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Sample records for body weights and measures

  1. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  2. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  3. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  4. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  5. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  6. Weights and linear measurements of the body and some organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute weights of the body, heart, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, gonads, digestive tract and adrenal glands, as well as the absolute linear measurements of the body, digestive tract and oviduct were determined in adult female and male African white-bellied tree pangolins. The relative weights, relative lengths and ...

  7. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi......, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.......Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body...... condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms...

  8. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S; Felden, Érico P G; Silva, Diego A S; Pelegrini, Andreia

    To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eating less or cutting calories, fasting for 24h, taking medications, vomiting, or taking laxatives), and measured body weight and height to calculate the body mass index and then classify the weight status. Associations were tested by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Adolescents of both sexes who perceived their body weight as below the expected weight took more initiatives to gain weight, and those who perceived themselves as overweight made more efforts to lose weight. In adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, the behavior of not taking medication was associated with the outcome only in boys (Odds Ratio=8.12), whereas in girls, an association was observed with the variables eating less, cutting calories, or avoiding fatty foods aiming to lose or avoid increasing body weight (Odds Ratio=3.39). Adolescents of both sexes who practiced exercises were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (male Odds Ratio=2.00; Odds Ratio=1.93 female). The perception of the body weight as above and below one's expected weight was associated with weight control behaviors, which were more likely to result in initiatives to lose and gain weight, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.

  10. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  11. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H T Wong

    Full Text Available Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain.The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain.Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002 were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043 and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023 were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight.LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.

  12. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  13. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pakiz, Bilge; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-12-04

    Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety. Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p weight was -9.4 (0.9)% vs. -8.9 (0.7)% (mean [SE]), for the standard vs. walnut-enriched diet groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups at 3 months, but only the walnut-enriched diet group maintained a lower systolic blood pressure at 6 months. The walnut-enriched diet group, but not the standard reduced-energy-density diet group, reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 months, from 203 to 194 mg/dL and 121 to 112 mg/dL, respectively (p weight loss that is comparable to a standard reduced-energy-density diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Although weight loss in response to both dietary strategies was associated with improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, the walnut-enriched diet promoted more favorable effects on LDL-C and systolic blood pressure. The trial

  14. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  15. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  16. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    , the FEC profile did not suggest any systematic bias in EBalbody with stage of lactation. Moreover we successfully modeled EBalbody differences between breeds, parities and diets. For the farmer, the ability to predict energy balance for individual cows on-farm without having to measure feed intake would......Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to health, reproduction and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EBalinout), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity......, growth and pregnancy). Except milk yield, direct measurements of these are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates involve considerable error sources, so limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EBalbody) using body weight (BW) and body...

  17. Migrant Asian Indians in New Zealand; prediction of metabolic syndrome using body weights and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowitt, Ljiljana M; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand was to determine cut-off points for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio that best discriminate for increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seventy-five (90F, 85M) Asian Indian volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index were derived. Total and percent body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Three measures of metabolic risk were determined: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, the McAuley score for insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Body mass index, percent body fat and anthropometric measurements of central adiposity generally did not perform well as indicators of metabolic risk in this high risk population of Asian Indian migrants. Our data support the use of lower ethnic specific body mass index and waist circumference for Asian Indian women and men. The discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio was similar to that of body mass index. Hence, waist-to-height ratio could be used as a simple screening tool. A recommendation, of a waist-to- height ratio of less than 0.5 that would underpin the simple public health message of "your waist circumference should be less than half your height".

  18. Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body measurement of white bornu goats reared under semi-intensive system in a southern Nigeria ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Parameters measured include distance between eyes, ear length, ear width and length, tail, and body weight.

  19. Genetic parameters for weight gain and body measurements for Nile tilapias by random regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Müller Conti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to estimate the genetic parameters for weight gain and body measurements in the GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain of Nile tilapia by random regression models. Several orders of Legendre polynomials were tested for random effects and modeled with 1, 3, 6 and 9 classes of residual variance. For the effects of permanent environmental and family, third-order polynomials were adjusted in all traits, as well as for the genetic effects of weight, weight gain, length and width. For genetic effects of height and head, fourth-order polynomials were required. To gain weight, height and head, the best model was one that considered the homogenous residual variance; however for width and weight, heterogeneous variance with 3 and 9 age classes was required, respectively. The highest heritability for weight was 0.34 at 240–311 days, and for weight gain it was 0.69 at 311 days. For head and length, the highest heritability was around 270 days at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. The highest heritability found for length was 0.20 at 254 days, 0.2 at 254 days for height, and for width the heritability was 0.54 at 311 days. Since the largest heritabilities were found for weight gain and width at 311 days, selection at these ages, based on these traits, would lead to greater genetic gains. Genetic correlations were higher between adjacent ages and, in general, selections at ages of less than 200 days did not lead to genetic gain correlated with traits at 300 days. The exception was for width, because high correlations were obtained between final and initial ages and the heritability was median in the majority of the period. Thus, selection based on the width at any age would lead to satisfactory genetic gain in this trait at the end of the growing season.

  20. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  1. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Brunekreef, B.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Smit, H.A.; van de Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Gerritsen, J.; Wijga, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  2. Suprathreshold measures of taste perception in children - Association with dietary quality and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Emma L; O'Brien, Sinead A; Scannell, Amalia G M; Markey, Anne; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in the Western world, and is affected by a multitude of interacting factors. Recent evidence suggests that taste perception may differ between obese and normal weight children. Evidence also suggests that perception of sweet and bitter taste is linked to differential food liking of various foods. To date, most studies have focused on single food items or food groups, rather than an overall view of dietary quality, and mainly on bitterness. Thus it is unclear whether taste perception is associated with dietary quality in children. Our objective was to examine the link between taste perception, dietary quality and body weight in Irish school children, in conjunction with other known influences of body weight. Taste perception was measured using the gLMS for bitter, salty and sweet stimuli. Detailed dietary intake data were collected from 525 children aged 7-13 via a 3-day diet history. Energy misreporters were identified and excluded from the dietary analyses, leaving n = 483 children. Dietary quality was assessed using Healthy Eating Index. Salivary DNA was collected and analyzed for variations in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38. Sex differences were observed whereby intensity perception of sweetness was lower in the overweight/obese males, while no association was observed for sweet taste in the females. Despite the differences in weight status, taste perception was not associated with differences in overall dietary quality, measured via HEI score, in this cohort. Prospective cohort studies in children are necessary to better understand the association between taste intensity, food intake and weight over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  4. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    imply that selection for these morphometric traits will lead to improvement of hatchling body weights. Keywords: Correlation, Quantitative traits, ... commands high price in the restaurants and markets than other conventional meat such as ... breeding objective and development of selection programme for effective planning.

  5. Ultrasound measured testicular volume in Nigerian adults: Relationship of the three formulae with height, body weight, body-surface area, and body-mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubogwu Chimezie Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurement of testicular volume is one of the ways of assessing testicular function. Ultrasonography is an important and accurate radiological method for measurement of testicular volume. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship of ultrasound measured testicular volume using the three formulae with the subjects' height, body weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in adults. Methodology: One hundred twenty-five adult male subjects comprising staff and students of a University Teaching Hospital were recruited into the study. Height and body weight were measured while the BMI and BSA were calculated. Ultrasound measurement of the height, length, and width of both testes were done and used to calculate the volumes using the three formulae. Results: The subjects' age ranged from 19 to 29 years with a mean of 23.48 ± 2.26 yrs. The mean ultrasound measured volumes for the right and left testes were 15.38 ± 3.29 ml and 15.29 ± 3.89 ml using the prolate ellipsoid formula; 22.86 ± 5.43 ml and 23.54 ± 6.88 ml by the prolate spheroid formula; 21.20 ± 5.28 ml and 20.87 ± 5.35 ml by the Lambert formula, respectively. The calculated mean for height, body weight, BMI, and BSA were 174.64 ± 6.36 cm, 68.68 ± 8.25 kg, 22.48 ± 2.17 kg/m2, and 1.82 ± 0.13 m2, respectively. The right testes showed a negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the subjects' height, body weight, BMI, and BSA for all the three formulae. Conclusion: The right testicular volume showed negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the height, body weight, BSA, and BMI in Nigerian adults.

  6. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF WEANING WEIGHT, YEARLING WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY DIMENSION OF BALI CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Supriyantono; L. Hakim; S. Suyadi; I. Ismudiono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the genetic improving of production traits selected of Bali cattle. Four hundred and twenty eight data of weaning weight, yearling weight and body weight gain were used to estimate genetic improvement for those traits. One hundred and seven data of body dimension (body weight, chest circumference, body length and withers height) at 24 months old were used to estimate genetic improving for those traits. The estimation of genetic and environmental varianc...

  7. Estimation of Live Weight From Linear Body Measurements of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty and fifty-five cattle under extensive management system were used during rainy and dry season, respectively. Traits measured were live weight, head length, head width, body length, height at wither, heart girth, width of hind quarter, loin girth and length of hindquarter. The data obtained were classified ±SE subjected ...

  8. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from

  9. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...... study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain....

  10. The validity of self-reported vs. measured body weight and height and the effect of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

  11. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Standard Weights and Measures. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 44-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/08/0044-0059. Author Affiliations.

  12. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mass standard, represented by the proto- type kilogram, is the only remaining artifact, but there are promising proposals to replace that in the near future. Ever since humans started living in community settle- ments, day to day activities have required the adoption of a set of standards for weights and measures. For ex-.

  13. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  15. Use of self-reported measures of height, weight and body mass index in a rural population of Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Poliana Cardoso; de Carvalho, Maria Bernadete; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To assess the validity of using self-reported anthropometric data for diagnosis of nutritional status of adults in a rural population of northeast Brazil. A population-based survey was conducted on a sample of 797 individuals aged 18 years or more. The proportion of individuals who knew their anthropometric measures was calculated. For agreement analysis between those who reported their measures the following indicators were obtained: differences between averages (weight, height, body mass index), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Kappa statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (VPN). Bland-Altman graphics were also obtained. More than half of the respondents (58.5%) did not know their weight or height. Weight was the most known measure among all. The magnitude of the mean difference for weight, height and body mass index (BMI) (0.43 kg, 0.31 cm, 0.32 kg/m2, respectively) was small, indicating good agreement, with a trend toward overestimation. ICC for weight, height and BMI were 0.96; 0.60; and 0.53, respectively. Kappa statistic indicated good agreement in all strata. General measures of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 84.2; 82; 90.7 and 71.3%, respectively. Elderly, those with low schooling and those who do not often weigh were less accurate on their measures. The use of self-reported measures should be done with caution in epidemiological studies in rural populations.

  16. Measurement of glycosaminoglycans in canine synovial fluid and its correlation with the cause of secondary osteoarthritis, age and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Andrysíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans are natural components of healthy joint cartilage and they also appear in healthy synovial fluid. An increased amount of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluid is believed to be a marker of secondary osteoarthritis, regardless of its primary cause. The aim of our study was to define the relationship between glycosaminoglycans in the synovial fluid and joint disorders, age, and body weight. The samples of synovial fluid were obtained from dogs suffering from secondary secondary osteoarthritis (n = 35 and from control dogs (n = 18; control dogs had normal body weight. The results were compared among joints of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis divided into groups according to the criteria mentioned above and control dogs. Glycosaminoglycan concentrations in synovial fluid were measured using dimethylmethylene blue assay. The lowest mean value of glycosaminoglycans in synovial fluid was measured in the control group. Significantly higher glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05 was found in synovial fluid isolated from obese dogs compared to control dogs. Furthermore, we observed an age-related trend, in which the highest mean values were reached either in old dogs or pups. Despite the absence of significant differences in glycosaminoglycan values among dogs suffering from various types of secondary secondary osteoarthritis, the highest mean values were measured in fragmented coronoid processus group. Our data suggest that abnormally increased body weight has an impact on glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovial fluid which may imply faster degradation and turnover of joint cartilage. Such observation has not yet been published in veterinary medicine.

  17. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  18. Adjusting adiposity and body weight measurements for height alters the relationship with blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L.; Casazza, Krista; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Franklin, Frank A.; Amaya, Michelle; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adiposity measures are associated with increased pediatric blood pressure. However, this correlation can be confounded by the relationship of both variables to height. We evaluated whether adiposity and anthropometric measures were associated with pediatric blood pressure before and after adjusting each value for height. METHODS Participants included 281 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7–12 years. Blood pressure percentiles were calculated according to pediatric guidelines using the average of four measurements. Total fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Socioeconomic status was calculated with the Hollingshead index. Adiposity measures were indexed for height using log-log regression analysis. Partial correlations identified measures associated with blood pressure. Linear regression was used to test the association of those measures with absolute blood pressure, while logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds for hypertension. RESULTS More African-Americans (16.3%) presented with potential hypertension than European-American (5.1%) or Hispanic-American (2.7%) children. After adjusting for covariates, fat mass, body mass index, and waist circumference were positively significantly associated with absolute blood pressure and hypertension in African-American and European-American children (P < 0.05). When these measures were height-indexed, only waist remained significantly positively associated with hypertension risk in these two groups. No measures were significantly associated with blood pressure among Hispanic-American children. CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic pediatric population, waist circumference was the strongest significant adiposity predictor of hypertension risk among African-American and European-American children. Additional research is needed to determine which environmental and genetic factors contribute to pediatric hypertension, particularly among Hispanic

  19. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  20. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  1. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... Biochemistry Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... These changes were significantly different (P<0.05).The absolute and relative organ (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lungs) weight changes of the ...

  2. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  3. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  4. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  5. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    breeds. According to Yakubu et al. (2011), since LW and body measurement parameters vary with breed and environment, breed specific models need to be developed. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing models for predicting LW of Afar goats using body measurements based on data collected in Gulina woreda ...

  6. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF, eye muscle area (EMA, and retail cut percentage (RCP. Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90, through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP based on their test day measures. The (covariance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h2 estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h2 estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h2 for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (−0.29 to −0.38, and between DAYS90 and EMA (−0.16 to −0.26. BF had strong rG with RCP (−0.87 to −0.93. Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28 and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44 among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the

  7. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Yun Ho; Mahboob, Alam; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Jae Gwan; Choi, Im Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h(2)) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h(2) estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h(2) for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (-0.29 to -0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (-0.16 to -0.26). BF had strong rG with RCP (-0.87 to -0.93). Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the r

  8. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.

  10. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  11. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  12. The Effects of Usual Intervention Versus Usual Intervention Plus Knowledge of Measured Resting Energy Expenditure on Body Weight and Body Fat in Active Duty Air Force Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    ...: 25.2-36.2, enrolled in a Weight and Body Fat Management program Statistical Analysis: Descriptives, 2-sample t-tests, multiple linear regression, and ANOVA for mean differences between groups and time...

  13. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta's tomorrow project cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Poirier, Abbey E; Haig, Tiffany R; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-11-25

    Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP). ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35-69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 and ≥30 kg/m 2 , respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  15. Accuracy of body weight perception and obesity among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail

    2016-09-01

    Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pobesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Cordeiro, Lorraine S; Liu, Jinghua; Ma, Yunsheng

    2017-04-14

    The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers ( p breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: -3.4, 1.1%) ( p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters ( p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS.

  17. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and measures from olden days to their modern .... 1 second per day. John Harrison, a carpenter and self-taught clock-maker, refined temperature compensation techniques and added new methods of reducing friction ... slave pendulum gave the master pendulum gentle pushes needed to maintain its motion, and also drove.

  18. Evaluation of the oral 13C-bicarbonate technique for measurements of energy expenditure in dogs before and after body weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Vitger, Anne; Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    was to validate and evaluate the suitability of the oral 13C-bicarbonate technique (o13CBT) for measuring EE in dog obesity studies. A further objective was to investigate the impact of body weight (BW) reduction and changes in body composition on the EE when measured under conditions corresponding to the basal...

  19. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  20. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  1. Body mass index and weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, C D R; Morris, J

    2009-08-01

    It has been accepted for many years that being overweight or obese, as indicated by a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over for the former and 30 or over for the latter, is associated with impairment of long term health and prognosis. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has indicated that, in Caucasians, waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men, and 80 cm or more in women have similar adverse effects on health, with increased risks at 102 cm or more in men and 88 cm in women. The role of waist-hip ratio (W/H) and whether it represents a better index than waist (W) measurement alone is being debated; many papers favour waist measurement alone. But two papers in 2005 discussing 27,098 subjects, 12,461 of whom had myocardial infarction and 14,637 controls, come down firmly in favour of W/H and were followed by a Lancet Editorial entitled 'Farewell to Body Mass Index?' Life assurance companies at medical examination usually request height and weight measurements (and therefore BMI). Most ask for waist measurements and a few hip measurements in addition (and therefore W/H). The authors have reviewed the data in 816 consecutive subjects for life assurance examination in whom BMIs, Ws and W/Hs were all recorded. In these the evidence supports the use of W as the best indicator of risk in men (634 cases), but not in the relatively small number of women (182 cases) in whom H appeared better. We believe that BMI, W and W/H should be recorded in every subject at life assurance examination so that the insurance companies in the long term will be able to reach valid conclusions about their individual and collective value.

  2. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (... sensitivity of screening mammography, while the specificity of screening remained stable across weight groups. Screening programmes should be organized to encourage these women to overcome obstacles for participation....

  3. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  5. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  6. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, li...

  7. Body weight: relationship to conversational distance and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P N

    1989-01-01

    Body weight is a major concern for women. This study investigated the relationship between body weight deviation, perceived effect of weight, conversational distance, and self-actualization in healthy caucasian college women (N = 109) between the ages of 18 and 50. The perception of body weight was measured with a structured questionnaire. Conversational distance was measured by having the participant approach the investigator, and self-actualization was determined using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Significant correlations were found between the Time Competence (TC) subscale of the POI and Perceived Effect (PE) and between conversational distance and TC. Further analysis of the data revealed a relationship between body weight deviation, using the actual deviation from the norm, and the combined effect (magnitude and direction) of body weight (r = .54, p less than .001). Path analysis revealed the multidimensional nature of the issue of body weight for women. The usual assumptions about body fat for women are questioned and implications for future research are discussed.

  8. The change of increases body weight and weight ratios of rats during prolonged cadmium toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    GUTYI B.; HUFRIY D.; BINKEVYCH V.; PAVLIV A.; BINKEVYCH O.; VENGRYN A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data changes increases body weight and weight ratios of rats in chronic cadmium toxicosis. Found that when asking cadmium chloride in body weight gain in rats and reduced weight change ratios of internal organs.

  9. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T 1 -relaxometry, T 2 -relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T 2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  10. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Live Weight Estimation by Chest Girth, Body Length and Body Volume Formula in Minahasa Local Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted in the regency of Minahasa to estimate horse live weight using its chest girth, body length and body volume formula (cylinder volume formula represented by animal chest girth and body length dimensions, particularly focused in Minahasa local horses. Data on animal live weight (LW, body length (BL, chest girth (CG and body volume were collected from 221 stallions kept by traditional household farmers. Animal body volume was calculated using cylinder volume formula with CG and BL as the components of its formula. Regression analysis was carried out for LW with all the linear body measurements. The data were classified on the basis of age. Age significantly (P0.05. Animal live weight was predicted by simple regression models using dependent variable (Y of the animal live weight and independent variable (X of the animal body measurement, either body length, chest girth, or body volume. The correlations between all pairs of measurements were highly significant (P<0.01 for all age groups. Regression analysis showed that live weight could be predicted accurately from body volume (R2= 0.92 and chest girth (R2= 0.90. Simple regression model that can be recommended to predict horse live weight based on body volume with their age groups ranging from 3 to ≥10 years old was as follow: Live weight (kg= 5.044 + 1.87088 body volume (liters. The analyses of data on horse chest girth, body length and body volume formula provided quantitative measure of body size and shape that were desirable, as they enable genetic parameters for these traits to be estimated and also included in breeding programs.

  15. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  16. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Cho, Susan S; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using adults 19 to 50 years of age (y) (n = 7,039) and 51+ y (n = 6,237). Participants were categorized by whole grain consumption: ≥ 0 to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Sample weights were applied and the number and percentages of adults in whole grain consumption groups were determined. Least-square means and standard errors were calculated for body weight measures. Two regression models were developed and compared. Model 1 covariates included age, gender, ethnicity, and total energy intake; Model 2 was extended to include cereal fiber. Trend analysis was conducted to test for differences between least-square means. Significance was set at P ≤ .05. Adults 19-50 and 51+ y consumed a mean of 0.63 and 0.77 servings of whole grains/day, respectively. A significant trend was observed in both age groups for increased consumption of whole grains with lower BMI, WC, and percentage overweight/obese (Model 1); however, a significant trend was not observed when cereal fiber was added as a covariate (Model 2). Results confirm overall whole grain intake well below recommendations, and adults who consumed the most servings of whole grains had lower body weight measures. Results also suggest that fiber in whole grain foods may mediate associations with weight measures in adults. Intake of whole grain foods should be encouraged by health professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined oral contraceptives and body weight: do oral contraceptives cause weight gain? A primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.

  18. Effect of Increased Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and water intake, body weight, cardiac weight index, left ventricular weight index, renal weight index and serum calcium level were determined. The result shows that OC treated rats had significantly lower serum calcium concentration, body weight gain, food, water and calcium intake than those of the control rats.

  19. Intrasexual competition and body weight dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J M; van Schaik, C P

    1997-05-01

    Body weight dimorphism in anthropoid primates has been thought to be a consequence of sexual selection resulting from male-male competition for access to mates. However, while monogamous anthropoids show low degrees of weight dimorphism, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, polygynous anthropoids show high variation in weight dimorphism that is not associated with measures of mating system or sex ratio. This observation has led many to debate the role of other factors such as dietary constraints, predation pressure, substrate constraints, allometric effects, and phylogeny in the evolution of anthropoid weight dimorphism. Here, we re-evaluate variation in adult body weight dimorphism in anthropoids, testing the sexual selection hypothesis using categorical estimates of the degree of male-male intrasexual competition ("competition levels"). We also test the hypotheses that interspecific variation in body weight dimorphism is associated with female body weight and categorical estimates of diet, substrate use, and phylogeny. Weight dimorphism is strongly associated with competition levels, corroborating the sexual selection hypothesis. Weight dimorphism is positively correlated with increasing female body weight, but evidence suggests that the correlation reflects an interaction between overall size and behavior. Arboreal species are, on average, less dimorphic than terrestrial species, while more frugivorous species tend to be more dimorphic than folivorous or insectivorous species. Several alternative hypotheses can explain these latter results. Weight dimorphism is correlated with taxonomy, but so too are competition levels. We suggest that most taxonomic correlations of weight dimorphism represent "phylogenetic niche conservatism"; however, colobines show consistently low degrees of weight dimorphism for reasons that are not clear.

  20. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95 % CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95 % CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95 % CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95 % CI: -1.15, -0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions. Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the

  1. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  2. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China Supakorn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW,heart girth (HG, and body length (BL at birth of sheep populations in Thailand. Data were collected during 1998 to 2011 fromfour livestock research and testing stations. Fixed effect testing showed that sex, herd, contemporary group and breed groupgreatly influenced on the investigated traits (P<0.05. The log likelihood ratio test showed that all traits significantly affectedby maternal additive genetic effect as well as covariance between animal effects. Estimated direct heritabilities from multivariate analysis of the model for BW, HG and BL were 0.32, 0.52 and 0.54, while estimated maternal heritabilities were 0.23,0.14 and 0.14, respectively. Positive correlations were found among direct additive genetic (0.29 to 0.97, maternal additivegenetic (0.23 to 0.95, and phenotype (0.18 to 0.96. Direct-maternal correlations within traits (-0.68 for BW, -0.92 for HG and-0.89 for BL and between traits (-0.89 to -0.08 were antagonistic effect. Direct additive genetic trends for BW, HG and BL inthe second period (2005 to 2011 were significantly increased (0.02 kg/year, 0.89 and 0.73 cm/year while maternal additivegenetic trends characteristically depicted significantly decreased (-0.01 kg/year, -0.92 and -0.72 cm/year.

  3. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  4. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... testicular components, absolute testis weight and body weight in boars. There is evidence in literature that the volume percentage occupied by the spermatogenetic tissues increased with age, body weight and testis weight in boars (Allrich et al., 1983; Harder et al., 1995). These reports seem to indicate that ...

  5. The impact of aging, hearing loss, and body weight on mouse hippocampal redox state, measured in brain slices using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Kevin A; Choi, Hyun W; Ravindra, Aditya; Llano, Daniel Adolfo

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between oxidative stress in the hippocampus and other aging-related changes such as hearing loss, cortical thinning, or changes in body weight are not yet known. We measured the redox ratio in a number of neural structures in brain slices taken from young and aged mice. Hearing thresholds, body weight, and cortical thickness were also measured. We found striking aging-related increases in the redox ratio that were isolated to the stratum pyramidale, while such changes were not observed in thalamus or cortex. These changes were driven primarily by changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide, not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Multiple regression analysis suggested that neither hearing threshold nor cortical thickness independently contributed to this change in hippocampal redox ratio. However, body weight did independently contribute to predicted changes in hippocampal redox ratio. These data suggest that aging-related changes in hippocampal redox ratio are not a general reflection of overall brain oxidative state but are highly localized, while still being related to at least one marker of late aging, weight loss at the end of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  7. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  8. Predicting the Parturition Date in Bitches of Different Body Weight by Ultrasonographic Measurements of Inner Chorionic Cavity Diameter and Biparietal Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, P; Janowski, T

    2014-04-01

    Predicting the parturition date in dogs by taking ultrasonographic foetometry has opened interesting research areas of veterinary obstetrics. Recently developed calculation formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) are formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000). This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and BP with the use of Luvoni and Grioni formulas for predicting the parturition time in dogs of different body weight in clinical practice conditions. The research material consists of 70 clinically healthy pregnant bitches of 27 breeds and cross-breeds. Bitches were divided into 4 groups according to their body weight. In each of the bitches, ultrasonographic examination of pregnancy was performed at least twice (ICC and BP measurements). Parturition dates for dogs with a body weight over 25 kg were calculated based on formulas intended for the group of medium dogs. It was caused by the lack of appropriate formulas for these groups of dogs. The predicting parturition dates were compared with the actual dates of delivery provided by the bitch owners. Generally, the results obtained in this study are very encouraging and similar or even better than those published by other authors using foetometric measurements. In our research, when comparing the effectiveness of predicting the delivery date based on foetometric formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000), it was proved that in all groups of dogs, even those over 25 kg, ICC and BP measurements at both accuracy levels were characterized similar reliability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  10. Personality traits and body weight: Evidence using sibling comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have "spillover effects"; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  12. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Z.Y.; Chang, Z.Y.; Lan, W.Z.; Yin, G.A.; Li, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  15. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Weight Labels on Body Image, Internalized Weight Stigma, Affect, Perceived Health, and Intended Weight Loss Behaviors in Normal-Weight and Overweight College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essayli, Jamal H; Murakami, Jessica M; Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D

    2017-11-01

    To explore the psychological impact of weight labels. A double-blind experiment that randomly informed participants that they were "normal weight" or "overweight." Public university in Honolulu, Hawai'i. Normal-weight and overweight female undergraduates (N = 113). The Body Image States Scale, Stunkard Rating Scale, Weight Bias Internalization Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, General Health question from the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, modified version of the Weight Loss Methods Scale, and a manipulation check. A 2 × 2 between-subjects analysis of variance explored the main effects of the assigned weight label and actual weight and interactions between assigned weight label and actual weight. Significant main effects of the assigned weight label emerged on measures of body dissatisfaction, F(1, 109) = 12.40, p = .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.10, internalized weight stigma, F(1, 108) = 4.35, p = .039, [Formula: see text] = .04, and negative affect, F(1, 108) = 9.22, p = .003, [Formula: see text] = .08. Significant assigned weight label × actual weight interactions were found on measures of perceived body image, F(1, 109) = 6.29, p = .014, [Formula: see text] = .06, and perceived health, F(1, 109) = 4.18, p = .043, [Formula: see text] = .04. A weight label of "overweight" may have negative psychological consequences, particularly for overweight women.

  17. Consumption of dietary salt measured by urinary sodium excretion and its association with body weight status in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute

    2012-03-01

    Highly processed foods such as convenience foods usually have a high salt content and therefore might indirectly act as adipogenic due to an increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB). We examined the association between dietary salt and body weight status. We used data on urinary Na excretion as an indicator of dietary salt and BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and percentage body fat (%BF) of children and adolescents participating in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) Study. Dortmund, Germany. Children and adolescents (n 364) who had at least two 24 h urine samples and two dietary records in the observational period between 2003 and 2009 were considered in our data analysis. Repeated-measures regression models revealed that urinary Na was positively associated with BMI-SDS (+0·202 SDS/g Na excretion at baseline; P consumption and total energy intake. Furthermore, there was a positive trend between baseline Na excretion and the individual change in %BF in the study period (+0·364 increase in %BF/g Na excretion at baseline), which was confirmed after inclusion of SCB consumption or total energy intake. There was no significant association between the change in Na excretion and the concurrent change of either BMI-SDS or %BF in any model. Our results suggest that a high intake of processed salty foods could have a negative impact on body weight status in children and adolescents independently from their consumption of SCB.

  18. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  19. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  20. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....... infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, the induced pulse rate increase was related to weight change (1.9±7.7 beats per...... minute (bpm)  with weight increase; 1.4±7.3 bpm, 0-5 kg weight loss; 0.6±7.4 bpm, ⩾5 kg weight loss). Throughout the subsequent treatment period, those continuing on sibutramine showed a consistently higher mean pulse rate than the placebo group. There was no difference in POE rates with either...

  1. Anomalies in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total-body bone mineral during weight change using Lunar, Hologic and Norland instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, P; Laskey, M A; Orphanidou, C I; van Wijk, M

    1999-07-01

    A previous study showed that measurements of total-body bone mineral changes made with a Hologic QDR 1000W were unreliable when the subjects underwent weight change. The study has been extended to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus from other manufacturers. Re-analysis of published results during weight loss using a Lunar DPX showed that they varied with the software used. Using the Extended mode, there was a 1% loss of bone mineral areal density (BMD), but no significant change in bone mineral content (BMC) or bone area (BA) following a weight loss of 16 kg, whereas the use of the Standard mode led to a larger fall of BMC and BMD. Similar findings arose from the consideration of two studies using Norland XR 26 HS absorptiometers. On the other hand, separation of two groups with similar weight changes from the population studied with a Hologic QDR 1000W confirmed that BMC changed directly with weight, but there was an inverse relationship for BMD, owing to an inappropriate change of BA. The use of Hologic Enhanced and Standard software modes led to significant differences in initial readings and measured changes. With each instrument there was a strong correlation between changes in BA and changes in BMC. When 6 kg of lard was wrapped around the limbs of volunteers or a semi-anthropomorphic phantom to simulate weight change, there were spurious increases of measured BMC and BA by about 5% with each instrument. There were no changes of BMD with Lunar, variable results with Norland, but decreases with Hologic. The results observed in vivo could be explained by the effects of fat changes, without there being any real change of bone mineral. Changes of BMD in the skeleton of the phantom were underestimated with all three brands. The anomaly observed with the Hologic QDR 1000W is less apparent with a Lunar DPX or a Norland XR 26, but there are sufficient uncertainties for all total-body measurements during weight change to be treated with suspicion.

  2. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Darren R.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP). Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric ...

  4. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  5. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  6. Weight Measurements and Standards for Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Donald A

    2007-01-01

    ...) provide the 94th RRC and 804th Medical Brigade with an environmental/Internet-based intervention to increase health risk communication and promote healthy body weight/fatness and physical performance, 3...

  7. Weight Measurements and Standards for Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    ...) provide the 94th RRC and 804th Medical Brigade with an environmental/internet-based intervention to increase health risk communication and promote healthy body weight/fatness and physical performance, 3...

  8. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Donald A; Stewart, Tiffany; Ryan, Donna H; Newton, Jr., Robert; Martin, Corby; Bathalon, Gaston; Sigrist, Lori

    2006-01-01

    ...) provide the 94th RRC and 804th Medical Brigade with an environmental/internet-based intervention to increase health risk communication and promote healthy body weight/fatness and physical performance; 3...

  9. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  10. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  11. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Body image and weight perceptions in relation to actual measurements by means of a new index and level of physical activity in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Masotti, Sabrina; Donati, Roberta; Mazzoni, Gianni; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-02-11

    Body image perception depends on anthropometric and psychological factors. Body dissatisfaction is influenced by the socio-cultural environment and is associated with eating disorders and low self-esteem. This study examined the body image perception, the degree of dissatisfaction and the weight status perception inconsistency in relation to sex, weight status and amount of physical activity in a sample of university students. The participants were 734 university students (354 females aged 21.5 ± 2.9 yrs and 380 males aged 22.1 ± 3.6 yrs) recruited from the second year of the Sport Sciences degree program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic and sport participation information. Height, weight, BMI and weight status were considered for each subject. Body image perception was assessed by a silhouette matching technique. A new index, FAI (Feel status minus Actual status Inconsistency), was used to assess weight status perception inconsistency. A large proportion of the sample had normal weight status. On average, females chose as feel status a significantly higher figure than the males (4.7 versus 3.8) and they would have liked to have a significantly thinner figure than the males (3.4 versus 3.6). Therefore, the mean FID (Feel minus Ideal Discrepancy) values (positive in both sexes) were significantly higher in females than in males, meaning higher dissatisfaction. The mean FAI values were positive in females and negative in males, indicating a tendency of the women to overestimate their weight status and of the men to underestimate it. Men were more physically active than women. Less active women showed significantly lower body weight and BMI than more active women. Men less engaged in physical activity showed significantly higher FID than more active men. These results show greater dissatisfaction and higher weight status perception consistency in females than in males among Italian university students examined. Our findings

  13. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Value of early weight measurements as predictors of body weight at later ages in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Petersson

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variances in live weight in a reindeer population and repeatabilities of the weights were estimated. The population consisted of 1847 and 1878 unselected male and female calves respectively, for which data from weighings at 2 and 7 months of age were available. All individuals in a selected population, consisting of 469 of the heaviest females, were weighed at 2, 7 and 19 months of age. The data were colleted during four successive years, 1986 - 1989. An indirect selection model for improving female weight at 19 months of age was proposed. Variance in the unselected population was higher between animals than within animals. Repeatability was estimated to be 0.636 for the male calves and 0.609 for the female calves. In the selected population, within-individual variance was higher than between-animal variance. Repeatabilities were, after correction for the effect of selection, 0.316 (between 2 and 19 months and 0.548 (between 7 and 19 months. The aim of the selection model was to increase the average weight in the primiparous group to improve their calf production ability. Using the model, the number of animals weighing equal to or more than a certain threshold weight and the number needed for recruitment at 19 months of age could be determined.

  15. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  16. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  17. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher reproductive rates were recorded under those management systems where additional or supplementary feeding at various stages of the reproductive cycle were supplied. Body weights before mating and at scanning had significant positive relationships with reproduction. For every kilogram increase in body weight ...

  18. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  19. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  20. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  1. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2012-12-01

    According to Lavoisier, 'Life is combustion'. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis--by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories)--has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past 100 years. The debate nowadays is not whether adaptive thermogenesis exists or not, but rather about its quantitative importance in weight homoeostasis and its clinical relevance to the pathogenesis and management of obesity. Such uncertainties are likely to persist in the foreseeable future primarily because of limitations to unobtrusively measure changes in energy expenditure and body composition with high enough accuracy and precision, particularly when even small inter-individual variations in thermogenesis can, in dynamic systems and over the long term, be important in the determining weight maintenance in some and obesity and weight regain in others. This paper reviews the considerable body of evidence, albeit fragmentary, suggesting the existence of quantitatively important adaptive thermogenesis in several compartments of energy expenditure in response to altered food intake. It then discusses the various limitations that lead to over- or underestimations in its assessment, including definitional and semantics, technical and methodological, analytical and statistical. While the role of adaptive thermogenesis in human weight regulation is likely to remain more a concept than a strictly 'quantifiable' entity in the foreseeable future, the evolution of this concept continues to fuel exciting hypothesis-driven mechanistic research which contributes to advance knowledge in human metabolism and which is bound to result in improved strategies for the management of a healthy body weight. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  3. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in South Asian children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallan, Miranda J; Hiam, Lucinda C; Duda, Joan L; Adab, Peymane

    2011-01-09

    Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing

  4. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (Pweight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  5. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-07-01

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.

  7. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight ...

  8. Adult and childhood weight influence body image and depression through weight stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Serena D; Herbozo, Sylvia; Morrell, Holly Er; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight stigmatization significantly mediated the relationships between body mass index and body dissatisfaction, body mass index and depressive symptoms, and childhood overweight and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 44.7 percent of the variance in depressive symptoms and 28.2 percent of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Findings indicated that a decrease in weight stigmatization may predict better mental health.

  9. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  10. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-In Lee; Cheng-Fang Yen

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average wei...

  11. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...... towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were...

  12. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  14. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. ... We recommend targeted educational programmes about overweight and obesity and the associated health effects in order to instill a behavior of self consciousness on overweight and obesity ...

  15. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  16. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...

  17. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  18. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  19. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Brenner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP. Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI of 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. Results BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001. In addition, the proportion of participants reporting being overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p < 0.001 and lower income groups (p < 0.001. Overall, approximately two thirds of men and women in ATP cohort reported abdominal obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. Conclusion A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  1. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters ... Seven (7) diets were formulated using corn starch, ... cooked kudzu and diet eight (8) was the reference diet (nutrend). The diets were formulated to provide. 16% protein. A total of forty(40) weaning albino rats of the ...

  2. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (Pcalories in food compared to both WL groups (Pcalorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  3. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  4. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  5. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  6. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  7. COMPARATIVE KINEMATIC MEASURES OF TREADMILL RUNNING WITH OR WITHOUT BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT IN RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Millslagle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Treadmill walking and running using a supportive harness has been used as a training method to rehabilitate injured patients' walking or running gait. Comparison of full weight support (FWS and body weight support (BWS kinematic measures in competitive runners has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to compare selected FWS to BWS kinematic measures in healthy competitive runners. Ten male runners (age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years with a training regimen averaging 64 km per week at 3.8 m·s-1 participated. All participants ran three 3-minute trials. The randomized trial conditions were: FWS, 20% BWS, and 40% BWS. All conditions were videotaped with 2 cameras and a 21-point, 3-D model was generated for analysis. From the position-time data, cycle length (CL, cycle frequency (CF, time of contact (TC, hip-, knee-, ankle- range of motion in degrees (H-ROM, K-ROM, and A-ROM, respectively, and vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM were derived and compared. With increasing support conditions, cycle length increased. Cycle frequency, hip and ankle angle ranges, and COM vertical displacement decreased (p 0.05. BWS running produced significant changes in selected kinematic measures. These changes may provide insight into runners' behavior when using BWS in training or recovery from competition. Additional investigation of BWS training affect with competitive runners would be recommended

  8. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  9. Allegheny County Weights and Measures Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inspections conducted by the Allegheny County Bureau of Weights and Measures. The Bureau inspects weighing and timing devices such as gas pumps, laundromat timers,...

  10. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  11. Body weight satisfaction and weight loss attempts in fitness activity involved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Kardelis, K; Pajaujiene, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the attitude of women involved in fitness physical activity (PA) towards weight loss and to find out factors that may possibly lead to weight loss behaviors. The study sample consisted of 352 women involved in recreational PA in health and fitness clubs. Participants filled a questionnaire that was designed to assess weight related aspects of body image, dieting prior to PA, PA motivation, exercise experience, frequency and instructor's encouragement to go on diet. The relative incidence of weight loss behavior and emotional weight related state across age (31 years), body mass index (BMI), exercise experience groups (>2 years, satisfaction. Weight control related dieting prior to PA predicted negative feelings about weight gain and current weight related dieting. Obligatory body shape improvement motivation was related to more negative feelings of weight control. Sport instructor's encouragement to go on diet predicted dieting and overeating. The strongest predictors of weight loss behavior were obligatory motivation to improve body shape through exercising, dieting prior to PA and instructors' encouragement to go on a diet.

  12. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  13. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an aqueous ethanol ...

  14. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  15. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  16. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  17. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (P trend =0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (P trend =0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4

  18. Physical activity, body weight and cancer. Effects and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steins Bisschop, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of general health, but seems to provide similar benefits after a diagnosis of disease, e.g. cancer. In this thesis, we investigated relations between physical activity, body weight and disease risk in the general population (Part I), and we studied some

  19. Variance components and genetic parameters for body weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components resulting from direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, as well as the relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects for several body weight and fleece traits, were estimated by DFREML procedures. Traits analysed included ...

  20. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of cardiac output in C57BL/6 mice using high frequency transthoracic ultrasound: evaluation of gender and body weight effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Elisabet; Ruberte, Jesús; Ríos, José; Novellas, Rosa; Del Alamo, Maria Montserrat Rivera; Navarro, Marc; Espada, Yvonne

    2014-10-01

    Even though mice are being increasingly used as models for human cardiovascular diseases, non-invasive monitoring of cardiovascular parameters such as cardiac output (CO) in this species is challenging. In most cases, the effects of gender and body weight (BW) on these parameters have not been studied. The objective of this study was to provide normal reference values for CO in C57BL/6 mice, and to describe possible gender and/or BW associated differences between them. We used 30-MHz transthoracic Doppler ultrasound to measure hemodynamic parameters in the ascending aorta [heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), CO, and cardiac index (CI)] in ten anesthetized mice of either sex. No differences were found for HR, SV, and CO. Both SI and CI were statistically lower in males. However, after normalization for BW, these differences disappeared. These results suggest that if comparisons of cardiovascular parameters are to be made between male and female mice, values should be standardized for BW.

  1. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  2. Neurotrophic Factor Control of Satiety and Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  3. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  4. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  5. Body weight setpoint, metabolic adaption and human starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozusko, F P

    2001-03-01

    A biological setpoint for fatness has been proposed in the medical literature. This body weight setpoint functions as a point of stable equilibrium. In an underfed state, with resulting weight loss, the body will reduce the relative energy expenditure by metabolic adaption which reduces the rate of weight loss. Previous mathematical models of energy expenditure and weight loss dynamics have not addressed this setpoint mechanism. The setpoint model has been proposed to quantify this biological process and is unique in predicting energy expenditure during weight loss as a function of the setpoint fat-free mass ratio and setpoint energy expenditure, eliminating the various controlling characteristics such as age, gender and heredity. The model is applied to the seminal Minnesota human semistarvation experiment and is used to predict weight vs time on an individual basis and the caloric requirements for weight maintenance at the reduced weight. Comparison is made with the Harris-Benedict equations and the Brody-Kleiber (W3/4) law.

  6. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  7. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenging body weight: evidence from a community-based intervention on weight, behaviour and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Louise T; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention within a commercial fitness centre on body weight, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary intake, and behavioural regulations for exercise and healthy eating. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. Outcome variables were assessed at three time points over a six month period. Results showed a significant interaction for body weight (p = .04) and dietary changes (p weight loss challenge but were not maintained across the six month period. Changes in behavioural regulations favoured the intervention condition. Results imply that a 12 week weight loss challenge within a commercial fitness centre may be effective at prompting short-term weight loss and support the internalization of behavioural regulations specific to healthy eating and exercise.

  9. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women's Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...

  10. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  11. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  12. Body weight and dysautonomia in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, T; Nakahara, A; Matsuno, H; Toyoda, C; Oka, H

    2017-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) begin to lose weight several years before diagnosis, which suggests weight variation is associated with some factor(s) that precede the onset of motor symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the association of autonomic nervous system with body weight in patients with PD. The subjects were 90 patients with early de novo PD. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) with sympathetic nervous activity reflected in orthostatic intolerance or cardiac uptake of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and parasympathetic nervous activity reflected in constipation or heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve patients (13.3%) were overweight (BMI>25 kg/m 2 ), 62 patients (68.9%) were normal-weight (18.5≦BMIDysautonomia and disease severity are closely related to body weight independently of age, sex, symptom duration, and motor subtype. Dysautonomia may play a partial role on weight variation in the early stage of PD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  14. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  16. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  17. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic relationship between body weight and growth trait of crossbred Fulani ecotype chicken at different ages. The data used in this study were obtained from hybrid of a cross between Harco Black (Cock) and Fulani ecotype chicken (Hen) raised for twelve weeks. Growth traits ...

  18. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  19. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2013. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall Broiler for Repeatability Estimates ... poultry which include pigeons, ducks, guinea fowls and turkeys (RIM, 1992). Chicken production is increasing due to increased product output per ...

  20. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...

  1. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellite markers are presently used in selection to facilitate the genetic improvement of growth and carcass traits in chickens. The genetic improvement of six weeks live body and carcass weights of Cairo B-2 line, after six generation of selection, was compared with the control line (C line). Cairo B-2 line had higher ...

  2. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  3. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic relationship between body weight and growth trait of crossbred Fulani ecotype chicken at different ages. The data used in this study were obtained from hybrid of a cross between Harco Black (Cock) and Fulani ecotype chicken (Hen) raised for twelve weeks. Growth traits.

  4. Heterotic effect on body weight and morphometric traits of crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on body weight and morphometric traits of crossbred buck kids produced from a mating of Red Sokoto(RS) and West African Dwarf(WAD) goats in a humid tropical environment. Results showed that the main crossbred (RS x WAD) buck kids had significantly ...

  5. Body satisfaction and body weight in under- and healthy-weight adolescents: mediating effects of restrictive dieting, healthy and unhealthy food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Karolina; Chan, Carina K Y; Kruk, Magdalena; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2018-03-08

    Theoretical models, such as the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders highlight the role of cognitive factors (e.g., the way people perceive their bodies) and their associations with maladaptive weight management behaviors resulting in underweight. This paper aims at testing the indirect association of adolescent's body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) through restrictive dieting, healthy eating or unhealthy eating as well as moderating role of adolescent's weight status. The study was conducted in 16 public middle and high schools in Central and Eastern Poland. A sample of 1042 under- and healthy-weight white adolescents aged 13-20 (BMI: 12.63-24.89) completed two self-reported questionnaires (fruit, vegetable, and energy-dense food intake) with a 11-month interval. Weight and height were measured objectively. Multiple mediation analysis and moderated multiple mediation analysis were conducted to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents less satisfied with their bodies were more likely to diet restrictively and at the same time ate more unhealthy energy-dense food rather than healthy food, which in turn predicted lower BMI. No moderating effects of weight status were found. Low body satisfaction is a risk for restrictive diet and unhealthy food intake. Prevention programs may target under- and healthy-weight adolescents who are highly dissatisfied with their bodies, have a high intake of energy-dense food and apply a restrictive diet at the same time. Level III: longitudinal cohort study.

  6. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRETHA SNYMAN

    Abstract. The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to. 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for ...

  7. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  8. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...

  9. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  10. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  11. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  12. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  13. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pweight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  15. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  16. Comparison of the effects explained by variations in the bovine PLAG1 and NCAPG genes on daily body weight gain, linear skeletal measurements and carcass traits in Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Kouji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kinoshita, Akihiro; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko

    2013-07-01

    The c.1326T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NCAPG gene, which leads to an amino acid change of Ile442 to Met442, was previously identified as a candidate causative variation for a bovine carcass weight quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6, which was associated with linear skeletal measurement gains and daily body weight gain at puberty. Recently, we identified the stature quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region as the causative variations for another carcass weight QTL on chromosome 14. This study aimed to compare the effects of the two QTL on growth and carcass traits using 768 Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program and to determine whether a genetic interaction was present between them. The FJX_250879 SNP representing the stature QTL was associated with linear skeletal measurements and average daily body weight gain at early and late periods during adolescence. A genetic interaction between FJX_250879 and NCAPG c.1326T>G was detected only for body and rump lengths. Both were associated with increased carcass weight and Longissimus muscle area, and NCAPG c.1326T>G was also associated with reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and increased carcass yield estimate. These results will provide useful information to improve carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  18. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doaa K. Hussin

    Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...

  20. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-07-16

    Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.

  1. Correlates of body mass index, weight goals, and weight-management practices among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J; Valois, Robert F; Drane, J Wanzer

    2004-04-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina. Logistic regression models were constructed separately for four race-gender groups. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the magnitude of associations. Based on self-reported height and weight, 13% of students were overweight, while 15% were at risk for becoming overweight. However, 42% of students were trying to lose weight, and 22% were trying to maintain current weight. Female students were less likely than male students to be overweight, but more likely to be attempting to lose weight. Extreme weight control practices were reported by 27% of the sample. Among Black females trying to lose weight, positive associations were observed for strengthening exercises (OR = 1.55), but that relationship was associated inversely in Black males (OR = .600). Among White females, attempted weight loss was associated with strengthening exercises (OR = 1.72) and cigarette smoking (OR = 1.54). For White males, attempted weight loss was associated positively with vigorous exercise (OR = 1.41) and inversely related to moderate exercise (OR = .617). Effective weight-management practices for adolescents should focus on appropriate eating behaviors, physical activity, and low-fat/calorie diets. Multicomponent weight management interventions should be conducted within a coordinated school health framework.

  2. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  3. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049 and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132 participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods : Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results : In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001 and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001 than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p = 0.0337. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers. Conclusion

  4. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, pcandy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents. PMID:21691462

  5. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2-13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14-18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, pcandy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents.

  6. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-04-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  8. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  9. Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in African American and white female dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E

    1997-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.

  10. Body weight concerns and antifat attitude in iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Garousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.

  11. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  13. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  15. Does smoking affect body weight and obesity in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2009-12-01

    An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.

  16. [Leptin and the feedback regulation of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ye, G; Sun, J

    1999-09-30

    Body weight may be controlled by a negative feedback loop. Recent studies have identified that the ob gene product, leptin, apparently and exclusively expressed in adipose tissue, is a part of the negative feedback loop. Leptin is proposed to act as an afferent signal in the negative feedback loop to hypothalamus that limiting food-intake, controlling energy homeostasis and regulating the mass of adipose tissue. The dificiency of or resistance to leptin causes severe obesity.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  18. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body size perception in school children using ...

  19. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body weights in grey and red squirrels: do seasonal weight increases occur in conifer woodland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed

  1. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    into clinical trials. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...

  2. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  3. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  4. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Weight concerns in male low birth weight adolescents: relation to body mass index, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.

  6. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  7. Sugammadex and Ideal Body Weight in Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sanfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.

  8. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the

  9. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  10. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  11. Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Lopez, Priscilla M; Simons, Hannah R

    2015-06-01

    As obesity may affect the efficacy of some contraceptives, we examined weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among female contraceptive clients at 231 U.S. health centers. A secondary aim was to analyze differences in contraceptive method use by obesity status. Cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from family planning centers. We analyzed contraceptive visits made by 147,336 females aged 15-44 years in 2013. A total of 46.1% of clients had BMI ≥25. Mean body weight was 154.4 lb (S.D.=41.9); mean BMI was 26.1 (S.D.=6.6). A total of 40% had BMI ≥26, when levonorgestrel emergency contraception may become less effective. Obese clients had higher odds of using a tier 1 or tier 3 contraceptive method and had lower odds of using a tier 2 or hormonal method than non-obese clients. About half of contraceptive clients would be categorized as overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. About half of contraceptive clients in this study population were overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. All women - regardless of body size - should receive unbiased, evidence-based counseling on the full range of contraceptive options so that they can make informed choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PARENTAL PERCEPTION OF BODY WEIGHT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SELECTED PARENT-RELATED FACTORS AND THE ASSESSMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Kamila; Kołodziej, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The efforts parents make to maintain the correct body weight in children indicates parental awareness of overweight and obesity-related health risks. The objective of the analysis was to define the accuracy of the appraisal of weight-to-height proportions in preschool children, as assessed by their parents and to analyse the connection of selected parental factors with the assessment conducted. Data were collected from 230 children (121 males and 109 females aged 6.28 ± 0.56 years) attending preschools in the city of Wroclaw, Poland. Body height and weight were measured to calculate BMI; cut-offs referenced by the International Obesity Task Force were used to determine weight status (underweight, overweight, obese). The participants' parents completed a weight-height assessment of their child and provided information on how often the child's body weight was checked. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used as a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement between actual child weight and parental perception of child weight. Selected parental factors influencing the correctness of assessing child body weight was tested using the chi-square test. This study showed that 42.1% of underweight children and 60.9% overweight and obese children are perceived as having normal weight. In the group of children with normal weight-to-height proportions, 13.3% of the parents declared their normal-weight children to be underweight. No relationship was found in the study between the correct assessment of body weight and the parents' own body weight, their education, or such factors as sex and the frequency of checking the child's body weight. The incompatibility between actual and perceived weight status indicates the need for health education among parents in assessing and monitoring the child's body weight during the developmental period.

  14. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis

  15. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  16. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  17. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Valérie; Roseau, Suzanne; Fromentin, Gilles; Nicolaidis, Stylianos; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fat composition is thought to affect body weight regulation independent of the amount of fat ingested. We analyzed the feeding behavior, body weight gain, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil. Ten lean (Fa/?) and 10 obese (fa/fa) adult Zucker rats were divided into 4 groups according to a 2 x 2 experimental design. They were fed a normally balanced diet over 11 wk in which 30% of energy was either soybean oil or butter. Food intake, body weight gain, and body composition were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to study energy metabolism at rest and in relation to feeding and activity. Food intake increased similarly in lean and obese rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain increased in obese rats and decreased in lean rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain in obese rats was due mainly to an increase in the weight of lean tissues besides muscle, whereas adiposity and distribution of fat between the various pads did not change. Resting metabolic rates and postprandial lipid oxidation increased in butter-fed obese rats. Lipid oxidation during exercise was not significantly different between obese and lean rats. Fat oxidation increased in butter-fed lean rats during treadmill running at moderate intensity. In obese rats, basal metabolism and postprandial lipid oxidation increased during butter feeding, which appeared to prevent fat accumulation in the long term. In lean rats, butter feeding favored lipid utilization by working muscles, an observation that deserves further investigation in terms of endurance and performance.

  18. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  20. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  2. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  3. Positive body image and young women's health: Implications for sun protection, cancer screening, weight loss and alcohol consumption behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the link between positive body image and a range of health behaviours. Participants were 256 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, body dissatisfaction, sun protection, cancer screening, seeking medical attention, weight-loss behaviour and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results indicated that body appreciation was positively related to sun protection, skin screening and seeking medical attention and negatively related to weight-loss behaviour. Body appreciation explained unique variance, over and above body dissatisfaction, in sun protection, skin screening and weight-loss behaviour. These results have implications for interventions to improve adherence to health behaviours. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Comparison of the anthropometric measurements and health risks in people with normal weight according to the body mass index-for-age charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio R. Haryono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Body mass index (BMI at 5th-84th percentiles according to the BMI-for-age charts from Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC is considered as normal BMI for children and adolescents. However, Guo et al found that BMI at 75th-84th percentiles already had a possibility to be adult overweight and obese. This study aimed to determine anthropometric measurements, laboratory findings, and health risk differences to find an ideal BMI group according to the BMI charts.Methods Normal BMI according to adult classification from the World Health Organization (BMI at 18.5-24.9 is used as a reference group.Results & Conclusion Our study showed BMI value at 50th-74th percentiles in boys and at 75th-84th percentiles in girls had higher anthropometric measurements and laboratory findings than the reference group. However, the health risks of those BMI percentiles did not significant different compared with the reference group. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 41-7Keywords: normoweight, adolescent, BMI-for-age charts, anthropometric measurements, health risks

  5. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  6. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  7. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  8. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M; Kok, F J; de Graaf, C

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density. In total, 16 men and 66 women (mean age 21.9 years (s.d. 0.3 year), mean body mass index 20.7 kg m(-2) (s.d. 0.2 kg m(-2))) were randomly assigned to one of four parallel groups in a 2 x 2 design: snacks consumed with or between meals and snacks having a low (12 kJ g(-1)) energy density. For 8 weeks, subjects consumed mandatory snacks that provided 25% of energy requirements on each day. Body weight, body composition, physical activity level (PAL) and energy intake were measured in week 1 and week 8. There were no differences in changes in body weight between the four groups. Moment of consumption (P=0.7), energy density (P=0.8) and interaction (P=0.09) did not influence body weight. Similarly, there were no differences in changes in body composition, PAL and energy intake between the four groups. Body weight after 8 weeks of snack consumption was not affected by moment of consumption and energy density of snacks. This finding suggests that consuming snacks that are high or low in energy density does not necessarily contribute to weight gain. Healthy, nonobese young adults may be able to maintain a normal body weight through an accurate compensation for the consumption of snacks.

  10. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  11. Does tibolone affect serum leptin levels and body weight in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Mert; Ozsener, Serdar; Sendag, Fatih; Uretmen, Sevinç; Oztekin, Kemal; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Bilgin, Onur

    2005-07-01

    Leptin has a significant role in body weight regulation and energy balance. We examined the effect of tibolone on the body weight and serum leptin levels in postmenopausal women. Twenty women (aged 43-60 years) participated in this prospective study. All women in this study protocol received 2.5 mg/day of tibolone. Absolute and body mass index (BMI)-corrected serum leptin concentrations and BMI values were measured at baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months of the tibolone therapy. Tibolone did not affect absolute and BMI-corrected serum leptin levels, and BMI values during the treatment. A significant linear correlation between BMI values and serum leptin levels was observed (p<0.05, r=0.67). Tibolone seems not to affect serum leptin levels, body weight and BMI values of postmenopausal women. There is a significant correlation between serum leptin levels and BMI values.

  12. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (χ(2) = 231.280, P body image score (F = 19.867, P body image score (F = 58.281, P body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression.

  13. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-In Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05 and obese adolescents (p < 0.001 had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  14. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  15. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  16. [Understanding depressive symptoms after bariatric surgery: the role of weight, eating and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.

  17. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  18. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  19. Body weight perception, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. Data on BMI, BWP, UWCBs, and suicidal ideation were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, a school-based survey conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12 (36,463 boys and 33,433 girls). Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. BMI was significantly associated with both UWCB and suicidal ideation among boys and girls, even after controlling for covariates. However, the significance and magnitude of the association between BMI and UWCB were considerably attenuated when BWP was added to the model. When BWP was included, the association between overweight BMI status and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant in both sexes, whereas the association between underweight BMI status and suicidal ideation remained significant among boys. Adolescent boys and girls engaging in multiple UWCBs were at greater risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts. This study suggests that BWP represents a potential mediator between BMI and UWCB, and between BMI and suicidal ideation among both boys and girls. Thus, school programs addressing issues related to BWP should be developed and targeted at adolescents to reduce the potential risks for both UWCB and suicidal behavior.

  20. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  1. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-08-01

    Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern ( P security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.

  2. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. RESULTS Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77–1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern (P security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK. PMID:28765777

  3. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  4. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy. © 2011 APJPH.

  5. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sample comprised 29,633 Korean adolescent girls who are normal weight and underweight. Chi-square tests and correlations were used to assess bivariate relationships between the variables. To assess the mediating effect of body image distortion on the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile and weight loss efforts, a 3-step regression analysis was used. There was a significant correlation between body mass index-for-age percentiles and body image distortion, and both significantly correlated with weight loss efforts. In addition, a distorted perception of being overweight or obese was a significant mediating variable. School-based health education and intervention programs are needed to promote the formation of a positive body image, not only for obese adolescents, but also for normal-weight and underweight adolescent girls. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Contributions of the Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior. PMID:18831000

  7. MANF regulates hypothalamic control of food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Yang, Huiming; Chang, Renbao; Yin, Peng; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weili; Huang, Shanshan; Gaertig, Marta A; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2017-09-18

    The hypothalamus has a vital role in controlling food intake and energy homeostasis; its activity is modulated by neuropeptides and endocrine factors. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a neurotrophic factor that is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neurons. Here we show that MANF is highly enriched in distinct nuclei of the mouse hypothalamus, and that MANF expression in the hypothalamus is upregulated in response to fasting. Increasing or decreasing hypothalamic MANF protein levels causes hyperphagia or hypophagia, respectively. Moreover, MANF triggers hypothalamic insulin resistance by enhancing the ER localization and activity of PIP4k2b, a kinase known to regulate insulin signaling. Our findings indicate that MANF influences food intake and body weight by modulating hypothalamic insulin signaling.MANF is a neurotrophic factor that is secreted but also mediates the unfolded protein response acting intracellularly. Here, the authors show that MANF expression in the brain is influenced by nutritional cues, and hypothalamic MANF influences food intake and systemic energy homeostasis.

  8. Modeling the relationship between body weight and energy intake: a molecular diffusion-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhejun; Gong, Zhefeng

    2012-06-29

    Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen.

  9. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P overweight men.

  10. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective...... of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the Di......OGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake...

  11. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    dietetic and nutrition events. Among the topics discussed were fad diets , sport drinks, supplements, and nutrition myths. Soldiers were informed...providing a one week view, adding calorie requirements, including a weight and diet history, and displaying the number of days until the next APFT...visual estimation of portion sizes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Sep;103:1139-45. 3. Williamson DA, Martin PD, Allen HR, Most MM, Alfonso AJ, Thomas V

  12. Body image and extreme attitudes toward weight in Brazilian schoolchildren (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a period characterized by changes such as accelerated physical growth and sexual development. Besides having to deal with these changes, adolescents are faced with beauty standards and extreme valorization of physical appearance. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe body image and the practice of extreme attitudes regarding weight in Brazilian students. METHODS: Data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE 2012 were used in this study. PeNSE 2012 has a representative sample of students in the 9th grade of elementary school in public and private schools across the country. A self-administered questionnaire on body image, practice of extreme measures in relation to weight and sociodemographic data was used. Body image and the practice of extreme attitudes were described for the total sample and according to gender. Poisson regression analyzes were used to identify differences in the practices of extreme attitudes between the different types of body image. RESULTS: More than 38% of the adolescents did not consider their body image as normal. Over 15% of the students referred to carry out extreme weight control practices, combining practices to loose and gain weight. Adolescents who considered themselves fat presented frequency of extreme practices for weight loss 92% higher than that shown by individuals who considered themselves normal. Similarly, adolescents who considered themselves thin presented frequency of extreme attitudes to gain weight (9.7% higher than that shown by students who considered themselves normal (5.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of extreme weight control practices among Brazilian adolescents is alarming and should be subject of measures in health and education fields.

  13. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  14. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...... baseline plasma PFAS concentrations, especially for PFOS and PFNA, were significantly associated with greater decline in RMR during the weight-loss period and less increase in RMR during the weight regain period in both men and women. Limitations of the study include the possibility of unmeasured...... baseline plasma PFAS concentrations were associated with a greater weight regain, especially in women, possibly explained by a slower regression of RMR levels. These data illustrate a potential novel pathway through which PFASs interfere with human body weight regulation and metabolism. The possible impact...

  16. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  17. Dietary Isoflavone-Dependent and Estradiol Replacement Effects on Body Weight in the Ovariectomized (OVX) Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ashley L; Grimes, Jamie Moran; Cruthirds, Danette F; Westerfield, Joanna; Wooten, Lawren; Keil, Margaret; Weiser, Michael J; Landauer, Michael R; Handa, Robert J; Wu, T John; Larco, Darwin O

    2017-06-01

    17β-Estradiol is known to regulate energy metabolism and body weight. Ovariectomy results in body weight gain while estradiol administration results in a reversal of weight gain. Isoflavones, found in rodent chow, can mimic estrogenic effects making it crucial to understand the role of these compounds on metabolic regulation. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of dietary isoflavones on body weight regulation in the ovariectomized rat. This study will examine how dietary isoflavones can interact with estradiol treatment to affect body weight. Consistent with previous findings, animals fed an isoflavone-rich diet had decreased body weight (pbody weight (pbody weight gain. We screened a host of cytokines and chemokines that may be altered by dietary isoflavones or estradiol replacement. Serum cytokine analysis revealed significant (pbody weight regulation depending on the presence of isoflavones in rodent chow. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of DXA to measure total body composition before and after weight loss and the composition of the lost body mass. DESIGN: Cross sectional and follow-up study of body composition before and after a weight loss of 10.6 +/- 6.8 kg. SUBJECTS: 31 obese subjects...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  19. Association between body weight and dimensional shell traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...

  20. Self-perception of body weight, weight management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors in central and eastern European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Ihász, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irén; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir

    Self-perception of body weight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed.

  1. Monitoring dose-length product in computed tomography of the chest considering sex and body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Naomichi; Hanawa, Hironori; Hata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Dose-length product (DLP) is widely used as an indicator of the radiation dose in computed tomography. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of sex and body weight in DLP-based monitoring of the radiation dose. Eight hundred computed tomographies of the chest performed using four different scanners were analysed. The DLP was compared with body weight by linear regression in men and women separately. The DLP was positively correlated with body weight, and dependence on sex and weight differed among scanners. Standard DLP values adjusted for sex and weight facilitated inter-scanner comparison of the radiation dose and its dependence on sex and weight. Adjusting the DLP for sex and weight allowed one to identify examinations with possibly excessive doses independently of weight. Monitoring the DLP in relation to sex and body weight appears to aid detailed comparison of the radiation dose among imaging protocols and scanners and daily observations to find unexpected variance. (authors)

  2. (Mis)interpretation of body weight in adult women and men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Bos, A.E.R.; Mayer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined what methods people use to determine and interpret their body weight, and what factors are associated with either an underestimation of overweight or an overestimation of a healthy body weight. Method: The study used self-reported data on weight and height. Data

  3. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  4. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  5. Weight and height : the foundation of anthropometry and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the nature and degree of resultant errors should be known. These errors may be random and/or ... (as opposed to current weight) is strongly emerging as diagnostic criterion for malnutrition.11 This approach is also ... determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA) is regressed on BMI, the standard deviation ...

  6. Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights of pigs were investigated using data from intact males, intact females of Large White pigs full or half castrated at 2, 4, or 6 weeks of age. Body weights and feed intake were recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg at weekly intervals from birth, while weights of ...

  7. Convenience foods in children's diet and association with dietary quality and body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Libuda, L; Mersmann, S; Kersting, M

    2011-02-01

    Pre-prepared commercial foods (convenience foods, CFs) are one aspect of modern dietary habits. The present paper examines the association between CF consumption and dietary quality or body weight status in a sample of German children and adolescents. Linear mixed-effect regression analyses using data from 586 participants (296 boys, 3-18 years) in the Dortmund Nutritional Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study, who yearly completed 1890 3-day dietary records and anthropometric measurements in 2004-2008, was used. CF intake (percent total food intake) showed no significant association with macronutrient intakes (%E), with exception of a significant positive association with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (Ptrend with increased consumption of CF (P=0.0013). No significant association between baseline or change in consumption of CF and baseline or change in parameters of body weight (standard deviation score of body mass index (weight/height(2)) or percentage body fat (%BF) estimated from skinfolds) was found. Among boys, baseline consumption of high-ED-CF significantly predicted change in %BF during the study period (β 0.104, P=0.0098). Our results point to an impairment of dietary quality with high consumption of CF and to a small but positive association between consumption of high-ED-CF in boys and weight.

  8. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  9. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical and pathological features of donor/recipient body weight mismatch after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Yamamoto, Izumi; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Mafune, Aki; Katsumata, Haruki; Furuya, Maiko; Koike, Kentaro; Miki, Jun; Yamada, Hiroki; Tanno, Yudo; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that a donor/recipient body weight mismatch affects long-term graft survival and graft function after kidney transplantation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. To address the mechanisms, we compared the pathological and physiological features between patients with a donor/recipient body weight mismatch and those without a mismatch 1 yr after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation with the donor/recipient body weight ratio. We examined allograft biopsy specimens from 10 recipients with stable kidney function, with body weight mismatch (donor/recipient body weight ratio [D/R BWR] mismatch. We measured glomerular volume (GV) using the Weibel-Gomez method and glomerular density (GD) defined by nonsclerotic glomerular number/renal cortical area as pathological findings. The physiological parameters included estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria (mg/day). These data were evaluated to identify a correlation with D/R BWR. The pathological features showed that GV and GD were identical in the two groups. However, when glomerular enlargement was defined by ΔGV (GV at the 1-yr biopsy minus GV at baseline biopsy), ΔGV was higher in mismatch cases compared with that in cases without a mismatch (10.6 ± 4.6 vs. 5.5 ± 7.1 × 10(5) μm(3) ; P = 0.049). Furthermore, D/R BWR was significantly correlated with ΔGV (P = 0.03, r = -0.436). eGFR values were physiologically identical between the two groups, but the mismatch cases had significantly higher proteinuria levels than that of the cases without a mismatch at 1 yr after kidney transplantation. A donor/recipient body weight mismatch could affect glomerular enlargement and increased proteinuria 1 yr after kidney transplantation. How these two features affect long-term graft survival and function must be addressed in the future. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  12. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert; Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai

    2005-01-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in β-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from β-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five β-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in β-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P 3 /kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4±3.6 cm 3 /kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4±3.6 cm 3 /kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  13. Effect of clothing weight on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.

  14. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all pbody weight for both sexes (pbody fat (pbody weight. PMID:24942674

  15. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  16. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  17. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. [The effect of high-frequency current and ultrasonic wave on selected indicators of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczewska, Magdalena; Szymczyk, Jerzy; Leszczyńsk, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Effective change the appearance of the body through available both invasive and non-invasive methods such as treatment has been documented in numerous clinical trials. Liposuction and lipoplasty are currently the most widely used methods of reducing fat deposits. Technological advances made has become increasingly popular use of invasive procedures using energy fields and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. It is now one of the most effective and safe methods of treatment, based on the principle of mechanical and thermal stimulation of the physiological processes leading to the reduction of locally accumulated fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of selected parameters of body weight in patients undergoing fat reduction BTL Exilis device. IThe study included a 50-group of women who are patients of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic Al-Med in Kolobrzeg. Taken twice the measurement of body weight, waist circumference and thickness measurement of skinfolds before the first treatment, and after a series of treatments. Treatment consisted of 4 sessions while maintaining the 10-day interval between treatments. In the study a statistically significant reduction in the studied parameters such as actual body weight, waist circumference, fat mass and thickness of the skinfolds were showed. The effect of treatment with the energy field of highfrequency ultrasonic wave in a reduction in the size of fat body mass and improving the contour shape. Willingness to continue participation examined in this type of surgery proves positive reception of therapy and its effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p<0.05) as compared to girls (19.4±4.9kg). Overall, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness were 6.7%, 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively; while the prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher at 11.9% and 15.6%, respectively. Significant differences between the sexes (p<0.05) were found in HAZ (boys: -0.43±0.99; girls: -0.42±1.17) and BAZ (boys: 0.26±1.76; girls: 0.09±1.48). Children born low birth weight (<2.5kg) had lower nutritional status (WAZ:0.59±1.62; HAZ:-0.83±0.96) as compared to those with normal birth weight (WAZ: -0.05±1.62; HAZ: -0.40±1.09) and high birth weight (>4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0

  20. [Analysis on influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Haijun; Sun, Lili; Yang, Yide; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiangkun; Wang, Zhenghe; Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight. The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender. The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ² values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P body image dissatisfaction among students with normal weight was high, and the concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between themselves and their parents was low. Guiding students to have the correct cognitive attitude on less drinking sugary beverages, having breakfast per day, and less eating high

  1. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMIBody composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  2. Relationship between chest compression depth and novice rescuer body weight during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong

    2016-12-01

    This study determined if rescuer body weight is a major determinant of chest compression depth (CCD) among novice rescuers by analyzing the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill tests among medical students and determined the body weight threshold for those unable to achieve adequate CCD. Retrospective analysis of CPR test results was performed. A total of 107 medical students completed the tests, which included 5 cycles of CPR. Data were collected using a ResusciAnne SkillReporter. Anthropometric data including participant body weight, body mass index, and height were also collected. The relationships between CCD and anthropometric data were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, univariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between body weight and CCD. The highest positive correlation was found between CCD and body weight (r = 0.636, P compression should preferentially be performed by rescuers of healthy weight or overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  4. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does measuring body weight impact subsequent response to eating behavior questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Sobal, Jeffery; Levitsky, David A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Keeler, Chelsey L; Miller, April M; Acosta, Ashley R; Hansen, Natalie; Wang, Peter L; Guilbert, Sarah R; Paroly, Arianne L; Commesso, Michael; Vermeylen, Francoise M

    2015-01-01

    If being weighed impacts perceptions of eating behavior, it is important that the order of questionnaires and weighing be considered in research and practice. A quasi-experimental study was performed to examine whether being weighed immediately prior to completing a questionnaire affects responses to eating behavior questions. It was hypothesized that being weighed would serve as a priming stimulus and increase measures of dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. Trained researchers collected a sample of volunteers (n = 355) in 8 locations in the United States on two Saturdays in the summer of 2011. Half of the participants were weighed immediately prior to completing the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), with the remaining half weighed immediately after TFEQ completion. A priori hypotheses were not supported despite replicating known relationships between weight, dietary restraint and disinhibition. Results indicated that being weighed first produced a difference in differences on disinhibition scores between low restraint score (95% CI = 4.65-6.02) and high restraint score (95% CI = 6.11-7.57) compared to being weighed after questionnaire completion (p = 0.003). However, this relationship was not significant when modeling restraint as a continuous variable, questioning the use of dichotomization. Being weighed is unlikely to be a strong enough prime to significantly change scores on eating behavior questionnaires for everyone, but may allow differences in restraint status to become more evident. Researchers assessing dietary restraint should be wary of the possibility of producing different results when treating restraint as continuous or dichotomous, which could lead to different interpretations.

  6. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  7. Body composition differences in normal weight, obese-overweight and anorexic adolescents: role of adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Kristin S; Hackney, Anthony C

    2010-01-01

    Adipocytokines are signaling molecules released by adipose tissue with numerous functions, including regulation of metabolism, inflammatory process, and body mass. They are particularly interesting in youth, considering the rising prevalence of overweight/obesity and the linkage of this condition to inflammation. This chapter examines the relationship between body composition and select adipocytokines: leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and resistin, in overweight, normal weight and anorexic youth. Leptin, which stimulates energy expenditure and promotes satiety, is highest in overweight youth, followed by normal weight and lastly anorexic youth. Adiponectin has similar functions to leptin but is negatively correlated with measures of body composition. Anorexic youth have the highest adiponectin per kg fat mass, followed by normal weight and overweight. Conversely, IL-6 is positively associated with body composition; however, research in anorexic youth is inconclusive. It has some pro-inflammatory effects and promotes glucose and fat use, therefore beneficial for maintenance of normal weight status. TNF-α is also a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine thought to be somewhat protective against cancer. TNF-α is highest in overweight, followed by normal weight and anorexic youth, similar to leptin. Finally, resistin is also involved in the pro-inflammatory response and the development of insulin resistance. However, far less research exists on this adipocytokine and its relation to body composition in overweight or anorexic youth is equivocal. In conclusion, several consistent relationships exist regarding adipocytokines and body composition; however, there is a need for additional research on these relationships in youth especially at extremes of adiposity such as overweight and anorexics. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  9. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender differences among University undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, F A; Akinpelu, A O; Nwankwo, M J

    2012-12-01

    Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight perception is a strong determinant of nutritional habits and weight management among adolescents. One of the barriers to reducing rise in obesity prevalence could be its cultural acceptability in some developing countries. To explore the gender influences on perception of self- and opposite-sex body images (BI), perceived body weight and the actual body weight categories at which discrepancies occur among the perceived BIs in undergraduates. This was a survey of perceptual dimension of BI, perceived body weight and actual body weight carried out in 121 undergraduates aged 21-29 years. Discrepancies occurred between self-perceived BI and each of actual body weight (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 confidence interval (CI)), perceived body weight (p= 0.01 at 0.000-0.02 CI) and self-ideal BI (p= 0.03 at 0.000-0.05 CI) of normal-weight males. Self-perceived BI and perceived body weight also differed in normal-weight females (p= 0.02 at 0.000-0.04 CI). Discrepancies (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) occurred between self-perceived BI and self-ideal BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) in overweight females. Gender differences occurred for self-ideal BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI), ideal image for the opposite sex (IBIOS) (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) and desired BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI). Normal-weight males perceived their BI differently from their actual body weight, perceived body weight and self-ideal BI whereas normal-weight females perceived their BI differently from only their perceived body weight. Discrepancies occur between self-ideal BI and self-perceived BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI in overweight females. There are differential

  10. Importance of dietary advice, nutritional supplements and compliance for maintaining body weight and body fat after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengstrom, Y; Wahren, L K; Grodzinsky, E

    2009-08-01

    Poor nutritional status amongst elderly individuals with hip fractures is well documented. Studies have suggested that 30-50 % of patients admitted to orthopaedic departments suffer from protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). An 6 month intervention study. The study was conducted in Sweden between February 2005 and October 2006. Elderly patients with hip fractures (n=32). Evaluation of compliance with individual nutritional support and whether body weight and body fat (BF) could be maintained after six months. Evaluation of possible effects of nutritional supplements and dietary advice after hip fracture on BMI, BF, and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Overall compliance with supplement intake was 73%. After six months, BMI was unchanged. Women's BF had decreased (P body weight/day. Three groups could be identified: one group with increased body weight and BF, one with loss of body weight and BF, and one with increased body weight together with increased TBW and loss of BF. PARTICIPANTS who consumed 0-1 supplements daily lost more weight than those who consumed 2 supplements daily. There was a positive difference (p= body water (TBW). MNA values for women changed in a positive direction.

  11. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...... for nonmacerated fetuses and for mildly, moderately, and markedly macerated fetuses at 12 to 43 weeks of gestation. Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 1800 fetal and perinatal autopsies. Cases with malformations, hydrops, infection, or chromosomal abnormality, fetuses from multiple births...

  12. Relation between body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Guisado, R; González, D; López, F

    1984-03-01

    Body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in female and male rats from litters of 8 and 12 offsprings/mother have been studied. Age and body weight at the moment of vaginal opening (VO) and balanopreputial separation (BPS) were analyzed. Results show that animals reared in smaller groups grew faster than others. After weaning there was an increase in growth rate. VO and BPS occurred at the same age in groups with different growth rates and different body weights. In conclusion this work evidences that external signs of sexual maturation are not linked to a "critical weight" or to a "growth rate".

  13. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    40oC and humidity of 70 – 75% from nineteenth day to hatching time. Immediately after hatching, the chicks were tagged for easy identification and their weights were obtained and ..... postnatal growth rate and organ development in some species of birds. Growth. 47:317-339. Monsi, A. (1992). Appraisal of interrelationship.

  14. Effects of added fruits and vegetables on dietary intakes and body weight in Scottish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Harrison, Claire L S; Mayer, Claus; James Stubbs, R

    2006-03-01

    An increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been suggested as a way to limit, or even lower, energy and fat intakes. The present study examined the effects of incorporating F&V supplements into the diets of adults who reported consuming body weight, over 8 weeks using a randomised parallel design. Thirty-four males and twenty-eight females (age 42.6 (sd 11.1) years, BMI 23.7 (sd 2.7) kg/m(2)) were each provided with supplements of 0, 300 or 600 g F&V per d. Food, nutrient and energy intakes were measured before, during and at the end of the supplementation period using 7 d weighed records. Mean daily energy intakes were not different among the three groups before (P = 0.151) or during the supplementation periods (P = 0.407), although changes in energy intakes over the study period tended to be more positive with increasing amounts of F&V supplements (P = 0.078). There was no difference in changes of body weights during the study (P = 0.242). Carbohydrate (P weight of food consumed (P = 0.022) increased in the treatment groups. There were no significant differences, or changes, in fat intakes among the three groups. Consumption of mandatory F&V supplements for 8 weeks produced beneficial changes in diet composition, but did not result in lower reported energy or fat intakes, and did not result in loss of body weight.

  15. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  16. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...

  17. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  18. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  19. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  20. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. cheskin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI <21 kg/m 2 . After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m 2 . The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements.

  2. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  3. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in Zandi sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... The purposes of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to develop a suitable model for the data set used. Data were collected in the Zandi sheep breed from 1992 to 2007 from the Khojir Sheep Breeding Station, Tehran, Iran. Number of observation were 5711 for birth weight.

  4. Body Mass Index and self perceptions of weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overweight/obesity is on the rise in developing countries, especially in urban areas. Although overweight/obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death less is known about the prevalence of obesity and the perceptions about weight among patients attending healthcare facilities. Previous studies ...

  5. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in Zandi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purposes of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits and to develop a suitable model for the data set used. Data were collected in the Zandi sheep breed from 1992 to 2007 from the Khojir Sheep Breeding Station, Tehran, Iran. Number of observation were 5711 for birth weight (BW), 4619 for ...

  6. Assessment of the correlation between wing size and body weight in captive Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Petersen

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Mass production of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions allows implementing methods to control vector mosquitoes. Colony development depends on mosquito size and weight. Body size can be estimated from its correlation with wing size, whereas weight is more difficult to determine. Our goal was to test whether wing size can predict the weight. METHODS: We compared dry weight and wing centroid size of Culex quinquefasciatus reared at different temperatures and four diets. RESULTS: Weight and wing size were strongly correlated. The diets did not influence wing size. CONCLUSIONS: Wing centroid size is a good predictor of Cx. quinquefasciatus body weight.

  7. Assessment of the correlation between wing size and body weight in captive Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Vivian; Marchi, Marco Jacometto; Natal, Delsio; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Barbosa, Admilson Clayton; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    Mass production of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions allows implementing methods to control vector mosquitoes. Colony development depends on mosquito size and weight. Body size can be estimated from its correlation with wing size, whereas weight is more difficult to determine. Our goal was to test whether wing size can predict the weight. We compared dry weight and wing centroid size of Culex quinquefasciatus reared at different temperatures and four diets. Weight and wing size were strongly correlated. The diets did not influence wing size. Wing centroid size is a good predictor of Cx. quinquefasciatus body weight.

  8. Intestinal inflammation influences α-MSH reactive autoantibodies: relevance to food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquerel, Quentin; Sinno, Maria Hamze; Boukhettala, Nabile; Coëffier, Moïse; Terashi, Mutsumi; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies reacting with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, are involved in regulation of feeding. In this work we studied if intestinal inflammation (mucositis) may influence α-MSH autoantibodies production relevant to food intake and body weight. Mucositis and anorexia were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methotrexate (MTX, 2.5mg/kg/day, for three days, subcutaneously). Plasma levels of total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies were measured during and after MTX-induced mucositis and were compared with pair-fed and ad libitum-fed controls. Effects of intraperitoneal injections of rabbit anti-α-MSH IgG (3 or 10 μg/day/rat) on MTX-induced anorexia and on plasma α-MSH peptide concentration were separately studied. Here we show that in MTX rats, intestinal mucositis and anorexia were accompanied by decreased plasma levels of both total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies while refeeding was characterized by their elevated levels. In spite of similar food intake in MTX and pair-fed rats, recovery of body weight was delayed by at least 1 week in the MTX group. During refeeding and body weight deficit in MTX rats, α-MSH IgG autoantibody levels correlated negatively with food to water intake ratios. Injections of anti-α-MSH IgG induced a dose-dependent attenuation of food intake and body weight regain in MTX-treated rats accompanied by increased concentrations of α-MSH peptide which correlated positively with plasma levels of α-MSH autoantibodies. These data show that intestinal inflammation, independently from food restriction, affects general humoral immune response which may influence food intake and body weight control via modulation of α-MSH plasma concentration by α-MSH reactive autoantibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental employment and children's body weight: Mothers, others, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  11. Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K

    2014-11-01

    In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  13. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  14. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  15. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  16. Body weight and growth rate of South African Angora goat kids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data used for this study were collected on 16 644 kids born between 2000 and 2004 in 12 different Angora goat studs representing different management systems. Body weight and growth rate of kids from birth to 16 months of age, as well the 18- and 21-month body weights and first kidding performance of ewe kids ...

  17. Effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.

  18. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  19. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on body weight and liver lipids in rats were studied. Male albino rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to provoke hyperlipidaemia. The hyperlipidaemic rats were given 10 mg/kg body weight of either aqueous ...

  1. Body Weight, Self-Esteem, and Depression in Korean Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)

  2. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Involved in Regulation of Body Weight, Food Intake and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, A.B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Balkan, B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Body weight regulation is the result of food intake and energy expenditure. The central nervous system (CNS), and in particular, the hypothalamus, controls food intake as well as metabolism, the latter mainly by autonomic effects on the islet of Langerhans, hepatocytes and adipocytes. Body weight,

  3. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  4. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  5. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  6. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric...

  7. Effects of body weight and condition changes after parturition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at ...

  8. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  9. Children's weight status, body esteem, and self-concept after maternal gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-01-01

    There is little research on the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on the patients' offspring's weight and psychosocial well-being. The present study investigates how children are affected in terms of weight status, body esteem, and self-concept after maternal RYGB. Sixty-nine women and their families were recruited from RYGB waiting lists at 5 Swedish hospitals. Data was collected during home visits 3 months before and 12 months after RYGB. Anthropometrical measures were taken, and the children completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Beck Self-Concept Inventory (BYI-S). Prevalence or relative risk in weight status between the time points were explored using Poisson regression models (General Estimating Equations). We found stronger statistical evidence for a decreased risk of overweight (RR = .85, 57.0% versus 48.6%, P = .048), than for obesity (RR = .87, 18.2% versus 15.9%, P = .447). The boys' body esteem increased slightly, whilst the girls' did not. There were no significant differences in mean BYI-S scores. The reasons behind the statistically significant decrease in overweight but not obesity risk in children after maternal RYGB may be caused by insufficient statistical power to detect changes in obesity risk alone. Body esteem seems to be slightly positively affected in boys 9 months after maternal RYGB. Longer follow-up times and larger samples would be useful in future research. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  11. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  12. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  13. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  14. EFFECT OF MUSIC EXPOSURE ON THE WEIGHT AND BODY-LENGTH OF RAT-LITTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is related to stress reduction and increased levels of growth hormone. In rats, music exposure since prenatal period was found to increase body weight of 7-days-old litters and brain cells. Somatic growth was primarily influenced by growth hormone and supported by psycho-physic condition. The objective of this study was to analyze whether music exposure since prenatal until 35 days post-natal period could affect the weight and body-length of the rat-pups. Four pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to one hour classic music (Mozart every 17.30 pm since gestation period day one until the 22 litters were 35 days old. Controls were 5 pregnant rats and their 36 litters caged in a different room with no music. Weighing and measuring the body-length (the most anterior point of the nasal septum to the base of the tail were conducted at day 7, 25, and 35. Data were analyzed using Multivariate General-Linear-Modem (α = 0.05. It was revealed that the mean weight of the experimental litters was significantly higher than those of the controls either at day 7 (p = 0.00, day 25 (p = 0.012 or 35 (p = 0.006. Difference of the body-length of the experiment and control animals only significant at day 25 (p = 0.012. Conclusion: Music exposure since prenatal period has significant influences on the weight of the rat-litters aged 7, 25 and 35 days and on the body-length of the 25-days-old litters.

  15. Effect of Acupuncture on Body Weight Reduction and Inflammatory Mediators in Egyptian Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Ahmed Abou Ismail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, routine laboratory tests and pro-inflammatory markers. METHODOLOGY: The study was performed on eighty obese patients. They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index. Subjects received acupuncture for three- six months in combination with a low-calorie diet. They were assessed pre and post acupuncture, by anthropometric measurement, routine laboratory tests and, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α, interleukin- 6 (IL-6, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels in serum. RESULTS: The pre-acupuncture results showed significant difference between the three grades of obesity and the controls regarding TNFα, IL-6 and hsCRP. We found significant reduction in anthropometric measurement of adiposity after acupuncture. In comparing the pre &post acupuncture results of TNF-α, IL-6 and hsCRP showed high significant reduction after acupuncture. There are highly significant decrease in kidney function (creatinine and uric acid and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides and fasting blood glucose, but there was no significant difference in urea, SGPT, SGOT, HDL and LDL. CONCLUSION: Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was found to be effective for weight loss and also reduction of the inflammatory reactions. Acupuncture could be used as a synergistic treatment option for obesity control.

  16. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  17. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  18. Dairy food consumption and body weight and fatness studied longitudinally over the adolescent period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S M; Bandini, L G; Cyr, H; Colclough-Douglas, S; Naumova, E; Must, A

    2003-09-01

    Although research suggests that adolescents, particularly girls, may avoid dairy products due to concerns that these foods are 'fattening,' the longitudinal relation between consumption of dairy foods and relative weight status during adolescence has not been explored. Using data from the MIT Growth and Development Study, a longitudinal study designed to assess the metabolic, dietary, and behavioral factors that predict changes in body composition with growth and development in girls during the adolescent period, the current analysis was undertaken to examine the relation of dairy food intake with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF). A total of 196 nonobese premenarcheal girls 8-12 y old were enrolled between 1990 and 1993. Girls were followed until 4 y postmenarche. At each annual follow-up visit, data were collected on %BF by BIA, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and dietary intake (assessed by FFQ). The present analysis is limited to the 178 girls who have at least three annual visits and who have valid anthropometric and food frequency data. In all, 1198 individual measurements were analyzed. At study entry, participants had a mean (s.d.) BMI z-score of -0.27 (0.89), a mean (s.d.) %BF of 23.4 (4.7), and obtained 19.9% (9.2) of daily calories from dairy foods. Linear mixed effects modeling indicated no relationship between BMI z-score or %BF and measures of dairy food or calcium consumption. Avoidance of dairy foods due to a possible association with relative body weight is not supported by these findings. We find no evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with BMI z-score or %BF during adolescence, but further research specifically designed to address this question is needed.

  19. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  20. Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2013-04-01

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0-6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6-12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low-glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (-8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ≤ 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (-1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222.

  1. Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (−8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ≤ 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (−1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was

  2. Evidence that self-affirmation reduces body dissatisfaction by basing self-esteem on domains other than body weight and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and shape. Adolescents (N = 220) were randomized to complete a self-affirmation manipulation or an equivalently active control task before rating their body shape and weight, and completing measures of perceived threat, body satisfaction and self-esteem. Affirmed girls showed significantly greater body satisfaction and perceived significantly less threat from having to rate their body shape and weight compared with an equivalently active control group. Mediator analyses showed that the effects were due both to increases in self-esteem and shifts away from using body shape and weight as a source of self-esteem. Self-affirmation did not affect boys because they: (a) were less threatened by having to rate their body shape and weight, and (b) principally derived their self-esteem from sources other than body shape and weight. The findings provide support for the unique effects of self-affirmation on girls' body satisfaction thereby isolating one active ingredient of programs to increase body satisfaction and identify a potential mechanism for understanding self-affirmation effects. Further research is required to establish the long-term effects of self-affirmation and test how self-affirmation interacts with other active ingredients in treatment programs. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric Validation of the BODY-Q in Danish Patients Undergoing Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Klassen, Anne; Rose, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: A well-developed patient-reported outcome instrument is needed for use in Danish bariatric and body contouring patients. The BODY-Q is designed to measure changes in important patient outcomes over the entire patient journey, from obesity to post-body contouring surgery. The current...... instrument for use in Danish bariatric and body contouring patients....

  5. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D; Rood, Jennifer; Zong, Geng; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu; Bray, George A; DeJonge, Lilian; Coull, Brent; Grandjean, Philippe; Sun, Qi

    2018-02-01

    The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years. Body weight was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RMR and other metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin, were measured at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations, the multivariate-adjusted mean weight regain (SE) was 4.0 (0.8) versus 2.1 (0.9) kg for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Ptrend = 0.01); 4.3 (0.9) versus 2.2 (0.8) kg for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (Ptrend = 0.007); 4.7 (0.9) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (Ptrend = 0.006); 4.9 (0.9) versus 2.7 (0.8) kg for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) (Ptrend = 0.009); and 4.2 (0.8) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (Ptrend = 0.03). When further adjusted for changes in body

  7. Does measuring body weight impact subsequent response to eating behavior questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Sobal, Jeffery; Levitsky, David A.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Keeler, Chelsey L.; Miller, April M.; Acosta, Ashley R.; Hansen, Natalie; Wang, Peter L.; Guilbert, Sarah R.; Paroly, Arianne L.; Commesso, Michael; Vermeylen, Francoise M.

    2015-01-01

    If being weighed impacts perceptions of eating behavior, it is important that the order of questionnaires and weighing be considered in research and practice. A quasi-experimental study was performed to examine whether being weighed immediately prior to completing a questionnaire affects responses to eating behavior questions. It was hypothesized that being weighed would serve as a priming stimulus and increase measures of dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. Trained researchers coll...

  8. Health behaviours, body weight and self-esteem among grade five students in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuyun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify the principal components of self-esteem and the health behavioural determinants of these components among grade five students. We analysed data from a population-based survey among 4918 grade five students, who are primarily 10 and 11 years of age, and their parents in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The survey comprised the Harvard Youth and Adolescent Questionnaire, parental reporting of students' physical activity (PA) and time spent watching television or using computer/video games. Students heights and weights were objectively measured. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to derive the components of self-esteem, and multilevel, multivariable logistic regression to quantify associations of diet quality, PA, sedentary behaviour and body weight with these components of self-esteem. PCA identified four components for self-esteem: self-perception, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, social-perception. Influences of health behaviours and body weight on self-esteem varied across the components. Better diet quality was associated with higher self-perception and fewer externalizing problems. Less PA and more use of computer/video games were related to lower self-perception and social-perception. Excessive TV watching was associated with more internalizing problems. Students classified as obese were more likely to report low self- and social-perception, and to experience fewer externalizing problems relative to students classified as normal weight. This study demonstrates independent influences of diet quality, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body weight on four aspects of self-esteem among children. These findings suggest that school programs and health promotion strategies that target health behaviours may benefit self-esteem in childhood, and mental health and quality of life later in life.

  9. Upper and lower limb loading during weight-bearing activity in children: reaction forces and influence of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, M C; Hounjet, S; Treen, T; Lanovaz, J L

    2018-07-01

    Weight bearing (WB) activity is important for healthy skeletal development. The magnitude of loading during WB activities, especially upper limb impacts, has yet to be quantified in children. This study quantifies ground reaction forces (GRF) experienced by children performing WB activities and examines the contribution of body weight (BW) to GRF. Fifty children, aged 8-12 were recruited (34 males). GRF were measured using force plates during 20 upper and lower limb activities (such as landing on the feet and hands). Sex differences in GRF and associations between peak force and BW were examined using independent sample t-tests and linear regressions (p force in almost all activities; however, GRF variation explained by BW was wide-ranging across activities and not dependent on limb or activity type (static vs dynamic). Therefore, factors other than BW, such as technique, may be important in determining forces experienced by children performing WB activity and should be considered when choosing activities for WB activity interventions.

  10. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  11. Associations between different forms of body dissatisfaction and the use of weight-related behaviors among a representative population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Weight management strategies have two components: weight goals and behaviors to reach weight goals. In the literature, weight goals and weight-related behaviors have both been linked with body dissatisfaction separately, but have rarely been examined simultaneously. This paper examines the associations between different forms of body dissatisfaction and various weight-related behaviors and investigates the moderating role of weight goals in these associations. Measures included weight goals (matching or mismatching current weight status), self-reported frequencies of use of weight-related behaviors, and a body dissatisfaction measure (strength of aspiring for weight gain or weight loss) from a representative population-based sample of adolescents (n = 2,346, 51 % female). Sex-specific multilevel logistic and ordinal regression analyses indicated that aspiring for a thinner body among girls was associated with more frequent use of healthy and unhealthy behaviors, whereas body dissatisfaction of any type among boys was linked to more frequent use of unhealthy behaviors. Girls aspiring for substantial weight loss and boys aspiring for substantial weight gain were more likely to use disordered health behaviors. Aiming for a goal that is mismatched with current weight status increases the use of unhealthy behaviors among body dissatisfied adolescents. We conclude that in order to elaborate interventions aimed at promoting health, research should focus on processes leading to specific forms of body dissatisfaction which in turn produce varying frequencies of use of weight-related behaviors.

  12. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestima...

  13. Probability of Vitamin D Deficiency by Body Weight and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Tom; Rajan, Sonali; Keller, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    While most physicians recognize that vitamin D status varies by skin color because darker skin requires more light to synthesize vitamin D than lighter skin, the importance of body weight to vitamin D status is a newer, less recognized, finding. The purpose of this study was to use nationally representative US data to determine the probability of vitamin D deficiency by body weight and skin color. Using data for individuals age ≥6 years from the 2001 to 2010 cycles of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated the effect of skin color, body weight, and age on vitamin D status. We determined the probability of deficiency within the normal range of body weight for 3 race/ethnicity groups at 3 target levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Darker skin colors and heavier body weights are independently and significantly associated with poorer vitamin D status. We report graphically the probability of vitamin D deficiency by body weight and skin color at vitamin D targets of 20 and 30 ng/mL. The effects of skin color and body weight on vitamin D status are large both statistically and clinically. Knowledge of these effects may facilitate diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    . Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later......-order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. SETTING: Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Women and men (n 29 152...

  15. Nutrition and body weights of Canadian children watching television and eating while watching television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Kuhle, Stefan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether eating while watching television poses a risk for poor nutrition and excess body weight over and above that of time spent watching television. We analysed data of grade 5 students participating in a comprehensive population-based survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. This survey included the Harvard's Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire, students' height and weight measurements, and a parent survey. We applied multivariable linear and logistic random effects models to quantify the associations of watching television and eating while watching television with diet quality and body weight. The province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Grade 5 students (n 4966). Eating supper while watching television negatively affected the consumption of fruits and vegetables and overall diet quality. More frequent supper while watching television was associated with more soft drink consumption, a higher percentage energy intake from sugar out of total energy from carbohydrate, a higher percentage energy intake from fat, and a higher percentage energy intake from snack food. These associations appeared independent of time children spent watching television. Both watching television and eating while watching television were positively and independently associated with overweight. Our observations suggest that both sedentary behaviours from time spent watching television as well as poor nutrition as a result of eating while watching television contribute to overweight in children. They justify current health promotion targeting time spent watching television and call for promotion of family meals as a means to avoid eating in front of the television.

  16. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  17. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less...... clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods: A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18-65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997-8. We included 2....... Results: Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P = 0.17; men, P = 0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P = 0.21; men, P = 0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes...

  18. Supermarket discounts of low-energy density foods: effects on purchasing, food intake, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Ang, Ian Yi Han; Bernales-Korins, Maria; Hernandez, Dominica; Ochner, Christopher N; Ungredda, Tatiana; Miller, Rachel; Kolbe, Laura

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effects of a 50% discount on low-energy density (ED) fruits and vegetables (F&V), bottled water, and diet sodas on shoppers' purchasing, food intake, and body weight. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at two Manhattan supermarkets, in which a 4-week baseline period (no discounts) preceded an 8-week intervention period (50% discount), and a 4-week follow-up period (no discounts). Twenty-four hour dietary recall, as well as body weight and body composition measures were obtained every 4 weeks. Participants (n = 47, 33f; 14m) were overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) shoppers. Purchasing of F&V during intervention was greater in the discount group than in the control group (P weight change did not differ significantly between groups, although post hoc analysis indicated a change within the discount group (-1.1 kg, P = 0.006) but not within the control group. Discounts of low-ED F&V led to increased purchasing and intake of those foods. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

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    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  20. Association between regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Waugh

    Full Text Available Regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2 is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9-2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9-2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9-2 as a factor in regulating body weight.

  1. An attitude of gratitude: The effects of body-focused gratitude on weight bias internalization and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M

    2018-02-08

    Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age  = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of pedometer use on physical activity and body weight in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Yasemin; Aslan, Secil Menekse; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating are of the utmost importance in treatment of obesity. However obese generally tend to have a sedentary lifestyle. Walking is a form of physical activity that is both simple and can be performed by everyone, but it requires an objective measurement. Number of steps taken during tracking can be recorded with the pedometer, a device used to measure the level of physical activity. We aimed to investigate whether or not using pedometers as a motivational technique to increase the level of physical activity in obese women has an impact on weight loss. Eighty-four obese women who are similar age referring to Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine Healthy Living Clinic, Turkey were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group were given pedometers, and control group were prescribed similar diet and physical activity with a three-month follow-up plan without pedometers. Mean weight in pedometer group initially was 88.9 ± 8.4 kg, which decreased to 80.2 ± 8.7 kg after the programme. Mean weight in control group was 86.1 ± 9.2 kg at the beginning, and it decreased to 84.7 ± 8.8 kg after three months. It was observed in pedometer group that the mean number of steps 8817 ± 2725 steps/day at the beginning increased to mean 9716 ± 2811 steps/day at the end of the study. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and waist circumference measurements decreased more greatly in the pedometer when compared to the control group (p physical activity and to promote weight loss.

  3. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  4. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  5. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dietze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding. Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  6. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight

  8. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 milk counterpart (r = 0.37). Current mother's weight was associated with infant's weight at the 2nd and 6th month (B = 0.023 p = 0.04, B = 0.055 p = 0.005). The breast-milk macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  9. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  10. Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2004-09-01

    Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.

  11. Weight acceptance versus body dissatisfaction: Effects on stigma, perceived self-esteem, and perceived psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jessica M; Latner, Janet D

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown whether weight acceptance or body dissatisfaction impact anti-fat stigma. Therefore, this study utilized a 2×2 between-subject experimental design to examine of the relationship between body acceptance and stigmatization. Participants were university undergraduates (N=394, 70% women, mean age=20.8 years, mean BMI=23.61 kg/m(2)) who were randomly assigned to read vignettes describing an obese or normal-weight target described as either accepting or not accepting of her weight. Participants completed measures of stigma (the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), the modified Anti-fat Attitudes Scale (AFA)), perceived self-esteem (assessed with the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)), and perceived psychopathology. Analyses revealed significant main effects for acceptance. Notably, targets who accepted their weight were less stigmatized on the FPS (F(1, 354)=66.82, pself esteem (F(1, 371)=166.16, pbody dissatisfaction and associated with better perceived self esteem and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of dietary energy and protein levels on body weight, size, and microflora of ostrich chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravesh-Masouleh, Tahereh; Seidavi, Alireza; Kawka, Magdalena; Dadashbeiki, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary energy and protein supplements on performance, weekly body sizes or body frame size, and microbiota of ostrich chicks during 2-9 weeks of age. Two metabolic energy levels of 2400 and 2600 kcal/kg live weight and three protein levels of 20, 22, and 24% were used. A total of 36 ostrich chickens (Struthio camelus) of the blue and black African breed were used. Body weight, 12 body measurements (i.e., circumference of the head, neck, breast, abdomen, thigh, body height, length of tail, list the other 5 here) and excretion of microbial population (Escherichia coli, Coliforms bacteria, and Lactobacillus bacteria) were measured. Mean body weight in each week of the experiment was generally the lowest when chicks were offered 2600 kcal/kg dietary energy and 24% protein. Of the 12 body measurements, the breast, abdomen, and thigh circumference and also body length were greater at the lower energy (2400 kcal/kg) and higher protein (24%) levels. Total Aerobic bacteria excretion was generally lower in response to the diet containing the higher level of energy. We conclude that ostrich chickens during 2-9 weeks of age can grow on diets that contain lower energy levels.

  13. A soft pillow for hard times? Economic insecurity, food intake and body weight in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates causal effects of economic insecurity on subjective anxiety, food intake, and weight outcomes. A review of psychological and nutrition studies highlights the complexity of processes at work on each stage of this causal chain. Econometric analyses trace the effects along the hypothesized pathway using detailed household panel data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 1994 to 2005. Economic insecurity measures serve as key explanatory variables in regressions and are instrumented by exogenous regional indicators. Results support a causal chain from economic insecurity to weight outcomes for some population subgroups. In contrast to the leading hypothesis that economic insecurity increases body weight, I find strong evidence of a decreasing effect among women. Results suggest further that consumption of foods rich in sugar responds strongly to higher levels of economic insecurity. Heterogeneous impacts of economic insecurity on body weight call for individual-level interventions rather than large-scale action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The association of change in physical activity and body weight in the regulation of total energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, C; Hill, J O; Peters, J C; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Blair, S N

    2017-03-01

    The limited success in addressing the current obesity epidemic reflects the insufficient understanding of the regulation of energy balance. The present study examines the longitudinal association of body weight with physical activity (PA), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and total daily energy intake (TDEI). A total of 195 adults (52% male) between 21 and 35 years of age with no intention for weight loss were followed over a 2-year period. Body weight, fat mass and fat-free mass were measured every 3 months. Participants were stratified into three groups based on change in body weight using a 5% cutpoint. TDEE and time spent in different PA intensities were determined via a multisensor device at each measurement time. TDEI was calculated based on change in body composition and TDEE. At 2-year follow-up, 57% of the participants maintained weight, 14% lost weight and 29% gained weight. Average weight change was -6.9±3.4 and 7.1±3.6 kg in the weight-loss and weight-gain groups, respectively. Average TDEE and TDEI did not change significantly in any weight change group (P>0.16). Moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, increased significantly in the weight-loss group (35±49 min/day; Pweight-gain group (-35±46 min/day; Pweight and PA to maintain a stable TDEE and allow for a stable TDEI over time. Sufficient PA levels, therefore, are an important contributor to weight loss maintenance.

  15. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eKoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one’s own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors (assessed via parent questionnaires (Children`s Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one’s body.

  16. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  17. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  18. BMI, Body Image, Emotional Well-Being and Weight-Control Behaviors in Urban African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Delenya; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Young, Allen; Gibson, Lillian Williams; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Trent, Maria

    While urban African American adolescents face significant health disparities associated with overweight and obesity that follow them into adulthood; there is limited data on body image, emotional well-being, and weight control behaviors in this population to design effective public health interventions. This study was designed to understand the association of weight status to adolescent weight control, body image, and emotional well-being responses, in African American high school students. The study cohort consisted of 776 students, mean age 15.8 years (±1.2). Data from Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) student surveys and anthropometric studies were collected at School-Based Health Centers. Associations between adolescent responses on the GAPS and body mass index (BMI) status (healthy weight: 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight: 85th to less than 95th percentile, obese: 95th percentile or greater) were estimated using logistic regression and dose- response plots. There were statistically significant associations between BMI category and weight control (ranging from a mean 5.18 to 7.68 odds of obesity) and body image (3.40 to 13.26 odds of obesity) responses. Responses to weight control and body image questions exhibited a dose-response for odds of overweight and obesity. Feelings of depressed mood were associated with obesity (1.47 times the odds of obesity compared to students who did not endorse depressed mood; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13) but not overweight status. Overweight and obese urban African American adolescents are more likely to screen positively on weight control risk behaviors and negative body image questions than their normal weight peers. The weight control and body image measures on the GAPS may provide information to identify youth in need of services and those motivated for brief school-based weight control interventions.

  19. Predicting the liveweight of sheep by using linear body measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Awuah, E Ampofo, R Dodoo. Abstract. The relationship between live body weight and some linear body measurements using data on sheep are explored. Predictive models for body weight were then fitted to the data. The optimum model for ...

  20. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-03-31

    The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Subjects included girls (mean age=15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n=253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p=.011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (pfamily meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p=.023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls.

  1. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Papazian

    Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  2. [Eating attitudes, attitudes related to weight gain, and body satisfaction of pregnant adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliboni, Carolina Marques; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    To assess attitudes about eating, weight gain and body image of pregnant adolescents. Pregnant adolescents (n=67) were assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire, the Attitude towards Weight Gain during Pregnancy scale (AWGP) and questions about risk behaviors for eating disorders and unhealthy weight control practices. Associations between variables were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson and Spearman tests. The influence of the independent variables regarding skipping meals, body satisfaction and binge eating was evaluated by logistic regression. The average age of the adolescents was 15.3 years (SD=1.14) and their average gestational age was 21.9 weeks (SD=6.53). The average AWGP score was 52.6 points, indicating a positive attitude towards weight gain, and 82.1% of the pregnant girls were satisfied with their bodies. Obese girls had more body dissatisfaction (p=0.001), and overweight girls thought more about food (p=0.02) and eating (p=0.03). The frequency of reported binge eating was 41.8%, and the frequency of skipping meals was 19%. Regression analysis showed that the current Body Mass Index (p=0.03; OR=1.18) and the importance of body awareness and fitness before pregnancy (p=0.03; OR=4.63) were predictors of skipping meals. Higher socioeconomic level (p=0.04; OR=0.55) and greater concern with weight gain (p=0.03; OR=0.32) predicted binge eating. Even though the majority of the pregnant adolescents had positive attitudes toward weight gain and body satisfaction, those heavier and more concerned with weight gain had a higher risk of unhealthy attitudes, while those of lower social class, less concerned with weight gain and less embarrassed about their bodies during pregnancy, had a lower risk of unhealthy attitudes.

  3. Weight and Body Composition Changes during the First Three Years of College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareen S. Gropper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI, percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010 of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1±4.7 kg, BMI 0.7±1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7±3.3%, and fat mass 2.3±3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.

  4. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  5. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  6. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  7. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K

    2018-02-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001–2003 (N=3,105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. PMID:28372829

  10. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body weight changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer influence progression-free and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardas, Marcin; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Madry, Radosław

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body weight changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) influence progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). An analysis of 190 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer after first-line chemotherapy was conducted. Changes in body weight were assessed by comparing measurements at baseline to those of the third and sixth cycles of chemotherapy. PFS and OS were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox model. Significant reduction in body weight in advanced EOC was observed with no changes in early EOC. Significant differences in PFS were observed in advanced EOC patients that lost more than 5 % of their body weight (6 months), maintained weight (13 months), or gained more than 5 % of their body weight (15 months). Similarly, significant differences in OS were noted in advanced EOC at the following time points: 24.3, 42.4, and 66.2 months. No effect was reported for early EOC patients. The multivariate Cox analysis showed significant body weight changes from the first to the sixth chemotherapy cycle for PFS (HR = 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99) and OS (HR = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91-0.97) as well as from the first to the third chemotherapy cycle for OS (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.98). Body weight changes can be recognized as a prognostic factor for PFS and OS in advanced EOC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Weight loss is associated with poorer survival while weight gain improved outcomes.

  12. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...

  13. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    human intervention, prospective observational and cross-sectional studies on fruit intake and body weight in adults. We identified three intervention, eight prospective observational and five cross-sectional studies that explored this relationship. Two of the intervention studies showed that fruit...... intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences...... and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body-weight...

  14. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. Material and Methods The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). Results The bariatric group reported significant...

  15. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2013-01-01

    weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over......Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish...... consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption...

  16. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...... the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared...

  17. Parity‑related Changes in Body Weight May Influence the Zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Micronutrient replacement is done indiscriminately, without recourse to peculiar socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. Particularly, the relationship between parity, body weight, and some micronutrients has received minimal attention in Nigeria. Aim: To determine the relationship between parity, ...

  18. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  19. Walking during body-weight-supported treadmill training and acute responses to varying walking speed and body-weight support in ambulatory patients post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Helbostad, Jorunn Lægdheim; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    Rehabilitating walking in ambulatory patients post-stroke, with training that is safe, task-specific, intensive, and of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Some challenges can be met by using body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). However, it is not known to what degree walking characteristics are similar during BWSTT and overground walking. In addition, important questions regarding the training protocol of BWSTT remain unanswered, such as how proportion of body-weight support (BWS) and walking speed affect walking characteristics during training. The objective was therefore to investigate if and how kinematic walking characteristics are different between overground walking and treadmill walking with BWS in ambulatory patients post-stroke, and the acute response of altering walking speed and percent BWS during treadmill walking with BWS. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used. Ambulating patients post-stroke walked in slow, preferred, and fast walking speed overground and at comparable speeds on the treadmill with 20% and 40% BWS. Kinematic walking characteristics were obtained using a kinematic sensor attached over the lower back. Forty-four patients completed the protocol. Kinematic walking characteristics were similar during treadmill walking with BWS, compared to walking overground. During treadmill walking, choice of walking speed had greater impact on kinematic walking characteristics than proportion of BWS. Faster walking speeds tended to affect the kinematic walking characteristics positively. This implies that in order to train safely and with sufficient intensity and duration, therapists may choose to include BWSTT in walking rehabilitation also for ambulatory patients post-stroke without aggravating gait pattern during training.

  20. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly measured. Seventy-eight percent (N = 1092 of all employees participated. Results The prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 was 56%. Over half of the transit workers reported consuming fruit (55% and vegetables (59% ≥ 3/week. Reported fast food restaurant frequency was low (13% visited ≥ 3/week. Drivers reported high levels of physical activity (eg. walking 93 minutes/day. However, an objective measure of physical activity measured only 16 minutes moderate/vigorous per day. Compared to other drivers, obese drivers reported significantly less vigorous physical activity, more time sitting, and more time watching television. Healthy eating, physical activity and weight management were perceived to be difficult at the worksite, particularly among obese transit workers, and perceived social support for these behaviors was modest. However, most workers perceived weight management and increased physical activity to be personally important for their health. Conclusion Although transit workers' self-report of fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity was high, perceived access to physical activity and healthful eating opportunities at the worksite was low. Obese workers were significantly less physically active and were more likely to report work environmental barriers to physical activity.

  1. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 566 Tellicherry goats, recorded between 1988 and 2007 were used to study the effect of non-genetic factors on body weight and daily gain from birth to 12 months of age. The least-squares means for body weight at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.17 ± 0.03 and 18.78 ± 0.44 kg, respectively. The pre- and ...

  2. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  3. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  5. Body image and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine 9-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, body size perception and dieting......, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence......)=1.68 for girls; OR=1.10 for boys), whereas non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls; OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared with Time 1, overweight and non...

  6. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  7. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  8. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  9. The Effect of Xylopia Aethiopica Leaves on Body Weight and Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Xylopia aethiopica leaves on body weight and growth performance was studied on growing Wistar rats. The study involved twenty-four rats of comparable sizes and weights ranging from 150 to 300g and divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A served as the control while groups B, C and D served as ...

  10. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828

  11. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  12. Increases in body weight and nutritional status of transplanted Alaskan caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Body weight and natality rate in ungulates can be useful indices to nutririon, bur they may also be influenced by genetic and climatic factors. Because caribou {Rangifer tarandus granti are distributed as discrete populations of metapopulations (i.e., herds that are usually reproductively isolated from each other for unknown periods, it is difficult to separate the influence of genetics and nutrition on body weight, especially where historical data are lacking. To help elucidate the influence of nutrition on potential variation in body weight and natality of caribou in Alaska, we reviewed data for body weight and natality in 5 populations which resulted from Transplants to previously ungrazed ranges, or to areas where reindeer and caribou had been absent for many decades. In 2 of 5 populations body weight increased significantly, and likely increased in the other 3 populations, but data were insufficient. Natality rate increased in all 5 populations, proportion of fecund yearlings was high and 3 of the 5 newly established herds increased at about the maximum biological potential for the species (lambda=1.35. In the Adak transplant, a lactating yearling was documented. These 5 transplanted populations provide additional evidence that body weight and natality rate in Alaskan caribou are sensitive to changes in population density and relatively short-term (i.e., 10 years increases in grazing pressure independenr of climate and genetics.

  13. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal thyroid parameters, body mass index and subsequent weight gain during pregnancy in healthy euthyroid women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.J.M.; Biondi, B.; Wijnen, H.; Kuppens, S.M.; Vader, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Obesity and too much weight gain during gestation have a negative effect on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Objective To determine the relationship between thyroid hormone parameters, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during gestation. Design Prospective follow-up study of thyroid

  15. Advances in weight loss surgery and body contouring after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Herman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles K Herman1,2, Ari S Hoschander3, Nicolas Teleo1, Berish Strauch21Pocono Medical Center/Pocono Health System, East Stroudsburg, PA, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY; 3Northshore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, NY, USAAbstract: Surgical treatment for morbid obesity has been increasing over the last few years. Historically, bariatric surgery had been plagued by complications, both technical and metabolic. The criteria to decide if a patient should have bariatric surgery required that the patient’s morbid obesity was contributing to an otherwise imminent demise. Now, with improved techniques, laparoscopic surgery and better understanding of the metabolic consequences of bariatric surgeries, it is presumed that the benefits outweigh the risks of bariatric surgery in increasing numbers of patients. Additionally, the post-bariatric procedures for body contouring have many documented complications. Most of these can be related to the nutritional status of obese patients and the relative immunodeficiency that obese patients possess. After a thorough literature search it appears that bariatric surgery and post-bariatric body contouring are, indeed, safer than previously thought.Keywords: body contouring, gastric bypass, bariatric surgery

  16. The weight of pupils' schoolbags in early school age and its influence on body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Dworrak, Tarja; Strauss, Markus; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Sabbah, Ibtissam; Dworrak, Birgit; Leischik, Roman

    2017-03-21

    Postural development progresses through a series of stages (growth spurts, development of balance and coordination, postural stability) which occur when children are at school age. The reduction in the level of physical activity, increased body weight, overloaded school bags, asymmetry of the backpack straps, the method of putting on and taking off the backpacks and increased usage of electronic devices have negative side effects such as bad body posture habits. A prospective cohort study in the group of 155 pupils at early school age 7-9 years old has been conducted. Examinations have been conducted twice: first, at the beginning of the school year (initial examination) and second - after 10-11 months (final examination). Age, gender, BMI, weight of school bag carried to school and the length of straps have been assessed. Body posture measurement (using Adams' test), the evaluation of the plumb line deflection from the gluteal cleft, the angle values of kyphosis and lordosis (according to Dobosiewicz methodology) and the pelvis and shoulder blades position (using a ruler and pediscoliometer) have been also measured. The mean weight of a school bag in the initial study was 6.3 ± 0.8 (range between 4,7 and 9 kg). A tendency to carry slightly heavier school bags was noted in boys (6.7 vs. 5.9 kg; p = 0,00001). This tendency has linearly changed with age (R = 0.68; p posture abnormalities, especially in rotation parameters. Backpack straps asymmetry was noticeably stronger in the group of girls and the difference between braces may have an impact on some posturometric parameters. Lack of proper backpack lifting skills tends to create programs and training systems in this regard.

  17. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi-Russo Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy. Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%. The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32. There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03: the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the

  18. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationsh