker, a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation/habilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. Here we will summarize our results with eight healthy subjects walking on the treadmill without any support, with 30% unloading supported by a harness hanging from an overhead system, and with a saddle/seat-like support system. We compared the center of mass as well as vertical and mediolateral trunk displacements across different walking speeds and support. The bicycle/saddle system had the highest values for the mediolateral inclination, while the overhead harness body weight support showed the lowest values at all speeds. The differences were statistically significant. We selected the bicycle/saddle system for the MIT-Skywalker. It allows faster don-and-doff, better centers the patient to the split treadmill, and allows all forms of training. The overhead harness body weight support might be adequate for rhythmic walking training but limits any potential for balance training.

  20. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of milk source on body weight and immune status of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Moreno-Indias, I.; Morales-delaNuez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Milk source is one of the several factors that can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status before weaning. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of milk source (natural rearing method, named NR group, vs. artificial rearing method using a commercial milk replacer, named MR ...

  2. Recovery of Normal Body Weight in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: The Nurses’ Perspective on Effective Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie van Elburg; prof Berno van Meijel; Esther Meerwijk; Laura Beukers; Joyce van Ommen; René Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about effective nursing interventions for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study was to discover which aspects of nursing care are most effective, according to nurses, in recovery of normal body weight in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: A qualitative

  3. Seasonal and annual variation in body weight, nutrient stores and mortality of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L.; Hulscher, J.B.; Koopman, K.; Piersma, T.; Zegers, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The average body weight of Oystercatchers captured in the Dutch Wadden Sea and ajoining breeding areas varies between 520 g in mid summer and 620 g in mid winter, but the individual differences remain large: between 450 and 650 g in summer and 500 and 725 g in winter. A part of this variation can be

  4. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Carson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? Methods This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. Discussion The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016047304

  5. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by sex, age group and level of education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: About 36,000 men and women who participated in the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the

  7. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  8. Decreased hedonic responsiveness following chronic mild stress is not secondary to loss of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Moreau, J L; Nielsen, C K; Papp, M; Sluzewska, A

    1996-07-01

    Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has previously been found to decrease hedonic responsiveness, as measured by the consumption of palatable sweet solutions or sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. These effects are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs, and the CMS procedure has been proposed as a relatively valid animal model of depression. It has recently been suggested that the behavioural effects of CMS may be secondary to loss of body weight. This article collates data from five laboratories using the CMS procedure. Data are presented from seven studies using five different rat strains, as well as CD1 mice. Three-week exposure to CMS significantly decreased sucrose consumption by Lister hooded, PVG hooded, Wistar, and Wistar WU rats, and by CD1 mice, and sensitivity to brain stimulation reward in Ibm:Ro Ro rats. Weight loss in different experiments varied between 0 and 10%. Hedonic sensitivity relative to body weight (e.g., mg sucrose/g body weight) decreased significantly in all experiments. Animals maintained on a restricted feeding regime lost weight but did not show decreases in sucrose intake. It is concluded that decreased hedonic sensitivity following chronic mild stress cannot be attributed to loss of body weight.

  9. Effect of Body Weight on Temperature Control and Energy Expenditure in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hui Lei

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: REE increased significantly in infants during weaning from an incubator. The increase in REE increment was similar in smaller (1800–2000 g and larger (2000–2200 g babies in this study. Weaning of preterm babies from an incubator may be safely started when their body weight reaches 1800 g.

  10. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  11. Adolescent Perceptions of Body Weight and Attractiveness: Important Issues in Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent self-perception of body weight and physical attractiveness and the use of alcohol and drugs in high school students (n=1,915). In general, adolescents dissatisfied with their appearance used illicit substances and got drunk more often than those satisfied with their appearance. (SNR)

  12. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...le URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_body_...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  13. The Effect of Xylopia Aethiopica Leaves on Body Weight and Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Xylopia aethiopica leaves on body weight and growth performance was studied on growing Wistar rats. The study involved twenty-four rats of comparable sizes and weights ranging from 150 to 300g and divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A served as the control while groups B, C and D served as ...

  14. Genetic analysis of body weight in South African Angora kids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance and covariance components and ratios pertaining to direct additive genetic variation, maternal additive genetic variation, maternal permanent environmental variation, and the relationship between direct and maternal effects for birth weight (BW; kg), weaning weight (WW; kg) and body weight at 8, 12 and 16 ...

  15. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  16. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  17. Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Combining selection for carcass quality, body weight and milk traits in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative selection strategies were evaluated for breeding for carcass quality, body weight, and milk traits in dairy cattle. The efficiency of different alternatives was evaluated by comparing predicted genetic responses in individual traits as well as in the aggregate genotype. Particular

  19. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  20. Effect of isolates of fibre degrading bacteria on body weight changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tc

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... evaluate the effect of supplementation of fibrolytic bac- terial isolate on body weight changes, milk production, nutrient intake and nutrient utilization in lactating Murrah buffaloes. This study was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of lignocellulosic feeds by some selected bacterial isolates isolated from ...

  1. Body Weight, Self-Esteem, and Depression in Korean Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)

  2. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  3. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  4. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  5. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  7. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  9. Cost-effectiveness of bone densitometry among Caucasian women and men without a prior fracture according to age and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, J T; Gourlay, M; Fink, H A; Taylor, B C; Orwoll, E S; Barrett-Connor, E; Melton, L J; Cummings, S R; Ensrud, K E

    2013-01-01

    We used a microsimulation model to estimate the threshold body weights at which screening bone densitometry is cost-effective. Among women aged 55-65 years and men aged 55-75 years without a prior fracture, body weight can be used to identify those for whom bone densitometry is cost-effective. Bone densitometry may be more cost-effective for those with lower body weight since the prevalence of osteoporosis is higher for those with low body weight. Our purpose was to estimate weight thresholds below which bone densitometry is cost-effective for women and men without a prior clinical fracture at ages 55, 60, 65, 75, and 80 years. We used a microsimulation model to estimate the costs and health benefits of bone densitometry and 5 years of fracture prevention therapy for those without prior fracture but with femoral neck osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and a 10-year hip fracture risk of ≥3%. Threshold pre-test probabilities of low BMD warranting drug therapy at which bone densitometry is cost-effective were calculated. Corresponding body weight thresholds were estimated using data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF), the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2005-2006. Assuming a willingness to pay of $75,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and drug cost of $500/year, body weight thresholds below which bone densitometry is cost-effective for those without a prior fracture were 74, 90, and 100 kg, respectively, for women aged 55, 65, and 80 years; and were 67, 101, and 108 kg, respectively, for men aged 55, 75, and 80 years. For women aged 55-65 years and men aged 55-75 years without a prior fracture, body weight can be used to select those for whom bone densitometry is cost-effective.

  10. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  11. [Energy intake and body weight development of Warmblood foals that changed stud at weaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Remler, H P; Senckenberg, E; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the energy requirements of Warmblood foals with a change of the stud at weaning. Nine colts purchased at weaning participated in the study aged approximately 6 months to 1 year. They were transported to the stud by their breeders either having been separated from their dams in their home stable or upon arrival at the stud. The foals were offered a late first cut of haylage, oats and foal starter feed. To ensure individual feeding of concentrates, the foals were tethered twice daily. The total combined haylage intake of all foals per day was recorded. Individual concentrate intake, body weight and body condition score (BCS) were documented at 4-week intervals. The total energy intake was 74 MJ digestible energy (68 MJ metabolisable energy) per animal per day. The foals had been delivered at the stud with a comparably low body weight (285 ± 30 kg) and BCS (4.2 ± 0.4 on a scale from 1 to 9). At the end of the study, aged 319 ± 22 days, they attained an average body weight of 326 ± 24 kg and a BCS of 4.2 ± 0.4. The energy intake of the foals of this study was higher and their body weight development slower than in foals of a parallel study, which were born and raised in the stud and therefore exposed to less stressful weaning conditions. Foals with a comparatively low body weight and BCS at weaning in combination with further stressors need considerably more energy than foals that undergo less stressful weaning conditions.

  12. Pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives may reduce body weight in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek

    2016-04-05

    Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  14. Effect of endorsed body weight on specific absorption rate during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harish K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gujral, R.B.; Shukla, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    As a routine safety of the patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the limits of radiofrequency (RF) specific absorption rate (SAR) are set by the manufacturers of all MRI systems because RF causes thermo genesis of the RF exposed tissue. It has been mandatory practice to endorse body weight and age of the patients required by the MRI systems for the SAR check. The problems arise on those patients who are critically ill, and consequently body weight could not be measured. In such cases, approximate body weight has to be endorsed. In case of underweight and overweight patients, sometimes SAR check does not permit to run the MRI pulse sequences. Also, in such cases, body weight remains the parameter which is being changed to get the MRI done. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of SAR with endorsed body weight. The change of SAR was recorded with the endorsed weight using phantoms and most commonly used T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequence on clinical MRI system. At true endorsed weight, using respective coils and the head and spine coil phantoms, the body averaged and localised SAR were found to be within limits while this was not the case with body coil phantom. Unrealistic endorsed weights are permissible for the adult age cases in all coils while using the routine T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences. This finding is absolutely new in the field and certainly, will be of great applicability to develop a uniform and standard system of SAR checks in the patient interest. (author)

  15. Cancer incidence attributable to excess body weight in Alberta in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Poirier, Abbey E; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2017-04-28

    Excess body weight has been consistently associated with colorectal, breast, endometrial, esophageal, gall bladder, pancreatic and kidney cancers. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the proportion of total and site-specific cancers attributable to excess body weight in adults in Alberta in 2012. We estimated the proportions of attributable cancers using population attributable risk. Risk estimates were obtained from recent meta-analyses, and exposure prevalence estimates were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey. People with a body mass index of 25.00-29.99 kg/m2 and of 30 kg/m2 or more were categorized as overweight and obese, respectively. About 14%-47% of men and 9%-35% of women in Alberta were classified as either overweight or obese; the proportion increased with increasing age for both sexes. We estimate that roughly 17% and 12% of obesity-related cancers among men and women, respectively, could be attributed to excess body weight in Alberta in 2012. The heaviest absolute burden in terms of number of cases was seen for breast cancer among women and for colorectal cancer among men. Overall, about 5% of all cancers in adults in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to excess body weight in 2000-2003. Excess body weight contributes to a substantial proportion of cases of cancers associated with overweight and obesity annually in Alberta. Strategies to improve energy imbalance and reduce the proportion of obese and overweight Albertans may have a notable impact on cancer incidence in the future. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  16. The influence of selenium and deiodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the influence of selenium and deodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight during three months. The experiment was carried out on 64 rats divided into eight groups with eight individual animals per group. Following groups were formed: 1. Se+PTU-IA- (control group, 2. Se+PTU+IA+, 3. Se+PTU+IA-, 4. Se+PTU- IA+, 5. Se-PTU-IA-, 6. Se-PTU+IA+, 7. Se-PTU+IA- and 8. Se-PTU-IA+. The groups labeled (Se+ were selenium adequate and they were fed with food that contained 0.334 mg Se/kg. The groups labeled (Se- were selenium deficient and obtained food with 0.031 mg Se/kg. As deiodinases blockers there were used propylthiouracil (PTU+ in a dose of 150 mg/L of drinking water and iopanoic acid (IA+ in a dose of 6 mg/100 g TM intraperitoneally. Body weight of experimental rats was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment there were taken blood samples of animals from all experimental groups and following parameters were determined: selenium concentration in blood, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH in blood plasma. Analysis of the samples showed that the animals from the groups treated with PTU had lower body weight in regard to the control group, as well as lower concentration of T3 and T4 in plasma. Selenium deficient rats had lower average body weight compared to the selenium adequate ones after three weeks, but there were no differences in thyroid hormones concentration. The lowest average body weight was noticed in selenium deficient rats groups treated with PTU. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31050 i br. TR31003

  17. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  18. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of body weight parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-10-01

    The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased body weights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Body weight parameters such as initial body weights, terminal body weights, food consumption, and the body weight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice. None of these body weight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased body weight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  20. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of long-term intraperitoneal injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on aging- and obesity-related changes in body weight, lipid metabolism, and thyroid functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Walter; Lesnikov, Vladimir A

    2011-02-01

    Adult adipose mice, high fat diet-fed (HFD) mice, anterior hypothalamus-lesioned obese mice and genetically obese mice, were injected daily with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). The treatment provoked a mobilization of triglycerides in the peripheral blood, a decrease of leptin and a loss of body weight. The weight loss did not depend on TSH-mediated stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion with consequent metabolic hyperthyroidism. The levels of blood cholesterol were not affected or even suppressed. Even at a very high dosage TRH did not affect the obesity of genetically obese mice. The ubiquitous tripeptide TRH may thus constitute a key element in the hormone-controlled regulation of body weight and fat stores in the adult and aging body.

  2. Whole grain and body weight changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pol, Korrie; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whole grains have received increased attention for their potential role in weight regulation. A high intake has been associated with smaller weight gain in prospective cohort studies, whereas the evidence from randomized controlled studies has been less consistent. Objective: We...... assessed the effects of whole-grain compared with non–whole-grain foods on changes in body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference by using a meta-analytic approach. Design: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies were included in the review if they were...... weight compared with control consumption, but a small beneficial effect on body fat may be present. The relatively short duration of intervention studies (≤16 wk) may explain the lack of difference in body weight and fat. Discrepancies between studies may be caused by differences in study design....

  3. 76 FR 39234 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., therefore, was not subject to review under section 6(b) of E.O. 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated... for procurement actions, such as delivery and task orders or basic ordering agreements, the order or... Instrument Identifier (PIID). Agencies shall have in place a process that ensures that each PIID reported to...

  4. [Body weight evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery: roux-en-Y gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery in women who underwent the procedure more than two years ago. A total of 141 women underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The participants were divided according to the time elapsed since surgery and the percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL): 75. The women in the group with %EWL 75 (36.2%) ranged from normal to pre-obese and presented lower late weight gain than the women in the other groups. Weight evolution two or more years after surgery showed the expected reductions, with some individuals responding better to surgery than others. This shows that it is necessary to monitor, investigate and intervene to obtain the desired results.

  5. Walking during body-weight-supported treadmill training and acute responses to varying walking speed and body-weight support in ambulatory patients post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Helbostad, Jorunn Lægdheim; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    Rehabilitating walking in ambulatory patients post-stroke, with training that is safe, task-specific, intensive, and of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Some challenges can be met by using body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). However, it is not known to what degree walking characteristics are similar during BWSTT and overground walking. In addition, important questions regarding the training protocol of BWSTT remain unanswered, such as how proportion of body-weight support (BWS) and walking speed affect walking characteristics during training. The objective was therefore to investigate if and how kinematic walking characteristics are different between overground walking and treadmill walking with BWS in ambulatory patients post-stroke, and the acute response of altering walking speed and percent BWS during treadmill walking with BWS. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used. Ambulating patients post-stroke walked in slow, preferred, and fast walking speed overground and at comparable speeds on the treadmill with 20% and 40% BWS. Kinematic walking characteristics were obtained using a kinematic sensor attached over the lower back. Forty-four patients completed the protocol. Kinematic walking characteristics were similar during treadmill walking with BWS, compared to walking overground. During treadmill walking, choice of walking speed had greater impact on kinematic walking characteristics than proportion of BWS. Faster walking speeds tended to affect the kinematic walking characteristics positively. This implies that in order to train safely and with sufficient intensity and duration, therapists may choose to include BWSTT in walking rehabilitation also for ambulatory patients post-stroke without aggravating gait pattern during training.

  6. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  8. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  9. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  10. Reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Iushkovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account the gender differences, which are connected with irrational lifestyle, violation of food behavior, insufficient physical activity. Material & Methods: students of 1–4 courses of Odessa national medical university, 26 girls and 22 boys, with the excess body weight and obesity aged from 18 to 24 years for the research were selected. Results: reliable differences in adipopexis type, percent of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also indexes “waist-hip” at the respondents, connected with the article, are found. Conclusions: modification of lifestyle, wrong food behavior, selection of physical activity, has to be carried out taking into account the type of adipopexis and sex of students.

  11. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    and relatively nutrient-dense foods and beverages such as vegetables, fruit juice and processed fruit and an inverse association between fruit intake and relatively nutrient-dilute foods and beverages such as soft drinks and snack foods as well as energy density and E% from fat. The feasibility study showed......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... may aid to achieve these goals. Energy density of the diet can be reduced by substituting energy-dense food items with less energy-dense food items such as fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are considered as relatively low energy-dense food groups due to their high content of water...

  12. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  13. Should dosing of rocuronium in obese patients be based on ideal or corrected body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian S; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies in obese patients suggest that dosing of rocuronium should be based on ideal body weight (IBW). This may, however, result in a prolonged onset time or compromised conditions for tracheal intubation. In this study, we compared onset time, conditions for tracheal...... intubation, and duration of action in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on three different weight corrections. METHODS: Fifty-one obese patients, with a median (range) body mass index of 44 (34-72) kg/m2, scheduled for laparoscopic gastric banding or gastric bypass under...... propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomized into three groups. The patients received rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) based on IBW (IBW group, n = 17), IBW plus 20% of excess weight (corrected body weight [CBW]20% group, n = 17), or IBW plus 40% of excess weight (CBW40% group, n = 17). Propofol was administered...

  14. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences......Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published...... and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body...

  15. Body weight as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Being overweight or obese may be associated with poor response to antidepressants. The present report explores the moderation of antidepressant response by body weight to establish the specificity to antidepressant mode of action, type of depressive symptoms and gender. Methods: Height....... The relationship between body weight and change in neurovegetative symptoms was moderated by gender with obese men responding less to nortriptyline and obese women having poorer response to both antidepressants. Limitations: As no placebo arm was included, the specificity of findings to antidepressants is relative...... and weight were measured in 797 men and women with major depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline for twelve weeks as part of the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI > 30) were tested as predictors of change in depressive...

  16. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  18. Body weight, exercise and menstrual status among ballet dancers in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S F; Beumont, P J; Fraser, I S; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1982-07-01

    A prospective study of the menstrual pattern and weight changes was made in the first year of training of 29 new female entrants to a professional ballet school. Seventy-nine per cent of the student girls had menstrual disturbances at entry: primary amenorrhoea, four; secondary amenorrhoea, 11; irregular menses, eight. The incidence of secondary amenorrhoea increase substantially by the end of the year (20), but was not associated with any significant change in body weight. Only three students menstruated regularly during the year. Menstrual regularity improved during periods of injury and long vacation and it appears that deterioration of the menstrual pattern during dancing periods was related to strenuous physical exercise rather than to any change in body weight.

  19. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  1. Counterregulation of insulin by leptin as key component of autonomic regulation of body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2014-01-01

    A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the (1) autonomic nervous system (ANS); (2) the suprachiasmatic (SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework; (3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides; (4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and (5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses. PMID:25317239

  2. PPARα Is Required for PPARδ Action in Regulation of Body Weight and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech G. Garbacz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha (PPARα and delta (PPARδ belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα is a target of well established lipid-lowering drugs. PPARδ (also known as PPARβ/δ has been investigated as a promising antidiabetic drug target; however, the evidence in the literature on PPARδ effect on hepatic lipid metabolism is inconsistent. Mice conditionally expressing human PPARδ demonstrated pronounced weight loss and promoted hepatic steatosis when treated with GW501516 (PPARδ-agonist when compared to wild type mice. This effect was completely absent in mice with either a dominant negative form of PPARδ or deletion of the DNA binding domain of PPARδ. This confirmed the absolute requirement for PPARδ in the physiological actions of GW501516 and confirmed the potential utility against the human form of this receptor. Surprisingly the genetic deletion of PPARα also abrogated the effect of GW501516 in terms of both weight loss and hepatic lipid accumulation. Also the levels of the PPARα endogenous agonist 16:0/18:1-GPC were shown to be modulated by PPARδ in wild type mice. Our results show that both PPARδ and PPARα receptors are essential for GW501516-driven adipose tissue reduction and subsequently hepatic steatosis, with PPARα working downstream of PPARδ.

  3. Understanding the Regulation of Body Weight: A Focus on Eating Patterns, Energy Intake, and Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    reduction in the risks of osteoporosis , heart disease, colon and breast cancer, and other types of cancer (Colditz, 1999). As a result of the difference in...and structure to a massage therapy table). They were instructed to lie still with no voluntary movements and, to not sleep or participate in any

  4. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B (SH2B) family members (SH2B1, SH2B2 and SH2B3) are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains. SH2B1 (also called SH2-B and PSM) and SH2B2 (also called APS) are able to form homo- or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains. Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins, including Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), TrkA, insulin receptors, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), and...

  5. Subsidence of a cementless femoral component influenced by body weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihsen, Christoph; Radl, Roman; Keshmiri, Armin; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    This trial was designed to evaluate the impact of physical characteristics such as body mass index, body weight and height on distal stem migration of a cementless femoral component, as the influence of obesity on the outcome of THA is still debated in literature and conflicting results have been found. In this retrospective cohort study, migration patterns for 102 implants were analysed using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA-FCA, femoral component analysis). In all cases the Vision 2000 stem was implanted and combined with the Duraloc acetabular component (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana). The mean follow-up was 93 months. EBRA-FCA evaluations revealed a mean subsidence of 1.38 mm after two years, 2.06 mm after five and 2.24 mm after seven years. Five stems loosened aseptically. Correlation between increased migration over the whole period and aseptic loosening was highly significant (p < 0.001). Surgical technique had a significant influence on migration and stem stability (p = 0.002) but physical patient characteristics such as body weight over 75 kg and height over 165 cm also significantly influenced stem subsidence towards progressive migration (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). However, a high BMI did not trigger progressive stem migration (p = 0.87). Being of the male gender raised the odds for increased migration (p = 0.03). Physical characteristics such as body weight and height showed significant influence on migration patterns of this cementless femoral component. The operating surgeon should be aware that body weight above 75 kg and height over 165 cm may trigger increased stem migration and the surgeon should aim to fit these prostheses as tightly as possible. However this study demonstrates that a high BMI does not trigger progressive stem migration. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women. PMID:27812377

  7. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia triggered by liver injury in elderly subjects with low body weight: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Anno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight. Furthermore, it is likely that hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia in both subjects was triggered by severe liver injury, at least in part, due to possible limited liver glycogen store. In elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, metabolism in the liver is reduced and glycogen accumulation is decreased. Such alteration brings out acute and marked liver injury, which finally leads to the onset of severe hypoglycemia. It is known that not only liver injury but also multiple organ failure could be induced due to extreme emaciation in subjects. It is likely that in elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, multiple organ failure including liver failure could be induced due to the similar reason. Therefore, we should be very careful of such subjects in order to avoid the development of multiple organ failure which leads to life-threatening situations. In conclusion, we should keep in mind the possibility of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia when we examine severe liver injury, especially in elderly or starving subjects with low body weight and limited liver glycogen stores.

  8. Perception of physical fitness is associated with perception of body weight: sociodemographic analysis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero-González, Carlos Mª

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, body weight perception and physical fitness perception. Methods: Survey by means of personal interview. The sample consisted of 8,594 participants living in Spain between 15 and 97 years of age. Sampling error was ±1.07%. Results: Of the people who reported having good or excellent physical fitness, there was a proportionally greater prevalence of males, people aged 15 to 34, pe...

  9. The impact of different algorithms for ideal body weight on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Chong Lee, David Rotberg Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, North Carolina, NC, USA Purpose: To determine how algorithms for ideal body weight (IBW affect hydroxychloroquine dosing in women.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 520 patients screened for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Charts were reviewed for sex, height, weight, and daily dose. The outcome measures were ranges of IBW across algorithms; rates of potentially toxic dosing; height thresholds below which 400 mg/d dosing is potentially toxic; and rates for which actual body weight (ABW was less than IBW.Results: Women made up 474 (91% of the patients. The IBWs for a height varied from 30–34 pounds (13.6–15.5 kg across algorithms. The threshold heights below which toxic dosing occurred varied from 62–70 inches (157.5–177.8 cm. Different algorithms placed 16%–98% of women in the toxic dosing range. The proportion for whom dosing should have been based on ABW rather than IBW ranged from 5%–31% across algorithms. Conclusion: Although hydroxychloroquine dosing should be based on the lesser of ABW and IBW, there is no consensus about the definition of IBW. The Michaelides algorithm is associated with the most frequent need to adjust dosing; the Metropolitan Life Insurance, large frame, mean value table with the least frequent need. No evidence indicates that one algorithm is superior to others. Keywords: hydroxychloroquine, ideal body weight, actual body weight, toxicity, retinopathy, algorithms

  10. A Short Note on Economic Development and Socioeconomic Inequality in Female Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie J.; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity: Average female body weight is associated with economic development. In relatively poor countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts tow...

  11. The thinner the better: self-esteem and low body weight in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Bents, Hinrich; Kämmerer, Annette; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between self-esteem, motive satisfaction, and body weight in acute (acAN) and recovered (recAN) inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in healthy controls. Both acAN and recAN showed lower levels of self-esteem as compared with healthy controls but did not differ from each other. In acAN, decreased body weight was associated with increased self-esteem. Satisfaction of an achievement motive but not satisfaction of a superiority motive mediated this association. No such correlations could be observed in the other groups. This is the first study to show an often assumed association between decreased body weight and increased self-esteem in AN patients. These preliminary results strengthen the assumption that low body weight may foster self-esteem in patients with acAN, mainly through the satisfaction of an achievement motive. Self-esteem should be focused very early in the treatment of AN since weight gain may deprive the patient of an important source of self-esteem. Treatment interventions should be attuned to underlying motives of threatened self-esteem; in AN patients, the enhancement of self-esteem via weight loss seems to be rather fuelled by the satisfaction of an achievement motive than by the satisfaction of a superiority motive. Specific trainings to improve self-esteem in AN patients seem to be promising as an add-on to regular treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P; Hamilton, H A

    2016-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11-19-year-old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d -1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34-3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 . Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62-3.90). Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women.

  13. Low body weight and cardiac tolerance to ischemia in neonatal rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvojková, Zuzana; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 357-362 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/00/1659; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : low body weight * cardiac tolerance to ischemia * neonatal rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  14. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-In Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05 and obese adolescents (p < 0.001 had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  15. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  17. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  18. Organ doses as a function of body weight for environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    The organ doses for γ rays from typical environmental sources were determined with Monte Carlo calculations using anthropomorphic phantoms having different body sizes. It has been suggested that body weight is the predominant factor influencing organ doses for environmental γ rays, regardless of sex and age. A weight function expressing organ doses for environmental γ rays was introduced. This function fitted well with the organ doses calculated using the different phantoms. The function coefficients were determined mathematically with the least squares method. On the assumption that this function was applicable to organ doses for human bodies with diverse characteristics, the variances in organ doses due to race, sex, age and difference in body weight of adults were investigated. The variations of organ doses due to race and sex were not significant. Differences in body weight were found to alter organ doses by a maximum of 10% for γ rays over 100 keV, and 20% for low-energy γ rays. The doses for organs located deep inside a body, such as ovaries, differed between a newborn baby and an adult by a maximum factor of 2 to 3. For γ rays over 100 keV, the variation was within a factor of 2 for all organs. The organ doses for adolescents more than 12 years agreed within 15% with those of the average adult. (author)

  19. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  20. Parental characteristics have a larger effect on children's health behaviour than their body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 elementary school children (7.6 ± 0.4 years) participating in a school-based intervention in southwest Germany was used. Children's height and weight were measured and parent as well as child behaviour was assessed via questionnaire. BMI percentiles of children were positively associated with parental BMI (r = 0.2, p parental TV time increased the odds for high TV time in children (OR mother= 2.2, OR father = 2.3) and parental club sport participation increased the odds for club sport participation in children (OR mother = 1.9, OR father = 1.7). The relationship between parental and child behaviour was stronger than the relationship between parental BMI and BMI percentiles of the child. These results suggest that parental behaviour and role modeling provide an important contribution to childrens' health behaviour, especially at younger ages.

  1. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  2. Feeding management strategy for male broiler breeders and its effects on body weight, hatchability and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the supply of a specific-male diet on rooster body weight, hatchability, and fertility. Two diets were supplied during the egg production period: treatment 1, diet formulated for females and containing, in average, 2,830 kcal ME/kg and 15% CP; and treatment 2, diet specifically formulated for male broiler breeders, containing 2,750 kcal ME/kg and 13.5% CP. In the experiment, 26 flocks, with approximately 7,000 females and 840 males each, belonging to the same broiler breeder commercial strain, were distributed into 26 houses (1200m² on the same farm, and submitted to the same management practices. Body weight was evaluated in 13 flocks per treatment and for five weeks (45, 50, 55, 60, 65, and hatchability and fertility in four incubation lots per treatment and for the same weeks. Data were evaluated by the analysis of mixed models for repeated measurements, using the PROC MIXED of SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, and means were compared by the test of Tukey-Kramer at 5% significance level. The specific-male diet allowed body weight control during all analyzed weeks and promoted high hatchability and egg fertility. The increase in the number of chicks hatched demonstrates the economic viability of feeding a specific diet for male broiler breeders.

  3. Contemporary Views on Development of Excess Body Weight and Obesity in Children. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Khodzhiyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most widespread chronic diseases around the world and may be considered a non-infectious epidemic. Virtually everywhere around the world the number of obese children doubles every three decades. Increase in the number of children with obesity and excess body weight is observed in Russia as well. Despite the statement that the main cause of obesity is energy expenditure/consumption imbalance, numerous data obtained in recent years indicate early factors of obesity forming, probably, during the period of intrauterine development and/or infancy and early childhood. The most active growth and maximum plasticity of metabolic processes is observed within 1,000 post-conceptual days, which cover the period of intrauterine development and the first 2 years of a child’s life. The number and quality of nutrients received during that period considerably affect cell differentiation and organ development by means of gene expression, determine the nature of metabolism and affect health condition throughout the whole subsequent life. Given significance of the issue of excess body weight in children and adults, we analyzed the current situation, examined 652 younger Moscow schoolchildren and determined parameters of their physical development. We analyzed anamnestic data, profoundly examined children with excess body weight and obesity and formulated diets for them. This article presents the first stage of our work and a literature review.

  4. Influence of the body weight on the onset and progression of puberty in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Analia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Kumanov, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Unlike in girls, the data on the relationship between pubertal development and body weight in boys are controversial. We measured the height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), pubic hair stages, testicular volume, penis length and circumference of 4030 boys, aged between 7 and 19 years. According to their body weight, the investigated children and adolescents were divided in four groups at each age: underweight boys (BMI puberty occurred when the boys' weight gained 40.33±9.03 kg (median 39.00) and BMI was 18.62±3.12 kg/m2 (median 17.80), whereas the late stage was reached at weight of 62.44±10.39 kg (median 61.00) and BMI 21.47±2.84 kg/m2 (median 21.20). Earlier maturing boys were heavier than their coevals, whereas underweight boys developed puberty later. The onset and progression of puberty in boys are in a significant positive relationship with weight and BMI. Moreover, in the overweight boys pubertal development begins and comes to the late stage earlier in comparison with normal weight children, whereas in those who are underweight a delay at every stage of the development is observed.

  5. Association between excess body weight and urine protein concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Karen M; Shaw, Darcy H; Ihle, Sherri L; Burton, Shelley A; Pack, LeeAnn

    2014-06-01

    Markedly overweight people can develop progressive proteinuria and kidney failure secondary to obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Glomerular lesions in dogs with experimentally induced obesity are similar to those in people with ORG. The aim of this study was to evaluate if urine protein and albumin excretion is greater in overweight and obese dogs than in dogs of ideal body condition. Client-owned dogs were screened for underlying health conditions. These dogs were assigned a body condition score (BCS) using a 9-point scoring system. Dogs with a BCS of ≥ 6 were classified as being overweight/obese, and dogs with a BCS of 4 or 5 were classified as being of ideal body weight. The urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were then determined, and compared between 20 overweight/obese dogs and 22 ideal body weight control dogs. Median UPC (0.04 [range, 0.01-0.14; interquartile range, 0.07]) and UAC (0.41 [0-10.39; 3.21]) of overweight/obese dogs were not significantly different from median UPC (0.04 [0.01-0.32; 0.07]) and UAC (0.18 [0-7.04; 1.75]) in ideal body weight dogs. Clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with ORG were absent from overweight/obese dogs in this study. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Short-term increase of body weight triggers immunological variables in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Stuyven, E; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Hesta, M

    2012-01-15

    Overweight in dogs is, as in other companion animals, a major risk factor for several metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known whether immunity is challenged by increased body weight in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term increase in body weight on immunological variables in adult healthy beagle dogs. Sixteen dogs, divided into a control group (CG) and weight gain group (WGG), were included. During a period of 13 weeks, the CG was fed at maintenance energy requirement (MER), whereas the WGG received a double amount of food. After 13 weeks, blood samples were taken for immunological and biochemical analyses. Weight gain and increased body condition score in the WGG were accompanied by a significant higher leptin concentration. Weight gain increased the number of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins A and M and was responsible for a higher proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Short-term increase of body weight thus seems to trigger immunological variables in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. S-phenylpiracetam, a selective DAT inhibitor, reduces body weight gain without influencing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Vavers, Edijs; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Liepins, Vilnis; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-01

    S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively. Weight gain and plasma metabolites reflecting glucose metabolism were measured. Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass increase in the obese Zucker rats and in the WD-fed mice. In addition, S-phenylpiracetam reduced the plasma glucose and leptin concentration and lowered hyperglycemia in a glucose tolerance test in both the mice and the rats. S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate that S-phenylpiracetam reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that selective DAT inhibitors, such as S-phenylpiracetam, could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Drenowatz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods: To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 elementary school children (7.6 ± 0.4 years participating in a school-based intervention in southwest Germany was used. Children's height and weight were measured and parent as well as child behaviour was assessed via questionnaire. Results: BMI percentiles of children were positively associated with parental BMI (r = 0.2, p mother = 2.2, ORfather = 2.3 and parental club sport participation increased the odds for club sport participation in children (ORmother = 1.9, ORfather = 1.7. The relationship between parental and child behaviour was stronger than the relationship between parental BMI and BMI percentiles of the child. Conclusion: These results suggest that parental behaviour and role modelling provide an important contribution to childrens' health behaviour, especially at younger ages.

  9. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  11. Standing-up exerciser based on functional electrical stimulation and body weight relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Pavan, E E; Spadone, R; Cardini, R; Frigo, C

    2002-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to develop and test an innovative system for the training of paraplegic patients when they are standing up. The system consisted of a computer-controlled stimulator, surface electrodes for quadricep muscle stimulation, two knee angle sensors, a digital proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller and a mechanical device to support, partially, the body weight (weight reliever (WR)). A biomechanical model of the combined WR and patient was developed to find an optimum reference trajectory for the PID controller. The system was tested on three paraplegic patients and was shown to be reliable and safe. One patient completed a 30-session training period. Initially he was able to stand up only with 62% body weight relief, whereas, after the training period, he performed a series of 30 standing-up/sitting-down cycles with 45% body weight relief. The closed-loop controller was able to keep the patient standing upright with minimum stimulation current, to compensate automatically for muscle fatigue and to smooth the sitting-down movement. The limitations of the controller in connection with a highly non-linear system are considered.

  12. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  13. Correlation Between Body Weight and Mitoxantrone-Associated Neutropenia in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Danielle; Poirier, Valerie J; Matsuyama, Arata; Calvalido, Jerome

    Thirty-seven dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed malignant tumors treated with single-agent mitoxantrone at 5 mg/m 2 were evaluated in a retrospective study assessing the correlation between body weight and neutropenia associated with a single dose of mitoxantrone in dogs. Overall, eight dogs (21%) experienced grade 3 neutropenia and five dogs (14%) experienced grade 4 neutropenia on day 7 following mitoxantrone chemotherapy. Dogs ≤10 kg body weight were significantly more likely to develop grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (5.8 relative risk; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-12.9; P 10 kg. Dogs ≤15 kg body weight were significantly more likely to develop grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (8.1 relative risk; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-31.3; P 15 kg. Of the 13 patients who developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, 6 (46%) were hospitalized for clinical signs related to neutropenia. Based on the severity of neutropenia and the resulting hospitalization seen in dogs ≤10 kg, a dose reduction could be considered for the initial dose of mitoxantrone, and clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of neutropenia in patients 10.1 to ≤15 kg.

  14. Modulation of weight off-loading level over body-weight supported locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  16. Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Abitbol, Jean Louis; Mathé, Henri; Scherrer, Bruno; Guillard, Hélène; Gainer, Erin; Ulmann, André

    2015-02-01

    To further evaluate the effect of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Data from two large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials designed to assess emergency contraceptive efficacy were pooled to evaluate the effect of weight and BMI on pregnancy rates among women who received levonorgestrel. Descriptive methods (comparison of means and distributions according to pregnancy status and pregnancy rates across weight and BMI categories) as well as cubic spline modeling were used to describe the relationship between pregnancy risk and weight/BMI. The analysis population comprised 1731 women, among whom 38 pregnancies were reported. Women for whom levonorgestrel was not effective in preventing pregnancy had a significantly higher mean body weight and BMI than women who did not become pregnant (76.7 vs. 66.4 kg, p85 kg groups, respectively. Statistical modeling demonstrated a steep increase in pregnancy risk starting from a weight near 70-75 kg to reach a risk of pregnancy of 6% or greater around 80 kg. Similar results were obtained for statistical modeling of BMI as well as when the two studies were analyzed individually. All analyses showed a significant drop in the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception with increasing body weight, with pregnancy risk in the higher weight categories similar to expected rates in the absence of contraception. Like body weight, increasing BMI was highly correlated with increased pregnancy risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  18. Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production in Finnish Ayrshire cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production traits were estimated from a field data set of 28362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied body weight traits included heifer and mature live weight, estimated based on

  19. The effects of body weight unloading on kinetics and muscle activity of overweight males during Overground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon

    2018-02-01

    Excess body weight has become a major worldwide health and social epidemic. Training with body weight unloading, is a common method for gait corrections for various neuromuscular impairments. In the present study we assessed the effects of body weight unloading on knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activation of overweight subjects walking overground under various levels of body weight unloading. Ten overweight subjects (25 ≤ BMI weight unloading experimental conditions. Gait parameters assessed under these conditions included knee and ankle flexion moments and the Electromygraphic activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis. Increasing body weight unloading levels from 0% to 30% was found to significantly reduce the peak knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion moments. Also observed was a significant reduction in muscle activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis under the three body-weight unloading conditions. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of up to 30% overweight subjects' body weight during gait is conducive to a reduction in the knee and ankle flexion moments and in the balancing net quadriceps moment and ankle flexors moment. The newly devised body weight unloading device is therefore an effective method for reducing joint loads allowing overweight people who require controlled weight bearing scenarios to retrain their gait while engaging in sustained walking exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Jeremy D.; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu; Bray, George A.; DeJonge, Lilian; Coull, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Background The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. Methods and findings In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30–70 years. Body weight was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RMR and other metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin, were measured at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6–24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations, the multivariate-adjusted mean weight regain (SE) was 4.0 (0.8) versus 2.1 (0.9) kg for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Ptrend = 0.01); 4.3 (0.9) versus 2.2 (0.8) kg for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (Ptrend = 0.007); 4.7 (0.9) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (Ptrend = 0.006); 4.9 (0.9) versus 2.7 (0.8) kg for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) (Ptrend = 0.009); and 4.2 (0.8) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (Ptrend = 0.03). When

  1. Exploring cultural differences in women's body weight perception: The impact of self-construal on perceived overweight and engagement in health activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Herrman, Anna; Song, Hayeon; Lim, Tae-Seop; Cramer, Emily; Ahn, Seokhoon; Kim, Jihyun; Ota, Hiroshi; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Junghyun

    2016-11-01

    We examined the cultural influence on perceived body weight and the level of health practices at a national and individual level. At a national level, we found that Japanese women (n = 80) overestimate body weight more than Korean (n = 82) and American (n = 63) women. At an individual level, individuals with interdependent self-construal were more prone to overestimate weight than those with independent self-construal (N = 182; American women). Based on the data, we identify that the relationship is mediated by self-criticism, and, importantly, it is self-criticism rather than perceived overweight that predicts the level of health activities. Health practitioners and campaign designers across cultures are recommended to concentrate on promoting positive body esteem instead of encouraging engagement in corrective health behaviors for weight loss.

  2. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  3. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  4. Modeling of Body Weight Metrics for Effective and Cost-Efficient Conventional Factor VIII Dosing in Hemophilia A Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna McEneny-King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients. Using a validated population pharmacokinetic model, we simulated a variety of dosing regimens using different doses, weight metrics, and frequencies; we also investigated the implications of assuming various levels of endogenous factor production. Ideal body weight performed the best across all of the regimens explored, maintaining safety while moderating resource consumption for overweight and obese patients.

  5. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia triggered by liver injury in elderly subjects with low body weight: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, Takatoshi; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shigemoto, Ryo; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Urata, Noriyo; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Kaku, Kohei; Okimoto, Niro

    2018-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight. Furthermore, it is likely that hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia in both subjects was triggered by severe liver injury, at least in part, due to possible limited liver glycogen store. In elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, metabolism in the liver is reduced and glycogen accumulation is decreased. Such alteration brings out acute and marked liver injury, which finally leads to the onset of severe hypoglycemia. It is known that not only liver injury but also multiple organ failure could be induced due to extreme emaciation in subjects. It is likely that in elderly subjects with low body weight and/or malnutrition, multiple organ failure including liver failure could be induced due to the similar reason. Therefore, we should be very careful of such subjects in order to avoid the development of multiple organ failure which leads to life-threatening situations. In conclusion, we should keep in mind the possibility of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia when we examine severe liver injury, especially in elderly or starving subjects with low body weight and limited liver glycogen stores. It is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia.Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in everyday clinical practice.Herein, we reported similar 2 cases of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia without diabetes presumably triggered

  6. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  7. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  8. Impact of clinic follow-up visits on body weight control in people with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus: Japanese nonelderly cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Sachiko; Ono, Yosuke; Matsui, Hiroki; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Body weight control is considered essential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Clinicians have an important role in educating and guiding patients with diabetes to control their body weight. The aim of the present study was to clarify if clinic visits influenced body weight control of people with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus. To examine whether individuals with diabetes mellitus who visit clinics show better weight control. We used a large Japanese database (Japan Medical Data Center, Tokyo, Japan) of screening for lifestyle disease linked with administrative claim data to retrospectively identify people with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus based on their fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration. We collected data on their baseline characteristics (including age, sex, body mass index and disease history) and their lifestyles. We used propensity-score inverse probability of treatment weighted generalized estimating equations to examine the association between clinic visits and change in body mass index. Between 2013 and 2014, we identified 11004 individuals with prediabetes or diabetes. The proportions visiting clinics after the first diagnosis made at screening was 27.8%. Clinic visit was significantly associated with lower body mass index after adjustment for baseline patient characteristics a year after first screening (-0.17 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval, -0.22 to -0.12). In Japanese people found to have prediabetes or diabetes during an annual health screen, those who visited clinics after their first diagnosis were likely to have better body weight control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. The role of GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits in AgRP and POMC neurons on body weight and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Üner

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in AgRP neurons play a critical role in central control of body weight homeostasis and blood glucose balance via mechanisms that likely involve regulation of AgRP neuronal survival and structure, and modulation of hypothalamic leptin action.

  11. The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Martynov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment, and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects.

  12. Comparison of predictive performance of data mining algorithms in predicting body weight in Mengali rams of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Celik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed at comparing predictive performance of some data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID, MARS, MLP, and RBF in biometrical data of Mengali rams. To compare the predictive capability of the algorithms, the biometrical data regarding body (body length, withers height, and heart girth and testicular (testicular length, scrotal length, and scrotal circumference measurements of Mengali rams in predicting live body weight were evaluated by most goodness of fit criteria. In addition, age was considered as a continuous independent variable. In this context, MARS data mining algorithm was used for the first time to predict body weight in two forms, without (MARS_1 and with interaction (MARS_2 terms. The superiority order in the predictive accuracy of the algorithms was found as CART > CHAID ≈ Exhaustive CHAID > MARS_2 > MARS_1 > RBF > MLP. Moreover, all tested algorithms provided a strong predictive accuracy for estimating body weight. However, MARS is the only algorithm that generated a prediction equation for body weight. Therefore, it is hoped that the available results might present a valuable contribution in terms of predicting body weight and describing the relationship between the body weight and body and testicular measurements in revealing breed standards and the conservation of indigenous gene sources for Mengali sheep breeding. Therefore, it will be possible to perform more profitable and productive sheep production. Use of data mining algorithms is useful for revealing the relationship between body weight and testicular traits in describing breed standards of Mengali sheep.

  13. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the body composition of Muzaffarnagari lambs fattened to different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.H.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty eight male and 32 female Muzaffarnagari lambs were reared intensively on 4 rations containing 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.3 Mcal ME/kg of ration upto 25, 30 and 35 kg weights. Body composition of 27 lambs at 25 kg, 11 lambs at 30 kg and 14 lambs at 35 kg body weight was determined direct by slaughter and desiccation and indirect by TOH dilution techniques. The average corrected TOH space 72.30 +- 1.01 percent at 25 kg body weight and 69.61 +- 1.63 percent at 30 and 35 kg body weight (combined). Mean values by desiccation for corresponding body weights were 65.21 +- 1.04 and 65.00 +- 1.26 percent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the moisture content between the groups and sexes at different body weights. Protein content was significantly (P < 0.01) high in male lambs at all the weights. The difference in fat content due to treatments and sex was non-significant at 25 kg weight but significant (P < 0.01) at 30 and 35 kg body weights. The percentage of fat increased with the increase in the ME content of rations except in the female lambs of group 3 at 35 kg body weight which recorded least fat. (auth.)

  14. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  15. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  16. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P < .001). Patients having distorted self-perception of body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Dugan, Eric L; Ozimek, Elicia N; Curtis, Amy B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose was to examine changes in kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke immediately and 6-months after body-weight supported treadmill training. Fifteen participants at least six-months post stroke and able to ambulate between 0.4 and 0.8m/s and 20 participants without neurological conditions completed all phases of the study and were included in the analysis. The non-disabled group served as a comparison for describing changes in kinetic symmetry. The stroke group completed 24 sessions of body-weight supported treadmill training over 8-weeks with 20 minutes of total walking per session. Bilateral 3-dimensional motion analysis and gait speed were assessed 1-week before training (pre-test), 1-week after training (post-test) and 6-months after training (retention) in a repeated measures design. Relative propulsion of the paretic leg and relative positive work of the hip, knee and ankle joints of both legs were calculated to evaluate symmetry of kinetic forces. Statistically significant differences in relative propulsion and positive joint work within the paretic and non-paretic legs were not found over time. The stroke group significantly improved gait speed from pre- to post-test (p=.001) and pre-test to retention (p=.008). In comparison to the non-disabled group, forces produced by the stroke group were asymmetrical demonstrating compensatory adaptation. Although the participants with chronic stroke walked faster after body-weight supported treadmill training, the relative percentages of propulsion and positive work remained unchanged. These findings suggest that the increase in speed was likely due to strengthening existing compensatory strategies rather than through recovery of normal kinetic symmetry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. No compelling evidence that sibutramine prolongs life in rodents despite providing a dose-dependent reduction in body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L.; Robertson, Henry; Desmond, Renee; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The health and longevity effects of body weight reduction resulting from exercise and caloric restriction in rodents are well known, but less is known about whether similar effects occur with weight reduction from the use of a pharmaceutical agent such as sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Results & Conclusion Using data from a two-year toxicology study of sibutramine in CD rats and CD-1 mice, despite a dose-dependent reduction in food intake and body weight in rats compared to controls, and a body weight reduction in mice at the highest dose, there was no compelling evidence for reductions in mortality rate. PMID:21079617

  1. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  2. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  3. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise can act as a stressor and disturb sleep, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest a possible association to metabolic outcomes and adiposity through biological mechanisms related to physiological stress and sleep disturbance. OBJECTIVES...... an 10% increased risk for gaining more than 5kg body weight during follow-up (95% CI: 1.04; 1.15) per 10dB higher 5 years exposure preceding follow-up. Exposure to railway noise above 55dB was associated with weight gain (39.9g/year (95% CI: 10.2; 69.6)), but not with a significant change in waist...

  4. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001). Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05). In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and district. However, the actual effects of these factors on the

  5. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS. Results From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001. There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001. Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05. In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. Conclusion The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and

  6. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13 C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m 2 ), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m 2 ) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m 2 ) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t 50 ) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t 50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p < 0.001). After weight rehabilitation, t 50 in AN tended to become shorter (p = 0.09) and postprandial fullness was less marked (p < 0.01). A relationship between body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  7. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without

  8. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Greenberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98, and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. RESULTS: Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2 of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44 and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55, respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with

  9. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Body Weight, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigamani Masilamani Sakthivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A (OA on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2 ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed.

  10. Overground body-weight-supported gait training for children and youth with neuromuscular impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Stuberg, Wayne; Dejong, Stacey; Arpin, David J

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if body-weight-supported (BWS) overground gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of children and youth with childhood onset motor impairments and intellectual disabilities. Eight participants (mean age of 16.3 years) completed 12 weeks of BWS overground gait training that was performed two times a week. BWS was provided during the training sessions by an overhead harness system that rolls overground. There was a significant improvement in the preferred walking speed after the training (p training may be an effective treatment strategy for improving the preferred walking speed of children and youth with motor impairments.

  11. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  12. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of prospective mate quality on investments in healthy body weight among single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew C; Cronin, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight. For example, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of low quality single black males leads to a 5-10% decrease in vigorous exercise taken by single black females. Results for single white women are qualitatively similar, but not consistent across specifications. These results highlight the relationship between male and female human capital acquisition that is driven by participation in the marriage market. Our results suggest that programs designed to improve the economic prospects of single males may yield positive externalities in the form of improved health behaviors, such as more exercise, particularly for single black females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes of biochemical environment and body weight in healthy periparturient Lipizzan mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sodium, urea, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids, total protein, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose in the blood serum and to monitor the body weight changes in nine clinically healthy Lipizzan mares at weekly intervals within 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after the parturition. A significant body weight loss (P < 0.01 was found in the mares after the foaling. The peak of insulin growth factor 1 concentration in serum was reached at the day of parturition and similar patterns were revealed for the concentrations of insulin and glucose. After parturition, all these indices were significantly decreased. The concentrations of phosphorus and triacylglycerols were decreased, while the concentrations of potassium and sodium were increased at the day of parturition. Moreover, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was increased at the day of parturition (P < 0.05 with a tendency to higher values even on the 7th day postpartum. Other studied indexes remained relatively stable throughout the transition period. We can conclude that periparturient mares face some degree of negative energy balance with concomitant significant homeostatic and homeorhetic changes. For this reason, our results can be used as a basis for reference values and a diagnostic tool to examine the health status in horses during the transition period.

  15. The impact of body weight management in chronic kidney disease patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Wen-Ching; Wu, Ming-Ju; Lin, Tzu-Mei; Chen, Cheng-Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. Because obesity may initiate and/or accelerate kidney damage, weight control may benefit CKD patients. We examined the influence of dietary management and physical exercise in 38 obese CKD patients with or without target reduction of body weight 3% or more from baseline. After a 2-month lifestyle intervention program, those with target body weight control had significant improvement of blood pressure control, as well as reduced lipid profiles, serum creatinine level (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3; P management and exercise were associated with improvements in health-related physical fitness, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure and lipid control), and renal profiles in obese CKD patients. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert beneficial effects, but long-term research with a larger patient population is needed to elucidate the optimal effective combination of dietary management and exercise. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, C

    2000-05-01

    1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

  18. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  19. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Perceived body weight, eating and exercise problems of different groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Elise; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    To compare prevalence of problems with body weight, eating and exercise (past or present) of female psychiatric inpatients with routine care, gynaecological and obstetric female outpatients, and eating disorder inpatients. One thousand and thirty-eight females aged 18-55 years from routine care (n=99), gynaecological (n=263) and obstetric (n=271) outpatient clinics, and eating disorder (n=223) and general psychiatric units (n=182) participated. Participants self-reported past or current problems with weight, eating and exercise using a short survey. A sub-sample of women completed the Eating and Exercise Examination (EEE) which includes the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders (QOL ED). The prevalence of self-reported problems controlling weight (52%), disordered eating and eating disorders (43%) for the psychiatric patients was significantly greater than for the routine care and gynaecological and obstetrics outpatients. The psychiatric group had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD)=6.7) and prevalence of self-reported obesity (28%) than the other groups. Treatment of women with psychiatric problems should include assessment and concurrent attention to body weight, eating disorder and exercise problems in association with appropriate medical, psychiatric, psychological and medication treatment of their presenting disorder.

  1. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  2. Tributyltin exposure induces gut microbiome dysbiosis with increased body weight gain and dyslipidemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Dong; Wei, Xinglong; Kou, Ruirui; Si, Jiliang

    2018-05-03

    Gut microbiome dysbiosis plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of obesity and tributyltin (TBT) has been found as an environmental obesogen. However, whether TBT could disturb gut microbiome and the relationship between obesity induced by TBT exposure and alteration in gut microbiota are still unknown. In order to assess the association between them, mice were exposed to TBTCl (50 μg kg -1 ) once every three days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 54. The results demonstrated that TBT exposure resulted in increased body weight gain, lager visceral fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in male mice on PND 84. Correspondingly, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that TBT treatment decreased gut microbial species and perturbed the microbiome composition in mice. Furthermore, Pearson's corelation coefficient analysis showed a significantly negative correlation between the body weight and the alpha diversity of gut microbiome. These results suggested that TBT exposure could induce gut microbiome dysbiosis in mice, which might contribute to the obesity pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  4. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (Pobese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (Pobese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liraglutide Modulates Appetite and Body Weight Via GLP-1R-Expressing Glutamatergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jessica M; Pei, Hongjuan; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J; Chang, Rui B; Liberles, Stephen D; Olson, David P

    2018-05-18

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) impact appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. Here, we determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the acute and chronic effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT -expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2 -expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding. Concomitantly, deletion of GLP-1Rs from glutamatergic neurons completely abolished the neural network activation observed after liraglutide administration. We conclude that liraglutide activates a dispersed but discrete neural network to mediate its physiological effects, and that these effects require GLP-1R expression on glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Convenience foods in children's diet and association with dietary quality and body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Libuda, L; Mersmann, S; Kersting, M

    2011-02-01

    Pre-prepared commercial foods (convenience foods, CFs) are one aspect of modern dietary habits. The present paper examines the association between CF consumption and dietary quality or body weight status in a sample of German children and adolescents. Linear mixed-effect regression analyses using data from 586 participants (296 boys, 3-18 years) in the Dortmund Nutritional Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study, who yearly completed 1890 3-day dietary records and anthropometric measurements in 2004-2008, was used. CF intake (percent total food intake) showed no significant association with macronutrient intakes (%E), with exception of a significant positive association with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (Ptrend with increased consumption of CF (P=0.0013). No significant association between baseline or change in consumption of CF and baseline or change in parameters of body weight (standard deviation score of body mass index (weight/height(2)) or percentage body fat (%BF) estimated from skinfolds) was found. Among boys, baseline consumption of high-ED-CF significantly predicted change in %BF during the study period (β 0.104, P=0.0098). Our results point to an impairment of dietary quality with high consumption of CF and to a small but positive association between consumption of high-ED-CF in boys and weight.

  7. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  9. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  10. Prognostic significance of unintentional body weight loss in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Hung; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Cheng Yi; Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether unintentional body weight loss (BWL) provides additional clinical information in terms of tumor progression and prognosis in non-metastatic colon cancer. In the present study, a total of 2,406 consecutive colon cancer patients without metastasis were retrospectively enrolled. Unintentional BWL was defined as loss of >5% of body weight within the last 6-12 months, or defined subjectively upon fulfillment of at least two of the following: Evidence of change in clothing size and corroboration of the reported weight loss by family or friend. This category was recorded as present ('with') or absent ('without'). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between BWL and the tumor characteristics and post-operative outcomes of patients with colon cancer. The Cox regression model was used to determine the association of BWL with long-term survival of colon cancer patients. A significant association between BWL and tumor location [right vs. left: Odds ratio (OR)=1.62; Pcolon cancer is not just a symptom, but it is also correlated with tumor location, size and depth, and is a prognostic factor for poor outcomes including overall survival and tumor relapse.

  11. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  12. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  14. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI : EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Van de Crommert, H. W. A. A.; Rijken, H.; van Kuppevelt, D. H. J. M.; Duysens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Case series. Objectives: To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Setting: Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

  15. Reproductive performance and body weight changes in draught cows in a smallholder semi-arid farming area of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonyo, M; Kusina, N T; Hamudikuwanda, H; Nyoni, O

    2000-12-01

    The reproductive performance of 46 cows in a semi-arid, smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe was monitored for a year. Half the cows were used throughout the monitoring period for various draught purposes, including ploughing and procurement of farm produce for marketing using carts. All the cows lost body weight between July and October, after which the cows that were not worked gained weight until June of the following year. In contrast, the cows that were worked continued to lose body weight until January, throughout the time during which they were used to provide draught power, after which they gained weight. Body weights were significantly higher (p draught purposes caused loss of body weight and reduced ovarian activity and conception rates.

  16. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Hatami Zargaran; Moosa Salehi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Siavash Babajafari

    2014-01-01

    Background: It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The co...

  17. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  18. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  19. Effect of body weight on fixed dose of diclofenac for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leerhøy, Bonna; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Novovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    in patients without PEP (74 ± 18 kg) (p = 0.029). In patients not receiving prophylaxis, body weight was not associated with the occurrence of PEP (mean ± SD: 77 ± 18 vs 75 ± 18 kg, respectively, p = 0.450). In an adjusted analysis, higher patient body weight was inversely associated with the clinical effect...

  20. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered.

  1. Chickens from lines artificially selected for juvenile low and high body weight differ in glucose homeostasis and pancreas physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, L H; Zhang, W; Zhao, X; Honaker, C F; Zhang, S; Cline, M A; Siegel, P B; Gilbert, E R

    2014-06-01

    Artificial selection of White Plymouth Rock chickens for juvenile (day 56) body weight resulted in two divergent genetic lines: hypophagic low weight (LWS) chickens and hyperphagic obese high weight (HWS) chickens, with the latter more than 10-fold heavier than the former at selection age. A study was designed to investigate glucose regulation and pancreas physiology at selection age in LWS chickens and HWS chickens. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests revealed differences in threshold sensitivity to insulin and glucose clearance rate between the lines. Results from real-time PCR showed greater pancreatic mRNA expression of four glucose regulatory genes (preproinsulin, PPI; preproglucagon, PPG; glucose transporter 2, GLUT2; and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, Pdx1) in LWS chickens, than HWS chickens. Histological analysis of the pancreas revealed that HWS chickens have larger pancreatic islets, less pancreatic islet mass, and more pancreatic inflammation than LWS chickens, all of which presumably contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in the body weight of term infants, born in the tropics, during the first seven days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claudia; Carrara, Verena; Thien, Naw Aye Mya; Paw, Naw Moo Ku; Rijken, Marcus; McGready, Rose; Nosten, François

    2013-06-14

    Identifying unwell neonates, particularly in the first week of life, is often subjective. If normal values are known, calculating the weight lost or gained from birth weight can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the health of a neonate. Serial body weights of well, term, breast fed infants who were attending for routine follow up, were recorded at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit clinic in Maela Camp for displaced persons on the Thailand Myanmar border. Newborn examination was routine. Weight loss, expressed as percent weight lost from birth weight, and weight gain, expressed as a velocity (g/kg/day), was calculated for the first seven days of life. The results from normal birth weight infants, low birth weight infants (gestational age infants (SGA) were examined. In the first week of life there were no significant differences in weight gained or lost across the three study groups. The maximum weight lost was 4.4% (95% CI 4.1 - 4.6%), which occurred on day three. Weight gain ranged from 13 g/kg/day [95% CI 10 - 16] on day four to 18 g/kg/day [95% CI 15 - 20] on days six and seven. Use of these normal values for weight gain and loss, allows infants falling outside of the expected range (95% CI) to be easily identified and subsequently highlighted as needing further medical review.

  3. A Botanical Composition from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis for Body Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Mice treated with UP603 showed dose-correlated decrease in body weight gains compared to vehicle treated HFFD group. Following 7 weeks of treatment, the changes in body weight gains from baseline were found as 6.4%, 27.3%, 2.0%, 3.1%, 0.4%, and -2.9% for normal control diet, HFFD, Orlistat, 450, 650, and 850 mg/kg UP603 treated animals, respectively. Reductions of 7.9-21.1% in total cholesterol, 25.4-44.6% in triglyceride, and 22.5-38.2% in low-density lipoprotein were observed for mice treated with 450-850 mg/kg of UP603. In a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 40.4% were found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP603, respectively. Reductions of 65.5% and 16.4% in insulin and leptin, respectively, and 2.1-fold increase in ghrelin level were also observed for the UP603 group. Statistically significant improvements in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis scores were also observed from liver histology for mice treated with UP603. Hence, UP603, a standardized botanical composition from M. alba, I. paraguariensis, and R. officinalis could potentially be considered as a natural alternative to maintain healthy body

  4. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism; Koerpergewichtsentwicklung nach Radioiodtherapie einer Hyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kiencke, P. [Koeln Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie (IMSIE)

    2002-02-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung der Entwicklung des Koerpergewichtes nach {sup 131}I-Therapie einer Hyperthyreose, da der Radioiodtherapie (RITh) haeufig eine exzessive posttherapeutische Gewichtszunahme angelastet wird. Methoden: Retrospektiv wurden therapie- und koerpergewichtsbezogene Daten von 100 konsekutiven Patienten vor und bis drei Jahre nach RITh einer Hyperthyreose (Morbus Basedow oder funktionelle Autonomie) erfasst und mit denen einer euthyreoten Kontrollgruppe (n = 48) verglichen. Die

  5. Redox regulation of cell proliferation: Bioinformatics and redox proteomics approaches to identify redox-sensitive cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Wilson, Michael H; Wright, Megan H

    2018-03-29

    Plant stem cells are the foundation of plant growth and development. The balance of quiescence and division is highly regulated, while ensuring that proliferating cells are protected from the adverse effects of environment fluctuations that may damage the genome. Redox regulation is important in both the activation of proliferation and arrest of the cell cycle upon perception of environmental stress. Within this context, reactive oxygen species serve as 'pro-life' signals with positive roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and survival. However, very little is known about the metabolic mechanisms and redox-sensitive proteins that influence cell cycle progression. We have identified cysteine residues on known cell cycle regulators in Arabidopsis that are potentially accessible, and could play a role in redox regulation, based on secondary structure and solvent accessibility likelihoods for each protein. We propose that redox regulation may function alongside other known posttranslational modifications to control the functions of core cell cycle regulators such as the retinoblastoma protein. Since our current understanding of how redox regulation is involved in cell cycle control is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding both which residues are important and how modification of those residues alters protein function, we discuss how critical redox modifications can be mapped at the molecular level. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF STRESS ON THE PERCENT BODY WEIGHT CHANGE AND MRNA EXPRESSION OF IGF-1, SURVIVINE AND HSP-70 GENE IN THE HIERARCHIAL FOLLICLES OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the effect of stress on body weight and the mRNA expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene in the hierarchial follicles of Japanese quail. A total 24 birds (10 weeks were taken and stress was induced by immobilization daily for 2hrs (between 9.00 - 11.00 AM throughout the study (10 days. Four birds were sacrificed on 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days of the treatment. Hierarchial follicles (F1, F2 & F3 were aseptically collected to quantify the expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene using real-time PCR technique. The percent body weight reduction increased and reached highest (21.30% on 10th day. The fold expression of IGF-1 gene was significantly ((P=0.05 down regulated in advance to the time of experiment. However, the fold expression of survivine gene was significantly (P=0.05 up regulated and the intensity was highest (17 fold in F-3 follicle on 4th day of experiment. No significant change in the mRNA expression of HSP-70 gene was evident in this study. From this study it may be concluded that stress brings physio-molecular change through HPA activation, which not only causes tissue regression also modifies the cellular mechanism.

  7. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man; He, Bin; Zhang, Liqing; Varmark, Hanne; Green, Michael R; Sheng, Zhi

    2018-02-12

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed a large-scale RNA interference screen in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells using monodansylcadaverine staining, an autophagy-detecting approach equivalent to immunoblotting of the autophagy marker LC3B or fluorescence microscopy of GFP-LC3B. By coupling monodansylcadaverine staining with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays revealed that 57 autophagy-regulating genes suppressed autophagy initiation, whereas 21 candidates promoted autophagy maturation. Our RNA interference screen identifies identified genes that regulate autophagy at different stages, which helps decode autophagy regulation in cancer and offers novel avenues to develop autophagy-related therapies for cancer.

  8. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  9. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Body weight gain induced by a newer antipsychotic agent reversed as negative symptoms improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Nakayama, K

    2005-07-01

    We describe a patient in whom improvement in negative symptoms contributed to early weight loss and subsequent long-term improvement in weight management. Case report. A 26-year-old woman with schizophrenia gained 7 kg over the course of 1 year after starting treatment with olanzapine. However, as negative symptoms gradually improved with treatment, she became motivated to diet and exercise regularly. She quickly lost 9 kg and subsequently maintained optimal weight (55 kg; body mass index, 24.1 kg/m(2) ). Important strategies for minimizing weight gain in patients taking antipsychotic agents include improving negative symptoms of avolition and apathy, regular monitoring of body weight and potential medical consequences of overweight and obesity, and educating the patient about the importance of diet and regular exercise.

  11. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Day

    Full Text Available Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  12. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  13. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  14. Parental Perceptions of and Concerns About Child's Body Weight in Eight European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regber, Susann; Novak, Masuma; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject: Parents of children with overweight and obesity tend to underestimate their children's weight. Most studies show no association between parental education level and accurate parental perception of a child's weight category. Studies show no consistent...... relationship between parental weight perception and the child's gender. What this study adds: Parental underestimation of children's weight category for children in the overweight and obesity categories was found across eight European countries. Regional differences indicated a more accurate parental weight...... perception in Northern and Central Europe. A high proportion of parents in Southern Europe were concerned about future underweight or overweight in their children. Objectives: To evaluate parental perceptions of and concern about child's body weight and general health in children in a European cohort. Design...

  15. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between waterpipe smoking and body weight: population-based findings from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D; Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or "hookah") is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥ 18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79-3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06-7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Subcutaneous oxyntomodulin analogue administration reduces body weight in lean and obese rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-L; Ford, H E; Druce, M R; Minnion, J S; Field, B C T; Shillito, J C; Baxter, J; Murphy, K G; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    2010-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing body weight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM. The chronic effect of OXM6421 on food intake, body weight and energy expenditure was examined in lean rats, and its anti-obesity potential was evaluated in DIO mice. OXM6421 showed enhanced GLP-1 receptor binding affinity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation, and higher resistance to enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) compared with native OXM. OXM6421 persisted longer in the circulation than OXM after peripheral administration. Acute administration of OXM6421 potently inhibited food intake in lean rodents, with cumulative effects lasting up to 24 h. In lean rats, daily subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of OXM6421 caused greater weight loss than the pair-fed animals, and a higher rate of oxygen consumption than both the pair-fed and the saline controls. In DIO mice, continuous s.c. infusion of OXM6421 resulted in a significant weight loss, accompanied by an improvement in glucose homeostasis and an increase in circulating adiponectin levels. Once-daily s.c. administration of OXM6421 for 21 days caused sustained weight loss in DIO mice. OXM6421 induces negative energy balance in both lean and obese rodents, suggesting that long-acting OXM analogues may represent a potential therapy for obesity.

  18. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  20. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Zaira; Bonetto, Andrea; Costelli, Paola; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Penna, Fabio; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Lucia, Simone; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, improves muscle mass and function. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of HMB administration in an experimental in vivo model of cancer cachexia (CC). Wistar rats were randomized to receive standard or 4% HMB-enriched chow. Rats from both groups were randomized to receive an i.p. inoculum of AH-130 cells (TB). All rats were weighed and sacrificed at day 24. Liver, heart and muscles were dissected and weighed. The protein levels of p-p70S6k, p-eIf2α, p-mTOR and p-4-EB-P1 were evaluated by Western blotting on gastrocnemius muscle (GSN). As expected, the growth of the AH-130 ascites hepatoma induced significant carcass weight and GSN muscle loss. HMB treatment significantly increased GSN and heart weight in controls (p=0.002 and pHMB-treated TB, body weight was not lost but significantly (p=0.003) increased, and GSN loss was significantly (p=0.04) attenuated with respect to TB. Phosphorylated eIF2α markedly decreased in TB-rats vs. C. Feeding the HMB-enriched diet resulted in decreased p-eIF2α levels in control animals, while no changes could be observed in the TB group. Phosphorylated p70S6K and phosphorylated mTOR were markedly increased by HMB treatment in controls and further increased in TB. Phosphorylated 4-EB-P1 was markedly increased in TB but substantially unaffected by HMB treatment. Administration of HMB attenuates body weight and muscle loss in experimental CC. Increased phosphorylation of key anabolic molecules suggests that these actions are mediated by improved protein anabolism in muscle.

  1. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants.

  2. Hemodynamic evaluation of the right portal vein in healthy dogs of different body weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida Mariana F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doppler ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating hepatic portal hemodynamics. However, no study in dogs of different body weights, in the range encountered in routine clinical veterinary practice, has been reported. It can be difficult to obtain an ideal insonation angle when evaluating the main portal vein, so evaluation of the right portal vein branch has been described in humans as an alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze, through Doppler ultrasonography, the hemodynamics in the right portal vein branch in dogs of different body weights. Methods Thirty normal dogs were divided in three groups by weight, in order to establish normal values for mean velocity, flow volume and portal congestion index of the right portal vein branch by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Results In all dogs ideal insonation angles were obtained for the right portal vein branch. The average velocity was similar in the three groups, but the portal congestion index and the flow volume differed, showing that the weight of the dog can influence these values. Conclusion Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of flow in the right branch of the portal vein could be a viable alternative, or complement, to examining the main vessel segment. This is especially so in those animals in which an ideal insonation angle for examination of the main portal vein is hard to obtain. In addition, the weight of the dog must be considered for the correct evaluation of the portal system hemodynamics, particularly for portal blood flow and the congestion index.

  3. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

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    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  4. Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing.

  5. Central effects of insulin detemir on feeding, body weight, and metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Wall, Daniel G; John, Catherine S; Chapman, Colin D; Currie, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain-sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the central nervous system. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Also, in acute testing, we assessed the ability of lower doses of DET to alter feeding, EE, and RQ when microinjected directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The anabolic peptide ghrelin served as a positive control in acute testing. 3V administration of both DET (0.5-2.0 mU) and regular insulin (2.0-8.0 mU) significantly reduced feeding and body weight over 48 and 120 h, respectively, with DET yielding greater inhibitory effects. DET also stimulated greater elevations of EE and reductions of RQ over 72 and 48 h postinjection, respectively. In acute (4 h) testing, microinjections of DET (0.5 mU) into the PVN reduced feeding, increased EE, and reduced RQ, while ghrelin (100 pmol) had the opposite effects. When administered sequentially into the PVN, DET (0.25 and 0.5 mU) reversed ghrelin-induced feeding, EE, and RQ effects. These data support the notion that the weight-sparing effect of DET is at least in part based on its central catabolic action and that enhanced EE and reduced RQ may participate in this effect. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  7. Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Krishnan, S; Stoner, M A; Goktas, Z; Cooper, J A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying critical periods of greater weight gain could provide useful information to combat the obesity epidemic. We tested whether body weight (BW), body fat percentage (BF%) and blood pressure (BP) changed during the holiday season (thanksgiving to new year's day) and the impact of regular exercise on these parameters. A total of 48 males and 100 females (age 18-65 years) with a mean body mass index of 25.1±0.5 kg/m(2) were evaluated in mid-November (visit 1) and early January (visit 2; across 57±0.5 days). Anthropometric data, BF%, BP and self-reported exercise were recorded. Participants showed significant increases in BW (0.78±0.1 kg, Pholiday weight gain and was not a significant predictor for changes in BW or BF%. Data are reported as means±s.e. Our participants gained an average of 0.78 kg, which indicates the majority of average annual weight gain (1 kg/y) reported by others may occur during the holiday season. Obese participants are most at risk as they showed the greatest increases in BF%. Initial BW, not exercise, significantly predicted BF% and BW gain.

  8. Relationship between the microbiota in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and the body weight of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Geon Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Lee, Jinyoung; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Jin, Gwideuk; Park, Jongbin; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kwon, Ill-Kyong; Kil, Dong Yong; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, many efforts have been undertaken to further improve the growth performance of broilers and identification and modulation of body weight (BW)-related bacteria could be one of the strategies to improve productivity. However, studies regarding the relationship between microbiota and BW are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between microbiota and BW in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A total of twenty 18-day-old birds were selected based on the BW, and samples were collected from the three different sections of the GIT, which included the crop, ileum and cecum. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the samples, and the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Amplicons were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq, and microbial communities were analyzed by using QIIME. In principal coordinate analysis, bacterial communities were clustered into three groups, based on the sections of GIT. Several BW-related bacterial groups were identified from linear regression analysis. At the genus level, Streptococcus from the ileum as well as Akkermansia in both ileum and cecum, were negatively related to BW, whereas Bifidobacterium in the ileum and Lactococcus in the cecum showed a positive correlation. The results from the present study showed that particular bacterial communities in the GIT were related to BW, and the study has broadened the understanding of the intestinal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens.

  9. Energy Homeostasis and Body Weight before and after Cessation of Block and Replacement Therapy in Euthyroid Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Klieverik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH treated with a combination of thyrostatic drugs and T4, that is, block and replacement therapy (BRT, often report body weight (BW gain. We aimed to determine changes in BW and energy metabolism upon cessation of BRT in these patients, and to identify possible endocrine determinants. We analysed 22 patients with GH (i during BRT, and (ii 12 weeks after BRT cessation. Patients were euthyroid at both visits. There were no differences in BW or resting energy expenditure (REE between visits. At visit 1, after 13.5 (9.5–48.0 months of BRT, serum free (FT4 correlated positively with REE (=0.433, =0.044 and negatively with body fat % (=−0.450, =0.035. Plasma FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio showed an increase 12 w after cessation of BRT (20%, <0.0001 and 16%, =0.007, resp.. Moreover, the relative change in FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant, positive correlation with the relative change in REE between the 2 visits (=0.465, =0.029. In conclusion, serum FT4 determines REE in euthyroid patients with GH treated with BRT. Twelve weeks after BRT cessation, BW and energy homeostasis are unaltered. However, as serum FT3/FT4 ratio increases after cessation of BRT, which is a positive determinant of changes in REE, a longer term BW decrease is likely to occur.

  10. Does consumption of processed foods explain disparities in the body weight of individuals? The case of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay

    2011-02-01

    Overweight/obesity, caused by the 'nutrition transition', is identified as one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable mortality. The nutrition transition in developing countries is associated with a major shift from the consumption of staple crops and whole grains to highly and partially processed foods. This study examines the contribution of processed foods consumption to the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Guatemala using generalized methods of moments (GMM) regression. The results show that all other things remaining constant, a 10% point increase in the share of partially processed foods from the total household food expenditure increases the BMI of family members (aged 10 years and above) by 3.95%. The impact of highly processed foods is much stronger. A 10% point increase in the share of highly processed food items increases the BMI of individuals by 4.25%, ceteris paribus. The results are robust when body weight is measured by overweight/obesity indicators. These findings suggest that increasing shares of partially and highly processed foods from the total consumption expenditure could be one of the major risk factors for the high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country.

  11. Trend analysis of body weight parameters, mortality, and incidence of spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order(γ = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; ρ < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order (γ = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; ρ < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT

  13. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man

    2018-01-01

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed...... with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes...... have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays...

  14. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Tsachaki, Maria; Fritsch, Cornelia; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory perception of light is mediated by specialized Photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in the eye. During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway. While the genetic and molecular mechanisms of PR development is well described in the adult compound eye, it remains unclear how the expression of Rhodopsins and the phototransduction cascade is regulated in other visual organs in Drosophila, such as the larval eye and adult ocelli. Using transcriptome analysis of larval PR-subtypes and ocellar PRs we identify and study new regulators required during PR differentiation or necessary for the expression of specific signaling molecules of the functional phototransduction pathway. We found that the transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) is enriched in the larval eye and controls PR differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression. We also identified Camta, Lola, Dve and Hazy as key genes acting during ocellar PR differentiation. Further we show that these transcriptional regulators control gene expression of the phototransduction cascade in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Our results show that PR cell type-specific transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to identify key transcriptional regulators involved during several aspects of PR development and differentiation. Our findings greatly contribute to the understanding of how combinatorial action of key transcriptional regulators control PR development and the regulation of a functional phototransduction pathway in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome

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    Wang Xin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that pistachios can improve blood lipid profiles in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia which could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content. Purpose To investigate the impact of different dosages of pistachios on body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety subjects with metabolic syndrome (consistent with 2005 International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome standard without diabetes were enrolled in three endocrinology outpatient clinics in Beijing. All subjects received dietary counseling according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association Step I diet. After a 4 week run-in, subjects were randomized to consume either the recommended daily serving of 42 g pistachios (RSG, a higher daily serving of 70 g pistachio (HSG or no pistachios (DCG for 12 weeks. Results Subjects in all three groups were matched at baseline for BMI: DCG 28.03 ± 4.3; RSG 28.12 ± 3.22; and HSG 28.01 ± 4.51 kg/m2. There were no significant changes in body weight or BMI in any groups during the study nor any change from baseline at any time point in any group. During the entire study, there were no significant differences in waist-to-hip ratio among the groups or any change from baseline in any group (DCG -0.00 ± 0.03, RSG -0.01 ± 0.02 and HSG 0.01 ± 0.04. There were no significant differences detected among groups in triglycerides, fasting glucose and 2 hour postprandial glucose following a 75 gram glucose challenge. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that glucose values 2 h after a 75 gm glucose challenge were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline values in the HSG group (-1.13 ± 2.58 mmol/L, p = 0.02, and a similar trend was noted in the RSG group (-0.77 ± 2.07 mmol/L, p = 0.06, while no

  16. Association among nocturnal enuresis, body weight and obstructive sleep apnea in children of south Italy: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Fabrizio, Giovanna C; Franco, Daniele; Spina, Giulia; Ianniello, Francesca; Sbordone, Annamaria; Vitelli, Ottavio; Quintarelli, Fabio; Verrotti, Alberto; Saggese, Giuseppe

    2016-04-14

    To evaluate the rate of nocturnal enuresis (NE), body weight and obstructive sleep apnea in children 5 to 10 years of age in South Italy and the possible association among these disorders. We have administered 1.100 validated questionnaires, in Italian language, to parents and we have analyzed data with a logistic regression. Forty-two percent of children had a BMI ≥ 85th (group 1) vs 58.0% normal weight children at the same age (group 2). There is a higher number of overweight males compared to females without statistically differences. In group 1 there were a higher number of children with NE and obstructive sleep disorders and exists in some children the association among these three disorders. There are no statistically differences between two study groups for the association body weight-NE, body weight-NE-obstructive sleep disorders.

  17. [Experiences of a nation-wide integrated program for healthy body weight among students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Po-Lun; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has good support systems for obesity prevention and management. The percentage of elementary school students with normal body weight, however, has undergone a sustained decrease to 55%. Many factors are associated with this trend, such as lack of physical activity, dissatisfaction with body image, unbalanced dietary pattern, and unsupportive environment. Even though the rate of overweight and obesity is under control, the rate of underweight among girls has undergone a sustained increase, to 28%. Nurses therefore organized the "Aid students to fit" project, which emphasizes the bipolar issue of overweight and underweight. This national project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education and is expected to establish a beneficial environment, in which students can easily adopt healthy lifestyles and increase self-esteem. The program incorporates the AID triangle concept (Active, Image, Diet) and five strategies for achieving the goals. These strategies are: 1. Develop a persuasive statement to fit in with the philosophies of parents, students and teachers. 2. Set up measurable behavior indices and slogans. (Active life: 210 minutes per week. Image: confident and elegant. Diet: balanced and wise choice of low fat and high fiber foods.) 3. Establish a nation-wide interactive surveillance system for body weight control. 4. Develop an internet system that emphasizes tailored case management for overweight students. 5. Develop a supportive teaching plan, material, and aids to promote a healthy school environment. Five modeling schools, moreover, can be used to demonstrate the program. Educators can also download a free teaching plan, material, and aids at the website for healthy weight management (www.ym.edu.tw/active/aid). The authors brought together scholars from eight universities to accomplish the program. In support of the program, the Taiwan Ministry of Education addressed the new recommendation for physical activity which is to engage in moderate intensity

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of within-family variance of body weight in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Anna K; Odegård, Jørgen; Rönnegård, Lars

    2013-10-17

    Canalization is defined as the stability of a genotype against minor variations in both environment and genetics. Genetic variation in degree of canalization causes heterogeneity of within-family variance. The aims of this study are twofold: (1) quantify genetic heterogeneity of (within-family) residual variance in Atlantic salmon and (2) test whether the observed heterogeneity of (within-family) residual variance can be explained by simple scaling effects. Analysis of body weight in Atlantic salmon using a double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM) revealed substantial heterogeneity of within-family variance. The 95% prediction interval for within-family variance ranged from ~0.4 to 1.2 kg2, implying that the within-family variance of the most extreme high families is expected to be approximately three times larger than the extreme low families. For cross-sectional data, DHGLM with an animal mean sub-model resulted in severe bias, while a corresponding sire-dam model was appropriate. Heterogeneity of variance was not sensitive to Box-Cox transformations of phenotypes, which implies that heterogeneity of variance exists beyond what would be expected from simple scaling effects. Substantial heterogeneity of within-family variance was found for body weight in Atlantic salmon. A tendency towards higher variance with higher means (scaling effects) was observed, but heterogeneity of within-family variance existed beyond what could be explained by simple scaling effects. For cross-sectional data, using the animal mean sub-model in the DHGLM resulted in biased estimates of variance components, which differed substantially both from a standard linear mean animal model and a sire-dam DHGLM model. Although genetic differences in canalization were observed, selection for increased canalization is difficult, because there is limited individual information for the variance sub-model, especially when based on cross-sectional data. Furthermore, potential macro

  19. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  20. Differences in sexual size dimorphism among farmed tilapia species and strains undergoing genetic improvement for body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Lind

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many tilapia (Oreochromis spp. farmers produce all-male populations because of the superior growth rate of males compared to females. To investigate differences in body weight at harvest of males and females among different tilapia strains, we analyzed data from 62,787 individuals collected from pedigreed breeding programs of O. niloticus (GIFT from Malaysia, the Abbassa line from Egypt, and the Akosombo line from Ghana, O. shiranus (the Bunda College-Domasi selection line, O. aureus (a selection line under development in Abbassa, Egypt, and a selection line from Israel and a synthetic selection line of Red tilapia under development in Jitra, Malaysia, derived from stock from Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand (O. sp.. Mixed models were separately fitted to the data from each selection line. There was a significant sex effect in all strains (P < 0.001. A significant (P < 0.001 sex by generation interaction was observed in all strains (scale effect, not reversal of rankings, except Red tilapia and O. shiranus. Least squares means showed a large range in the magnitude of body weight differences between sexes across the seven strains. The largest percentage difference between females and males was in O. aureus from Egypt (female body weight was 52.2% that of males at harvest, whereas the smallest difference was observed in the GIFT strain of O. niloticus (female body weight 84.7% that of males. Female to male body weight percentages for Red tilapia, O. shiranus, Egypt O. niloticus, Israeli O. aureus and Ghana O. niloticus were 81.3, 81.0, 69.1, 61.7 and 61.0, respectively. We discuss the results in relation to the potential productivity improvements due to superior growth rates of all-male culture compared to mixed-sex culture in tilapia populations differing in the female to male body weight ratio.

  1. Body-weight and chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, A. de; Belloni, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    Body-weight has been shown to influence the final expression of genetic damage by X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. If larvae of Drosophila were raised up to the third instar in media containing different amounts of the same nutrient and in different conditions of crowding a positive correlation was observed between body-weight and frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by a given dose of X-rays in the somatic cells of their nerve ganglia. This effect, present in both sexes, is most plausibly attributed to a different capacity of big and small larvae for repairing radiation damage. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Francisco-Luria, Mateo U.; Córdova-Uscanga, Rubén; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Méndez, José D.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation. PMID:20623003

  3. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study