-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...
Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.
Ren, Carina Bregnholm
of qualitative research has meant a need to question and redefine criteria and research standards otherwise used in tourism research, as qualitative approach does not (seek to) conform to ideals such as truth, objectivity, and validity retrieved in the positivist sciences. In order to develop new ways by which......, the understanding of qualitative research as unable (or rather unwilling) to deliver the types of outcome which “explain and predict” tourism, has impacted upon its ability to gain general acceptance. Only slowly has tourism research made room for the changes in social and cultural sciences, which since the 1960s......Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social...
Buda, Dorina; Martini, Annaclaudia; Garcia, Luis-Manuel; Lowry, Linda
Conducting qualitative research in tourism studies entails engaging with an entire approach, a set of methods that shape project design, conceptual frameworks, data analysis, and anticipated outcomes. Standard qualitative methods are individual interviews, focus groups and ethnography. Solicited
Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.
The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.
Grossoehme, Daniel H
Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.
Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David
This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...
Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative research is a research method studying subjective meaning of participant’s world about an object researched. Steps of qualitative research in psychology are: researchers select research topic, researchers formulate research questions, researchers design the study, researchers collect data, researchers analyses data, researchers generate findings, researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research designs are grounded research, phenomenology research, case study research, and ethnography research. In some situations, researchers often meet questions that reach beyond the prescription of the APA ethical guidelines concerning human participants. Researchers of qualitative research in psychology can generalize their research findings to other people, times, or treatments to the degree to which they are similar to other people, times, or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies for expanding qualitative research as a research approach so the methodology can be accepted as one significant method in understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.
Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.
Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.
Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…
Interest in the role of qualitative research in evidence-based health care is growing. However, the methods currently used to identify quantitative research do not translate easily to qualitative research. This paper highlights some of the difficulties during searches of electronic databases for qualitative research. These difficulties relate to the descriptive nature of the titles used in some qualitative studies, the variable information provided in abstracts, and the differences in the ind...
Kramer-Kile, Marnie L
Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.
Cox, Rebecca D.
Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
Tattersall, Christopher; Powell, Julia; Stroud, James; Pringle, Jan
We tested a theory that mind mapping could be used as a tool in qualitative research to transcribe and analyse an interview. We compared results derived from mind mapping with those from interpretive phenomenological analysis by examining patients' and carers' perceptions of a new nurse-led service. Mind mapping could be used to rapidly analyse simple qualitative audio-recorded interviews. More research is needed to establish the extent to which mind mapping can assist qualitative researchers.
which, in a second step, is presented as part of the social realm and as one of the prerequisites of learning in a community of practice. This integration is established and becomes visible through the following two concepts: 1. Reification as the outflow of co-ordinated action, and 2. narratives......The article aims to integrate body-anchored and experience-based learning in the theoretical concept of learning in a community of practice. Present moment, epoché, intentional orientation and meaning making are introduced as the four basic premises for body-anchored and experience-based learning...
in the rhythm and intentional orientation can also be applied to different areas, for example, psychotherapy or coaching. But the main focus is on examples from physical education. The final part of the article sees body-anchored learning as integrated in a cultural setting and as part of learning...
Full Text Available This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitative methods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology. In addition, it outlines recent trends in qualitative criminology. The potentials and the limits of a perspective of "understanding from within" ("Verstehen" on deviance and social control are discussed. The contributions to the volume—examples of qualitative criminological research from German speaking countries—are introduced in reference to some current trends of conceptual and methodological discussions in criminology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201129
Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…
Shaw, Ian Frank
Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...
Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Henderson, Hannah
There has been something of a “reflexive shift” in sociological research. Sociological researchers are increasingly encouraged to be “present” within their work, and to recognize their own role in structuring the entire research process. One way to achieve this is through engagement in reflexive...... practice, that is, to reflect on our own values, beliefs, and biographies. It can be difficult to know exactly how a researcher should engage in these practices, however. Here, we discuss our reflexive practice in two case studies, both which utilized the same figurational theoretical framework...... Kingdom. Reflexive practice in both studies was affected by researcher biographies and by study design. In Study 1, both researchers were reasonably detached from the study context, the theoretical framework was in place from the very beginning, and reflexive practice was embedded in the study design...
Howard S. Becker
Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description.
Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens
and remove them from the analytical work. The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-introduce a dissensus-based management research strategy in order to analytically be able to work with what appear to be contradictions and misinformation in qualitative research accounts, and give them a more profound...
HEYINK, JW; TYMSTRA, T
Due to the prevailing positivistic view on science, qualitative research has only a modest place within the social sciences. There is, however, a growing awareness that a purely quantitative approach is not always satisfactory. This is for instance the case in the field of research into the quality
Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy
In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A research project in nursing or nursing education is probably only complete once the findings have been published. This paper offers a format for writing a qualitative research report for publication. It suggests, at least, the following sections: introduction, aims of the study, review of the literature, sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, abstract. Each of these sections is addressed along with many written-out examples. In some sections, alternative approaches are suggested. The aim of the paper is to help the neophyte researcher to structure his or her report and for the experienced researcher to reflect on his or her current practice. References to other source material on qualitative research are given.
Lee, Cheu-Jey George
This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…
An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...
Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris
Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…
Graham, LaKresha; Schuwerk, Tara J.
Course(s): Research Methods, Qualitative Research Methods, Organizational Communication, Business Communication. Objectives: After completing this class exercise, students should be able to identify the major components of a qualitative research study, along with the ethical dilemmas that come with doing qualitative research.
Yi, Myungsun; Yih, Bong-Sook
The purpose of this article was to describe feminism and to propose the integration of a feminist method into qualitative nursing methodology in order to expand the body of nursing knowledge. The world view of feminism including philosophy, epistemology and methodology was outlined, and a feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were suggested as a way of strengthening nursing research methodology using literature review. Four different philosophical perspectives of feminism, that is, liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist feminism, and social feminism were described. Also epistemological perspectives including feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint, and postmodern feminism, were explained and were related to the methodology and methods of feminism. To enhance the strengths of nursing research within the feminist perspectives, feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were exemplified in the paradigm of qualitative nursing research. This paper suggested that incorporation of feminist approaches within nursing is a valuable attempt to expand the body of nursing knowledge and to enhance the quality of nursing care services by rectifying male-oriented knowledge and by empowering women in the care of other people as well as themselves.
Knudsen, L.V.; Laplante-Levesque, A.; Jones, L.; Preminger, J.E.; Nielsen, C.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.
Objective: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. Design:
Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The Cologne Seminars) ... and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. ... and considers its implications for qualitative methods such as interviewing ...
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia
Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....
Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T
The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Often discussions about collaborative research, and collaboration generally, begin at the point of how to collaborate, who to collaborate with, and what to collaborate about. Rarely do they include equally important questions of why we are having discussions about collaboration, where such an impetus and emphasis is coming from, and how it connects to the contemporary political research context. In a recent editorial in Qualitative Health Research, Janice Morse highlighted the need for reflection about collaboration. This article responds to that call, providing reflections on collaboration, the imperative to collaborate, and what this all might mean for both qualitative research and qualitative researchers. I hope to stimulate new points of departure for thinking and action shaping collaborative research endeavors without-and just as crucially, within-qualitative research.
Cleland, Jennifer Anne
Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the "how" and "why" research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.
Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Atkinson, Brent; And Others
Expresses concerns about importing qualitative research methods from education to family therapy. Argues that qualitative researchers cannot establish the trustworthiness of their findings, regardless of the methods they use. Further contends that the legitimacy of research knowledge cannot be determined by researchers, but rather requires the…
Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P
This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E
Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.
Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene
Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…
This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.
Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J
Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...
More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…
sciences) to move beyond 'numbers' or statistical analysis in order to strengthen their ... approach and using the appropriate qualitative research methods in health research ... the foundation for social science research (Marvasti, 2004: 1).
Thompson, Deborah; Aroian, Karen J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Deatrick, Janet A.
Objective To provide an overview of qualitative methods, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. Methods A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. Results and Conclusions When producing qualitative research, individuals are encouraged to address the qualitative research considerations raised and to explicitly identify the systematic strategies used to ensure rigor in study design and methods, analysis, and presentation of findings. Increasing capacity for review and publication of qualitative research within pediatric psychology will advance the field’s ability to gain a better understanding of the specific needs of pediatric populations, tailor interventions more effectively, and promote optimal health. PMID:27118271
Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug
Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...... research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different...
Wu, Yelena P; Thompson, Deborah; Aroian, Karen J; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Deatrick, Janet A
To provide an overview of qualitative methods, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals are encouraged to address the qualitative research considerations raised and to explicitly identify the systematic strategies used to ensure rigor in study design and methods, analysis, and presentation of findings. Increasing capacity for review and publication of qualitative research within pediatric psychology will advance the field's ability to gain a better understanding of the specific needs of pediatric populations, tailor interventions more effectively, and promote optimal health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cross-cultural research has become important in this postmodern world where many people have been made, and are still, marginalised and vulnerable by others in more powerful positions like colonial researchers. In this paper, I contend that qualitative research is particularly appropriate for cross-cultural research because it allows us to find answers which are more relevant to the research participants. Cross-cultural qualitative research must be situated within some theoretical frameworks....
Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne
The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.
Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A
Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.
Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.
Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...
The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the f...
Chareen L. Snelson
Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...
Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)
The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.
Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.
The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.
This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…
Morrow, Susan L.
Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…
Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell
This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…
Chenail, Ronald J.
The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…
Applewhite, Steven Lozano
Quantitative methods such as logical positivism often view nondominant groups as deviant and purport to be objective. Qualitative methods such as ethnography help educational gerontologists understand diverse elderly populations and allow elders to participate in the process of defining reality and producing knowledge. (SK)
Full Text Available This article introduces to the thematic scope and the articles of this special issue and it explains some important terminological distinctions of the intercultural research field. The overall aim of this issue is to explore the manifold ways to apply and to reflect upon qualitative research methods in the context of intercultural communication. This implies both a discussion of genuine characteristics of intercultural qualitative research as well as attempts to identify common features and linkages of this special area with more general interpretative research traditions under the "umbrella" of qualitative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901342
Full Text Available In this contribution I begin by reviewing past views on the future of qualitative social research. In different ways, all of these views give the same account of a problematic present state which must be overcome by following their own particular "mandatory directives" for future developments. I then discuss four structural mechanisms from which current problems in the transmission of qualitative and interpretative designs or approaches originate. Recently, supporters of "post-qualitative research" have addressed such problems by arguing for a form of strong theorism in qualitative social research. However, this type of response can lead back to an outdated dominance of theory over research and empirical substance. In conclusion, some alternative options for navigating qualitative and interpretative research through post-positivist waters are discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401165
Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter
Aim: This study aims to systematically review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that can be investigated...... with qualitative research. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references...... and training, communication, professional roles, and organizational factors, and into 12 sub-themes. Conclusion: The strength of qualitative research is its ability to grasp and operationalize complex relations within EM. Although qualitative research methodologies have gained in rigour in recent years and few...
Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S
Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.
Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv
Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, Pqualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the
Qualitative research forms part of the classical cycle of research. ... putting aside any preconceived ideas and “intuiting”- focusing on the ... that is, no new information is obtained. ... and communication with the scientific community are adhered.
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie
Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....
Maninder Singh Setia
Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.
Setia, Maninder Singh
Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.
Matthias Otten; Jens Allwood; Maria Assumpta Aneas; Dominic Busch; David M. Hoffman; Michele Schweisfurth
This article introduces to the thematic scope and the articles of this special issue and it explains some important terminological distinctions of the intercultural research field. The overall aim of this issue is to explore the manifold ways to apply and to reflect upon qualitative research methods in the context of intercultural communication. This implies both a discussion of genuine characteristics of intercultural qualitative research as well as attempts to identify common features and l...
Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…
Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair
The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…
Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel
This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…
Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro
Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…
Ball, Martin J., Ed.; Müller, Nicole, Ed.; Nelson, Ryan L., Ed.
This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders. The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the…
Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.
This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…
Goodman, Valeda Dent
Qualitative Research and the Modern Library examines the present-day role and provides suggestions for areas that might be suited to this type of research for the purposes of evaluation. The author discusses how the results from such research might be applied, and the overall impact of using this type of research to inform development of a more user-centred organisation. The book provides a thoughtful look at the implications of using qualitative research to inform decision-making processes within libraries and is written by an author and library researcher with international experience in var
Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.
The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…
Yin, Robert K
.... Despite his stature as a world-renowned qualitative researcher, Yin's approach and writing style are so accessible that readers will feel like he is speaking directly to them in a small seminar...
The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.
Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt
(Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, the need was stressed to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher...
Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...
Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne
Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....
Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J
Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.
Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.
Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)
Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T
This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the
Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim
Qualitative researchers often use other principles for judging the quality of their study than quantitative researchers. This inhibits a straightforward assessment of the quality and comparability of different types of studies, as well as decision-making about their usefulness for further research
Cook, Kay E
This article contributes to the debate about the use of reliability assessments in qualitative research in general, and health promotion research in particular. In this article, I examine the use of reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research in response to health promotion researchers' commonly held misconception that reliability assessments improve the rigor of qualitative research. All qualitative articles published in the journal Health Promotion International from 2003 to 2009 employing reliability assessments were examined. In total, 31.3% (20/64) articles employed some form of reliability assessment. The use of reliability assessments increased over the study period, ranging from qualitative articles decreased. The articles were then classified into four types of reliability assessments, including the verification of thematic codes, the use of inter-rater reliability statistics, congruence in team coding and congruence in coding across sites. The merits of each type were discussed, with the subsequent discussion focusing on the deductive nature of reliable thematic coding, the limited depth of immediately verifiable data and the usefulness of such studies to health promotion and the advancement of the qualitative paradigm.
Parry, Odette; And Others
Key aspects of the academic socialization of doctoral students in Britain are described by comparing and contrasting supervisors of Ph.D. candidates in a natural science and a social science discipline. The role of the supervisor in the production of academic elites is highlighted in the two very different academic research traditions. A total of…
Cooper, S; Endacott, R
The frequency of qualitative studies in the Emergency Medicine Journal, while still low, has increased over the last few years. All take a generic approach and rarely conform to established qualitative approaches such as phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory. This generic approach is no doubt selected for pragmatic reasons but can be weakened by a lack of rigor and understanding of qualitative research. This paper explores qualitative approaches and then focuses on “best practice” fo...
Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle
As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…
Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD
Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.
Pnina Shinebourne PhD
Full Text Available In this paper the author outlines the features of Q method and assesses its suitability as a qualitative research method. She discusses the process of using the method and its particular approach to researching the range and diversity of subjective understandings, beliefs, and experiences. Q method is particularly suitable for identifying commonality and diversity and has a powerful capacity for thematic identification and analysis. In the author's view, Q method makes a contribution to expanding the repertoire of qualitative research methods.
Chareen L. Snelson
Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.
Robley, Lois R.
Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)
Nieuwenhuis, F. J.
Although the number of qualitative research studies has boomed in recent years, close observation reveals that often the research designs and methodological considerations and approaches have developed a type of configuration that does not adhere to purist definitions of the labels attached. Very often so called interpretivist studies are not…
V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa
Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...
The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...
Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara
Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.
Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902307
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675
Snowden, Austyn; Martin, Colin R
This study develops an original method of qualitative analysis coherent with its interpretivist principles. The objective is to increase the likelihood of achieving generalisability and so improve the chance of the findings being translated into practice. Good qualitative research depends on coherent analysis of different types of data. The limitations of existing methodologies are first discussed to justify the need for a novel approach. To illustrate this approach, primary evidence is presented using the new methodology. The primary evidence consists of a constructivist grounded theory of how mental health nurses with prescribing authority integrate prescribing into practice. This theory is built concurrently from interviews, reflective accounts and case study data from the literature. Concurrent analysis. Ten research articles and 13 semi-structured interviews were sampled purposively and then theoretically and analysed concurrently using constructivist grounded theory. A theory of the process of becoming competent in mental health nurse prescribing was generated through this process. This theory was validated by 32 practising mental health nurse prescribers as an accurate representation of their experience. The methodology generated a coherent and generalisable theory. It is therefore claimed that concurrent analysis engenders consistent and iterative treatment of different sources of qualitative data in a manageable manner. This process supports facilitation of the highest standard of qualitative research. Concurrent analysis removes the artificial delineation of relevant literature from other forms of constructed data. This gives researchers clear direction to treat qualitative data consistently raising the chances of generalisability of the findings. Raising the generalisability of qualitative research will increase its chances of informing clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Andersen, Poul Houman; Skaates, Maria Anne
The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how the validity issue related to qualitative research strategies within the IB field may be grasped from an at least partially subjectivist point of view. In section two, we will first assess via the aforementioned literature review the extent...... to which the validity issue has been treated in qualitative research contributions published in six leading English-language journals which publish IB research. Thereafter, in section three, we will discuss our findings and relate them to (a) various levels of a research project and (b) the existing...... literature on potential validity problems from a more subjectivist point of view. As a part of this step, we will demonstrate that the assumptions of objectivist and subjectivist ontologies and their corresponding epistemologies merit different canons for assessing research validity. In the subsequent...
Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes.
The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...
Background: Qualitative methodology has a growing importance in primary care research, reflected in projects submitted for the degree of MFamMed at The Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa). These projects were completed in multilingual settings and sought highly subjective information. This paper aimed to ...
Fetterman, David M.
Internal institutional auditing can improve effectiveness and efficiency and protect an institution's assets. Many of the concepts and techniques used to analyze higher education institutions are qualitative in nature and suited to institutional research, including fiscal, operational, data-processing, investigative, management consulting,…
Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy
To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.
Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid
The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.
Full Text Available In this article, I open a debate about the importance and possibilities of generalization in qualitative oriented research. Generalization traditionally is seen as a central aim of science, as a process of theory formulation for further applications. Others criticize the concept in general, either because of the insufficiency of inductive arguments (POPPER, 1959 or because of context specificity of all scientific findings (LINCOLN & GUBA, 1985. In this paper, I argue that generalization is necessary in qualitative research, but we have to differentiate different aims of generalization: laws, rules, context specific statements, similarities and differences, and procedures. There are different possibilities to arrive at a generalization: analysis of total population, falsification, random or stratified samples, argumentative generalization, theoretical sampling, variation, and triangulation. Depending on the type of research or research design some of those strategies of generalization can be important for qualitative oriented research. This is discussed especially in respect to single case analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703262
Sorrell, Jeanne M; Cangelosi, Pamela R; Dinkins, Christine S
There is little information in the literature describing how students learn qualitative research. This article describes an approach to learning that is based on the pedagogical approach of Dinkins' Socratic-Hermeneutic Shared Inquiry. This approach integrates shared dialog as an essential aspect of learning. The qualitative pedagogy described in this article focused on three questions: What is knowing in qualitative research? How do we come to know qualitative research? What can we do with qualitative research? Students learned the basics of qualitative research within a context that fostered interpretive inquiry. In this way, the course framework mirrored the combination of interviewing, storytelling, and journeying toward understanding that constitute qualitative research. © 2013.
Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena
The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....
Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn
, reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper...
van Teijlingen, E; Simkhada, B; Porter, M; Simkhada, P; Pitchforth, E; Bhatta, P
There has been a steady growth in recent decades in Nepal in health and health services research, much of it based on quantitative research methods. Over the same period international medical journals such as The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (BMJ), The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and many more have published methods papers outlining and promoting qualitative methods. This paper argues in favour of more high-quality qualitative research in Nepal, either on its own or as part of a mixed-methods approach, to help strengthen the country's research capacity. After outlining the reasons for using qualitative methods, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the three main approaches: (a) observation; (b) in-depth interviews; and (c) focus groups. We also discuss issues around sampling, analysis, presentation of findings, reflexivity of the qualitative researcher and theory building, and highlight some misconceptions about qualitative research and mistakes commonly made.
The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...
Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S
The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.
Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney
Little research focuses on the ways that bereaved family members react to and make meaning of their experience of the death of an elderly father and husband. In a qualitative, ethnographic study of 34 bereaved families we examined how family members respond to two inter-related social contexts: 1. Social-cultural values and attitudes such as attitudes toward grieving for old persons, and 2. The inter-personal dyadic relationship between interviewer and interviewee. An underlying theme of uncertainty pervades the study participants’ views of what is normal and expected in their own process of bereavement. Implications for future bereavement research are suggested. PMID:22939542
Yang, Cheng-I; Lee, Li-Hung; Tzeng, Wen-Chii
Historically, positivism has been the dominant approach in the philosophy of science. In nursing, most quantitative researchers tend to employ positivism as their epistemological underpinning, which could be why positivism has long been identified as the epistemology of quantitative research. It can be argued, however, that some of the procedures of qualitative research reflect the perspectives on which positivists insist. This article takes grounded theory and phenomenology as examples, in order to observe how positivism influences their methodologies, evidence obtained is then used to support the aruthors' arguments. The article, furthermore encourages beginning researchers to familiarize themselves with background knowledge of philosophy of social sciences, especially epistemologies and methodologies, in order to make clear the philosophical context in which their research is conducted.
Roslind Preethi George
Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.
Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi
In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Penz, Elfriede; Ghauri, Pervez N.
Reliability, validity, generalisability and objectivity are fundamental concerns for quantitative researchers. For qualitative research, however, the role of these dimensions is blurred. Some researchers argue that these dimensions are not applicable to qualitative research and a qualitative researcher's tool chest should be geared towards trustworthiness and encompass issues such as credibility, dependability, transferability and confirmability. This paper advocates the use of formalised and...
Peck, Blake; Mummery, Jane
Qualitative research is entirely an operation with language, in language, and occasionally on language. This article suggests a tension between theoretical recognition of a multiplicity of human experience on one hand and a reliance upon practices of thematic representation that prioritize the common or the general over individualized experience. The fulcrum of this tension is the nature of language itself and its role in human experience and meaning-making. This article sets out the theoretical foundations of Hermeneutic Constructivism as one proposed approach to redress this problematic within many qualitative frameworks and open up an opportunity for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of human being. Within Hermeneutic Constructivism, a Fundamental Postulate and 11 elaborative corollaries detail a cogent relationship between language and the structures and processes of mental activity that support the human comportment toward understanding. The authors argue that this theoretical position is able to inform a model for qualitative research that makes possible an exploration of a person's experience at a deeper level of abstraction and that may provide an avenue for overcoming this identified tension.
Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen
A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage. PMID:29204457
Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen
A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.
Cutcliffe, J R; McKenna, H P
Qualitative research is increasingly recognized and valued and its unique place in nursing research is highlighted by many. Despite this, some nurse researchers continue to raise epistemological issues about the problems of objectivity and the validity of qualitative research findings. This paper explores the issues relating to the representativeness or credibility of qualitative research findings. It therefore critiques the existing distinct philosophical and methodological positions concerning the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings, which are described as follows: quantitative studies should be judged using the same criteria and terminology as quantitative studies; it is impossible, in a meaningful way, for any criteria to be used to judge qualitative studies; qualitative studies should be judged using criteria that are developed for and fit the qualitative paradigm; and the credibility of qualitative research findings could be established by testing out the emerging theory by means of conducting a deductive quantitative study. The authors conclude by providing some guidelines for establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings.
Clarke, V.; Braun, V.
For Chapter 1: This chapter introduces qualitative research to a reader new to the area, and sets the scene for the rest of the book. It clearly specifies what defines qualitative research, and differentiates the use of a whole qualitative paradigm, or Big Q approach, with the more limited use of qualitative data within a more positivist paradigm. It contextualises qualitative research – within psychology – by providing a brief history of the approach, and by locating it within the learning-c...
Sondergaard Jens; Andersen Rikke; Olesen Frede; Neergaard Mette
Abstract Background The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples of use. Discussion Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed m...
Smith, Carmel A.
This quantative study investigates the ways in which leading children’s researchers position themselves in their research relationships with children in qualitative research within psychology and the broader ‘childhood studies’ paradigm. Against the backdrop of the continuing prevalence of a positivist-empiricist approach within psychology, the conceptual focus of the present study is rooted in the multiple challenges to developmental psychology in recent decades, from within and outside the ...
Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno
The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the p...
, the paper has implications for contemporary discussions on doing research that is relevant for practice. Originality/value: The paper provides novel insight into the analysis of quality in management accounting research. Additionally, it provides a framework for reflecting on the accumulation of practice......Purpose: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the quality of Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management (QRAM) is manifested through the conceptualization of knowledge about functioning actions that are applicable for local management accounting practices. Design...... to the development of a performativity in management accounting topos that integrates facts, possibilities, value and communication. Findings: The analysis documents that the three QRAM articles on inter-organizational cost management make a common contribution to the knowledge related to what to do to make...
Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J
To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article considers the way that digital research technologies and online environments increasingly support new forms of qualitative research that have emerged as a result of new user groups taking up the practice of social research. New practitioners of qualitative research have entered the field from societies where qualitative research is a newly-established practice, and new cadres of "citizen researchers" have turned to qualitative methods for non-academic purposes. These groups challenge accepted understandings of qualitative methods. The article uses the example of qualitative software as a case study of how qualitative research is enabled by new digital tools that help new user groups extend the application of qualitative research methods. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202124
Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross
The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.
Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn
Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…
Full Text Available The 20th century’s epistemological turn in social sciences (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Punch, 2013 acknowledged the importance of qualitative research methods. The need for this turn was also pointed out by Habermas (1979, who noticed that the way data was collected in social sciences affected the analysis and data interpretation. Research gained a comprehensive character and proposed a phenomenological approach of reality (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Willig, 2008; Lindlof & Taylor, 2011. Nowadays, we notice a “more confident community of scholars” whose earlier endeavors had “opened up the study of cultures, meanings, symbolic performances, and social practices” (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002, p. xi.
CĂTĂLIN NICOLAE BULGĂREA
Full Text Available Market research can be defined as an “active form through which, by means of different concepts, methods and techniques of scientific investigation, is carried out, systematically, the specification, the measurement, the collection, the analysis and the objective interpretation of marketing information for the management of the economic unit, in order to know better the company’s environment, to identify the opportunities, to evaluate the alternatives of marketing actions and their effects. The qualitative research seeks answers to questions like: “why?” and “how?”, in order to find the root causes of consumers' attitudes, motives, behaviours, preferences and opinions and also the subjective, emotional or unconscious elements behind them.
Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia
In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.
Melnikova, Olga; Khoroshilov, Dmitry
The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...
Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research ...
Lim, Christopher T; Tadmor, Avia; Fujisawa, Daisuke; MacDonald, James J; Gallagher, Emily R; Eusebio, Justin; Jackson, Vicki A; Temel, Jennifer S; Greer, Joseph A; Hagan, Teresa; Park, Elyse R
While vast opportunities for using qualitative methods exist within palliative care research, few studies provide practical advice for researchers and clinicians as a roadmap to identify and utilize such opportunities. To provide palliative care clinicians and researchers descriptions of qualitative methodology applied to innovative research questions relative to palliative care research and define basic concepts in qualitative research. Body: We describe three qualitative projects as exemplars to describe major concepts in qualitative analysis of early palliative care: (1) a descriptive analysis of clinician documentation in the electronic health record, (2) a thematic content analysis of palliative care clinician focus groups, and (3) a framework analysis of audio-recorded encounters between patients and clinicians as part of a clinical trial. This study provides a foundation for undertaking qualitative research within palliative care and serves as a framework for use by other palliative care researchers interested in qualitative methodologies.
DAVID SILVERMAN'S latest book builds on previous editions to provide up-to-date development in qualitative research and offers an overview of theoretical and practical considerations. Unlike many other qualitative research methodology books there is an emphasis on the function of qualitative research to articulate meaning.
Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due
O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny
Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research
Background The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The preliminary checklist was piloted against forty published syntheses of qualitative research, purposively selected to capture a range of year of publication, methods and methodologies, and health topics. We removed items that were duplicated, impractical to assess, and rephrased items for clarity. Results The Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement consists of 21 items grouped into five main domains: introduction, methods and methodology, literature search and selection, appraisal, and synthesis of findings. Conclusions The ENTREQ statement can help researchers to report the stages most commonly associated with the synthesis of qualitative health research: searching and selecting qualitative research, quality appraisal, and methods for synthesising qualitative findings. The synthesis of qualitative research is an expanding and evolving methodological area and we would value feedback from all stakeholders for the continued development and extension of the ENTREQ statement. PMID:23185978
Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.
Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…
Janesick, Valerie J.
The importance of intuition and creativity in qualitative research is discussed. By discussing lessons learned from well-known creative individuals, it is possible to find ways to open a conversation on creativity. Since the researcher is the research instrument in qualitative research projects, the definition of the role of the researcher is…
Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant
When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…
Dongre, AR; Deshmukh, PR; Kalaiselvan, G; Upadhyaya, S
Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have...
Heloisa Helena T. de Souza Martins
investigates its own limits and possibilities, and also on the recognition that all sociological knowledge has at its basis a commitment to values. Qualitative research is defined by its stress on the analysis of micro-processes through the study of individual and group social actions, carrying out an intensive assessment of data, and characterized by heterodoxy in the analysis. It emphasizes the need for the exercise of intuition and imagination by the sociologist, in a kind of handmade work, seen not only as a condition for an in-depth analysis, but also - and that is very important - for the freedom of the intellectual. The main criticisms made against qualitative research are discussed, especially the allegations of lack of representativeness and possibilities for generalization; of subjectivity due to the closeness between researcher and researched, and the descriptive and narrative character of its results. Within this context, considerations are made on the ethical problems involved in this kind of research, and a brief review is made of the history that culminated in the dominance of the quantitative approach, particularly in the postwar North American sociology. The text concludes by proposing that it is most important today to produce knowledge that, besides being useful, is also explicitly oriented by an ethical project aiming at solidarity, harmony and creativity.
Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M
Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Morrow, Susan L
In this article, as two researchers from different traditions in qualitative research (consensual qualitative research and grounded theory), the authors present their shared views on the critical elements of trustworthiness in qualitative data. In addition to making specific recommendations about the integrity of data, the balance between participant meaning and researcher interpretation, and clear communication and application of the findings, they identify ways in which these issues are difficult to negotiate within and across different qualitative approaches. The authors present examples from various qualitative studies, emphasize the need for a shared language to reduce confusion between qualitative traditions and with researchers from a more strictly quantitative orientation, and recommend particular approaches to establishing trustworthiness in qualitative research.
César A. Cisneros Puebla
Full Text Available Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study and geographical regions. To understand the international impact of qualitative computing requires evaluation of the digital divide and the huge differences between center and peripheries. The international impact of qualitative research, and, in particular qualitative computing, is the question at the heart of this array of selected papers from the "Qualitative Computing: Diverse Worlds and Research Practices Conference." In this article, we introduce the reader to the goals, motivation, and atmosphere at the conference, taking place in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011. The dialogue generated there is still in the air, and this introduction is a call to spread that voice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285
This Methods column describes the existing reporting standards for qualitative research, their application to health design research, and the challenges to implementation. Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this article provides multiple perspectives on both reporting and evaluating high-quality qualitative research. Two popular reporting standards exist for reporting qualitative research-the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Though compiled using similar procedures, they differ in their criteria and the methods to which they apply. Creating and applying reporting criteria is inherently difficult due to the undefined and fluctuating nature of qualitative research when compared to quantitative studies. Qualitative research is expansive and occasionally controversial, spanning many different methods of inquiry and epistemological approaches. A "one-size-fits-all" standard for reporting qualitative research can be restrictive, but COREQ and SRQR both serve as valuable tools for developing responsible qualitative research proposals, effectively communicating research decisions, and evaluating submissions. Ultimately, tailoring a set of standards specific to health design research and its frequently used methods would ensure quality research and aid reviewers in their evaluations.
Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle
Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.
This article explores perspectives on qualitative research and the variety of views concerning rigour in the research process. Evaluating and ensuring the quality of research are essential considerations for practitioners who are appraising evidence to inform their practice or research. Several criteria and principles for evaluating quality in qualitative research are presented, recognising that their application in practice is influenced by the qualitative methodology used. The article examines a range of techniques that a qualitative researcher can use to promote rigour and apply it to practice.
Levitt, Heidi M
This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Part 1 of the article contains a discussion of quantitative research projects described as structuralistic, deductive, statistical and objective. Main lines of criticism directed against quantitative research projects are also presented. Part 2 contains characteristic of qualitative research projects described as holistic, inductive, descriptive and subjective. Theoretical affiliation of qualitative research projects to ethnometh-odology, ethnography, phenomenology is also analyzed. P...
Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand
', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited. SUMMARY: As a consequence of the growth in qualitative research in the health sciences, researchers sometimes feel obliged to designate their work......BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples...... of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...
Bryan C. Taylor
Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.
Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy
The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Safdar, Nasia; Abbo, Lilian M; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Seo, Susan K
Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.
Andersen, Poul Houman
The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field......The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field...
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.
In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…
Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of papers reporting on qualitative research. This first article describes the key features of qualitative research, provides publications for further learning and reading, and gives an outline of the series.
Masood, Mohd; Thaliath, Ebin T; Bower, Elizabeth J; Newton, J Timothy
To appraise the quality of published qualitative research in dentistry and identify aspects of quality, which require attention in future research. Qualitative research studies on dental topics were appraised using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal framework for qualitative research. The percentage of CASP criteria fully met during the assessment was used as an indication of the quality of each paper. Individual criteria were not weighted. Forty-three qualitative studies were identified for appraisal of which 48% had a dental public health focus. Deficiencies in detail of reporting, research design, methodological rigour, presentation of findings, reflexivity, credibility of findings and relevance of study were identified. Problems with quality were apparent irrespective of journal impact factor, although papers from low impact factor journals exhibited the most deficiencies. Journals with the highest impact factors published the least qualitative research. The quality of much of the qualitative research published on dental topics is mediocre. Qualitative methods are underutilized in oral health research. If quality guidelines such as the CASP framework are used in the context of a thorough understanding of qualitative research design and data analysis, they can promote good practice and the systematic assessment of qualitative research. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.
This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.
Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva
Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245
Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for Researchers and Development Practitioners. Couverture du livre Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for. Auteur(s):. Alison Mathie et Anne Carnozzi. Maison(s) d'édition: CRDI. 15 janvier 2005. ISBN :.
In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…
Morrow, Susan L.
This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitative research. Following a "researcher-as-instrument," or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards…
Schou, Lone; Høstrup, Helle; Lyngsø, Elin
schou l., høstrup h., lyngsø e.e., larsen s. & poulsen i. (2011) Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles. Journal of Advanced Nursing00(0), 000-000. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05898.x ABSTRACT: Aim. This paper presents the development and validation of a new...... assessment tool for qualitative research articles, which could assess trustworthiness of qualitative research articles as defined by Guba and at the same time aid clinicians in their assessment. Background. There are more than 100 sets of proposals for quality criteria for qualitative research. However, we...... is the Danish acronym for Appraisal of Qualitative Studies. Phase 1 was to develop the tool based on a literature review and on consultation with qualitative researchers. Phase 2 was an inter-rater reliability test in which 40 health professionals participated. Phase 3 was an inter-rater reliability test among...
Presents selected literature that exemplifies (in theory and in practice) four methodological frameworks that have found wide application in qualitative studies: symbolic interactionism, phenomenological description, constructivist hermeneutics, and critical studies. (Author/LRW)
Full Text Available Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three current questions for qualitative researchers: The first I will refer to as “ethical progressivism versus new ethical challenges”. Is qualitative research as such more ethical and progressive than quantitative research (as some have argued, or do qualitative researchers on the contrary face more elusive and perhaps difficult ethical challenges? The second question is called “solid evidence versus subjective anecdotes”. How should qualitative researchers respond to the current call for evidence? Should they seek legitimacy by accepting the dominant politics of evidence, or should they play by their own rules with the risk of increasing marginalization? The third question is “method versus intuition”. Should qualitative researchers strive for maximum transparency by following accepted methods, or should they proceed more intuitively like artists to create their stories? Both sides of the questions have their influential advocates today. I will argue that all three questions are handled most fruitfully by conceiving of qualitative research as a craft.
If one thinks about accessing and reusing qualitative data with an international and interdisciplinary perspective, this topic also contains organisational and networking tasks beyond the field of qualitative archiving in the narrow sense—some of them necessarily relying on the Internet and its tools. I had the chance to gain experiences within international networking while editing the online journal FQS and I would like to summarise some aspects, hopefully helpful also for the planned netwo...
VanderKaay, Sandra; Moll, Sandra E; Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Jindal, Pranay; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Packham, Tara L; Lim, Chun Y
Qualitative research has had a significant impact within rehabilitation science over time. During the past 20 years the number of qualitative studies published per year in Disability and Rehabilitation has markedly increased (from 1 to 54). In addition, during this period there have been significant changes in how qualitative research is conceptualized, conducted, and utilized to advance the field of rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon the progress of qualitative research within rehabilitation to date, to explicate current opportunities and challenges, and to suggest future directions to continue to strengthen the contribution of qualitative research in this field. Relevant literature searches were conducted in electronic data bases and reference lists. Pertinent literature was examined to identify current opportunities and challenges for qualitative research use in rehabilitation and to identify future directions. Six key areas of opportunity and challenge were identified: (a) paradigm shifts, (b) advancements in methodology, (c) emerging technology, (d) advances in quality evaluation, (e) increasing popularity of mixed methods approaches, and (f) evolving approaches to knowledge translation. Two important future directions for rehabilitation are posited: (1) advanced training in qualitative methods and (2) engaging qualitative communities of research. Qualitative research is well established in rehabilitation and has an important place in the continued growth of this field. Ongoing development of qualitative researchers and methods are essential. Implications for Rehabilitation Qualitative research has the potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing some of the most pervasive concerns in the field such as practitioner-client interaction, the subjective and lived experience of disability, and clinical reasoning and decision making. This will serve to better inform those providing rehabilitation services thereby benefiting
Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie
Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available If one thinks about accessing and reusing qualitative data with an international and interdisciplinary perspective, this topic also contains organisational and networking tasks beyond the field of qualitative archiving in the narrow sense—some of them necessarily relying on the Internet and its tools. I had the chance to gain experiences within international networking while editing the online journal FQS and I would like to summarise some aspects, hopefully helpful also for the planned networking of qualitative archives within INQUADA. So let me first shortly introduce FQS—its origin and its current state—, and afterwards I will stress some opportunities and also some challenges, FQS and similar networking projects confront. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003346
Maxwell, Joseph A.
The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…
Rennie, David L.
Summarizes the author's experience using the grounded theory form of qualitative research. Lists the influences which led to adopting the grounded approach, followed by a section on the use of this methodology. Reviews the experience of publishing qualitative research in mainstream journals, and addresses the challenge of teaching students how to…
Haverkamp, Beth E.
The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
Anzul, Margaret; Evans, Judith F.; King, Rita; Tellier-Robinson, Dora
Four researchers argue the merits of qualitative methodology and its particular relevance to those in special education who seek to move beyond a deficit perspective. Unconstrained by defined variables and decontextualized settings, qualitative methods allowed the researchers to extend the scope of their studies beyond originally stated research…
The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki
Danquah, Adam N.
This paper describes the development and delivery of an innovative approach to teaching qualitative research methods in psychology. The teaching incorporated a range of "active" pedagogical practices that it shares with other teaching in this area, but was designed in such a way as to follow the arc of a qualitative research project in…
Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Marieke Venselaar; Hans Warmelink
from the publisher's site: "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of qualitative construction partnering research. Design/methodology/approach. In total, 20 qualitative peer-reviewed papers about construction partnering research are reviewed. Findings: The results show four
Mburu, J; Cogswell, L; Crane, E; Todreas, I L
The Essential Drugs Program in Kenya's Ministry of Health included a qualitative research phase of focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the communication needs in educating the public about responsible essential drug use. This article discusses the general parameters of FGDs, and specific outcomes of essential drug FGDs and the evaluation of the health education tools generated in the FGDs. The purpose of the pilot project was to develop effective materials on the correct use of drug regimens and promoting authorized drug providers. FGDs were used as a quick and relatively inexpensive means of gauging a target audience's beliefs and practices. The facilitator of the group directed discussion and probed for participants views on the community's needs, and forms of expression. (Drawing on positive social customs within a culture helps bridge the difference between local perceptions and knowledge.) Pretesting of draft materials in FGDs assured the ability to reach the target audience. These 2 methods contributed to the project's success by involving the target group as experts in providing useful information, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment, and building a relationship between the staff and target group that renewed dedication and willingness to cooperate. Program staff conducted 19 FGDs with 171 clients and 9 FGDs with 63 providers, and also interviewed 36 providers and observed in 4 locations client/provider exchanges. The results showed that client were unaware of the importance of strict compliance with a drug regimen, and consequences of ineffectiveness. Clients were uneasy about side effects, and purchased drugs from unauthorized dealers. The 3 messages to be promoted were 1) return to the clinic or hospital if drug problems arise, 2) use only authorized providers, and 3) follow directions carefully and completely. It was also decided that posters and audio cassette were the communication modes. A description of the materials developed is
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.
This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book…
Sørensen, Mariann B.
This presentation aims to trouble the concept of empathy in qualitative inquiry from two perspectives having a phenomenological approach. As a supervisor I see students regard interviews as untouchable and be reluctant to bring in theory in their analysis because of empathy towards the interviewees...
This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.
Maria Fernanda Rios Cavalcanti
Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to tackle the controversy of establishing guidelines for qualitative research in Organization and Management Theory (OMT and to present a summary of suggestions on how to conduct good qualitative research given by methodologists on top-tier international publications. In order to do so, the article discusses: general guidelines for qualitative research; how to achieve coherence and transparency in a qualitative empirical study; the meaning and importance of the concept of reflexivity; and, finally how to establish a theoretical contribution and transferability of findings in such context. The work presents a valuable contribution because such guidelines, concepts, and approaches can be adopted by students and researchers when conducting a qualitative research proposal, and by periodic reviewers to evaluate the quality of existing empirical studies.
for the evaluation of qualitative research, although equally important, have not received equal attention. Drawing on literature from behavioral and social science, this paper discusses methodological concepts of evaluating qualitative research by focusing on techniques to purposefully select data for analysis......As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria....... In particular, the technique of corpus construction will be introduced, which was specifically designed as an evaluation criterion for qualitative research. Adapted from linguistics, corpus construction offers an alternative that is functionally equivalent to statistical sampling techniques in terms...
Tsai, Alexander C; Kohrt, Brandon A; Matthews, Lynn T; Betancourt, Theresa S; Lee, Jooyoung K; Papachristos, Andrew V; Weiser, Sheri D; Dworkin, Shari L
The movement for research transparency has gained irresistible momentum over the past decade. Although qualitative research is rarely published in the high-impact journals that have adopted, or are most likely to adopt, data sharing policies, qualitative researchers who publish work in these and similar venues will likely encounter questions about data sharing within the next few years. The fundamental ways in which qualitative and quantitative data differ should be considered when assessing the extent to which qualitative and mixed methods researchers should be expected to adhere to data sharing policies developed with quantitative studies in mind. We outline several of the most critical concerns below, while also suggesting possible modifications that may help to reduce the probability of unintended adverse consequences and to ensure that the sharing of qualitative data is consistent with ethical standards in research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manish K. Thakur
Full Text Available The book fruitfully combines discussions on qualitative research methods with the craft of academic writing. While detailing different stages involved in qualitative research, it accords appreciable attention to the fundamental epistemological premises of different qualitative research genres. Yet, its central concern is to demonstrate ways and means to manage researcher’s subjectivity in the writing of qualitative research. The book looks at the act of writing as crucial to the twin concerns of rigor and validity in qualitative research. It privileges writing as an important methodological resource that qualitative researchers employ to make the workings of their research procedures transparent and establish their accountability in relation to specificities of a given research setting. Given this focus, the eight chapters of the book discuss at length issues such as authorial voice, the trials and tribulations of transition from data to written study, the reflexivity of the researcher as writer, and the demanding expectations of cautious detachment in reporting the people, setting, and the worlds and sensitivities that are part of any qualitative research enterprise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090198
How, Jeffrey Andrew; Abitbol, Jeremie; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter Henri; Abenhaim, Haim Arie
Inherent in the care provided to patients with cancer is an important psychosocial element which has been explored scientifically through qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research in gynaecologic oncology and to measure its integration in gynaecologic oncology practice guidelines. We searched Medline, CINHAL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 20 years on the three most prevalent gynaecologic cancers: endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. National and international practice guidelines on management of gynaecologic cancers were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse website, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada website, and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in these guidelines. One hundred thirteen qualitative research papers on gynaecologic cancers were identified focusing on psychological impacts, social dynamics, and doctor-patient interactions during cancer treatment and recovery. Among the 15 national and international clinical practice guidelines identified on management of gynaecologic cancer, there were a total of 2272 references, and of these only three references citing qualitative research were identified (0.1%) in only one of the 15 practice guidelines. Although qualitative research is being carried out in gynaecologic oncology, its integration into clinical practice guidelines is essentially absent. Efforts to narrow the gap between qualitative research and clinical practice are essential in ensuring a comprehensive approach to the treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer.
The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.
In less than 100 pages Cornelia BEHNKE and Michael MEUSER explain how gender studies evolved from women's studies and what feminist methodology is all about. They also discuss the interrelation of qualitative research and gender studies. The great potential of qualitative research based on a constructivist gender concept is demonstrated with a group discussion study involving different men only groups. Finally the authors deal with the question of how the researcher's gender affects both data...
Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.
The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…
Full Text Available In this article we examine the characteristics, challenges and added value of qualitative prison research in a Belgian context. As the many dynamics and challenges of qualitative research are often underreported in academic publications, we pay particular attention to the research processes and the pains and gains of qualitative prison research. Firstly, drawing on experiences from several prison studies, we describe the different steps of gaining access to the field as a constant process of negotiation. Secondly, we discuss some of the dilemmas of prison research based on two ethnographic studies of prison staff. We end with discussion of the value added by a qualitative research approach to facilitate understanding of what is at stake in prisons and how this fits with a critical research position.
O'Brien, Bridget C; Harris, Ilene B; Beckman, Thomas J; Reed, Darcy A; Cook, David A
Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods. The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; and contacting experts. Specifically, two authors reviewed a sample of sources to generate an initial set of items that were potentially important in reporting qualitative research. Through an iterative process of reviewing sources, modifying the set of items, and coding all sources for items, the authors prepared a near-final list of items and descriptions and sent this list to five external reviewers for feedback. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) consists of 21 items. The authors define and explain key elements of each item and provide examples from recently published articles to illustrate ways in which the standards can be met. The SRQR aims to improve the transparency of all aspects of qualitative research by providing clear standards for reporting qualitative research. These standards will assist authors during manuscript preparation, editors and reviewers in evaluating a manuscript for potential publication, and readers when critically appraising, applying, and synthesizing study findings.
The role of theory in qualitative research is often underplayed but it is relevant to the quality of such research in three main ways. Theory influences research design, including decisions about what to research and the development of research questions. Theory underpins methodology and has implications for how data are analyzed and interpreted. Finally, theory about a particular health issue may be developed, contributing to what is already known about the topic that is the focus of the study. This paper will critically consider the role of theory in qualitative primary care research in relation to these three areas. Different approaches to qualitative research will be drawn upon in order to illustrate the ways in which theory might variably inform qualitative research, namely generic qualitative research, grounded theory and discourse analysis. The aim is to describe and discuss key issues and provide practical guidance so that researchers are more aware of the role theory has to play and the importance of being explicit about how theory affects design, analysis and the quality of qualitative research.
Dooley, Kim E.
The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…
Muylaert, Camila Junqueira; Sarubbi, Vicente; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim
Objetives This methodological study explain and emphasize the extent and fertility of the narrative interview in qualitative research. Methods To describe the narrative method within the qualitative research. Results The qualitative research method is characterized by addressing issues related to the singularities of the field and individuals investigated, being the narrative interviews a powerful method for use by researchers who aggregate it. They allow the deepening of research, the combination of life stories with socio-historical contexts, making the understanding of the senses that produce changes in the beliefs and values that motivate and justify the actions of possible informants. Conclusion The use of narrative is an advantageous investigative resource in qualitative research, in which the narrative is a traditional form of communication whose purpose is to serve content from which the subjective experiences can be transmitted.
Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field...... and the epistemological underpinnings of qualitative research that do not allow for standard criteria of rigor as in the traditional psychological research. Nevertheless, there is an emerging canon of recognized standards of good practice in qualitative research which the present paper will briefly discuss. The paper...... aims at motivating cross-cultural psychologists to produce high quality qualitative research that will contribute to the further advancement of the field....
The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term “qualitative methods” researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same...... thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons’ unique experience. In light of the risk of “Mc......Donaldization” in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to ‘move on...
Background The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples of use. Discussion Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited. Summary As a consequence of the growth in qualitative research in the health sciences, researchers sometimes feel obliged to designate their work as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography or a narrative study when in fact it is not. Qualitative description might be a useful alternative approach to consider. PMID:19607668
Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Ed
The utility of qualitative research findings in the health sciences has been the subject of considerable debate, particularly with the advent of qualitative systematic reviews in recent years. There has been a significant investment in the production of guidance to improve the reporting of quantitative research; however, comparatively little time has been spent on developing the same for qualitative research reporting. This paper sets out to examine the possibility of developing a framework for refereed journals to utilize when guiding authors on how to report the results of qualitative studies in the hope that this will improve the quality of reports and subsequently their inclusion in qualitative syntheses and guidelines to inform practice at the point of care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hanna, E; Gough, B
This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in partic...
Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros
The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…
Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa
Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…
Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan
Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…
Ulum, Ömer Gökhan
This study explores the epistemological basis for qualitative educational research studies. Within this context, 20 qualitative studies on education were analysed and three dimensions were sorted out: (1) the purpose or aim of the study, (2) the rationale for the study, and (3) the occurrence of epistemological aspects (theory, paradigm,…
Piercy, Fred P.; Benson, Kristen
In this article we provide a rationale for using alternative, aesthetic methods of qualitative representation (e.g., creative writing, art, music, performance, poetry) in qualitative family therapy research. We also provide illustrative examples of methods that bring findings to life, and involve the audience in reflecting on their meaning. One…
Full Text Available The formation of critical poststructuralism in the United States has fundamentally transformed qualitative research. The crisis of representation first discussed in anthropology has had the effect of rethinking the foundations of qualitative research by putting ethical questions on the agenda and stimulating a search for new forms of validity. Against this backdrop, this study will analyze different methods and research strategies in critical qualitative inquiry, such as interpretive interactionism, autoethnography, and performance ethnography. The call to action inherent in these strategies and further contributions to cultural and social change will be discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110171
Goodell, L Suzanne; Stage, Virginia C; Cooke, Natalie K
The increased emphasis on incorporating qualitative methodologies into nutrition education development and evaluation underscores the importance of using rigorous protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. A 5-phase protocol for training qualitative research assistants (data collectors and coders) was developed as an approach to increase the consistency of the data produced. This training provides exposure to the core principles of qualitative research and then asks the research assistant to apply those principles through practice in a setting structured on critical reflection. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.
Marks, Anne; Wilkes, Lesley; Blythe, Stacy; Griffiths, Rhonda
This paper is a reflection by a PhD candidate on her qualitative study involving parents, diabetes educators and school teachers who were caring for a child with type 1 diabetes using intensive insulin therapy in primary school. To reflect on a novice researcher's experience of recruiting research participants from community, health and education settings in Australia. Participants were successfully recruited for the study using internet communication tools: Facebook support groups; the Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA) e-newsletter; and emails sent to school principals. These methods were successful as Facebook and online support groups are popular, the study topic was of interest, the ADEA has many members, and numerous emails were sent to schools. Potential barriers to recruitment were a lack of access to those who did not use Facebook or the internet, gatekeepers, the high workloads of diabetes educators and teachers, and the time needed to obtain ethics approval and send a large number of emails to schools. Internet communication tools were successful in recruiting participants from community, health and education settings. However, different approaches were required for each type of participant. Lessons learned from this experience were: the importance of taking time to plan recruitment, including an in-depth understanding of potential participants and recruitment tools, the benefit of being an insider, and the need to work closely with gatekeepers. An understanding of recruitment is essential for ensuring access to appropriate participants and timely collection of data. The experience of the novice researcher may provide insight to others planning to use internet communication tools for recruitment. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available One of the tenets of qualitative research is the emphasis and honoring of the participants’ own words as generative of meaning and knowledge; yet it is rare to hear the actual voices of the research participants in a presentation or in text. Qualitative research dissemination has relied on dense transcribed text; these “mountains of words” do not lend themselves to the space limitations of academic journals or condensed visual elements such as summary charts, tables, or graphs. Technological advancements have the potential to revolutionize dissemination efforts, especially for qualitative research. The use of audio clips in poster and oral presentations, as well as embedded within written manuscripts plays with the interstices between the research participants and the observer. Infograms are effective ways of conveying a story visually. We demonstrate how combining audio clips and infographics can be a unique hypermodal dissemination possibility for qualitative results.
Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik
With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback.
Kidd, Sean A
The acceptance of qualitative research in 15 journals published and distributed by the American Psychological Association (APA) was investigated. This investigation included a PsycINFO search using the keyword qualitative, an analysis of 15 APA journals for frequency of qualitative publication, a content analysis of the journal descriptions, and the results of qualitative interviews with 10 of the chief editors of those journals. The results indicate that there exists a substantial amount of interest in the potential contribution of qualitative methods in major psychological journals, although this interest is not ubiquitous, well defined, or communicated. These findings highlight the need for APA to state its position regarding the applicability of qualitative methods in the study of psychology.
Adams, J.; Smith, T.
Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career
Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M
In nursing today, it remains unclear what constitutes a good foundation for qualitative scientific inquiry. There is a tendency to define qualitative research as a form of inductive inquiry; deductive practice is seldom discussed, and when it is, this usually occurs in the context of data analysis. We will look at how the terms 'induction' and 'deduction' are used in qualitative nursing science and by qualitative research theorists, and relate these uses to the traditional definitions of these terms by Popper and other philosophers of science. We will also question the assertion that qualitative research is or should be inductive. The position we defend here is that qualitative research should use deductive methods. We also see a need to understand the difference between the creative process needed to create theory and the justification of a theory. Our position is that misunderstandings regarding the philosophy of science and the role of inductive and deductive logic and science are still harming the development of nursing theory and science. The purpose of this article is to discuss and reflect upon inductive and deductive views of science as well as inductive and deductive analyses in qualitative research. We start by describing inductive and deductive methods and logic from a philosophy of science perspective, and we examine how the concepts of induction and deduction are often described and used in qualitative methods and nursing research. Finally, we attempt to provide a theoretical perspective that reconciles the misunderstandings regarding induction and deduction. Our conclusion is that openness towards deductive thinking and testing hypotheses is needed in qualitative nursing research. We must also realize that strict induction will not create theory; to generate theory, a creative leap is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reynolds, Joanna; Kizito, James; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangesho, Peter; Allen, Elizabeth; Chandler, Clare
Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research. © 2011 Reynolds et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research. PMID:22182674
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research.
Letourneau, Jade L. H.
Many calls to action for promoting research with counselors-in-training and producing research-practitioners have been published over the past few decades (Balkin 2013; Granello and Granello 1998; Heppner and Anderson 1985), yet the research-practice gap remains. This article explores how qualitative research may help bridge that gap and offers…
replication, validity, rigour, generalisation) that scripts the research as science. ... Most of these factors are hard to measure within a quantitative research framework alone. Law‟s .... concepts of theoretical sample and of saturation in qualitative research is .... Reflexive ethnography: a guide to researching selves and others.
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.
Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh
The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.
Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research f...
Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N
In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.
Ye. Z. Mateyev
Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is the fundamental quality characteristics. To determine the fatty acid composition, the SP-2560 column and Chromotec 5000.1 gas chromatograph were used. As a result of the studies it was established that fatty acids of 18 and 16 groups prevail in safflower oil, the content of the remaining fatty acids in the total is 1.2%. In the test sample, the prevalence of omega-6 fatty acids (concentration of 80% of linoleic and ?-linolenic fatty acids is observed. Omega-6 fatty acids help the body burn excess fat, instead of postponing it for future use. Natural fatty acids are the bricks of human prostaglandins, mountain-monopodic substances that help normalize blood pressure, control muscle contractions and participate in the immune response of the body. The qualitative characteristics of vegetable oil are also physicochemical indicators. The acid number of safflower oil was 1.07 mgKOH/g, the peroxide number was 8.09 mmol/kgO2, the anisidine number of safflower oil was 3.25. Moisture of rapeseed oil is 0.03%. Safflower oil can be used as a biofuel, the lowest heat of its combustion is 36.978 MJ/kg; density – 913 kg/m3; kinematic viscosity 85.6 mm2/s. In comparison with rapeseed oil, the specific effective fuel consumption is reduced by 2.08%. The obtained fatty acid content of the analyzed sample of safflower oil is well correlated with the literature data, which indicates the high accuracy of the studies, the sample does not belong to the high oleic vegetable oils. The obtained values for qualitative characteristics indicate the prospects of using this type of oil directly in food, as well as for the production of oilseeds, such as mayonnaise, sauces, spreads.
O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny
Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews
... to engage in tobacco control research using qualitative methods and tools. ... Understandably, many policymakers need statistical evidence to make policy ... Fund (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population ...
The research of qualitative indicators of gas pipelines during the operation. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The quality control study of the inter-settlement gas pipeline section was conducted, and graphs of dependence of ...
Richardson, Jane C; Liddle, Jennifer
This short report aims to give some insight into current publication patterns for high-quality qualitative health research, using the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 database. We explored patterns of publication by range and type of journal, by date and by methodological focus. We also looked at variations between the publications submitted to different Units of Assessment, focussing particularly on the one most closely aligned with our own research area of primary care. Our brief analysis demonstrates that general medical/health journals with high impact factors are the dominant routes of publication, but there is variation according to the methodological approach adopted by articles. The number of qualitative health articles submitted to REF 2014 overall was small, and even more so for articles based on mixed methods research, qualitative methodology or reviews/syntheses that included qualitative articles.
One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...
Michael John Ravenek
Full Text Available Quality assessment in qualitative research has been, and remains, a contentious issue. The qualitative literature contains a diversity of opinions on definitions of and criteria for quality. This article attempts to organize this diversity, drawing on several examples of existing quality criteria, into four main approaches: qualitative as quantitative criteria, paradigm-specific criteria, individualized assessment, and bridging criteria. These different approaches can be mapped onto the historical transitions, or moments, in qualitative research presented by Denzin and Lincoln and, as such, they are presented alongside the various criteria reviewed. Socio-political conditions that have led us to a fractured future, where the value and significance of qualitative work may be marginalized, support the adoption of bridging criteria. These broadly applicable criteria provide means to assess quality and can be flexibly applied among the diversity of qualitative approaches used by researchers. Five categories that summarize the language used within bridging criteria are presented as a means to move forward in developing an approach to quality assessment that fosters communication and connections within the diversity of qualitative research, while simultaneously respecting and valuing paradigmatic and methodological diversity.
Simpson, Kerri L.; Wilson-Smith, Kevin
This research explored the experience of five undergraduates who engaged with qualitative research as part of their final dissertation project. There have been concerns raised over the emotional safety of researchers carrying out qualitative research, which increases when researchers are inexperienced making this a poignant issues for lectures…
findings. Furthermore, with specific scientific assumptions, combining methods can aid in estimating minimum sample size required for theoretical generalizations from even a qualitative sample. This is based on measures of how accurately subjects describe a given social phenomenon and degree of agreement......There are many research issues about validity and especially reliability in regards to qualitative research results. Generalizability is brought into question to any population base from which a relatively small number of informants are drawn. Sensitivity to new discoveries is an advantage...... of qualitative research while the advantage of quantified survey data is their reliability. This paper argues for combining qualitative and quantitative methods to improve concurrent validity of results by triangulating interviews, observations or focus group data with short surveys for validation of main...
Goering, Paula; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio
It is time to move beyond education about qualitative research theory and methods to using them to understand and improve psychiatric practice. There is a good fit between this agenda and current thinking about research use that broadens definitions of evidence beyond the results of experiments. This paper describes a qualitative program evaluation to illustrate what kind of useful knowledge is generated and how it can be created through a clinician-researcher partnership. The linkage and exchange model of effective knowledge translation described involves interaction between clinicians and researchers throughout the research process and results in mutual learning through the planning, disseminating, and application of existing or new qualitative research in decision making.
Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J
Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.
Full Text Available . Today, it is known and widely accepted that researchers must know the research paradigms and develop skills and non-dogmatic attitudes for conducting and evaluating studies in any methodology. Quantitative research methodology is more common while qualitative research is relatively new in Turkey. Researchers who have not developed sufficient knowledge and experiences in qualitative study would create nonevidence based and non-ethical research projects. This creates threats to the research community. In order to improve and be competent in any methodology, it is important to review and critically analyze the completed dissertations, thesis and the journal articles emerged from those research efforts. In this effort self-reflection of one’s own research effort is essential. In this paper as an experienced researcher the author shares her experiences in supervising theses and dissertations and conducting her own research projects in qualitative research methodology in the last 20 years in Turkey. In the light of the literature considering various aspects she discusses advantages and disadvantages conducting qualitative studies in Turkey. Considering the disadvantages, the author came up with the idea of keeping thinking positively, acting modestly, being patient, learning how to deal with the authority, learning how to deal with the exploiters, working hard, never giving up, focusing on the target, being assertive when necessary, and so keeping going in the scientific way.
Sampling consideration in qualitative research is very important, yet in practice this appears not to be given the prominence and the rigour it deserves among Higher Education researchers. Accordingly, the quality of research outcomes in Higher Education has suffered from low utilisation. This has motivated the production ...
Full Text Available The introductory textbook "Qualitative Sozialforschung [Qualitative Research]" by PRZYBORSKI and WOHLRAB-SAHR is addressed to students and teachers alike interested in methodology and methods. The authors aim to describe the research process as a whole in all its elements. The volume therefore includes comprehensive chapters concerning methodology, sampling procedures and displaying of results, as well as chapters dealing with special forms of generating and analyzing data (e.g. grounded theory. The authors compare the approaches presented and work out their similarities rather than differences. Although this textbook offers a sound introduction to qualitative research, in stressing similarities the authors tend to neglect important methodological differences. The chapter dealing with criteria for evaluating the quality of research is one such example of this tendency. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100325
Full Text Available Usability is an attribute of any good product, just as its functionality. It refers mainly to the utility of a product for its indented users, as well as to its ease of use. And whilst a correct functionality is critical for the commercial success of any product, its value comes through the human needs that it fulfills, which is determined through various marketing research techniques. In parallel, the IT&C community has developed in the last two decades its own type of research, called usability testing, used mainly to evaluate interface ease of use and all usability problems associated with.software products. This article aims at finding the right place for usability testing and usability professionals in the marketing community, as well as drawing a wider picture, from a marketing research perspective, on one of the most popular topics in IT&C community for the benefit of marketing scholars and professionals.
Lofland, lq76), symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969), ethnomethodology (Turner, 1974), existentialism (Douglas & Johnson, 1977), and phenomenology...influenced greatly by this ethnomethodology or perhaps symbolic interactionism , many others will have bcen influenced by a variety of the other...approach, qualitatitve research is based on a variety of philosophical orien- tations including natural science, symbolic interactionism , and existential
Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.
Full Text Available To achieve a competitive school, it is necessary that this should always be connected to the environment, education market and beneficiaries. Information is a necessary condition, one of the primary resources to scientifically substantiate strategic planning. The research process is indispensable for the scientific substantiation of decisions, reducing uncertainty issues. It provides information about educational service users, their behaviour and the environment, absolutely necessary for designing and implementing future plans and strategies.
Arieli, Daniella; Tamir, Batya; Man, Michal
The aim of the present article is to present a model for teaching qualitative research as part of nursing education. The uniqueness of the course model is that it seeks to combine two objectives: (1) initial familiarization of the students with the clinical-nursing environment and the role of the nurse; and (2) understanding the qualitative research approach and inculcation of basic qualitative research skills. The article describes how teaching two central genres in qualitative research - ethnographic and narrative research - constitutes a way of teaching the important skills, concepts, and values of the nursing profession. The article presents the model's structure, details its principal stages, and explains the rationale of each stage. It also presents the central findings of an evaluation of the model's implementation in eight groups over a two-year period. In this way the article seeks to contribute to nursing education literature in general, and to those engaged in clinical training and teaching qualitative research in nursing education in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C
There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea
Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen
Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented ...
This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan...
Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.
Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David
Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice.
Andrea Velandia Morales
Full Text Available Qualitative research is a research strategy used to analyze the reality. When applied to consumer psychology, it allows a deeper knowledge about consumer’s behavior and associated emotions and motivations. Qualitative research goes beyond the description of buyers’ behavior and shows information about how and why that behavior is produced.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how qualitative research is relevant for the knowledge and the understanding of consumers’ behavior and how, through its techniques, it approaches the consumer’s socio-cultural reality and provides an interpretation of it. The present paper resumes the key aspects of qualitative research, mentioning its related antecedents of its contributions to the marketing and explaining the four most applied techniques in consumer psychology (interviews, focus group, ethnography and observation; moreover, it also studies the way to carry them out and gives some examples of some of the market issues which it can analyze. Finally, we take up again the qualitative data analysis as one of the most relevant topics because it produces important information for the decision making process related to the consumer. In addition, we explain the steps, strategies, types and technological tools to carry it out.
A sound knowledge of the nature of qualitative research, along with an appreciation of some special ethical considerations, is needed for rigorous reviews to be conducted. The overall character of qualitative research is described with an emphasis on the tendency of qualitative researchers to explore sensitive topics using theoretically informed methods. A number of specific features of qualitative that require additional ethical attention and awareness are also examined including the following: 1) participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2) naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3) the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality. Ultimately, Reseach Ethics Committee members must be knowledgeable about qualitative approaches to be able to assess the potential harms and benefits in a protocol carefully. Without this knowledge gaining ethics approval can be overly difficult for researchers and the best practices for protecting human participants can be overlooked.
Full Text Available Abstract A sound knowledge of the nature of qualitative research, along with an appreciation of some special ethical considerations, is needed for rigorous reviews to be conducted. The overall character of qualitative research is described with an emphasis on the tendency of qualitative researchers to explore sensitive topics using theoretically informed methods. A number of specific features of qualitative that require additional ethical attention and awareness are also examined including the following: 1 participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2 naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3 the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality. Ultimately, Reseach Ethics Committee members must be knowledgeable about qualitative approaches to be able to assess the potential harms and benefits in a protocol carefully. Without this knowledge gaining ethics approval can be overly difficult for researchers and the best practices for protecting human participants can be overlooked.
Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn
Analyzes research about the mass communication audience and describes a theoretical and methodological framework for further empirical studies. Discusses the (1) explanatory value of qualitative research; (2) social and cultural implications of the reception process, with special reference to television; and (3) applications and social relevance…
Guillemin, M.; Harris, A.
In the social sciences, there has been an increasing level of interest in the five senses, especially in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, architecture and human geography. In this case study, we focus on using the senses in qualitative research interviews. We discuss a research method
Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso
Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.
Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas
The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…
Shenton, Andrew K.
Although many critics are reluctant to accept the trustworthiness of qualitative research, frameworks for ensuring rigour in this form of work have been in existence for many years. Guba's constructs, in particular, have won considerable favour and form the focus of this paper. Here researchers seek to satisfy four criteria. In addressing…
Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth
Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…
Albine Moser; Irene Korstjens
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for
This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.
Toye, Fran; Jenkins, Sue; Seers, Kate; Barker, Karen
Many healthcare professionals use both quantitative and qualitative research to inform their practice. The usual way to access research findings is through peer-reviewed publications. This study aimed to understand the impact on healthcare professionals of watching and discussing a short research based film. The film, 'Struggling to be me' portrays findings from a qualitative synthesis exploring people's experiences of chronic pain, and was delivered as part of an inter-professional postgraduate e-learning module. The innovation of our study is to be the first to explore the impact of qualitative research portrayed through the medium of film in clinical education. All nineteen healthcare professionals enrolled on the course in December 2013 took part in on-line interviews or focus groups. We recorded and transcribed the interviews verbatim and used the methods of Grounded Theory to analyse the interview transcripts. Watching and discussing the film became a stimulus for learning : (a) A glimpse beneath the surface explored a pro-active way of seeing the person behind the pain (b) Pitfalls of the Medical Model recognised the challenge, for both patient and clinician, of 'sitting with' rather than 'fixing' an ill person; (c) Feeling bombarded by despair acknowledged the intense emotions that the clinicians brings to the clinical encounter; (d) Reconstructing the clinical encounter as a shared journey reconstructed the time-constrained clinical encounter as a single step on a shared journey towards healing, rather than fixing. Films portraying qualitative research findings can stimulate a pro-active and dialectic form of knowing. Research-based qualitative films can make qualitative findings accessible and can be a useful resource in clinical training. Our research presents, for the first time, specific learning themes for clinical education.
Full Text Available In the mid 1980s education researchers began exploring the use of the Internet within teaching and learning practices, now commonly referred to as e-learning. At the same time, many e-learning researchers were discovering that the application of existing ethical guidelines for qualitative research was resulting in confusion and uncertainty among both researchers and ethics review board members. Two decades later we continue to be plagued by these same ethical issues. On reflection on our research practices and examination of the literature on ethical issues relating to qualitative Internet- and Web-based research, the authors conclude that there are three main areas of confusion and uncertainty among researchers in the field of e-learning: (a participant consent, (b public versus private ownership, and (c confidentiality and anonymity.
Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S
A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mohammed, Mohammed A; Moles, Rebekah J; Chen, Timothy F
Synthesis of qualitative studies is an emerging area that has been gaining more interest as an important source of evidence for improving health care policy and practice. In the last decade there have been numerous attempts to develop methods of aggregating and synthesizing qualitative data. Although numerous empirical qualitative studies have been published about different aspects of health care research, to date, the aggregation and syntheses of these data has not been commonly reported, particularly in pharmacy practice related research. This paper describes different methods of conducting meta-synthesis and provides an overview of selected common methods. The paper also emphasizes the challenges and opportunities associated with conducting meta-synthesis and highlights the importance of meta-synthesis in informing practice, policy and research.
Crowe, Marie; Inder, Maree; Porter, Richard
The objective of this paper is to describe two methods of qualitative analysis - thematic analysis and content analysis - and to examine their use in a mental health context. A description of the processes of thematic analysis and content analysis is provided. These processes are then illustrated by conducting two analyses of the same qualitative data. Transcripts of qualitative interviews are analysed using each method to illustrate these processes. The illustration of the processes highlights the different outcomes from the same set of data. Thematic and content analyses are qualitative methods that serve different research purposes. Thematic analysis provides an interpretation of participants' meanings, while content analysis is a direct representation of participants' responses. These methods provide two ways of understanding meanings and experiences and provide important knowledge in a mental health context. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Stallings, William M.
Describes one quantitative educational researcher's experiences teaching qualitative research, the approach used in classes, and the successes and failures. These experiences are examined from the viewpoint of a traditionally trained professor who has now been called upon to master and teach qualitative research. (GR)
Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel
Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research.
Lunnay, Belinda; Borlagdan, Joseph; McNaughton, Darlene; Ward, Paul
Increasingly, qualitative health researchers might consider using social media to facilitate communication with participants. Ambiguity surrounding the potential risks intrinsic to social media could hinder ethical conduct and discourage use of this innovative method. We used some core principles of traditional human research ethics, that is, respect, integrity, and beneficence, to design our photo elicitation research that explored the social influences of drinking alcohol among 34 underage women in metropolitan South Australia. Facebook aided our communication with participants, including correspondence ranging from recruitment to feeding back results and sharing research data. This article outlines the ethical issues we encountered when using Facebook to interact with participants and provides guidance to researchers planning to incorporate social media as a tool in their qualitative studies. In particular, we raise the issues of privacy and confidentiality as contemporary risks associated with research using social media. © The Author(s) 2014.
Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. This second article addresses FAQs about context, research questions and designs. Qualitative research takes into account the natural contexts in which individuals or groups function to provide an in-depth understanding of real-world problems. The research questions are generally broad and open to unexpected findings. The choice of a qualitative design primarily depends on the nature of the research problem, the research question(s) and the scientific knowledge one seeks. Ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory are considered to represent the 'big three' qualitative approaches. Theory guides the researcher through the research process by providing a 'lens' to look at the phenomenon under study. Since qualitative researchers and the participants of their studies interact in a social process, researchers influence the research process. The first article described the key features of qualitative research, the third article will focus on sampling, data collection and analysis, while the last article focuses on trustworthiness and publishing.
Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma L.; King, Nigel
Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a larg...
LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.
In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampli...
inquiry. This is very different from the research traditions within the social sciences, which traditionally emphasizes the importance of research design and a controlled inquiry, even with respect to qualitative research. Social research is traditionally divided into three phases: planning, execution...... in a convincing way. This principle of controlled inquiry manifests itself in different ways within qualitative and quantitative traditions of social science research. But still, is this principle also applicable and relevant with respect to qualitative human science research? I think so. I hence make...... the argument that there would be a fruitful contribution to much phenomenological research from a greater emphasis on research design and controlled inquiry. But is it possible to combine these social science research principles with a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to qualitative research...
Elisangela Barboza Fernandes
Full Text Available This article aims to examine how research in social sciences is likely to be over procedure-oriented and quite distant from creativity, thus being less effective in dealing with the studied phenomenon. In pursuit of objectivity, psychology researchers have defined experimentation as the best investigation device and consequently devalued interpretive approaches, running the risk of studying mere peripheral phenomena. The present article is conducted through literature research and conceptual analysis around the opposition of two types of researcher positions: the machine-trick researcher, according to Becker’s perspective (1977, versus the bricoleur or communicative researcher, as named by Denzin and Lincoln (2006, and Spink (2008, respectively. In conclusion, the well-trained researcher can get loose from technical formalization in order to create what his/her studied phenomenon and context require. Therefore, it can be asserted that the bricoleur-researcher type better meets the conditions of qualitative research in social sciences.
Chenail, Ronald J.
From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…
Full Text Available The author argues that, to be convincing, the claims of a qualitative research report must be logically and clearly supported. Eight rules for good argumentative dialogue are presented. The author then presents the process of analogical reasoning to support cross-case generalization.
Face-to-face interviews have long been the dominant interview technique in the field of qualitative research. In the last two decades, telephone interviewing became more and more common. Due to the explosive growth of new communication forms, such as computer mediated communication (for example
Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik
Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.
Leko, Melinda M.
One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based reading…
Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth
Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…
concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly. Keywords: Psychological autopsy, Suicidal behaviours, Thematic analysis, Phenomenology the population, or a systematically generated ...
Gorman, G E
This text serves an integrated manual on how to conduct qualitative research. Its extensive coverage includes all aspects of work in this field from conception to completion and all types of study in a variety of settings from multi-site studies to data organization.
Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Özkara, Funda
The aim of the research is to reveal the opinions of the school administrators about the administration ethics. In this study, 30 administrators working in the middle schools of Eskisehir province center in the 2016-2017 academic year were reached. In the study, data were gathered by interview technique which is one of the qualitative research…
Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.
This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…
Ruitenberg, Claudia W.; Knowlton, Autumn; Li, Gang
The paper highlights the role of translation in qualitative research that involves multiple languages. Its particular focus is on untranslatables, that is, those words or phrases in a source language that pose challenges to translators because no direct equivalent is available in the target language. "Untranslatables" create moments of…
Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.
This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…
This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…
Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi
This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…
Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery
In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational…
Fade, S A; Swift, J A
Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
In the last 20 years, qualitative research scholars have begun to interrogate methodological and analytic issues concerning online research settings as both data sources and instruments for digital methods. This article examines the adaptation of parts of a qualitative research curriculum for understanding online communication settings. I propose methodological best practices for researchers and educators that I developed while teaching research methods to undergraduate and graduate students across disciplinary departments and discuss obstacles faced during my own research while gathering data from online sources. This article confronts issues concerning the disembodied aspects of applying what in practice should be rooted in a humanistic inquiry. Furthermore, as some approaches to online qualitative research as a digital method grow increasingly problematic with the development of new data mining technologies, I will also briefly touch upon borderline ethical practices involving data-scraping-based qualitative research.
Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.
Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…
Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine
Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040
Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine
The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors ( n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported "basic" information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited "extensive" use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels ( n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey ( n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups ( n = 63; 44%) and interviews ( n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content ( n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis ( n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors ( n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many ( n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners' assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials.
Green, Helen Elise
To debate the definition and use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. There is a paucity of literature to help the novice researcher to understand what theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and how they should be used. This paper acknowledges the interchangeable usage of these terms and researchers' confusion about the differences between the two. It discusses how researchers have used theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about how one researcher incorporated a conceptual framework throughout a research project, the purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant conceptual model. Concepts from Abbott (1988) and Witz ( 1992 ) were used to provide a framework for research involving two case study sites. The framework was used to determine research questions and give direction to interviews and discussions to focus the research. Some research methods do not overtly use a theoretical framework or conceptual framework in their design, but this is implicit and underpins the method design, for example in grounded theory. Other qualitative methods use one or the other to frame the design of a research project or to explain the outcomes. An example is given of how a conceptual framework was used throughout a research project. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks are terms that are regularly used in research but rarely explained. Textbooks should discuss what they are and how they can be used, so novice researchers understand how they can help with research design. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks need to be more clearly understood by researchers and correct terminology used to ensure clarity for novice researchers.
Paula Gerstenblatt PhD
Full Text Available This article explores the use of collage portraits in qualitative research and analysis. Collage portraiture, an area of arts-based research (ABR, is gaining stature as a method of analysis and documentation in many disciplines. This article presents a method of creating collage portraits to support a narrative thematic analysis that explored the impact of participation in an art installation construction. Collage portraits provide the opportunity to include marginalized voices and encourage a range of linguistic and non-linguistic representations to articulate authentic lived experiences. Other potential benefits to qualitative research are cross-disciplinary study and collaboration, innovative ways to engage and facilitate dialogue, and the building and dissemination of knowledge.
Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.
Thomas BRÜSEMEISTER's book Qualitative Forschung. Ein Überblick [Qualitative Research: An Overview] presents five different methods of social research: case study, narrative interview, grounded theory, ethnomethododical conversation analysis, and objective hermeneutics. These methods are so described as to make them clear and understandable for university entrants and lay people in the area of qualitative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs020252
Ted Palys PhD
Full Text Available Although the many sites and opportunities available to researchers through the development and proliferation of the Internet are well known, little attention has been paid to what digital technologies and the world's developing digital infrastructure can offer qualitative researchers for the actual process of doing research. This article discusses opportunities that now exist that we have experimented with and implemented in our own research, such as viral sampling strategies, wireless interviewing, and voice recognition transcription, as well as impediments we have encountered that stand in their way. Included in the latter are research ethics boards who often lack expertise in issues that arise in computer-assisted research, hardware/software costs and technological expertise for researchers, and university administrations who have not embraced infrastructure for qualitative research to the same extent they have supported quantitative research. The article closes with a look at the implications of emerging issues, such as the trend to cloud computing, the proliferation of mobile devices, and the maturation of voice recognition software.
Full Text Available Whether the research results put forth by (social scientists on behalf of their professional vocation and on behalf of their professional standards they adhere to, can be regarded as valid, shall be examined from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. By means of applying the sociology of knowledge to its own research results, it shall be shown that research and research results are inevitably bound to perspective (in fact, not a surprising insight. Therefore—so the underlying thesis of the argument—, research must be aimed at the systematic production of doubt in order to facilitate maximum extinction of fault. Suggestions are advanced of how qualitative research projects can be defended despite the increasing competition regarding research grants and despite the problematic epistemological position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002324
Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L
Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.
Florczak, Kristine L
The purpose of this column is to discuss the impact that qualitative research has on translational research, whose aim is to improve the health and well-being of individuals. To that end, rigorous qualitative research is examined; translational research is entertained and the manner in which qualitative research can be a co-equal partner with quantitative research is proposed.
Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette
To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for
Telephone interviews are largely neglected in the qualitative research literature and, when discussed, they are often depicted as a less attractive alternative to face-to-face interviewing. The absence of visual cues via telephone is thought to result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and to compromise rapport, probing, and interpretation of responses. Yet, telephones may allow respondents to feel relaxed and able to disclose sensitive information, and evidence is lacking that they produce lower quality data. This apparent bias against telephone interviews contrasts with a growing interest in electronic qualitative interviews. Research is needed comparing these modalities, and examining their impact on data quality and their use for studying varying topics and populations. Such studies could contribute evidence-based guidelines for optimizing interview data. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Full Text Available Face-to-face interviews have long been the dominant interview technique in the field of qualitative research. In the last two decades, telephone interviewing became more and more common. Due to the explosive growth of new communication forms, such as computer mediated communication (for example e-mail and chat boxes, other interview techniques can be introduced and used within the field of qualitative research. For a study in the domain of virtual teams, I used various communication possibilities to interview informants as well as face-to-face interviews. In this article a comparison will be made concerning the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face, telephone, e-mail and MSN messenger interviews. By including telephone and MSN messenger interviews in the comparison, the scope of this article is broader than the article of BAMPTON and COWTON (2002. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604118
There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…
Full Text Available Within a framework informed by the rhetoric of contemporary ethnography, philosophical hermeneutics, and nursing scholarship, this article focuses on the way data could be interpreted in qualitative health research. Opsomming Binne 'n raamwerk, omvorm deur die retoriek van kontemporere etnografie; filosofiese hermeneutiek en verpleegkundige vakkunde, fokus hierdie artikel op die wyse waarop data binne kwalitatiewe gesondheidsnavorsing, geinterpreteer kan word. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark
We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza
This article analyzes the origin of the primary arguments that underpin the qualitative approach, covering the birthplace of comprehensive and dialectical thought in Germany, its expansion into other countries such as France and the United States, and its spread into Latin America. The historical journey of the text starts with the development of modern science, examining the first empirical works in the Chicago School and the subsequent period of ostracism of qualitative research. The text also evidences a revival of comprehensive theoretical and empirical perspectives from the 1960s onwards, accompanying the cultural movement that came to question the great theoretical narratives and give rise to reflections on subjectivity. Theoretically, qualitative approaches are now considered a promising form of knowledge construction within the social and human sciences, with consolidated theories and a process of permanent internal critique. Such consolidation is ensured by the researchers' formation of conferences and university departments, the existence of books for the training of new researchers, and the increased presence of relevant spaces in scientific journals.
Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Morrow Guthrie, Kate
Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. This article, Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field, including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. In Part II of this series, we will outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…
Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan
This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.
DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.
This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are
Qualitative researchers are often compelled to defend their methods and ... research into teaching and learning from a non-social scientific background. ... a) the commonalities between quantitative and qualitative research approaches; b) the ...
Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.
Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen
Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.
Weiner, Bryan J; Amick, Halle R; Lund, Jennifer L; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J
Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field's knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study's methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research.
Full Text Available New qualitative research methods continue to emerge in response to factors such as renewed interest in mixed methods, better understanding of the importance of a researcher’s philosophical stance, as well as the increased use of technology in data collection and analysis, to name a few. As a result, those facilitating research methods courses must revisit content and instructional strategies in order to prepare well-informed researchers. Approaches range from paradigm to pragmatic emphasis. This descriptive case study of a doctoral seminar for novice qualitative researchers describes the intricacies of the syllabus of a pragmatic approach in a constructivist/social constructionist learning environment. The purpose was to document the delivery and faculty/student interactions and reactions. Noteworthy were the contradictions and frustrations in the delivery as well as in student experiences. In the end, student input led to seminal learning experiences. The confirmation of the effectiveness of a constructivist/social constructivist learning environment is applicable to higher education pedagogy in general.
It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…
This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. These dilemmas concern the issues of withdrawal from the study, anonymity and confidentiality, which are discussed. Each aspect examines how it was dealt with using the researcher's reflections. The research was positioned within an interpretive…
Wood, Marjorie L.
Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.
Ponterotto, Joseph G
This article reviews the current and emerging status of qualitative research in psychology. The particular value of diverse philosophical paradigms and varied inquiry approaches to the advancement of psychology generally, and multicultural psychology specifically, is emphasized. Three specific qualitative inquiry approaches anchored in diverse philosophical research paradigms are highlighted: consensual qualitative research, grounded theory, and participatory action research. The article concludes by highlighting important ethical considerations in multicultural qualitative research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Health services and policy (HSP) researchers have long used qualitative research methodologies to explore health system issues. However, the appropriateness of one approach, qualitative description, for HSP research is still often overlooked. In this article, I discuss the role that qualitative description can play in HSP research, and argue for its greater acceptance as a valid form of academic scholarship. PMID:28277201
Mortari, Luigina; Saiani, Luisa
Reflections on qualitative research. Interview of Luisa Saiani to Luigina Mortari. Luigina Mortari, an internationally known expert of epistemology and qualitative research, was interviewed to explore her thoughts on issues relevant for qualitative research: when a research question can be considered relevant; key methodological elements; ethical issues.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of
Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich
Full Text Available This article analyses the Orthodox religion as a factor of formation of spiritual and value system of young teachers. Young lecturers belong to the socio-demographic group of 20 to 35 years involved mainly in teaching and research activities. The article presents the results of a qualitative study of value system of 23 informants. The study showed that the system of values of informants is characterized by syncretism. Almost all the informants are religious, but religiosity is differently ranked in their value system. Religiosity is often in a latent form.
José Gutiérrez Pérez
Full Text Available In this article we include a revision of alternative approaches developed throughout the two last decades in Iberoamerican environmental research and possible implications for the evaluation of sustainable development with qualitative indicators. The standardized use in diplomatic reports and international studies reveals their value and acceptance in communities of experts in different contexts. It is stated that international alliances between countries have brought about important changes, although the new discourses on sustainability leave the responsibility, the control and the design of indicators in a state of confusion. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604338
Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J
In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Xie, Yan-ming; Liao, Xing
It is not finally concluded how to standardize the use of qualitative research in the world. Qualitative researchers disagree with each other about this issue. As we know, there have been a large number of articles written in different ways about qualitative research due to the "flexibility", one of its features. Qualitative research is quite different from quantitative research which is easy to control its quality and quality assessment. A series of criteria has been set up for quantitative research. However qualitative research needs to be improved in these aspects, in which qualitative interviews are mostly used at home and abroad at present. Hence, it becomes an important and urgent issue for qualitative researchers to standardly control and assess the quality of qualitative interview.
Thoft, Diana Schack
Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...
Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.
Ndengeyingoma, Assumpta; De Montigny, Francine; Miron, Jean-Marie
There has been remarkable growth in research on adolescents in the last decade, particularly in nursing science. The goal of this article is to produce a synthesis of findings justifying the use of qualitative methods in collecting data from adolescents. A literature review identified relevant articles (N : 27) from digital databases. While the studies done on adolescents were on different topics, the data collection methods were often similar. Most of the studies used more than one technique to reconcile scientific rigour and the way the adolescents expressed themselves. In order to understand a phenomenon, its context and the meaning given to the experience proved essential. In qualitative research on adolescents, it is important to use data collection methods that make it possible to clearly target the experience explored and to orient and guide the individual in deepening that experience in order to favour the emergence of his or her point of view. Data collection methods based on written communication have to be complemented with other methods more focused on oral communication so as to draw out interpretations reflecting adolescents' points of view as accurately as possible.
Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon
Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health
Devers, K J
To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitative research will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitative methods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitative research, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitative research results.
Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Eder, Milton Mickey; Smith, Katherine C; Calhoun, Karen; Tandon, Darius
Qualitative research is appearing with increasing frequency in the public health and medical literature. Qualitative research in combination with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can be powerful. However little guidance is available on how to present qualitative research within a CBPR framework for peer-review publications. This article provides a brief overview of how qualitative research can advance CBPR partnerships and outlines practical guidelines for writing for publication about qualitative research within a CBPR framework to (1) guide partners with little experience publishing in peer-reviewed journals and/or (2) facilitate effective preparation of manuscripts grounded in qualitative research for peer-reviewed journals. We provide information regarding the specific benefits of qualitative inquiry in CBPR, tips for organizing the manuscript, questions to consider in preparing the manuscript, common mistakes in the presentation of qualitative research, and examples of peer-reviewed manuscripts presenting qualitative research conducted within a CBPR framework. Qualitative research approaches have tremendous potential to integrate community and researcher perspectives to inform community health research findings. Effective dissemination of CBPR informed qualitative research findings is crucial to advancing health disparities research.
López, Mercedes Eguiluz; Lerendegui, María Luisa Samitier; Simon, Teresa Yago; Aznar, Concepción Tomas; Martin, Dolores Ariño; Briz, Teresa Oliveros; Gavin, Gema Palacio; Botaya, Rosa Magallón
To find out the views of a group of national women experts on gender and health on the key elements to consider in research with a gender perspective, and what are the resistance barriers when trying to include this perspective in the research. Meeting of a group of experts. Two types of analysis, discourse analysis, analysis of group outputs were used. Zaragoza. The group consists of six experts. An expert was defined as person accredited with specific training in the subject, and/or has presented her research at seminars, workshops, conferences on gender and health in recent years, or belongs to one of the networks of research on gender and heath. Qualitative analysis. Research with a gender perspective should meet the health needs and problems of both men and women, with those issues that contribute to determining the influence of gender on people's health being of special interest. The methodology should reflect this perspective throughout the research process and the variables should have gender explanatory potential. The main resistance barriers that prevent the inclusion of this perspective were related to the scientific institution, to feminism, and to a lack of training. A project cannot be considered to have a gender perspective if it does not include the analysis of variables with a gender explanatory potential and is not designed to help reduce inequalities between men and women. Knowing the resistance barriers that hinder this approach can guide future training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Chenail, Ronald J.
Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…
Wright, Handel Kashope
This essay addresses the topic of the state of qualitative research in education by asserting that qualitative research in education is in quite a state. Drawing heavily on Denzin and Lincoln's periodization of qualitative research as a guide, it outlines the various competing developments from within and outside that are vying to characterize the…
Chenail, Ronald J.
YouTube, the video hosting service, offers students, teachers, and practitioners of qualitative researchers a unique reservoir of video clips introducing basic qualitative research concepts, sharing qualitative data from interviews and field observations, and presenting completed research studies. This web-based site also affords qualitative…
Psychological research has shown that cognitive illusions, of which visual illusions are just a special case, are systematic and pervasive, raising epistemological questions about how error in all forms of research can be identified and eliminated. The quantitative sciences make use of statistical techniques for this purpose, but it is not clear what the qualitative equivalent is, particularly in view of widespread scepticism about validity and objectivity. I argue that, in the light of cognitive psychology, the 'error question' cannot be dismissed as a positivist obsession, and that the concepts of truth and objectivity are unavoidable. However, they constitute only a 'minimal realism', which does not necessarily bring a commitment to 'absolute' truth, certainty, correspondence, causation, reductionism, or universal laws in its wake. The assumption that it does reflects a misreading of positivism and, ironically, precipitates a 'crisis of legitimation and representation', as described by constructivist authors.
Full Text Available How do music teachers reflect on planning and performing school lessons? How do their experiences influence their teaching arrangements? In a qualitative research project the author uses the "Individualkonzept" (personal concept to explore what music teachers think while planning music lessons. In addition, the relationship between personal concepts and biographical experiences is investigated. In accordance with grounded theory methodology, interviews with teachers were analyzed first at the level of the single interviews; followed by developing a grounded theory about the music teachers' personal concepts and their embedding in biography. In doing so an integrative pattern emerged unfolding in time as a learning process. Results of the research suggest finding forms of in-service-training for teachers that will allow them to foster a self-conscious acquaintance with their own biographical background. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080178
Sethna, Bishar M.
This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…
Albine Moser; Irene Korstjens
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting
Ryan, Phillip; Kurtz, Jill Sornsen; Carter, Deanne; Pester, Danielle
This article is a collaboration by the lead faculty member in a Masters program in Intercultural Studies and students who completed the program under his aegis. This article presents the program's approach to its research course sequence, an approach involving the integration of interdisciplinary and qualitative research. The authors first provide…
Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z
Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address. © The Author(s) 2016.
Stige, Brynjulf; Malterud, Kirsti; Midtgarden, Torjus
Evaluation is essential for research quality and development, but the diversity of traditions that characterize qualitative research suggests that general checklists or shared criteria for evaluation are problematic. We propose an approach to research evaluation that encourages reflexive dialogue through use of an evaluation agenda. In proposing an evaluation agenda we shift attention from rule-based judgment to reflexive dialogue. Unlike criteria, an agenda may embrace pluralism, and does not request consensus on ontological, epistemological, and methodological issues, only consensus on what themes warrant discussion. We suggest an evaluation agenda-EPICURE-with two dimensions communicated through use of two acronyms.The first, EPIC, refers to the challenge of producing rich and substantive accounts based on engagement, processing, interpretation, and (self-)critique. The second-CURE-refers to the challenge of dealing with preconditions and consequences of research, with a focus on (social) critique, usefulness, relevance, and ethics. The seven items of the composite agenda EPICURE are presented and exemplified. Features and implications of the agenda approach to research evaluation are then discussed.
As a research methodology, qualitative research method infuses an added advantage to the exploratory capability that researchers need to explore and investigate their research studies. Qualitative methodology allows researchers to advance and apply their interpersonal and subjectivity skills to their research exploratory processes. However, in a…
Laura Catalina Timiras
Full Text Available In this paper we present a number of issues to be taken into account in assessing the marketing qualitative variables. Thus, the opinions, the preferences, the attitudes, etc. of the consumers are qualitative variables whose measurement requires the use of different scales presented in the literature and, where appropriate, the researcher must develop scales adapted to the particularities of the study undertaken. Using a certain scale it is not random action. The literature presents both comparative methods and non-comparative scaling methods. Each of these categories generates certain types of information, and also they are complementary in the evaluation of various products, brands, organizations etc. Thus, if in a non-comparative scaling method can get information about how a product is evaluated (favorable or unfavorable, for example by the respondents, comparative scaling method allows us to determine where that product is in a series of investigated competing products. Another aspect to be taken into account in the construction of the scales is the number of levels used. It is intended to obtain information with high degree of detail, but without the risk of increasing the rate of non-response due to inability of respondents to make assessments through scales with too many levels. Finally, the expression used to collect information from respondents is essential in obtaining accurate and comparable information, with the emphasis on avoiding ambiguity in drawing scales.
Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine
In the course of our supervisory work over the years we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research fo...
Dickson-Swift, Virginia; James, Erica L; Kippen, Sandra; Liamputtong, Pranee
Traditionally, risk assessments in research have been limited to examining the risks to the research participants. Although doing so is appropriate and important, there is growing recognition that undertaking research can pose risks to researchers as well. A grounded theory study involving a range of researchers who had undertaken qualitative health research on a sensitive topic was completed. Analysis of the in-depth, face-to-face unstructured individual interviews with 30 Australian public health researchers provided evidence that researchers do confront a number of physical and emotional risks when undertaking research. Training, preparation, and supervision must be taken into account so that the risk to researchers can be minimized. Researchers need to consider occupational health and safety issues in designing research projects that deal with physical and emotional risks. Recommendations for professional supervision, policy development, and minimum training standards for researchers are provided.
Full Text Available Ethics, a philosophical discipline, formulates a set of principles that must be followed, in respect of good and truth, fundamental values of humanity. The world of scientific research, of all kinds, also obeys moral imperatives and principles and is called upon to answer to society not only in relation to the discoveries themselves but, above all, in relation to the possible destructive effects on man or his life environment. The researcher in the sphere of social sciences is more involved in the act of responsibility, the more the topic subject of the study is the individual, the social group, the social environment. He must rigorously follow the principles and requirements of fair, honest, objective studies that do not harm the dignity of the human being. In line with the ethical rigors of scientific research, the article aims to highlight some aspects of respecting the principle of confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research in the field of sociology, with reference to the study of vulnerable groups in Arad County.
Goodwin, Laura D.; Goodwin, William L.
The views of prominant qualitative methodologists on the appropriateness of validity and reliability estimation for the measurement strategies employed in qualitative evaluations are summarized. A case is made for the relevance of validity and reliability estimation. Definitions of validity and reliability for qualitative measurement are presented…
Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed PhD
Full Text Available This article presents a methodological construction for research on small groups of minority media producers, especially those who are involved in multilingual settings. The set of qualitative tools are explained and their advantages and disadvantages explored, based on the literature on the subject. Then, the debate is contrasted with the practical experience of its application with minority language producers, indigenous and ethnic radio broadcasters in Colombia and audiovisual producers in Wales. The reflection upon the results leads to a final discussion that brings the adjustments required to increase the advantages and diminish the disadvantages of the proposed combined three-step methodology of an interview to the double (ITTD, a day of participant observation, and a final lengthier semi-structured interview.
Schweizer, Vanessa Jine; Kriegler, Elmar
Scenarios are key tools in analyses of global environmental change. Often they consist of quantitative and qualitative components, where the qualitative aspects are expressed in narrative, or storyline, form. Fundamental challenges in scenario development and use include identifying a small set of compelling storylines that span a broad range of policy-relevant futures, documenting that the assumptions embodied in the storylines are internally consistent, and ensuring that the selected storylines are sufficiently comprehensive, that is, that descriptions of important kinds of future developments are not left out. The dominant approach to scenario design for environmental change research has been criticized for lacking sufficient means of ensuring that storylines are internally consistent. A consequence of this shortcoming could be an artificial constraint on the range of plausible futures considered. We demonstrate the application of a more systematic technique for the development of storylines called the cross-impact balance (CIB) method. We perform a case study on the scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), which are widely used. CIB analysis scores scenarios in terms of internal consistency. It can also construct a very large number of scenarios consisting of combinations of assumptions about individual scenario elements and rank these combinations in terms of internal consistency. Using this method, we find that the four principal storylines employed in the SRES scenarios vary widely in internal consistency. One type of storyline involving highly carbon-intensive development is underrepresented in the SRES scenario set. We conclude that systematic techniques like CIB analysis hold promise for improving scenario development in global change research. (letter)
The article considers the role of qualitative research methods in CALL through describing a series of examples. These examples are used to highlight the importance and value of qualitative data in relation to a specific research objective in CALL. The use of qualitative methods in conjunction with other approaches as in mixed method research…
Reeves, Scott; Peller, Jennifer; Goldman, Joanne; Kitto, Simon
Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that gathers observations, interviews and documentary data to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The use of ethnographic research in medical education has produced a number of insightful accounts into its role, functions and difficulties in the preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to ethnography - its history, its differing forms, its role in medical education and its practical application. Specifically, the Guide initially outlines the main characteristics of ethnography: describing its origins, outlining its varying forms and discussing its use of theory. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. In addition, the Guide goes on to offer a range of ideas, methods, tools and techniques needed to undertake an ethnographic study. In doing so it discusses its conceptual, methodological, ethical and practice challenges (e.g. demands of recording the complexity of social action, the unpredictability of data collection activities). Finally, the Guide provides a series of final thoughts and ideas for future engagement with ethnography in medical education. This Guide is aimed for those interested in understanding ethnography to develop their evaluative skills when reading such work. It is also aimed at those interested in considering the use of ethnographic methods in their own research work.
In-service science teachers in Thailand are mandated to conduct classroom research, which can be quantitative and qualitative research, to improve teaching and learning. Comparing to quantitative research, qualitative research is a research approach that most of the Thai science teachers are not familiar with. This situation impedes science…
Roland, Daniel; Wicks, Don A.
This paper describes the qualitative research interview as a conversation designed to gain understanding of the world of research informants. It illustrates the potential of the qualitative research interview when the researcher is able to enter into and maintain a conversation with the research informant as an insider in the latter's community.…
L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)
textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration
Meadows, Keith A
This article describes some of the key issues in the use of qualitative research methods. Starting with a description of what qualitative research is and outlining some of the distinguishing features between quantitative and qualitative research, examples of the type of setting where qualitative research can be applied are provided. Methods of collecting information through in-depth interviews and group discussions are discussed in some detail, including issues around sampling and recruitment, the use of topic guides and techniques to encourage participants to talk openly. An overview on the analysis of qualitative data discusses aspects on data reduction, display and drawing conclusions from the data. Approaches to ensuring rigour in the collection, analysis and reporting of qualitative research are discussed and the concepts of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability are described. Finally, guidelines for the reporting of qualitative research are outlined and the need to write for a particular audience is discussed.
Stynes, Martin; Murphy, Timothy; McNamara, Gerry; O'Hara, Joe
In this paper, four critical friends meet to discuss qualitative research practices. Together they put one of their own case studies under the knife and deconstruct it to investigate the possibilities that knowledge work is complicated not only by the dynamics of socially constructed enterprises and the actors involved therein, but by the…
O’Cathain, A.; Hoddinott, P.; Lewin, S.; Thomas, K.J.; Young, B.; Adamson, J.; Jansen, J.F.M.; Mills, N.; Moore, G.; Donovan, J.L.
Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full
de Camargo, Kenneth Rochel
On observing how qualitative and quantitative studies are reported in the biomedical literature it becomes evident that, besides the virtual absence of the former, they are presented in different ways. Authors of qualitative studies seem to need almost invariably to explain why they choose a qualitative approach whereas that does not occur in quantitative studies. This paper takes Ludwik Fleck's comparative epistemology as a means of exploring those differences empirically, illustrating on the basis of two studies dealing with different aspects of biomedical practices how qualitative methods can elucidate a variety of questions pertaining to this field. The paper concludes presenting some structural characteristics of the biomedical field which on one hand, would not be explored properly without employing qualitative methods and, on the other hand, can help understanding the little value given to qualitative techniques in this area.
Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...
Shipman Cathy; Gysels Marjolein; Higginson Irene J
Abstract Background Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitative research for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a...
Full Text Available This paper concerns the organization of research process using NVivo software. Described researches were conducted in the condition of underestimated time. The use of CAQDA (computer-aided qualitative data analysis and proper research management enabled fitting into the timeframe imposed by the contracting institution. The work distribution and its management, preparation of properly formatted documents, and complementation of qualitative database with the collection of attributes based on standardized data significantly improved the elaboration of results.
Relles, Stefani; Clemens, Randall
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the "Do It Yourself" (DIY) framework as a mode of critical qualitative scholarship. The authors argue that the production and distribution methods used by punks, zine-makers, graffitists, and skateboarders--among others--may support the social justice intentions of critical qualitative inquiry.…
Sallee, Margaret W.
This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…
Toye, Francine; Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lamb, Sarah E
Using an example of qualitative research embedded in a non-surgical feasibility trial, we explore the benefits of including qualitative research in trial design and reflect on epistemological challenges. We interviewed 18 trial participants and used methods of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Our findings demonstrate that qualitative research can make a valuable contribution by allowing trial stakeholders to see things from alternative perspectives. Specifically, it can help to make specific recommendations for improved trial design, generate questions which contextualize findings, and also explore disease experience beyond the trial. To make the most out of qualitative research embedded in quantitative design it would be useful to (a) agree specific qualitative study aims that underpin research design, (b) understand the impact of differences in epistemological truth claims, (c) provide clear thematic interpretations for trial researchers to utilize, and (d) include qualitative findings that explore experience beyond the trial setting within the impact plan. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kisely, Stephen; Kendall, Elizabeth
Papers using qualitative methods are increasingly common in psychiatric journals. This overview is an introduction to critically appraising a qualitative paper for clinicians who are more familiar with quantitative methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data, rather than the more deductive, hypothesis centred approach of quantitative research. This overview compares and contrasts quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias and generalisability have qualitative equivalents. These include triangulation, trustworthiness, saturation, reflexivity and applicability. Reflexivity also shares features of transference. Qualitative approaches include: ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research can complement quantitative approaches. An understanding of both is useful in critically appraising the psychiatric literature.
Judy Mill RN, PhD
Full Text Available Nurses are knowledgeable about issues that affect quality and equity of care and are well qualified to inform policy, yet their expertise is seldom acknowledged and their input infrequently invited. In 2007, a large multidisciplinary team of researchers and decision-makers from Canada and five low- and middle-income countries (Barbados, Jamaica, Uganda, Kenya, and South Africa received funding to implement a participatory action research (PAR program entitled “Strengthening Nurses' Capacity for HIV Policy Development in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.” The goal of the research program was to explore and promote nurses' involvement in HIV policy development and to improve nursing practice in countries with a high HIV disease burden. A core element of the PAR program was the enhancement of the research capacity, and particularly qualitative capacity, of nurses through the use of mentorship, role-modeling, and the enhancement of institutional support. In this article we: (a describe the PAR program and research team; (b situate the research program by discussing attitudes to qualitative research in the study countries; (c highlight the incremental formal and informal qualitative research capacity building initiatives undertaken as part of this PAR program; (d describe the approaches used to maintain rigor while implementing a complex research program; and (e identify strategies to ensure that capacity building was locally-owned. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities and provide an informal analysis of the research capacity that was developed within our international team using a PAR approach.
Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341
Li, L; Pan, Q; Xu, L; Lin, R Q; Dai, J X; Chen, Z H
Objective: To explore the pain experiences of adult burn patients so as to lay foundation for practical analgesic measures. Methods: Using phenomenological method in qualitative research, semi-structured interviews were conducted on 12 adult burn patients hospitalized in our burn units from May to November 2015, aiming at pain experiences from immediately after burns to 3 to 7 months after being discharged from hospital. Then the Colaizzi's analysis method was applied to analyze, induce, and refine themes of interview data. Results: After analysis, pain experiences of adult burn patients were generalized into 6 themes: deep pain experiences, heavy psychological burden, limited daily life, poor assessment and treatment of pain, different attributions of pain, and different ways of coping of pain. Conclusions: Burn pain brings harm to the patients' physiology, mentality, and daily life. Nevertheless, pain processing modes of medical staff and patients themselves are the key factors affecting patients' pain experiences. Therefore, according to the deficiency of current situation of pain management, the targeted analgesic intervention measures should be carried out from the perspectives of medical staff and patients.
Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods
Xu, L.; Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.; Kajikawa, Y.
The challenge of climate change adaptation has raised awareness of the feedbacks and interconnections in complex human-natural coupled water systems. This has reinforced the call for a socio-hydrological approach to better understand, and represent in models, the associated system dynamics. Such models can potentially provide the tools to link knowledge about complex water systems to decision-making and policy frameworks. Socio-hydrology, as the subfield of human-natural coupled systems analysis, has been dramatically developed in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine work that has been framed under the umbrella of socio-hydrology, to provide insights into the participants and their disciplinary perspectives, and to draw conclusions about where the field is headed. In doing so, we used a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to synthesise current knowledge of socio-hydrology and to propose some promising future directions in this subfield of water sciences. The general statistics of the existing literature showed that socio-hydrological research has become an emerging topic and is drawing more concern and engagement of hydrologists. However, the participation of social scientists is inadequate and greater cross-disciplinary integration is desirable. Current concerns in this subfield of water research centre on two basic challenges: (1) the need to embrace the social dimensions of water-related risks, and (2) the importance of interactions and feedbacks in dynamic socio-hydrological systems. A third challenge identified here relates to the large-scale implications of 1) and 2) above, i.e. virtual water flows as a mechanism to track the human use of water at the global scale. Accordingly, we propose five potential directions with regard to socio-hydrological models, interdisciplinary collaboration and transdisciplinary studies, the science-policy interface, resilience in socio-hydrological systems, and data sharing for human
Full Text Available In the online environment, the users have more control regarding what they want to see and this affects the advertising they are exposed to (due to the profiles created by the websites they have visited. Organizations can personalize the advertising campaigns designed at a higher level, to better meet the needs of the consumers. This paper offers an in-depth view about online advertising from 12 Romanian experts, who represent companies or digital advertising agencies and who employ this tool in order to promote themselves or to develop campaigns for their clients. The empirical research undertaken has a qualitative nature, semi-structured detailed interviews with the professionals have taken place in February-March 2015, in Bucharest. Online advertising was mostly defined by the specialists as being dynamic; and some of the attributes that characterizes this domain are measurability and personalization. Clear objectives settled, correct targeting of users, a well-established strategy and planning are the key elements that would lead to a successful online advertising campaign. The Romanian agencies offer integrated online advertising services, from research and market analysis to implementation and results’ assessment of the campaigns. The formats they have been using are: search, display, video, social media advertising, affiliated marketing and sponsorship. Most of the representatives interviewed suggest that their companies’ offers might / will change due to the dynamics of the medium. Online advertising helps the other online marketing tools perform better and develop the online presence of the companies. All the respondents have confirmed that following the introduction and great use of smartphones, their companies have adjusted the online advertising campaigns to better target the potential customers that use mobile devices. Most of the companies that invest in online advertising campaigns come from sectors such as: retail, telecom
Guetterman, Timothy C.
Although recommendations exist for determining qualitative sample sizes, the literature appears to contain few instances of research on the topic. Practical guidance is needed for determining sample sizes to conduct rigorous qualitative research, to develop proposals, and to budget resources. The purpose of this article is to describe qualitative sample size and sampling practices within published studies in education and the health sciences by research design: case study, ethnography, ground...
Adams, Jolene; Schaffer, Angela; Lewin, Simon; Zwarenstein, Merrick; van der Walt, Hester
In-service education is a widely used means of enhancing the skills of health service providers, for example, in undertaking research. However, the transfer of skills acquired during an education course to the workplace is seldom evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess learner, teacher, and health service manager perceptions of the usefulness, in the work setting, of skills taught on a health systems research education course in South Africa and to assess the extent to which the course stimulated awareness and development of health systems research in the work setting. The education course was evaluated using a qualitative approach. Respondents were selected for interview using purposive sampling. Interviews were conducted with 39 respondents, including all of the major stakeholders. The interviews lasted between 20 and 60 minutes and were conducted either face to face or over the telephone. Thematic analysis was applied to the data, and key themes were identified. The course demystified health systems research and stimulated interest in reading and applying research findings. The course also changed participants' attitudes to routine data collection and was reported to have facilitated the application of informal research or problem-solving methods to everyday work situations. However, inadequate support within the workplace was a significant obstacle to applying the skills learned. A 2-week intensive, experiential course in health systems research methods can provide a mechanism for introducing basic research skills to a wide range of learners. Qualitative evaluation is a useful approach for assessing the impacts of education courses.
Wu, Hung-Lan; Volker, Deborah L
This paper is a report of an analysis of the use of theory in qualitative approaches to research as exemplified in qualitative end-of-life studies. Nurses researchers turn to theory to conceptualize research problems and guide investigations. However, researchers using qualitative approaches do not consistently articulate how theory has been applied, and no clear consensus exists regarding the appropriate application of theory in qualitative studies. A review of qualitative, end-of-life studies is used to illustrate application of theory to study design and findings. A review of theoretical literature was carried out, focusing on definitions and use of theory in qualitative end-of-life studies published in English between 1990 and 2008. The term 'theory' continues to be used in a variety of ways by theorists and researchers. Within the reviewed end-of-life studies, the use of theory included theory creation or provision of a comparative framework for data analysis and interpretation. Implications for nursing. Nurses who conduct qualitative studies should examine the philosophical and theoretical bases of their selected methodological approach, articulate a theoretical framework that fits the phenomenon being studied, and adopt a critical, flexible and creative attitude when applying theory to a study. Theory can be put to several uses in qualitative inquiry and should guide nurse researchers as they develop and implement their studies. Nurse educators who teach qualitative approaches to research should emphasize a variety of ways to incorporate theory in qualitative designs.
Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie
This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…
This qualitative research synthesis concludes and displays pictures of professionalism in second/foreign language education. Adopting Weed's processes as the methodological framework for doing qualitative research synthesis, the researcher employed seven steps, from retrieving to selecting studies directly associated with professionalism. The…
Newman, Daniel S.; McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Silva, Arlene E.; Clare, Mary; Salmon, Diane; Jackson, Safiyah
Qualitative metasynthesis (QM) is a research methodology that permits the meaningful integration and interpretation of qualitative research. This study applies a QM approach combined with constructivist grounded theory methods, bolstered by several features of research credibility, to examine the state of consultee-centered consultation (CCC) and…
Lynne M. Westphal
By using computer packages designed for qualitative data analysis a researcher can increase trustworthiness (i.e., validity and reliability) of conclusions drawn from qualitative research results. This paper examines trustworthiness issues and therole of computer software (QSR's NUD*IST) in the context of a current research project investigating the social...
Kozleski, Elizabeth B.
This article offers a rationale for the contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in special education. In it, I make the argument that qualitative research encompasses the ability to study significant problems of practice, engage with practitioners in the conduct of research studies, learn and change processes during a…
This editorial provides an overview of the ways in which qualitative research can guide games for health research and its potential contributions. It also provides guidelines for conducting qualitative research, such as using open ended, non-leading questions and digitally recording the sessions....
Full Text Available As a research methodology, qualitative research method infuses an added advantage to the exploratory capability that researchers need to explore and investigate their research studies. Qualitative methodology allows researchers to advance and apply their interpersonal and subjectivity skills to their research exploratory processes. However, in a study with an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA approach, the advantageous elements of the study quadruple because of the bonding relationship that the approach allows for the researchers to develop with their research participants. Furthermore, as a qualitative research approach, IPA gives researchers the best opportunity to understand the innermost deliberation of the ‘lived experiences’ of research participants. As an approach that is ‘participant-oriented’, interpretative phenomenological analysis approach allows the interviewees (research participants to express themselves and their ‘lived experience’ stories the way they see fit without any distortion and/or prosecution. Therefore, utilizing the IPA approach in a qualitative research study reiterates the fact that its main objective and essence are to explore the ‘lived experiences’ of the research participants and allow them to narrate the research findings through their ‘lived experiences’. As such, this paper discusses the historical background of phenomenology as both a theory and a qualitative research approach, an approach that has transitioned into an interpretative analytical tradition. Furthermore, as a resource tool to novice qualitative researchers, this paper provides a step-by-step comprehensive guide to help prepare and equip researchers with ways to utilize and apply the IPA approach in their qualitative research studies. More importantly, this paper also provides an advanced in-depth analysis and usability application for the IPA approach in a qualitatively conducted research study. As such, this
Full Text Available Conceptual design is the initial stage throughout the product life cycle, whose main purposes include function creation, function decomposition, and function and subfunction designs. At this stage, the information about product function and structure has the characteristics of imprecision, incompleteness, being qualitative, and so forth, which will affect the validity of conceptual design. In this paper, the signed directed graph is used to reveal the inherent causal relationship and interactions among the variables and find qualitative interactions between design variables and design purpose with the help of causal sequence analysis and constraint propagation. In the case of incomplete information, qualitative reasoning, which has the function of qualitative behavior prediction, can improve conceptual design level aided by the computer. To some extent, qualitative reasoning plays a supplementary role in evaluating scheme and predicting function. At last, with the problem of planar four-bar mechanism design, a qualitative reasoning flowchart based on the Signed Directed Graph is introduced, and an analysis is made of how to adjust design parameters to make the trajectory of a moving point reach to the predetermined position so as to meet the design requirements and achieve the effect that aided designers expect in conceptual design.
Vallido, Tamara; Wilkes, Lesley; Carter, Bernie; Jackson, Debra
This paper is a report of a literature review of qualitative empirical research investigating women's experiences of mothering disrupted by illness. As a primary identity, motherhood is endangered by illness. Illness can interfere with a woman's ability to mother her child/children. Healthcare professionals regularly fail to acknowledge a woman's dual identities of mother and patient. CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus and Sociological abstracts were searched 1980-2009. A narrative synthesis was used, with quality appraisal guided by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme method. Concepts were analysed thematically, explicating common experiences of women disrupted in their mothering by illness. This allowed for both descriptive and narrative synthesis to occur. Thirteen papers were included in the final review. Themes identified were: mechanism of disruption; reframing the mother role; protecting the children; experiencing guilt or shame; problems with healthcare professionals; and living to mother, mothering to live. Women disrupted in their mothering by illness view themselves as a mother first and a patient second. Women found themselves unsupported in their mothering role by healthcare professionals, and this may have left them reluctant to broach difficulties they had relinquishing mothering duties when ill. Nurses are well-positioned to support women in illness by acknowledging the importance of their identity as mothers, offering them opportunities to discuss how illness is disrupting their ability to mother, providing support to help them negotiate the social/emotional distress experienced when mothering is disrupted and, where necessary, referring them to other members of the healthcare team, such as social workers.
Ghirotto, Luca; Busani, Elena; Salvati, Michela; Di Marco, Valeria; Caldarelli, Valeria; Artioli, Giovanna
Qualitative research is pivotal in gaining understanding of individuals' experiences in pediatric palliative care. In the past few decades, the number of qualitative studies on pediatric palliative care has increased slightly, as has interest in qualitative research in this area. Nonetheless, a limited number of such studies have included the first-person perspective of children. The aim of this article is to understand the contribution of previous qualitative research on pediatric palliative care that included the voices of children. A systematic review of qualitative studies and a meta-summary were conducted. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC were searched without limitations on publication date or language. Eligible articles were qualitative research articles in which the participants were children ranging in age from 3 to 18 years.ResultWe retrieved 16 qualitative research articles reporting on 12 unique studies, and we selected two mixed-method articles. The meta-summary shows eight themes: the relationship with professional caregivers, pain and its management, "living beyond pain," the relationship between pediatric patients and their families, children's view on their treatment and service provision, meanings children give to their end-of-life situation, consequences of clinical decisions, and the relationships among children in pediatric palliative care and their peers.Significance of resultsThis meta-summary presents the "state of the art" of pediatric palliative care qualitative research on children and highlights additional research areas that warrant qualitative study.
Full Text Available The increasing number of textbooks and handbooks on qualitative research reflects developments in qualitative research as a field. In this book review symposium—based on a "Meet the Author" Session at the European Sociological Association Conference in Glasgow in 2007—several recent examples of handbooks written or edited by Uwe FLICK are discussed by two commentators. The author of the books then adds his own comments and responses. The discussion covers four main issues. First, tensions between intensifying the reflexivity of qualitative research and consolidating it as a competitor on the market of research, research training and funding are discussed. A second issue is how handbooks contribute to bridging the gaps between different local or language-specific traditions of qualitative research. A third issue is how to integrate more strongly the idea of research design into the methodological discussion (and practice of qualitative research more strongly. A fourth issue is how to promote and assess the quality of qualitative research and overcome a "legitimation crisis". These issues are discussed by the authors of this book review symposium from different perspectives with a focus on teaching qualitative methodology and on the progress of qualitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803280
Ailinger Rita L.
Full Text Available AIM: This article aims to identify the contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing. BACKGROUND: Qualitative research dates back to the 1920s and 1930s, when anthropologists and sociologists used qualitative research methods to study human phenomena in naturalistic settings and from a holistic viewpoint. Afterwards, other subject matters, including nursing, adopted qualitative methods to answer their research questions. The restructuring of health care over the past decade has brought about increased accountability in nursing research. One method for increasing this accountability is evidence-based practice. METHOD: The method used was a search in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature database from 1999-present. The search resulted in 61 citations for evidence-based practice in nursing research; however, only 5 citations focused on evidence-based practice and qualitative research. FINDINGS: The authors' findings revealed six contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice: generation of hypotheses; development and validation of instruments; provision of context for evaluation; development of nursing interventions; development of new research questions; and application of Qualitative Outcome Analysis. CONCLUSION: Qualitative research makes important contributions to the quality of evidence-based practice.
Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret
Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.
Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine
In the course of our supervisory work over the years we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The first article provides an introduction to this series. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs. The third article focused on sampling, data collection and analysis. This fourth article addresses FAQs about trustworthiness and publishing. Quality criteria for all qualitative research are credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Reflexivity is an integral part of ensuring the transparency and quality of qualitative research. Writing a qualitative research article reflects the iterative nature of the qualitative research process: data analysis continues while writing. A qualitative research article is mostly narrative and tends to be longer than a quantitative paper, and sometimes requires a different structure. Editors essentially use the criteria: is it new, is it true, is it relevant? An effective cover letter enhances confidence in the newness, trueness and relevance, and explains why your study required a qualitative design. It provides information about the way you applied quality criteria or a checklist, and you can attach the checklist to the manuscript.
Yakushko, Oksana; Miles, Pekti; Rajan, Indhushree; Bujko, Biljana; Thomas, Douglas
Culturally focused research has gained momentum in many disciplines, including psychology. However, much of this research fails to pay attention to the unconscious dynamics that underlie the study of culture and culturally influenced human beings. Such dynamics may be especially significant when issues of marginalization and oppression are present. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute a framework for understanding cultural dynamics, especially unconscious cultural dynamics, within depth psychological qualitative research influenced by Jungian and post-Jungian scholarship. Inquiry that is approached with a commitment to making the unconscious conscious seeks to empower and liberate not only the subject/object studied but also the researchers themselves. Following a brief review of multiculturalism in the context of analytically informed psychology, this paper offers several case examples that focus on researchers' integration of awareness of the cultural unconscious in their study of cultural beings and topics. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Stewart, Heather; Gapp, Rod; Harwood, Ian
In this paper we explore crystallization in terms of its contribution to qualitative management research. This exploration of crystallization is based on a postmodern view where we utilize triangulation as a point of departure. Currently, the use of crystallization is under developed in the management discipline. Qualitative literature and metaphors are utilized to develop a focus on moving qualitative management research away from positivist terms. To do this we crystalize crystallization wi...
Maxwell, Daniel G.
Qualitative and quantitative methods in social science research have long been separate spheres with little overlap. However, recent innovations have highlighted the complementarity of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The Accra Food and Nutrition Security Study was designed to incorporate the participation of a variety of constituencies in the research, and to rely on a variety of approaches — both qualitative and quantitative — to data collection and analysis. This paper reviews the ...
Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny
There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and
Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for
One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitative research for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a research interview. Methods A descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected in the context of two studies exploring the experiences of care of palliative care patients and carers. The interviews ended with questions about patients' and carers' thoughts on participating in the studies and whether this had been a distressing or helpful event. We used a qualitative descriptive analysis strategy generated from the interviews and the observational and interactional data obtained in the course of the study. Results The interviews were considered helpful: sharing problems was therapeutic and being able to contribute to research was empowering. However, thinking about the future was reported to be the most challenging. Consent forms were sometimes read with apprehension and being physically unable to sign was experienced as upsetting. Interviewing patients and carers separately was sometimes difficult and not always possible. Conclusion The open interview enables the perspectives of patients and carers to be heard, unfettered from the structure of closed questions. It also enables those patients or carers to take part who would be unable to participate in other study designs. The context is at least as important as the format of the research interview taking into account the relational circumstances with carers and appropriate ways of obtaining informed consent. Retrospective consent could be a solution to enhancing participants control over the interview.
Gysels, Marjolein; Shipman, Cathy; Higginson, Irene J
Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitative research for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a research interview. A descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected in the context of two studies exploring the experiences of care of palliative care patients and carers. The interviews ended with questions about patients' and carers' thoughts on participating in the studies and whether this had been a distressing or helpful event. We used a qualitative descriptive analysis strategy generated from the interviews and the observational and interactional data obtained in the course of the study. The interviews were considered helpful: sharing problems was therapeutic and being able to contribute to research was empowering. However, thinking about the future was reported to be the most challenging. Consent forms were sometimes read with apprehension and being physically unable to sign was experienced as upsetting. Interviewing patients and carers separately was sometimes difficult and not always possible. The open interview enables the perspectives of patients and carers to be heard, unfettered from the structure of closed questions. It also enables those patients or carers to take part who would be unable to participate in other study designs. The context is at least as important as the format of the research interview taking into account the relational circumstances with carers and appropriate ways of obtaining informed consent. Retrospective consent could be a solution to enhancing participants control over the interview.
Gysels, Marjolein; Shipman, Cathy; Higginson, Irene J
Background Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitative research for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a research interview. Methods A descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected in the context of two studies exploring the experiences of care of palliative care patients and carers. The interviews ended with questions about patients' and carers' thoughts on participating in the studies and whether this had been a distressing or helpful event. We used a qualitative descriptive analysis strategy generated from the interviews and the observational and interactional data obtained in the course of the study. Results The interviews were considered helpful: sharing problems was therapeutic and being able to contribute to research was empowering. However, thinking about the future was reported to be the most challenging. Consent forms were sometimes read with apprehension and being physically unable to sign was experienced as upsetting. Interviewing patients and carers separately was sometimes difficult and not always possible. Conclusion The open interview enables the perspectives of patients and carers to be heard, unfettered from the structure of closed questions. It also enables those patients or carers to take part who would be unable to participate in other study designs. The context is at least as important as the format of the research interview taking into account the relational circumstances with carers and appropriate ways of obtaining informed consent. Retrospective consent could be a solution to enhancing participants control over the interview. PMID:18435846
Langenberg, M; Frommer, J; Tress, W
A qualitative approach for describing music psychotherapy treatment is developed. For this purpose we employ the methodological principle of triangulation of perspectives (patient, therapist, independent observers, composers). Our approach is based on the concept of the resonator function describing the perceptive capacity of all participants for effective and relationship-referred significance of the work produced during the treatment. The qualitative method importing and extending the knowledge of the inner context of the case is illustrated by two musical improvisations from the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic migraine.
Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige
Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…
Ward, Jason K.; Comer, Unoma; Stone, Suki
This article presents the use of the qualitative research method and the challenges that this form of research imposes along with the increasingly systematic reluctance experienced by doctoral students and their chairs. Increasingly, doctoral students are opting for the qualitative approach over that of the traditional quantitative methodology.…
Bennett, Elisabeth E.; McWhorter, Rochell R.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of qualitative research in causality, with particular emphasis on process causality. In one paper, it is not possible to discuss all the issues of causality, but the aim is to provide useful ways of thinking about causality and qualitative research. Specifically, a brief overview of the…
Duggan, Louise Maria
This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…
The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…
Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…
Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...
This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…
This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…
Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.
This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…
Antin, Tamar M. J.; Constantine, Norman A.; Hunt, Geoffrey
The search for disconfirming evidence, or negative cases, is often considered a valuable strategy for assessing the credibility or validity of qualitative research claims. This article draws on a multimethod qualitative research project to illustrate how a search for disconfirming evidence evolved from a check on the validity of findings to a…
Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…
Bettez, Silvia Cristina
For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…
Gibson, Barbara E; Stasiulis, Elaine; Gutfreund, Shawna; McDonald, Maria; Dade, Lauren
In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers and research assistants in Southern Ontario. Transcribed interviews were analysed for common themes. Procedures for assessing capacity varied considerably from the use of age cutoffs to in-depth engagement with each child. Three key issues emerged from the accounts: (1) requirements that consent be provided by a single person thwarted researchers' abilities to support family decision-making; (2) little practical distinction was made between assessing if a child was capable, versus determining if study information had been adequately explained by the researcher; and (3) participants' perceived that review boards' requirements may conflict with what they considered ethical consent practices. The results suggest that researchers' consent and capacity knowledge and skills vary considerably. Perceived discrepancies between ethical practice and ethics boards' requirements suggest the need for dialogue, education and possibly ethics board reforms. Furthermore we propose, where appropriate, a 'family decision-making' model that allows parents and their children to consent together, thereby shifting the focus from separate assent and consent procedures to approaches that appropriately engage the child and family.
This paper addresses methodological issues that emerged unexpectedly during a qualitative study set up to explore nurses' descriptions of difficult, challenging and satisfying experiences at work. The purpose of the study had been to look for critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their performance in specific situations, and their labelling of each event. Ten nurses were asked to describe in detail three events; a difficult situation in which they had coped well, a difficult situation in which they would like to have coped better, and a satisfying or rewarding situation. The critical incident technique was used. Rich descriptions were obtained, tape recorded, transcribed verbatum, and analysed by constant comparative analysis, following the principles of grounded theory. Some suprising hypotheses emerged regarding the methodology of the informal interview in qualitative research. This paper addresses these hypotheses, which focus on the interaction between the researcher and informant, the role conflict facing the nurse researcher, the effect of the researcher's past experience on the interaction, the use of counselling strategies and the principle of self-disclosure. These hypotheses were incidental to the original area of study and were more exciting in their emergence because of this.
Objective: To probe doctors' attitudes and reveal wrong perception in the management of acute gouty attacks. Design: A descriptive study using a designed questionnaire that was completed through face to face interviews in hospitals, health units and polyclinics in the Makah Region. Method: This is a qualitative study of ...
This paper is a report of a Critical Interpretive Synthesis to synthesize quantitative research, in the form of an effectiveness review and a guideline, with qualitative research to examine the use of morphine to treat cancer-related pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis is a new method of reviewing, developed from meta-ethnography, which integrates systematic review methodology with a qualitative tradition of enquiry. It has not previously been used specifically to synthesize effectiveness and qualitative literature. Data sources. An existing systematic review of quantitative research and a guideline examining the effectiveness of oral morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. Electronic searches of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium database and the Social Science Citation Index to identify qualitative research were carried out in May 2008. Qualitative research papers reporting on the use of morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. The findings of the effectiveness research were used as a framework to guide the translation of findings from qualitative research using an integrative grid. A secondary translation of findings from the qualitative research, not specifically mapped to the effectiveness literature, was guided by the framework. Nineteen qualitative papers were synthesized with the quantitative effectiveness literature, producing 14 synthetic constructs. These were developed into four synthesizing arguments which drew on patients', carers' and healthcare professionals' interpretations of the meaning and context of the use of morphine to treat cancer pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis can be adapted to synthesize reviews of quantitative research into effectiveness with qualitative research and fits into an existing typology of approaches to synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research.
Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Meerpohl, Joerg J
Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers "(strongly) agreed" that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on health care research, practice and policy. More
Devers, K J
OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are root...
From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…
Opsal, Tara; Wolgemuth, Jennifer; Cross, Jennifer; Kaanta, Tanya; Dickmann, Ellyn; Colomer, Soria; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep
Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for weighing the risks and benefits of research participation. Qualitative researchers note numerous instances where IRB ethical frameworks fail to align with the ethics of their research projects and point out that IRB understandings of the benefits and risks of research often differ from those of the participants they seek to protect. This qualitative cross-case research investigates participants' interview experiences in six qualitative studies that differed in their methods, subject of focus, and populations. Our findings indicate that contemporary IRBs' use of population "vulnerability" and topic "sensitivity" to assess project risk does not adequately determine the benefits, risks, or ethicality of research. We recommend that IRBs treat as real the evidence for benefits in qualitative research, recognize that sensitivity and vulnerability do not predict risk, and encourage researchers to attend to relationships in their projects. © The Author(s) 2015.
Robert B. Faux
Full Text Available This conversation centers on the development of the thought and career of Judith PREISSLE. The conversation deals with PREISSLE's formal education and training and the challenges she faced as she embarked on an academic career. In this part of PREISSLE's account we are given a sense of how qualitative approaches to doing research began to take shape and emerge in academics, with the attendant challenges. The conversation then focuses on PREISSLE's current work at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. She shares her experiences at Georgia and the burgeoning of qualitative research in the curriculum, and the nurturing of new students as they pursue research utilizing qualitative methods. Finally, PREISSLE shares some philosophical insights concerning qualitative research and speculates about the future. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403206
Lyons, Antonia C.; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine
Understandings of health behaviours can be enriched by employing innovative qualitative research designs. We draw on research that employed a range of qualitative methods to explore young adults’ drinking behaviours and social networking in Aotearoa New Zealand. We demonstrate the importance of multiple research approaches to situate drinking practices within their broader social context. The research involved three data collection stages. First, 34 friendship focus group discussions were con...
Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Creswell John W Sage 320 £29 0761924426 0761924426 [Formula: see text].
The second edition of Creswell's book has been significantly revised and updated. The author clearly sets out three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. As someone who has used mixed methods in my research, it is refreshing to read a textbook that addresses this. The differences between the approaches are clearly identified and a rationale for using each methodological stance provided.
Witty, Karl; Branney, Peter; Bullen, Kate; White, Alan; Evans, Julie; Eardley, Ian
To explore the challenges of engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview research. Qualitative interviewing offers an ideal tool for exploring men's experiences of illness, complementing and providing context to gendered health inequalities identified in epidemiological research on men. But conducting interviews with men can be challenging and embarking on a qualitative interview study with males can feel like a daunting task, given the limited amount of practical, gender-sensitive guidance for researchers. Reflecting on a researcher's experience of conducting qualitative research on men with penile cancer, this paper explores the potential challenges of interviewing this group, but also documents how engagement and data collection were achieved. This is a reflective paper, informed by the experiences of a male researcher (KW) with no nurse training, who conducted 28 interviews with men who had been treated for penile cancer. The researcher's experiences are reported in chronological order, from the methodological challenges of recruitment to those of conducting the interview. The paper offers a resource for the novice researcher, highlighting some advantages and disadvantages of conducting qualitative interview research as a nurse researcher, as well as recommendations on how to overcome challenges. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview raises practical, methodological, ethical and emotional challenges for the researcher. However, when these challenges are met, men will talk about their health. Methodological procedures must enable an open and ongoing dialogue with clinical gatekeepers and potential participants to promote engagement. Support from colleagues is essential for any interviewer, no matter how experienced the researcher is.
Timothy C. Guetterman
Full Text Available Although recommendations exist for determining qualitative sample sizes, the literature appears to contain few instances of research on the topic. Practical guidance is needed for determining sample sizes to conduct rigorous qualitative research, to develop proposals, and to budget resources. The purpose of this article is to describe qualitative sample size and sampling practices within published studies in education and the health sciences by research design: case study, ethnography, grounded theory methodology, narrative inquiry, and phenomenology. I analyzed the 51 most highly cited studies using predetermined content categories and noteworthy sampling characteristics that emerged. In brief, the findings revealed a mean sample size of 87. Less than half of the studies identified a sampling strategy. I include a description of findings by approach and recommendations for sampling to assist methodologists, reviewers, program officers, graduate students, and other qualitative researchers in understanding qualitative sampling practices in recent studies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502256
Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C
Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.
During the past two decades we have witnessed a rather impressive growth of theoretical innovations and conceptual revisions of epistemological and methodological approaches within constructivist-qualitative quarters of the social sciences. Methodological discussions have commonly addressed a variety of methods for collecting and analyzing empirical material, yet the critical grounds upon which these were reformulated have rarely been extended to embrace sampling concepts and procedures. The ...
Crowe, Sonya; Turner, Simon; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J
Knowledge produced through applied health research is often of a form not readily accessible to or actionable by policymakers and practitioners, which hinders its implementation. Our aim was to identify research activities that can support the production of knowledge tailored to inform policy and practice. To do this, we studied an operational research approach to improving the production of applied health research findings. A 2-year qualitative study was conducted of the operational research contribution to a multidisciplinary applied health research project that was successful in rapidly informing national policy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were conducted with all members of the project's research team and advisory group (patient and health professional representatives and academics). These were augmented by participant (> 150 h) and non-participant (> 15 h) observations focusing on the process and experience of attempting to support knowledge production. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo software. Operational research performed a knowledge mediation role shaped by a problem-focused approach and an intent to perform those tasks necessary to producing readily implementable knowledge but outwith the remit of other disciplinary strands of the project. Three characteristics of the role were found to support this: engaging and incorporating different perspectives to improve services by capturing a range of health professional and patient views alongside quantitative and qualitative research evidence; rendering data meaningful by creating and presenting evidence in forms that are accessible to and engage different audiences, enabling them to make sense of it for practical use; and maintaining perceived objectivity and rigour by establishing credibility, perceived neutrality and confidence in the robustness of the research in order to unite diverse professionals in thinking creatively about system-wide service improvement. Our study
Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238
Gagliardi, Anna R; Dobrow, Mark J
Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.
Full Text Available With the boom in E-commerce, practitioners and researchers are increasingly generating marketing and strategic insights by employing the Internet as an effective new tool for conducting well-established forms of qualitative research (TISCHLER 2004. The potential of Internet as a rich data source and an attractive arena for qualitative research in e-commerce settings—in other words cyberspace as a "field," in the ethnographic sense—has not received adequate attention. This paper explores qualitative research prospects in e-commerce arenas. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402299
Full Text Available We intend this paper to be read as an inter-text between selected FQS articles, which in one way or another engage in the identity politics of qualitative research, and the broader discussion of quality in the social sciences. Subjecting those texts to a discursive investigation, we highlight how the semantic scope of what is called "qualitative research" is decisively delimited by the positivist associations of "good research". Our overall aim is to take issue with two binaries that are commonly employed by qualitative researchers and thus collide with the evolution of creative/aesthetic science. Simultaneously, however, we seek to enliven qualitative research by providing an (ancient and thus marginal understanding of research and of approaches that are still outside the prevailing canon. To this end, we start by investigating the binary between quantitative and qualitative research that is perpetually reified as our colleagues invoke the positivist quality criteria, subordinating the qualitative pole to an inferior position. Second, we provide examples of the ways that qualitative research is habitually separated from "non-research" such as the arts, journalism and fiction, ostensibly to justify calling it "scientific". Pondering how these binaries endow qualitative research with a limited identity and a supplementary status, we draw on some postmodern works so as to elaborate on alternative understandings of "science" and scientific quality. Finally, we argue for a "politics of difference" which we envision as a point of origin for extending qualitative research by multiplying its genres, styles and tropes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604286
Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Appelson, Jessica R; Changoor, Navin R; Davis, W Austin; Haider, Adil H; Morris, Megan A
Over the past 2 decades, researchers have recognized the value of qualitative research. Little has been done to characterize its application to surgery. We describe characteristics and overall prevalence of qualitative surgical research. We searched PubMed and CINAHL using "surgery" and 7 qualitative methodology terms. Four researchers extracted information; a fifth researcher reviewed 10% of abstracts for inter-rater reliability. A total of 3,112 articles were reviewed. Removing duplicates, 28% were relevant (N = 878; κ = 0.70). Common qualitative methodologies included phenomenology (34.3%) and grounded theory (30.2%). Interviews were the most common data collection method (81.9%) of patients (64%) within surgical oncology (15.4%). Postdischarge was the most commonly studied topic (30.8%). Overall, 41% of studies were published in nursing journals, while 8% were published in surgical journals. More than half of studies were published since 2011. Results suggest qualitative surgical research is gaining popularity. Most is published in nonsurgical journals, however, utilizing only 2 methodologies (phenomenology, grounded theory). The surgical journals that have published qualitative research had study topics restricted to a handful of surgical specialties. Additional surgical qualitative research should take advantage of a greater variety of approaches to provide insight into rare phenomena and social context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues related to validity in qualitative research and, more specifically, explores the ways in which validity has been discussed and applied in research with qualitative interviews. The central question is to what extent, if at all, traditional positivist validity criteria are applicable, but also relevant, for evaluation of research with qualitative interviewing. The qualitative interview has been chosen as the focal point of this paper because of its peculiarity in terms of the relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee or, in other words, the ways in which during an interview meaning and narrative are constructed through discourse between the participants. The importance of the relationship (with its characteristics between research participants (interviewer and interviewee for the outcome of a qualitative interview cannot be overemphasized and is as such of particular interest for the assessment of its validity. I introduce and summarize the main approaches to the study and establishment of validity and scrutinize their significance for the example of qualitative interviewing and research in particular. This paper shows the importance of considering research context (in this instance interview for any assessment of validity, if validity at all ought to assume the same role in qualitative and quantitative research. As alternatives to the positivist notion of validity concepts such as reflexivity, transparency and credibility throughout the research process are introduced and advocated.
Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic 'procedural' resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are 'unethical' but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of 'micro-ethics' based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of 'empirical ethics' as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.
Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie
The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.
Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire
During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased
Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Devers, Kelly J
To provide practical strategies for conducting and evaluating analyses of qualitative data applicable for health services researchers. DATA SOURCES AND DESIGN: We draw on extant qualitative methodological literature to describe practical approaches to qualitative data analysis. Approaches to data analysis vary by discipline and analytic tradition; however, we focus on qualitative data analysis that has as a goal the generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory germane to health services research. We describe an approach to qualitative data analysis that applies the principles of inductive reasoning while also employing predetermined code types to guide data analysis and interpretation. These code types (conceptual, relationship, perspective, participant characteristics, and setting codes) define a structure that is appropriate for generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory. Conceptual codes and subcodes facilitate the development of taxonomies. Relationship and perspective codes facilitate the development of themes and theory. Intersectional analyses with data coded for participant characteristics and setting codes can facilitate comparative analyses. Qualitative inquiry can improve the description and explanation of complex, real-world phenomena pertinent to health services research. Greater understanding of the processes of qualitative data analysis can be helpful for health services researchers as they use these methods themselves or collaborate with qualitative researchers from a wide range of disciplines.
The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term "qualitative methods" researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons' unique experience. In light of the risk of "McDonaldization" in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to 'move on' in a material world and in irreversible time.
Bryan C. Taylor
Full Text Available Two current forms of globalization are inherently interesting to academic qualitative researchers. The first is the globalization of qualitative research methods themselves. The second is the globalization of academic disciplines in which those methods are institutionalized as a valuable resource for professional practices of teaching and scholarly research. This essay argues that patterns in existing discussion of these two trends create an opportunity for innovative scholarship. That opportunity involves reflexively leveraging qualitative research methods to study the simultaneous negotiation by academic communities of both qualitative methods and their professional discipline. Five theories that serve to develop this opportunity are reviewed, focusing on their related benefits and limitations, and the specific research questions they yield. The essay concludes by synthesizing distinctive commitments of this proposed research program.
Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.
Harper, Liam D; McCunn, Robert
Recent work has espoused the idea that in applied sporting environments, "fast"-working practitioners should work together with "slow"-working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology that has been used in recent years is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include online surveys, 1-on-1 interviews, and focus groups. This article discusses the merits of using qualitative methods to combine applied practice and research in sport science. This includes a discussion of recent examples of the use of such methods in published journal articles, a critique of the approaches employed, and future directions and recommendations. The authors encourage both practitioners and researchers to use and engage with qualitative research with the ultimate goal of benefiting athlete health and sporting performance.
Cypress, Brigitte S
Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.
Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K
We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.
The goal of the present article is to explore a major change in the quality management of a distinct category of services, respectively the qualitative research. The essence of the change consists in the creation of an international standard aiming to increase the quality and professionalism of the market, opinion and social research, also including the qualitative research. The approach is entirely focused on the services provided by companies specialized in this field to all the organizatio...
Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare
BackgroundQualitative research methods are increasingly used within trials to address broader research questions than quantitative methods can address alone. Qualitative methods enable health professionals, service users and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences when evaluating health care treatments, interventions or policies. They can influence trial design, allowing for a fuller engagement with research questions, aims and objectives and clarify the complexities of p...
Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula
This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…
Beaunae, Cathrine; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka
This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitative research interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…
Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela
Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…
Lechuga, Vicente M.
Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…
Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther
A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…
Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin
The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver
There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Øye, Christine; Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Glasdam, Stinne
The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Based on three different cases from three different research studies, the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant's decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Research ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Background: Systems-based practice (SBP is one of the six competencies introduced to assess the competency of physicians in America. In this study, we aimed to define the characteristics of SBP for general practitioners in Iran using content analysis in order to gain maximum qualitative data.Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted and the units of analysis were ministry documents, interviews with four managers, one expert and five general and family physicians. Inductive analysis process was mainly performed by open coding, abstraction, categorization, and definign themes using the iterative method.Results: 65 codes were placed in 16 sub-categories and 7 categories. Three themes emerged: Effective role playing in inter-professional team, balanced decision between patient needs and system goals, and actingfor system improvement. These themes were accompanied by meaning units that clarified their meaning. Conclusion: The exact definition of these themes in Iran could facilitate SBP training as well as evaluation.Keywords: SYSTEM BASED PRACTICE, ALIGNMENT, HEALTH ADVOCACY
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress
U V Suvakovic
Full Text Available Argumentation in favor of overcoming the long-ago-established dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative scientific research is presented in the article. Proceeding from the view of materialistic dialecticians that every scientific research must deal with a subject, the author assumes that it is impossible to conduct a quantitative research without first establishing the quality to be studied. This also concerns measuring, which is referred only to quantitative procedures in literature. By way of illustration, the author designs two instruments for measuring the successfulness of political parties - the scale and the quotient of party successfulness. On the other hand, even the qualitative analysis usually involves certain quantifications. The author concludes that to achieve methodological correctness the existing dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative research should be considered as overcome and a typology of scientific research including predominantly qualitative and predominantly quantitative studies, depending on the methodological components prevailing in them, should be used.
Gale, Nicola K; Heath, Gemma; Cameron, Elaine; Rashid, Sabina; Redwood, Sabi
The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research.
Qualitative research constitutes a necessary perspective of knowledge within the field of health services. Healthcare always occurs in complex contexts and its enhancement requires research methodologies that address this complexity. Nevertheless, the knowledge and use of qualitative research in health services is still very limited. Among the different factors that affect its development, the teaching and learning of qualitative research proves to be fundamental, even beyond undergraduate education. Healthcare professionals and health services present certain specific aspects that must be considered in the design and development of the teaching and learning of qualitative research. Based on an eight-year online training experience with Primary Healthcare professionals, the main challenges are indentified and discussed.
Phillippi, Julia; Lauderdale, Jana
Field notes are widely recommended in qualitative research as a means of documenting needed contextual information. With growing use of data sharing, secondary analysis, and metasynthesis, field notes ensure rich context persists beyond the original research team. However, while widely regarded as essential, there is not a guide to field note collection within the literature to guide researchers. Using the qualitative literature and previous research experience, we provide a concise guide to collection, incorporation, and dissemination of field notes. We provide a description of field note content for contextualization of an entire study as well as individual interviews and focus groups. In addition, we provide two "sketch note" guides, one for study context and one for individual interviews or focus groups for use in the field. Our guides are congruent with many qualitative and mixed methodologies and ensure contextual information is collected, stored, and disseminated as an essential component of ethical, rigorous qualitative research.
Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Patel, Sadiq; Kral, Michael J
School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Humble, Áine M; Green, Maureen
Some researchers have suggested that qualitative research is increasing in the gerontology field, but little systematic analysis has tested this assertion. Using the Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement as a case study, we analysed articles reporting on original research from 1995 to 2012. One in four articles were qualitative, and results in three-year intervals show a clear increase in qualitative research findings during this 18-year time frame: (a) 1995-1997: 10 per cent; (b) 1998-2000: 19 per cent; (c) 2001-2003: 25 per cent; (d) 2004-2006: 25 per cent; (e) 2007-2009: 29 per cent; and (f) 2010-2012: 43 per cent. In all time intervals (with the exception of 2004-2006), French language articles were more likely to use a qualitative research design compared to English language articles. Topics, methodologies, and data collection strategies are also discussed.
Pope, C.; Mays, N.
Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research.
Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen
Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572
Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate
Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Schultz, Annette S H; Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay
Qualitative research methods are increasingly used by nurse scientists to explore a wide variety of topics relevant to practice and/or health policy issues. The purpose of this chapter is to review the contributions of nurse scientists to the field of tobacco control through the use of qualitative research methods. A systematic literature search strategy was used to identify 51 articles published between 1980 and 2008. The majority (84%) of reviewed articles were authored by North American nurse scientists. Cessation was the most commonly (85%) studied aspect of tobacco control. Six qualitative research approaches were used: qualitative descriptive (55%), narrative analysis (8%), phenomenology (6%), grounded theory (14%), ethnography (12%), and case study (6%). Qualitative descriptive methods were primarily one-off studies to address practical problems or issues encountered in practice, and often validated current understandings related to tobacco. Researchers who used other types of qualitative methods and who conducted qualitative studies as part of programs of research were more likely to make more substantive contributions to the evolving field of tobacco control. These contributions related to how smoking intertwines with personal and social identities, the influence of social context on tobacco use, and nurses' involvement in tobacco control (both of their own tobacco use and in assisting others). Nurse scientists interested in exploring tobacco-related issues are encouraged to consider the full range of qualitative research approaches. Qualitative research methods contribute to our understanding of tobacco use arising from nursing practice, health care and policy, along with the field of tobacco control in general.
Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.
Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…
Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda
Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…
Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan
The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.
Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen
Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. This analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.
Cuervo Pinna, M Á; Rubio, M; Altisent Trota, R; Rocafort Gil, J; Gómez Sancho, M
The decriminalisation of euthanasia and assisted medical suicide has generated a continuous debate. The terminological confusion is one of the main difficulties in obtaining medical practice consensus. The objective of this study was to determine whether the terms of Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide are used with the same meaning by doctors in Extremadura (Spain). A qualitative study was conducted using two focus groups in which doctors from different specialties who attended a large number of terminal patients participated. No other focus group was required due to saturation. The sessions were tape recorded and transcribed by two experts in qualitative methodology. Atlas.ti software was used for the analysis. We were advised by the "Health Care at the end of life" Group of the Organizacion Médica Colegial of Spain. Terminological confusion was verified in: 1) The mixture of etymological, functional and social concepts, 2) the term Passive Euthanasia, 3) the association between euthanasia and physician assisted suicide, 4) the confusion with the equivalent "wish to hasten death", and 5) the difficulty of differentiating sedation with Euthanasia. There was consensus on some aspects: a) Full voluntariness, b) the condition of terminal illness, and c) the condition of unbearable symptoms. Conceptual variability persists in relation to the concept of Euthanasia, and is particularly noticeable in the persistence of the concept of passive euthanasia. It would be desirable to achieve a common language to assign a precise meaning to these words to help doctors in their professional practice. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.
Full Text Available Qualitative data is often subjective, rich, and consists of in-depth information normally presented in the form of words. Analysing qualitative data entails reading a large amount of transcripts looking for similarities or differences, and subsequently finding themes and developing categories. Traditionally, researchers `cut and paste’ and use coloured pens to categorise data. Recently, the use of software specifically designed for qualitative data management greatly reduces technical sophistication and eases the laborious task, thus making the process relatively easier. A number of computer software packages has been developed to mechanise this `coding’ process as well as to search and retrieve data. This paper illustrates the ways in which NVivo can be used in the qualitative data analysis process. The basic features and primary tools of NVivo which assist qualitative researchers in managing and analysing their data are described.
Full Text Available Background: Consolidating a standard for reporting qualitative research remains a challenging endeavor, given the variety of different paradigms that steer qualitative research as well as the broad range of designs, and techniques for data collection and analysis that one could opt for when conducting qualitative research. Method: A total of 18 experts in qualitative research participated in an argument Delphi approach to explore the arguments that would plead for or against the development and use of reporting guidelines (RGs for qualitative research and to generate opinions on what may need to be considered in the further development or further refinement of RGs for qualitative research. Findings: The potential to increase quality and accountability of qualitative research was identified as one of the core benefits of RGs for different target groups, including students. Experts in our pilot study seem to resist a fixed, extensive list of criteria. They emphasize the importance of flexibility in developing and applying such criteria. Clear-cut RGs may restrict the publication of reports on unusual, innovative, or emerging research approaches. Conclusions: RGs should not be used as a substitute for proper training in qualitative research methods and should not be applied rigidly. Experts feel more comfortable with RGs that allow for an adaptation of criteria, to create a better fit for purpose. The variety in viewpoints between experts for the majority of the topics will most likely complicate future consolidation processes. Design specific RGs should be considered to allow developers to stay true to their own epistemological principles and those of their potential users.
The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Reza Deljavan,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarganim,2,3 Nasrin Fouladim,4 Shahnam Arshi,5 Reza Mohammadi61Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 5Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries.Methods: This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase.Results: The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education, pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators. This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans.Conclusion: Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries
This book represents an extensive revision and updating of the 1997 first edition. It includes five new chapters commissioned for this volume. It is intended to be a comprehensive but accessible guide to 'a variety of methodological approaches to qualitative research'.
Professor Silverman's reputation in the world of qualitative research precedes him and I am mindful of his status as I write this review. I am similarly mindful of Denzin's equally eminent standing and note his positive review on the cover of this book in which he describes the content as 'exceedingly thoughtful, practical and comprehensive ….'
Shelton, C L; Smith, A F; Mort, M
Qualitative research methods are a group of techniques designed to allow the researcher to understand phenomena in their natural setting. A wide range is used, including focus groups, interviews, observation, and discourse analysis techniques, which may be used within research approaches such as grounded theory or ethnography. Qualitative studies in the anaesthetic setting have been used to define excellence in anaesthesia, explore the reasons behind drug errors, investigate the acquisition of expertise and examine incentives for hand-hygiene in the operating theatre. Understanding how and why people act the way they do is essential for the advancement of anaesthetic practice, and rigorous, well-designed qualitative research can generate useful data and important insights. Meticulous social scientific methods, transparency, reproducibility and reflexivity are markers of quality in qualitative research. Tools such as the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist and the critical appraisal skills programme are available to help authors, reviewers and readers unfamiliar with qualitative research assess its merits. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Hoang-Kim, A; Schemitsch, E; Sale, J E M; Beaton, D; Warmington, K; Kulkarni, A V; Reeves, S
Qualitative research has been recognized in recent years as a field of inquiry used to understand people's beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, culture or lifestyle. While quantitative results are challenging to apply in everyday practice, the qualitative paradigm can be useful to fill in a research context that is poorly understood or ill-defined. It can provide an in-depth study of interactions, a way to incorporate context, and a means to hear the voices of participants. Understanding experiences, motivation, and beliefs can have a profound effect on the interpretation of quantitative research and generating hypotheses. In this paper, we will review different qualitative approaches that healthcare providers and researchers may find useful to implement in future study designs, specifically in the context of osteoporosis and fracture. We will provide insight into the qualitative paradigm gained from the osteoporosis literature on fractures using examples from the database Scopus. Five prominent qualitative techniques (narratives, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study) can be used to generate meanings of the social and clinical world. We have highlighted how these strategies are implemented in qualitative research on osteoporosis and fractures and are anchored to specific methodological practices. We focus on studies that explore patient psychosocial experiences of diagnosis and treatment, cultural boundaries, and interprofessional communication. After reviewing the research, we believe that action research, that is not frequently used, could also effectively be used by many professions to improve programs and policies affecting those dealing with osteoporosis issues.
Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L
Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.